Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00438
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: April 2001
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00438
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Vegetarian Newsletter

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service
Vegetarian 01-04
April 2001

-Index Page

SAdobe Acrobat


0 Upcoming In-service: Beneficials and Biorationals for Vegetable Pest Management


O It's Time to Decide Which Strawberry Cultivars to Plant Next Season, and in What Quantities
O Improving Irrigation Efficiency for Tomatoes Produced on Rocky, Calcareous Soils in Miami-Dade County
O Vegetable Seed Company Web Directory


0 Descriptive List of IFAS Vegetable Gardening Tips

List of Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

(Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.)

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2001 FL107 In-Service:
April 23-25: Beneficials and Biorationals for Vegetable Pest Management.
Small Farm Conference and Trade Show 2001 April 7, 2001- 8:30-3:00 Volusia County Fairgrounds, Deland.
Contact Richard Tyson at (407)665-5554 orrvt@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu or Betsy Lamb at (561)468-3922 x138 or

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Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Vegetable Field Day Tuesday, 15 May 2001 Bradenton, FL.
Contact Donald N. Maynard at (941)751-7636 x239 ordnma@.mail.ifas.ufl.edu.
Twilight Field Day June 5 NFREC-Suwannee Valley. Contact Bob Hochmuth at 386-362-1725 or
Florida State Horticulture Meeting June 10-12 Stewart, FL.
American Society for Horticultural Sciences Annual Meeting July 22-25 Sacramento, CA.
Florida Tomato Institute Sept. 5 Naples, FL.
Florida Agriculture Extension Professionals Meeting Sept. 10-14.
FACTS Meeting Oct. 2-3 Lakeland, FL.
Cucurbitaceae 2002- December 8-12, 2002 Naples Beach and Golf Club, Naples, FL. Contact Donald N. Maynard
at (941)751-7636 x239 ordnma(@mail.ifas.ufl.edu.

Upcoming In-service: Beneficials and Biorationals for Vegetable Pest Management

Below is the most current schedule for the FL 107-sponsored In-service Training to be offered from Monday, April 23 to
Wednesday, April 25, 2001 at the University of Florida, Gainesville. This in-service has been the focal point of FL 107 for
several years and we encourage all members of the FL 107 design team to attend. Of course, non-members are also

At the end of March, we'll send out more detail. Please call or e-mail Susan Webb (352-392-1901 x158; sewe@.ufl.edu)
or Steve Sargent (352-392-1928 x215; sasa@.mail.ifas.ufl.edu) for more information.

Beneficials and Biorationals for Vegetable Pest Management B 23-25 April

Monday afternoon (1:00PM 8:00PM):
1304 B1306 Fifield Hall
Overview of concepts in biological control Dr. Jim Cuda
Augmenting natural enemy populations Dr. Marjorie Hoy
Entomology & Nematology Teaching Lab (2216), Bldg. 970
Use of entomopathogens in vegetable IPM Dr. Susan Webb
Identification of natural enemies laboratory Dr. Susan Webb
Catered Dinner (Courtyard, Entomology & Nematology)
Tuesday morning (8:00AM 1:00PM):
Meet at Fifield Hall
Visit to Entomos, a local producer of predaceous insects
Tours of organic and sustainable vegetable production
Tuesday afternoon (1:00 PM B 5:30 PM):
1304 B1306 Fifield Hall
Lunch (deli sandwiches, fruit, etc.)
Biorationals (soaps, oils, botanicals) in vegetable IPM Dr. David Schuster
Biologicals and biorationals in disease management Dr. Donald Hopkins
Entomology & Nematology Computer Teaching Lab (1027), Bldg. 970
Computer software update, PestAlert, Featured Creatures Dr. Tom Fasulo

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Post-test (1031)
Dinner at local restaurant with group or on your own
Wednesday morning (8:00AM 12:00 noon):
1304-1306 Fifield Hall
FL107 design team meeting and drawing (don't miss it!)

(Sargent and Webb, assoc. prof., Entomology and Nematology Dept., Vegetarian 01-03)

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It's Time to Decide Which Strawberry Cultivars
to Plant Next Season, and in What Quantities

With nurseries mailing out their order forms in March or April, it is now time for Florida strawberry
growers to decide which cultivars to plant next season, and in what quantities.

Past experience can be instructive, but be cautious about basing cultivar decisions on a single
year's performance. For example, a cultivar that performed well during a "cold" winter may not
perform as well during a "warm" winter, or vise versa. A cultivar's performance during the 2000-01
season (either positive or negative) may be particular suspect because the season was a
combination of extremes. The average air temperatures at GCREC-Doverduring December and
January were 58 and 54 0F respectively, which is 3 and 6 degreeslower than a 61-year average,
while the average air temperature in February was 660 F, which is 5 degrees higher than a 61-year

Cultivars generally vary slightly in their fruiting patterns, and, therefore, by planting more than one
cultivar, variability in fruit production over the season can be reduced allowing for more efficient
harvesting and marketing.

Below is some information that central Florida growers may want to consider before placing their
plant orders:

'Camarosa' produces high total yields, but relatively low early season (Nov. Feb.) yields. Its fruit
is large, firm, deep red, and generally very flavorful if harvested when fully mature. It is quite
susceptible to anthracnose fruit rot and powdery mildew.

'Sweet Charlie' has the potential to produce high early season (Nov. Feb.) yields. Its fruit tends tc
be orange-red, sweet, and smaller and less firm than the fruit of 'Camarosa'. It is resistant to
anthracnose fruit rot, but highly susceptible to Botrytis fruit rot. Harvesting every two days is
recommended in February and March if day temperatures rise above 800 F and night temperatures
remain above 60 oF.

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'Aromas', 'Diamante', 'Pacific', and 'Gaviota' are new cultivars from the University of California.
'Aromas', 'Diamante', and 'Pacific' were originally introduced as alternatives to 'Selva' in the
Watsonville/Salinas production area of California. In west central Florida, they can produce some
ripe fruit very early in the season because they have the day-neutral flowering habit. 'Gaviota' was
released as an alternative to 'Camarosa'. It can produce attractive fruit with excellent flavor, but, in
most seasons, may not be as productive as 'Camarosa'.

'Treasure', a new cultivar from Peggy Chang, a private breeder based in Naples, Florida, has also
been suggested as an alternative to 'Camarosa'. Ripe fruit of this cultivar has a deep red exterior
color and appears to be very resistant to abrasion.

Two new strawberry cultivars were named and released from the University of Florida
(GCREC-Dover) in 2000:

'Earlibrite' has produced high early season (Dec.- Feb.) yields of large, flavorful fruit in west
central Florida. It has a compact plant habit. Primary fruit are often globose conic in shape;
whereas secondary and tertiary fruit are conic to wedged shaped. (This season, many multi-lobed
fruit were observed on this cultivar after the first [Nov.-Dec.] crop was picked off.) External fruit
color is bright red; internal color is a pale red. Fruit of 'Earlibrite' have a moderately firm texture.
This cultivar appears to be more susceptible to spider mites than 'Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie',
and is also sensitive to boron (i.e. shows a leaf burn when boron levels are too high).

'Strawberry Festival' produces firm, attractive, fruit with excellent flavor when grown in west
central Florida. The fruit is generally medium in size and conic in shape. External fruit color is deep
red and glossy; internal color is a bright red. The calyx is large and attractive. This cultivar can
produce a lot of runners in the fruiting field (similar to 'Oso Grande').

'S. Festival' does not initiate fruiting as early as 'Sweet Charlie' or 'Earlibrite', but in commercial
fields this season it produced relatively high December through February yields. 'S. Festival' is
susceptible to anthracnose fruit rot (caused byColletotrichum acutatum), Colletotrichum crown rot
(caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporodies), and angular leaf spot (caused byXanthomonas
fragariae); therefore we recommend that fruit growers choose their transplant source carefully to
avoid starting with infected plants.

(Chandler, associate professor and strawberry breeder, GCREC-Dover- Vegetarian 01-04)

Improving Irrigation Efficiency for Tomatoes Produced
on Rocky, Calcareous Soils in Miami-Dade County

Production of tomatoes plays an important role in the economy of Miami-Dade County. Tomatoes
are grown presently on about 3,300 acres. Most of the acreage is planted on gravelly soils, Krome
or Chekika soil series. These soils have a very gravelly texture with low soil-water holding capacity.
The tomato growing season extends from the end of September to mid-April. During this dry
months, irrigation is an important component in crop management and should be scheduled to
satisfy crop needs and prevent over application of water without stressing the crop. Traditional
approaches to scheduling irrigation, based on the appearance of the plant or "kick and feel the
soil"method of visual estimating soil moisture, often lead to over-irrigation and leaching nutrients

Page 4


from the root zone, or under-irrigation causing plant stress and lowering the yield.

More accurate irrigation scheduling can be achieved by monitoring soil water status with
tensiometers, continuously monitoring soil water potential. The gauge of the tensiometer is
designed to register how hard plant roots must "work" to extract water from the soil. Tensiometers
can be used to schedule irrigation when soil water tension is low, before plant water stress occurs.

Tensiometers should be installed in the active root area, in the wetting zone of the drip irrigation
tape. The ceramic tip has to be all the time in contact with a surrounding soil.

These instruments were introduced to Miami-Dade growers several years ago, but did not receive
much attention among growers. The problem was difficulty of installation in the gravelly soils and
obtaining proper contact between the ceramic cup and soil.

Since 1997 several irrigation experiments with tensiometers were conducted by Yuncong Li and
his colleagues at the UF Tropical Research and Education Center in Homestead. Results
demonstrated that tensiometers could be used for scheduling irrigation when installed with the use
of a slurry made from sifted soil to ensure a good contact between the soil and the tensiometer's
ceramic tip.

In 1999, the UF IFAS Fl 107 Design Team (Vegetable Production, Harvesting and Handling
Efficiencies and IPM in Florida) received an Enhancement Award for Extension State Major
programs to demonstrate the optimization of irrigation scheduling and evaluate the use of
tensiometers in commercial vegetable fields in Miami-Dade County. This study included three
irrigation treatments: A wet, grower irrigation rate, B medium treatment with tensiometers set
point 15 cbar, and C dry treatment with tensiometers set point 20 cbar. Each treatment was
replicated three times in a randomized block design. Length of each plot was 600 feet; total area of
demonstration was 0.74 acre. A total of 18 tensiometers (model LT low tension irrometers) was
installed in the center of the beds, in tomato plant rows and sealed with a slurry made from sifted
soil (particles < 2 mm). Three water meters, one per each treatment, were installed in the drip
irrigation line to measure the amount of total irrigation water for each treatment. Water shut-off
valves were installed in the irrigation lines for treatment B(medium) and C(dry) to restrict the flow of
irrigation water. Daily tensiometer readings were used to make decisions about reduction of the
amount of irrigation water for treatments B and C. The length of a typical irrigation event for the
grower was four hours. This included one hour of irrigation, followed by two hours of fertigation and
one hour of irrigation to flush the system. The study was designed not to interfere with the grower's
fertigation schedule, which means, that the shut-off valves for treatment B and C were used only
during the first hour of irrigation. Tomatoes (variety Sanibel) were harvested three times at a maturE
green stage and graded for color, size and quality.

The average tensiometer reading for grower (treatment A) was 12.3 cbar. The average reading for
B (medium) was16.6 cbar, for C (dry treatment) was 19.3 cbar. The irrigation treatments did not
significantly influenced total and marketable yields of tomatoes. Marketable yield (including pink
fruit) was 2901, 25 Ib-boxes/acre for treatment A, 3146 boxes for B and 2641 boxes for treatment C
The reduction of 27% of irrigation water between A (grower) and C (dry) treatments did not affect
plant growth rate, vigor and uniformity. The results showed that tensiometers can be successfully
used for scheduling irrigation in a calcareous soil according to crop needs and to reduce the total
amount of irrigation water during the growing season. Proper calibration, installation and
management of tensiometres are critical for proper irrigation management.

Page 5


(Olczyk, Extension agent, Dade County -Vegetarian 01-04)

Vegetable Seed Company Web Directory

Abbott & Cobb


Asgrow Seed Company

Ball Seed Company

Calgene, Inc.

California Asparagus Seed & Transplants, Inc.

D. V. Burrell Seed Growers Co.

Ferry Morse Seed Co.

Harris Moran Seed Co.

Hollar Seeds

www. effreys-seed.com


Reeds Seeds


Seminis, Inc.

Shamrock Seed Co., Inc.

Siegers Seed Company

Stokes Seeds

Sunseeds Co.

The Chas. C. Hart Seed Co.

Vesey's Seeds Ltd.

Willhite Seed, Inc.

Johnny's Selected Seeds

(Maynard Vegetarian 01-04)

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Descriptive List of IFAS Vegetable Gardening Tips

Page 6


Since 1982, approximately 150 short-topics relating to vegetable gardening in Florida have been
discussed and demonstrated on video cassette tapes for televised educational broadcasting
statewide. Produced jointly by the IFAS Editorial Department and the Vegetable Crops
Department, these tapes are now available for use by Extension agents in county educational

The videotape format is 1/2 inch VHS, functional on most home video VHS players (originals are
on 3/4 inch tapes). The short-topics, each of which are titled, range from 1 to 8 minutes in duration.
The average playback time is 2 minutes 30 seconds. Each cassette contains from 8 to 17 topics
grouped according to relative subject category. The topics are not repeated on other cassettes
where they might also fit an additional category. Each tape runs an average of 25 minutes and 25
seconds. Approximately 6 hours of tapes are available (non-stop).

Each topic has been developed for the educational level of a general gardening audience. While
the subject matter discussed may not fit all areas of the state, its video format might at least serve
as introduction for other more specific comments or program materials you may wish to present.

The following is a brief descriptive list of the Vegetable Gardening cassette tapes currently ON
LOAN from the IFAS. Contact: IFAS Film Library, Bldg. 116 Mowry Rd. University of Florida,
Gainesville 32611. IFAS Communication Services, UF, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611

The topics feature Jim Stephens, who always closed each segment with, "I'm Jim Stephens, and
this has been an IFAS vegetable gardening tip." IFAS refers to Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences. (Note: this closing and the audible countdowns have been removed from these tapes).
Jim has been Extension Vegetable Specialist since joining the IFAS Vegetable Crops Department
at the University of Florida in 1962. He was born in Hardee County, near Wauchula, Florida.

Jim is a University of Florida grad with a Master's degree in Vegetable Crops.

Acknowledgment all tapes were produced under the direction of Carl Breeden, IFAS
Communications Specialist, assisted by John Thorne, Andy King, Norma Brizzi, and others.

TAPE A Garden Planning and Design Length (Min:Sec)
Tape A Total (22:47)

A.1 Seed Catalogs (3:05)
Previews examples of seed company catalogs, discusses benefits to home gardeners.

A.2 Gardening equipment (6:35)

Shows collection of various pieces of equipment (hoes, sprayers, etc.) commonly used in gardens. Discusses use and
purpose of each.

A.3 Site Selection (1:40)
Shows a site being selected for a garden, and discusses pertinent considerations such as sunlight, slope, and source of

A.4 Garden Layout and Design (2:47)
Goes step-by-step through the process of properly establishing the physical boundaries of a garden and rows within the

Page 7


A.5 Garden Design (2:00)
Shows a standard garden design, and discusses considerations gardeners must make to fit garden size and
configuration to family needs.

A.6 Raised Bed Culture (1:55)
Shows design which includes single rows, standard elevated beds. Discusses advantages, but does not show actual

A.7 Gardening Measurements (3:31)
Brief review of commonly used and practical measuring devices or establishing and maintaining a garden.

A.8 Space Saving Techniques (1:14)
Demonstrates ways gardeners can utilize space more efficiently.

Tape B Soil Fertility Length (Min:Sec)
Tape B Total (38:02)

B.1 Rototilling (2.00)
A standard rototiller is demonstrated, while the benefits of incorporating organic materials for fertility maintenance are

B.2 Cover Crops (2:45)
Shows commonly-grown leguminous cover crops, such as crotalaria, hairy indigo and cow peas, for Florida gardens.
Features close-up of nodules and discusses nitrification.

B.3 Composting (3:49)
The construction of a small home compost pile is shown step-by-step. Purpose of ingredients is discussed.

B.4 Soil Testing Procedure (5:46)
Demonstration of the equipment and procedure involved in taking a soil sample for IFAS testing.

B.5 Soil Testing Devices (4:43)
Examines frequently marketed simple kits and devices for determining soil pH and nutrient content. Expresses opinion
on benefits and disadvantages of these devices.

B.6 Fertilizer Materials (1:48)
Reviews major plant nutrients and fertilizer materials which normally supply them. Shows commonly available garden

B.7 Fertilizer Application (4:18)
The broadcast and band methods of applying initial amounts of garden fertilizer are demonstrated and discussed.

B.8 Micronutrients (2:36)
Gardeners are reminded that micronutrients are also required for growth and development of vegetable plants. Examples
of a few are shown.

B.9 Liming Materials (2:38)
Dolomite and other common liming materials are shown, with uses discussed.

B.10 Lime Application (3:13)
Liming materials are taken into the garden and applied in the proper manner.

B.11 Sulfur Application (4:26)
The benefits of applying sulfur dust to soil for pH adjustment are outlined as the material is applied in a proper manner*

Page 8


Tape C Containerized Gardening LENGTH (Min:Sec)
TAPE C TOTAL (17:00)

C.I Judging Container-Grown Vegetables (1:52)
Vegetables growing in containers are often exhibited at fairs. Several kinds of vegetables in containers are shown, and a
contest judge goes over the points he considers for a blue-ribbon exhibit.

C.2 Strawberry Jar (4:21)
One of the most popular forms of container culture is the strawberry jar. The viewer is shown step-by-step how to
properly fill the jar and plant a few strawberry plants.

C.3 Strawberry Barrel (4:28)
A wooden 55 gallon barrel planted with strawberry plants is shown in a Florida garden. Includes a discussion of the steps
to grow strawberries in this fashion.

C.4 Bag Culture of Tomatoes (2:03)
Shows method of growing a tomato plant in a plastic garbage bag filled with mulching material. Discusses purpose and
use of materials, including fertilizer.

C.5 Grow-Box Garden (4:16)
Raised beds enclosed with borders of wood or other material and filled with soil-uix are often called grow-boxes. One is
shown with tipi on growing vegetables in it.

TAPE D Planting Tips: Seeding Length (Min:Sec)
Tape D Total (23:05)

D.1 Seed Sprouting (:50)
Courtesy: Jiffy Products of America. By time sequence photography, shows Jiffy-7 pellet enlarging with water, then
inserted seed going through its germinating sequence.

D.2 Seed Sowing (2:07)
Shows various devices for seed sowing, such as hand-held seeders and push-type precision seeder. Then,
demonstrates opening a furrow and sowing seeds by hand. Action is narrated.

D.3 Seeding in Potting Mix (2:38)
Enhancing seed germination in the garden by first filling seed furrow with potting mix, then planting seed (beans shown)
in this improved seeding environment.

D.4 Seed Tapes (2:29)
Shows and tells how to sow seeds (beets shown) by using a seed tape (paper strip impregnated with seeds).

D.5 Okra Seed Sprouting (2:00)
Discusses the problem of hard seeds, and shows how to overcome it by first soaking okra seeds until seed-coat is

D.6 Saving Seeds from Vegetables (2:10)
Discusses pros and cons of saving one's own seeds, and covers those vegetables suggested for saving seeds.

D.7 Storing Left-Over Seeds (2:11)
Demonstrates a way to keep vegetable seeds which remain after gardens are planted. Method involves fruit jar and
absorbent material. Discusses proper conditions for seed storage.

D.8 Potato Seed-Pieces (3:21)
Discusses types and varieties of Irish potatoes best suited for Florida gardens. Then shows and tells the type of tubers
to purchase for seed-pieces. Demonstrates the cutting and planting of seed-pieces.

Page 9


D.9 Potato Seed Dormancy (3:06)
The problem of potato seed-piece dormancy, often encountered in the fall, especially from home-grown tubers, is
discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the use of GA for breaking dormancy (treatment not shown).

D.10 Onion Bulbs for Planting (2:13)
Shows use of sets for starting onions, planted step-by-step in the garden row.

TAPE E Planting Tips: Transplanting Length (Min:Sec)
Tape E Total (22:16)

E.1 Transplant Growing (3:16)
Topic is filmed inside a greenhouse. Shows how to fill transplant containers with soil mix and then plant seeds for starting
vegetable transplants.

E.2 Seed-Bed Establishment (4:21)
Close-up, step-by-step procedure for constructing an outdoor cold-frame for transplant vegetable production. Includes
seeding tomatoes as an example crop.

E.3 Seed-Bed Care (3:21)
Gives tips on taking care of emerging seedlings in the cold-frame seed-bed. Covered are watering, fertilizing, and
weather protection.

E.4 Transplant R& to the Garden (2:49)
Discusses advantages of transplanting and those vegetables suited for this procedure. Shows how to set out a tomato
plant properly in the garden.

E.5 Transplanting Sweet Potatoes (1:44)

Tips on starting sweet potatoes in the garden by setting out draws (plants grown from bedded roots). Mentions proper

E.6 Planting Around Containers (2:21)

Shows an innovative technique whereby the gardener places a milk-jug in the soil, then plants around it. The jug serves
as a reservoir for water and fertilizer.

E.7 Strawberry Care (2:15)
Mostly a discussion of the physiological cycle the strawberry goes through here in Florida. Shows the plant's growth of
runners from the mother plant; offers tips on propagating from them.

E.8 Companion Planting (2:09)
Do plants help each other if planted together? That question is explored with examples shown, including herbs, in this

TAPE F Cultural Practices Length (Min:Sec)
Tape F Total (18:06)

F.1 Watering the Garden (1:29)
Examines some of the common methods of irrigating the garden. Shows drip, sprinkler, and furrow techniques in

F.2 Watering Tips (1.21)

Briefly shows a way to elevate a garden sprinkler above the level of growing vegetables. Also shows a metering device

Page 10


for automatically turning water off and on in the garden.

F.3 Drip Irrigation (1:44)

Demonstrates the assembly and connection of a very simple drip irrigation kit to the garden hose, and the application of
water to the plants.

F.4 Mulching (2:18)

Describes a mulch, discusses its purpose and advantages, then shows the step-by-step procedure for applying black
plastic mulch to a garden row.

F.5 Staking Tomatoes (2:58)
Discusses advantages of staking (supporting) tomatoes, and some of the various methods. Shows step-by-step how to
properly stake a tomato plant, then tie the plant to the stake.

F.6 Ring Culture Tomatoes (1:49)
Shows the Japanese i-Ing culture method of growing tomatoes Jn a garden. Example shown is a mature plant growing
on the outside of a ring of chicken wire.

F.7 Pruning Tomatoes (2:03)
Tells when to prune and not to prune. Shows how to remove small suckers from developing tomato plants.

F.8 Tomato Trellis (1:13)
Shows wire trellis system for supporting tomatoes in the Florida garden.

F.9 Staking Eggplant (1:55)
Shows how to support a large eggplant bush using a sturdy stake and supple cord.

F. 10 Use of Bamboo (1:16)
Ordinary bamboo poles have many uses around the garden. This segment takes a look at some of the more common
uses such as trellising and staking.

TAPE G Pest Control Length (Min:Sec)
Tape G Total (47:37)

G.1 Insects and Diseases (2.32)
Cautious gardeners to examine (scout) garden often, looking for insect and disease pests. Shows Colorado potato
beetle, tomato fruit worm damage, aphids, and late blight. Mentions controls.

G.2 Pesticides (2:44)

Displays containers of several common garden pesticides including fumigants, insecticides, and fungicide. Indicates
their use on common problems.

G.3 Leafminers (2:22)

Shows leafminers on tomato, and demonstrates the use of a pump-up pressure hand sprayer for control. Also, shows
how to remove a leafminer using a pine straw.

G.4 Bean-Leaf Rollers (2:02)
Closeup of moth and larva of bean leaf-roller. Discusses life cycle and shows damage.

G.5 Stink Bugs (1:45)

Page 11


Shows this common pest closeup and example of the damage it causes.

G.6 Soil Fumigation Materials (portions obsolete) (3:04)
Describes plant parasitic nematodes. Compares root-knot with nodules on legumes. Discusses soil fumigation as a

G.7 Soil Fumigation Procedures (obsolete) (8:50)
Demonstration showing step-by-step how to apply soil fumigants via the in-the-row method. Includes covering treated
rows with plastic.

G.8 Squash Rows (2:39)
Shows squash leaves and fruits having typical symptoms of mosaic caused by virus. Covers what gardeners should do
when virus shows up.

G.9 Cabbage Problems (2:02)
'Takes a look at common disorders of cabbage grown in the Florida garden.

G.10 Marigolds as Repellent Plants (1:31)
Answers questions about use of marigold plants in the garden to control nematodes and other problems. Discussion
takes place in garden where marigolds grow alongside vegetables.

G.11 Herbs as Companion Plants (2:13)
The use of herbs in a vegetable garden as repellant plants of insects and other pests is explored. Shows some of the
herbs, and explains the theory.

G.12 Weed Control (2:16)
Discusses the problem of weeds in the vegetable garden and what gardeners can do about them. Demonstrates hoeing,
mulching, and hand weeding.

G.13 Slug Control (3:31)
Introduces slugs as a garden past. Shows them close-up, then covers control measures, including non-chemical

G.14 Bird and Animal Control (3:18)
Gardeners are reminded of the damage to vegetables which may be caused by birds, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, deer,
as well as man himself. Ways to reduce this damage are discussed and shown.

G.15 Mole Control (3:37)
Discusses the mole as a pest problem in home lawns and garden. shows the mole-runs, and demonstrates how to
catch the mole by using a steel trap.

G.16 Scarecrow in the Garden (:49)
Short display of a scarecrow in a vegetable garden. Briefly describes its purpose and gives a few tips on construction.

G.17 Judging Scarecrows (2:22)
Scarecrows come in all shapes and sizes, most with unique and novel personalities reflecting the individuality of the
maker. This segment looks at several scarecrows designed for exhibition, and at what the judge considered for a blue

TAPE H Physiological Disorders Length (Min:Sec)
Tape H Total (21:18)

H.1 Bitterness in Cucumbers (3:11)
Tells why some cucumbers are bitter. Shows peeling them to remove the bitter principle.

Page 12


H.2 Cross-Pollination of Cucurbits (1:7)
Discusses the long-held fear gardeners have about the possible crossing of two-members of the cucurbit family.

R.3 Tomato Fruit-Set (1:53)
Explains one of the most often encountered concerns of gardeners -the failure of tomato flowers to set fruit.

H.4 Premature Seed Stalks (1:51)
Shows various vegetables that are "going-to-seed," or forming seed stalks prematurely. Attempts to explain the
environmental factors contributing to this disorder.

H.5 Hot Weather Effects (2:30)
Examines a garden suffering from the effects of the hot weather in mid-summer. Suggests summertime care of
vegetables to reduce the effects.

H.6 Cold Weather Ef f ects (:53)
Segment is taped following a severe freeze in florida. Takes a look at damage and other effects of the cold weather on
hardy vegetables.

H.7 Tomato Disorders (3:53)
Several tomato fruits are gathered for an explanation and display of some of the most common disorders of tomatoes.

H.8 Greenhouse Cold Protection (2:51)
Visits a home with an attached greenhouse lean-to. Explains its construction and cold protection capabilities.
Additionally, shows gardeners how to protect vegetables in the garden by placing miniature greenhouses over tendpr

H.9 Plant Growth Regulators (2:29)
Discusses the use of plant growth regulators such as GA, etherel, and blossom-set.

TAPE I Miscellaneous Topics Length (Min:Sec)
Tape I Total (19:30)

1.1 Community Gardening (1:41)
Visits a typical community garden layout, talks about consideration for establishing a community gardening project.

1.2 Master Gardeners (1:03)
Several Florida Master Gardeners are shown training in a vegetable garden. The popular program is explained, with
benefits to gardeners and to Extension.

1.3 Urban Gardening Fair (1:48)
The federally funded Urban Gardening project of Jacksonville conducts a annual vegetable exhibit day. This fair is
visited and the gardening project explained.

1.4 Vegetable Judging (3:02)
Gardeners are shown how to prepare vegetables for display at fairs and other exhibitions where Judging and awarding of
ribbons are likely.

1.5 Record Vegetables (3:40)
Gives advice to gardeners who think they have grown a world's record size vegetable specimen. Lists some of the

1.6.Computerized Gardening (2:42)
Discusses the potential help a personal computer might provide to home vegetable gardeners. Mentions one popular
program for customized planning of a garden.

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1.7 Pumpkin Carving (4:00)
Demonstrates the step-by-step procedure for carving a jack-o-lantern pumpkin.

1.8 Experimental Plots (1:34)
Explains how information on vegetable production is obtained through proper experimental design. Vegetable research
plots are shown as examples.

TAPE J Selecting Quality Vegetables Length (Min:Sec)
Tape J Total (17:50)

J.1 Selecting Sweet Potatoes (1:49)
Sweet potatoes on display for sale at a retail farmer's market are featured. Selection and storage tips are given.

J.2 Selecting Tomatoes (1:55)
Tomatoes on display for sale at a retail farmer's market are featured. Selection, ripening, and storage tips are given.

J.3 Selecting Bell Peppers (2:19)
Green bell peppers for sale at a retail farmer's market are featured. Selection tips are provided.

J. 4 Selecting Okra (1:32)
Show and tell: What consumers should look for when buying fresh okra.

J-5 Selecting Pole Beans (1:46)

Tips on selecting best quality beans, both pole and bush types, are given.

J.6 Selecting Cantaloupes (1:49)
Tips on selecting best quality cantaloupes at the retail outlet. (Example shown is Jacksonville market).

J.7 Selecting Strawberries (1:30)
Gives tips on selecting, including varieties, at the retail marketplace.' (Example shown is Jacksonville market).

J.8 Selecting Potatoes (2:09)
Focuses on new potatoes from Florida what they are and how to select good ones at the retail market place. (Example
shown is Jacksonville market).

J.9 Selecting Cabbage (1:42)
Gives tips on selecting best quality cabbage at the retail market. (Example shown is Jacksonville Market).

J.10 Retailing Produce (1:19)
Suggests some possibilities for selling surplus produce from the garden. Shows a typical farmer's retail market in
operation (example shown is Jacksonville market).

TAPE K Individual Crops Length (Min:Sec)
Tape K Total (23:05)

K.1 Tomato History (1:26)
Shows wild forms of tomatoes used in breeding cultivated types. Provides historical and geographical background for

K.2 Tomatoes:Garden/Commercial (1:36)
Shows varieties of tomatoes commonly grown on a commercial scale. Relates these to their suitability for gardens.

K.3 Tomato Varieties (2:49)
Good preview of standard kinds and varieties of tomatoes commonly grown in Florida home gardens. Shows plants and

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K.4 Cherry Tomatoes (1:34)
Hot time tomatoes what types to grow and why. These tips are discussed while types are shown in garden.

K.5 Unusual Tomatoes (1.41)
Shows and describes three novelty types of tomatoes (or so-called tomatoes): husk, tomatillo, and tree.

K.6 Eggplant (1:46)

Kinds and varieties of eggplant suggested for Florida gardens are shown in the garden. Cultural tips are given briefly.

K.7 Ornamental Peppers (2:14)
Some forms of ornamental peppers, those that'produce a colorful fruit, such as7bsnana pepper, are shown in the garden
and some growing tips are given.

K.8 Okra (2:29)

Brief tips on growing okra in the garden are given, while popular varieties are shown.

K.9 Roselle (1:44)
Also known as Florida cranberry, roselle is a minor yet old-time garden vegetable for those that know it. Closeups-of
plant and edible parts are shown in the garddn.

K.10 Sweet Corn (2:07)
Introduces one to the 'Silver Queen' variety of sweet corn. Shows gardener picking it and giving an ear the "fresh" test.

K.11 'Staysweet' Corn (1:57)
Compares 'Staysweet' with 'Silver Queen', two popular varieties of sweet corn for Florida gardens. Gives some cultural
tips for 'Staysweet'.

K.12 Sunflowers (1:42)
Vegetable gardeners like to include a few sunflower plants around their gardens, so this segment provides tips on
knowing when to gather the seeds out of the sunflowers.

TAPE L Individual Crops: Legumes Length (Min:Sec)
Tape L Total (17: 54)

L.1 Southern Peas (2:17)
Shows some of the more common types and varieties of this popular table legume in the garden. Provides a few cultural

L.2 Lima Beans (2:32)
Shows this type of bean in the garden. Discusses a few problems and gives tips on growing.

L.3 Pole Beans (2:17)
Close up look at a trellis full of pole beans. Discusses some of the requirements for growing this type of bean in the

L.4 Peanuts (2:23)
Although peanuts are an agronomic crop, tips of growing them in the vegetable-garden are given. Shows gardener pulling
up a mature peanut plant.

L.5 Edible Soybeans (2:03)
The vegetable type of soybean is shown ready for harvest in the vegetable garden. Tips on varieties, culture, and use

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are given.

L.6 Fava Beans (2:04)
This little known type of bean is shown with potential for inclusion in the garden discussed.

L.7 Edible Podded Peas (2:20)
Introduces the form of English peas whose tender pods are eaten along with immature seeds. Shows different varieties,
and gives tips on growing.

L.8 Compact Vegetables (1:58)
Several varieties of vegetables suitable for inclusion in limited-space gardens are shown and described.

TAPE M Individual Crops:Cucurbits Length (Min:Sec)
Tape M Total (30:00)

M.1 Squash (2:25)
'Utilizes a zucchini plant to show male and female flowers and to discuss the pollination procedure. Explains the problem
of poor fruit-set in squash.

M.2 Zucchini (2:46)
This type of summer squash is shown growing in the garden. Some of its characteristics are pointed out, along with.brief
cultural tips.

M.3 Summer and Winter Squash (2:47)
Examples of each type are shown, while their basis for distinction is discussed.

M.4 Hubbard Squash (:54)
One of the largest type winter squashes, the hubbard, is shown growing in a vegetable garden. Its problems are
discussed, along with growing tips.

M.5 Spaghetti Squash (2:28)
This novelty squash is shown growing in the garden. The squash is cut open to show the interior pulp which resembles
strands of spaghetti.

M.6 Pumpkins (1:54)
Shows kinds of pumpkins that grow in the summer garden in Florida. Mentions crossing of types and best time to grow

M.7 Florida Pumpkins (1:52)
Cultural tips for growing pumpkins in the garden.

M.8 Citron Melons (1:39)
Citron melons, which resemble ice-box watermelons, are shown in the garden. Cultural and use information is given.

M.9 Ice-Box Melons (1:23)
Varieties of watermelons small enough to fit in the refrigerator arei shown. Best varieties are discussed.

M-10 Oriental Wax Gourds (2:14)
An edible gourd called the Wax Gourd, which is popular with Chinese and other Oriental cooks, is shown and discussed
as a vegetable for the Florida garden.

M.11 Luffa Gourds (1:42)
A large luffa vine is shown climbing into the branches of a tree. The merits of the luffa gourd fruits are discussed, along
with other possible uses.

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M.12 Bottle Gourds (2:19)
Bottle-gourds, or sometimes called birds-nest gourds, are shown in the garden and discussed as vegetables.

M.13 Cucumber Types (3:39)
Shows and describes several types of cucumber fruits found growing in a vegetable garden. Includes odd forms such as
the gherkin.

TAPE N Individual Crops: Assorted Length (Min:Sec)
Tape N Total (37:09)

N. I Asparagus (4:30)
Shows the asparagus plant in a garden, and discusses its suitability as a vegetable for a Florida garden.

N.2 Lettuce (3:23)
The major four types of lettuce crisphead, butterhead, leaf, and romaine, are shown growing in the garden. Varieties of
each are suggested.

N.3 Spinach Substitute (2:06)
Types of leafy greens which substitute for spinach because of their similarity are shown and discussed.

N.4 Amaranth (1:36)
Most recognize amaranth as pigweed, a common peat in Florida gardens. This segment introduces the gardener to
edible, cultivated types.

N.5 Swiss Chard (1:35)
Shows and describes red leaved swiss chard as a vegetable for Florida gardeners.

N.6 Mustard Greens (1:30)
This popular cooking green is shown growing in the Florida garden. Tips on its culture are given.

N.7 Cabbage (1:45)
Tips on growing cabbage in the garden, including best varieties, are given. Major forms such as red leaf, savoy, and
common are shown.

N.8 Kale (1:45)
Kale, the crinkly-leaf form of collard green, is shown as a possible vegetable for the cool-season garden.

N.9 Flowering Kale (1:40)
Brightly colored forms of kale which are referred to as flowering kale, are shown and discussed briefly.

N.10 Dandelions (1:42)

Shown and discussed is the cultivated form of dandelion which is eaten as cooking greens and in salads.

N.11 Radishes (winter) (1:45)
Shows winter or oriental radishes. Tips on culture and disease given for these large-rooting types.

N.12 Multiplying Onions (2:55)
Demonstrates the way to divide and reset this type of green onion which multiplies itself in the garden.

N.13 Leeks (2:32)
Looks at leeks, and gives tips on growing them in the garden.

N.14 Jerusalem Artichokes (2:16)
Shows the plant and its flowers, then shows young tubers as they are dug from the base of the plant.

Page 17


N.15 Herbs at Kanapaha (2:39)
Shows several herbs grown in the botanical garden at Gainesville. Discusses their culture, and provides good
introduction to the topic of herbs in the garden.

N.16 Salsify (1:40)
Examines a salsify plant specimen and discusses the use of this so-called "vegetable oyster".

N.17 Celeriac
Shows a celeriac plant in the garden, and discusses its culture and use.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 01-04)

Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Daniel J. Cantliffe
Professor and Chairman, Horticultural Sciences Department
Timothy E. Crocker
Professor, deciduous fruits and nuts, strawberry
John Duval
Assistant Professor, strawberry
Chad Hutchinson
Assistant Professor, vegetable production
Elizabeth M. Lamb
Assistant Professor, production
Yuncong Li
Assistant Professor, soils
Donald N. Maynard
Professor, varieties

Stephen M. Olson
Professor, small farms

Mark A. Ritenour
Assistant Professor, postharvest
Ronald W. Rice
Assistant Professor, nutrition
Steven A. Sargent
Professor, postharvest
Eric Simonne
Assistant Professor and Editor, vegetable nutrition
William M. Stall
Professor, weed control
James M. Stephens
Professor, vegetable gardening
Charles S. Vavrina
Associate Professor, transplants
James M. White
Associate Professor, organic farming

Related Links:
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Horticultural Sciences Department
Florida Cooperative Extension Service

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