Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00422
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1952
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00422
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Vegetable Crop Specialists



November 3, 1952

Continuing with our 'research reviews', let's look in on the EVERGLADES EXPERI-
MENT STATION, Belle Glade, including the Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce,
and the Lake Worth Laboratory.
We're quoting results from the work of W. T. Forsee, Jr., Emil A. Wolf, Walter
A. Hills, Robert J. Allen, Jr., N. C. Hayslip, W. H. Thames, Jr., W. G. Genung, Warren
N. Stoner, Frank V. Stevenson, J. F. Darby, V. L. Guzman, and Tom G. Bowery, adapted
from the 1952 Annual Report manuscript.
Remember, these are one year's results...



Sweet Corn
Snap Beans

Variety or Line Tests:
English Peas
Sweet Corn

Soils and Fertilizers:
Endive, Lettuce
Sweet Corn

Helminthosporium Resistance
New EES Lines . .
Blight Resistance .

2135X,Yellows Resistant .
Great Lakes Consistent .
Long Podded Wando Late
Helminthosporium Resistance

No P
No P
No P

and K
and K
and K

Response .
Response, Band

* S *
* .
* *


. 3

vs. Broadcast

Sweet Corn

Psuedo Curly Top, Cucumber Mosaic .
Fungicides, Airplane vs. Ground ...


Flooding, Population Returns *

Soil Fumigation:

Collards, Cabbage
Snap Beans
Sweet Corn

Pelletted Seed:

Chemical Weed Control:

Chlorobromopropene .* . b

Insecticidal Combinations . . 7
Wheat vs. Rice Bran . 7
Insecticidal Effectiveness . 7
Tortricid Seasonal . 7
Blossom-drop and Insecticides . 7
DDT-Oil, Uniform Seed Size . 7

Germination . * 8

2,h-D Drift, Bean Pre-emergence . 8

(Lake Worth and Fort Pierce follow...turn the page)

No. 16

* *

- 2 -

Variety or Line Tests:
Sweet Corn

Soils and Fertilizers:

Sweet Corn

Sweet Corn




AStW331 and "Homestead". .. . 3
H. turcicum Resistance .* 3

Foliar Nutrient Sprays .* * *

Fungicides and Schedules * 6
Stemphylium, Late Blight, Botrytis 6

DDT-Oil, Emulsifiers, Solvents * 8

Vegetables, Clovers* Pangola*

. . 8

(*...Russell Henderson said I could use these words but to get no ideas...joke.)

Snap Beans

Variety or Line Tests:
Snap Beans
Sweet Corn
English Peas

Soils and Fertilizers:
Snap Beans
Sweet Corn

Cover Crops


Bush and Pod Selections . ..... 2
Downy Mildew Resistance * .* 2

EES Lines, Contender, Wade * *. 3
Texas 107, Waltham #11. . . 3
Winter Hybrids .. .* . 3
Marketer, SC 10-3, V. Hybrid 4
Fort Myers Market, Fla. Market, Fla. Beauty
Little arvel . . . .
Illinois FS, Burlington ...... 4
Florida Ninety . . .
$1-23W, 51-27 . . . 4.

Fall NPK and Spring NK Responses . ,
Yield Response to N ......... 5

Variety Infestation Differences 6
Indigo, Velvet Beans, Crowder, Clover 6



Lake Worth:
Sn-p Beans: Selections for further study included various bush types, wax, green,
round, oval and flat podded.
Cantaloupes: Several open pollinated selections had excellent quality fruits in
addition to downy mildew resistance and should be used in a breeding program to develop
a resistant commercial type,


Belle Glade:
Sweet Corn: 1455 lines, both field and sweet, collected from cooperators all
over the Western Hemisphere were checked for their reaction to Helminthosporium turci-
cum in the spring planted nursery. A number of crosses were made using the line FP51
TDr. Fred Hull) on both commercial and station inbreds. A number of lines were grown
in the fall nursery and their reaction to H. maydis (most prevalent species in fall)
was determined. The resistance to the two species is distinct.
Snap Beans: Checked the performance of the EES 206 and EES 207 lines against
standard varieties and promising lines. In three out of four trials, yields from one
or both lines outyielded Tendergreen by highly significant amounts. Commercial freez-
ing tests, fiber analyses, and grower trials gave favorable results. Seed of both
lines have been sent to the West for increase and a sufficient quantity is on hand for
commercial trials during the '52-53 season.
Celery: Populations from selections made previously at Belle Glade, Sanford and
Ithaca, N. Y., the two original resistant parents, Turkish and Danish, and four commer-
cial varieties were checked for horticultural characteristics and resistance to early
blight caused by Cercospora apii. Individual plant selections, from promising golden
and pascal populations, were sent to Cornell University for seed production.


Fort Pierce:
Tomatoes: A fall trial of previously tested promising lines was subjected to
water damage. Several suffered greater damage than others. No line significantly
outyielded Grothen's Globe in marketable fruit.
Another fall trial included lines from the Gulf Coast Station. AStW 131
attracted grower attention because of its unusually large, smooth, attractive fruit.
STEP 89 (Homestead) was outstanding in fall and spring yield trials.
Sweet Corn: In a spring trial for resistance to H. turcicum, four unnamed hybrids
appeared to carry high resistance as did two out of six strains of Carmelcross. Only
one of these resistant unnamed hybrids showed desirable horticultural characteristics.

Belle Glade:
Cabbage: Strain 2135X, a yellows resistant Copenhagen Market type, showed com-
mercial possibilities.
Lettuce: In plantings made at monthly intervals from September through January,
Great Lakes gave the best consistent performance throughout the season.
English Peas: Long Podded Wando (Dr. A. P. Lorz) outyielded Little Marvel but
required 17 days longer to reach maturity. In some harvests downy mildew in the pods
was serious enough to have prevented shipment,
Sweet Corn: In a June trial, and also in a second trial planted in October,
Golden Security (W) showed considerable resistance to H. maydis. Victory Golden and
Golden Security (W) were outstanding in fall trials. Toana, Golden Security (R) and
Carmelcross were outstanding in spring trials sprayed on a regular schedule with zineb
for control of H. turcicum.

Lake Worth:
Snap Beans: EES 207 was outstanding in the spring trial followed in order by
EES 206, TendeFgreen, Contender and Wade.
Broccoli: Texas 107 and Waltham #11 produced significantly higher yields than
any strain of the DeCicco variety and most strains of Early Green Sprouting. Texas
107 produced a significantly higher yield of side shoots than any other variety.
Sweet Corn: Hybrids in December and January quite frequently fail to develop as
well as those maturing during the spring when days are longer. Early hybrids such as
Carmelcross and Boldrush did not perform well in the early winter trial. loana, Calu-
met, F-M Cross, Golden Security (red tassel) and Flagship produced a satisfactory
yield of well filled ears.

-u4 -

F-M Cross, loana, Golden Security (red tassel) and Lot No. 7 (V) were out-
standing in winter trial. Evergold and Kennebec gave only a fair performance.
All hybrids appearing to have resistance to one leaf blight organism seemed
to be highly susceptible to the other (H. turcicum vs. H. maydis).
Cucumbers: Marketer produced a satisfactory yield-of-fruits having excellent
shape and color in spring trials. SC 10-3, moderately resistant to downy mildew,
was high yielder but was rated second best after all fruit and vine characteristics
were rated. V. Hybrid produced a medium yield of fair fruits but was highly suscepti-
ble to downy mildew.
Eggplant: All strains of Fort Myers Market produced a significantly smaller
number of off-type fruits than any of the strains of Florida Market or Florida Beauty.
One strain of Fort Myers Market produced a significantly higher yield than any strain
of Florida Market or Florida Beauty. Phomopsis was not a serious problem.
English Peast Little Marvel received the highest rating followed by two breeding
lines, P85G and 17B. Laxton's Progress gave a low yield.
Peppers: Illinois F5, of the World Beater type, was not significantly outyielded.
Burlington, a strain of World Beater, did not equal Illinois F5 in performance. Sev-
eral strains of California Wonder performed satisfactorily.
Strawberries: Florida Ninety yielded 49% more U.S. No. 1 grade fruit than any
other variety or line. Missionary yielded only 297 quarts U.S.No. 1 per acre in
comparison with 4,214 quarts for Florida Ninety.
Watermelons: No. 51-23W (Garrison type) was high yielder tith 749 marketable
melons per acre, followed by No. 51-27 with 605 melons per acre.
(water soluble P and dilute acid soluble K levels per acre)

Belle Glade:
Cabbage: Two experiments conducted on well decomposed Everglades peat, pH 5.8 -
6.1, P levels above 6.8#, and K levels above 83#. No yield responses in either ex-
periment from applications of P205 or K20 separately or in combination. This confirms
results of previous experiments.
A third experiment involving pH, P and K located on Okeelanta peaty muck,
pH 6.25, P level of 3.6# and a K level of 11#. Applications of P and sulfur (to
lower pH) induced earlier maturity. However total yields from three harvests were
not increased by any combination of treatment.
Endive and Lettuce: A fallexperiment with broadleaf endive and Great Lakes
lettuce on well decomposed Everglades peaty muck, pH 5.8, P level of 11.0#, and a K
level of 83# gave no response to applications of either P205 or K20. This agrees
with previous experiments.
Sweet Corn: Two experiments conducted on well decomposed Everglades peaty muck,
pH 5.6 and greater than 10# and 80# respectively of P and K. No responses were ob-
tained by soil applications of P205 or K0.
Two experiments involving NPK treatments and a comparison of the broadcast
and band methods of fertilizer application were conducted on a well matured Everglades
peaty muck, P level of 4.0# and a K level of 58#. Highly significant responses were
obtained up to and including the highest increment of P, 96# of P20 per acre. The
response was reflected in a better stand and a larger number and weight of U.S. 1
ears and total yield of marketable ears. No significant yield responses were obtained
from either the N or K applications. The band method of fertilizer application gave
a significantly larger yield than the broadcast method and ear measurements indicated
a highly significant increase in ear length.

Lake Worth:
Snap Beans: October planting showed highly significant increase in green color
with increased N and significant increase in yellow color with P204 treatment. Vine
growth increased with applications of N and to a smaller degree with P205 and K20,
Significant yield increases to per acre applications of N up to 80#, P205 up to 60#
and KnO un to 90#. Responses similar but less pronounced than last spring.


February plantings responded similarly to those last spring. Foliage incre-
sed in yellow color with P205, increased in green color with Kp0 and N. At the high-
est N level there was no increase in yellow color with P205. Vine height increased
with K20 and N. Tendency to decreased height with increased P205, especially at low-
est N. Yield responses highly significant up to 80# N per acre, and 60# K20. There
were no significant yield responses to P205 treatments; tendency was downward at low-
er levels of N.
Sweet Corn: Tests on Immokalee sand during winter and early spring; pH 6.2, mois-
ture equivalent 3.25%, P and K, 13# and 30# per acre, respectively. Fresh stem tissue
tests for P showed decreases with N treatment and increases with P205. Decrease of P
in tissue with increasing N was more pronounced as the P209 levels increased. Tissue
tests for K decreased with N treatment, decreased with P treatment and increased
with K treatment.
Yield responses for grade 1 highly significant up to 200# N per acre. For
grade 2 the yield responses were significant only up to approximately 100# of N. For
total marketable corn the responses up to 200# per acre of N were highly significant
in terms of pounds per plot and significant to the 5% level in terms of number of
ears. This indicates that a large part of the response to the highest level of N
was due to increased size of individual ears. Percent culls was decreased and length
of ears increased by increasing N treatments. None of the treatments had any signi-
ficant effect on average length of unfilled tips.

Fort Pierce:
Tomatoes: Nutritional sprays on Immokalee sand included three formulations with
NPK and minors, and a fourth with urea. All plots received 2500# per acre of 4-8-8.
A total of 12 spray treatments were made. 17" of rainfall fell during experiment.
At no time were there any apparent differences between spray treatments.
Darker green foliage resulted after a side dress application of 300# per acre of a
15-0-14 after a heavy leaching rain around the second picking. Yield trends were not
statistically significant. Experiment will be repeated under less favorable rainfall
conditions during earlier stages of growth, usually the case for early fall.


Belle Glade:
Viruses: Pseudo-Curly Top (Ft. Pierce Curly Top) transmitted again by grafting.
Several species of leaf hoppers tested as possible vectors without success. Mechani-
cal inoculations have so far been a failure. This negative evidence indicates the
virus is of a persistent type and as such must have an insect vector or vectors for
spread in nature.
Tested new varieties of cucumbers developed for resistance (tolerance) to
the eastern strain of cucumber mosaic. To date none have withstood greenhouse inocu-
lations with the southern strain.
Sweet Corn: Climatic conditions were not favorable for a good test of fungicidal
control of Helminthosporium. Readings under light infections indicated again that
the zinc carbamates on both weekly and bi-weekly schedules were superior to no
fungicide. Yield and ear fill data were not conclusive. Field control was obtained
in commercial plantings in the Everglades using zinc carbamates as sprays and dusts.
Experiment with grower included high-level ground duster, airplane with con-
ventional venturi system, and airplane with aero mist master delivering 8 gallons
spray per acre, using zineb sprays and dusts for Helminthosporium control. Three
applications of spray made with ground equipment at weekly intervals preceded the
experiment. Eight applications of the experimental materials were made every 48 hours
until 2 weeks before harvest.
Disease control was equal in all plots using the yield of ears as an index.
There was a 20% reduction in boxes of corn in the airplane spray plots because of
strict grading to eliminate ears damaged by corn earworms. On visual inspection the
spray plot appeared to have more leaf blight but this was not indicated in an index
of the fourth leaves down from the tassel.


Fort Pierce:
Sweet Corn: Fall and spring tests were conducted under the cooperative fungicidal
trial for leafblight control. In both tests the disease did not become well estab-
lished until the last 2 or 3 weeks before harvest; fall, H. maydis and spring, H. tur-
cicum. Insecticides used gave excellent control in both tests.
The results based on two season's tests show that all treatments were signi-
ficantly better than no treatment. There was no significant difference between nabam
plus zinc sulfate and zineb, both giving good commercial control. When only H. maydis
was present, once a week applications were sufficient to give good control, but when
H. turcicum was present it was economically sound to apply the fungicides twice a week.
The treatment in which nabam plus zinc sulfate was substituted for zineb when DDT em-
ulsion was used for earworms, to avoid incompatibility of zineb-DDT emulsion, was as
good as zineb used continuously.
Differences between manzate on the spring once a week schedule, nabam plus
manganese sulfate and nabam plus zinc sulfate, were not significant. Fungicides con-
taining manganese showed a slight burning of the leaves as the number of gallons per
acre approached 200.
The best fungicides tested for the control of Helminthosporium leaf blight
were nabam plus zinc sulfate, and zineb. Manzate and nabam plus manganese sulfate
were as good in yield, but both produced some injury,
Tomatoes: Tested Wilt Resistant Grothen's Globe(K) transplanted November 1. No
significant differences between following: nabam plus zinc sulfate; manzate, zineb;
orthocide 406; mixture of dried skimmed milk, zineb and copper oxide; a mixture of
ferbam and zineb; phygon XLN; and a mixture of phygon XLN and thiram naugets in control
of Stemphylium leaf spot.
Manzate gave equal control of 3a te blight and produced the highest yield,
but did not significantly outyield plots treated with nabam plus zinc sulfate and
zineb. There were no significant differences in yields between nabam plus zinc sul-
fate, zineb. phygon XLN, phygon-thiram nauget mixture and the ferbam-zineb mixture.
In general, the most effective materials against late blight were the least
effective against botrytis.
Manzate treated plants apparently obtained a nutritional response from the
manganese. By mid-season nabam plus zinc sulfate treated plants had small, yellow,
mottled leaves with an upward cupping of the margins, and a few fruit with cuticle
injury. The dried milk-zineb-copper mixture failed to control late blight.

Lake Worth:
Pepper: Varieties showed significant differences in degree of infestation by the
root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Varieties in order of infestation, from
least to most severe were Illinois F5, Florida Blight Resistant World Beater, Burling-
ton, Early Calwonder, Wonder Giant (W), California Wonder, Florida Giant (C), Florida
Giant (W) and Keystone Wonder Giant. There was no correlation between degree of infes-
tation and yield of any of these varieties.
Cover Crops: Compared with okra, Blanket Indigo, velvet beans and Calhoun Crowder
had very light infestations; hairy indigo and Alyce clover, moderate infestations.

Belle Glade:
Flooding: Continued observations of infestations of root-knot on plantings, fol-
lowing rice cover crops grown under upland and lowland (flooded) culture for the pur-
pose of reducing the nematode population, showed that by the third crop after the
cover crop the population in the flooded plot had returned to the high level of the
unflooded plot.

SOIL FUMIGATION (For:Damp-Off Control)
Belle Glade:
The stand of spinach was definitely improved using CBP 55 (chlorobromopropene)
dripped into the row at the time of seeding. Bean plots were unaffected while the
stands of lettuce and endive were markedly reduced,

- 7 -

Belle Glade:
Collards and Cabbage: Toxaphene 14j# 40% wettable plus j# 15% wettable parathion,
and DDT 25% emulsion 1 pint plus j# 15% wettable parathion gave good control of the
imported cabbage worm.
Very satisfactory aphid control was obtained with the above as well as with
a combination of parathion and pyrenone and with parathion alone at normal applica-
tion strength, Pyrenone used alone gave good aphid control while the plants were
small and complete coverage could be obtained.
Best control of cabbage loopers was obtained with DDT emulsion or toxaphene
wettable powder applied alone at usually recommended strengths. Good control of this
insect was also obtained with the toxaphene-parathion combination and DDT-parathion.
The toxaphene-parathion, DDT-parathion and BDT alone gave almost perfect
control of the diamond back moth.
Celery: It appears that the celery tortricid, Tortrix ivana, wLll only be a
seasonal sporadic pest.
Snap Beans: Studied the effect of post-bloom applications of dilan and toxaphene
formulated as wettable powder and as emulsions, and of DDT emulsion on the yield of
snap beans of the varieties Tendergreen, Contender, Plentiful, and Black Valentine, to
determine whether fruit set was decreased by these applications. The results showed,
under conditions of this trial, that two post-bloom applications of these materials
made at weekly intervals at usually recommended rates caused no significant differ-
ences in yield when compared with untreated checks.
Cutworms: Four materials in rice and wheat bran showed no differences in effec-
tiveness of the two brans. Parathion and toxaphene were about equally effective.
Chlordane was less effective than parathion and toxaphene but superior to paris green.
Wireworms: Seven insecticides tested to determine their relative effectiveness
for control of Melanotus communis, applied prior to planting as a broadcast spray and
disked into the soil. Results of stand counts showed heptachlor, aldrin, a combina-
tion of parathion and aldrin, and dilan to give the best stands, although none were
entirely satisfactory,
Sweet Corn: In earworm control in the spring, with DDT emulsion-mineral oil
mixtures, there was no significant difference between 5 and 6 applications whether
applied at 48 or 72 hour intervals. Insecticide applications must be made during
a period of fourteen days beginning the day after first silks appear. This period
is sharply defined. Treatments of DDT-oil mixture made before or after this date had
no effect on percent worm-free ears.
Tests of DDT emulsion without oil and of 5% DDT dust show that, while these
treatments are effective in controlling corn earworm larvae when infestation is light,
they are both ineffective in South Florida underthe degree of infestation usually
experienced in sweet corn maturing in late May.
Applications of DDT dust every day for 8 days was superior to 7 applications
every other day when the first application was made on the third day after silks
appeared. When treatments are started too early it becanes necessary to add addition-
al treatments at the end to extend the period of protection to cover the full 14 days.
Mineral oils for use in earworm control sprays in South Florida trial were
rated in the following order: Carnation, Superla No. 13, Blandol, Sovaspray No. 1,
Premier white, and Whiting mineral seal.
A preliminary trial was conducted to determine the effects of uniform seed
size on uniformity of silking. One of the seed lot treatment combinations resulted
in significantly more worm-free ears than did the other combinations. This was pre-
dicted at the time of insecticide application because the habit of the corn plants
was such as to permit better coverage of the silks. There was no more uniform silking
in the sized seed than in the seed of mixed sizes. Other cultural conditions have
more effect on uniform silking than does uniformity of seed size.

- 8

Fort Pierce:
sweet Corn: loana planted March 20th for earwrm control test; heavily infested.
Where mineral oil was added to the DDT spray formulas the corn was more
yellow than in plots receiving DDT emulsion without oil. There were no significant
yield differences between any of the treatments.
Six power sprayer applications at 2 day intervals gave better control than
4 hand sprayer treatments at 3 day intervals, using the same formulation and rate of
Four quarts per acre of a 12.5% DDT emulsion gave fewer worm-free ears than
an equal amount of 25% DDT emulsion, both used with 2.5 gallons of mineral oil per acre
and diluted with water to make 50 gallons of spray. Blandol with xylene and emulsifier
"B", but without DDT, gave 4% worm-free ears, indicating little insecticidal qualities.
Six pounds of 50% wettable DDT per acre per treatment applied in 50 gallons
of water was inferior to sprays with DDT-oil emulsion, DDT emulsion without oil and 10%
DDT dust.
The emulsifiers, triton X-155, triton X-177, emulsifier "B", G2090 and G1087
gave fairly comparable control.
The use of mineral oil with DDT emulsion resulted in a larger percentage of
worm-free ears than the DDT emulsion used alone. DDT emulsion sprays without oil gave
only slightly more worm-free ears than 10% DDT dust.
Three quarts of 25% DDT emulsion with mineral oil gave control equal to h
quarts with mineral oil.
The solvents, Veliscol AR50 and ARSOG,-gave 10 and 11% more worm-free ears
than xylene.
Fort Pierce:
- the end of the second year of investigations, rotating vegetables with improved
pastures cloverss and pangola) continues to show definite promise as one solution in
eliminating the need for using virgin soil for every tomato crop. The final success
or failure of this plan will not be determined for several years, due to the nature of
problems such as soil borne diseases. The program consists of a fall and spring vege-
table crop followed by Pangola alone and Pangola plus clovers. After two years the
pasture is plowed under and prepared and planted to another fall and spring vegetable
crop and then put back into pasture.
Belle Glade:
Gerination of pelleted cabbage and onion seed was as good as that of the unpel-
letted seed in each test. Results with endive and lettuce were inconsistent.
Belle Glade:
Volatility and drift appear to be the main sources of damage to adjacent suscepti-
ble crops when using 2,4-D for weed control. Injurious effect increases, in general,
with temperature increases above the 60-80 F. range, when using isopropyl ester of
2,4-D,wedone LV-4, weedar-64 and 2,4-D amine. The dimethyl amine form of 2,h-D and
weedar MCP were practically non-volatile at temperatures as high as 1000 F.
Tomato plants subjected to simulated drift at a low temperature and low wind vel-
ocity showed practically no symptoms of injury from dimethyl nine form of 2,4-D. At
high temperature and high wind velocity plants showed severe twisting and bending 24
hours after treatment.
Combined results of three experiments indicate that the most promising materials
for weed control in beans (pre-emergence) were sinox, premerge, weedar, and oktone.

FEM:bbd F. E. Myers
rf>~~~~~I~r *__j TT nn h+>;n- 4

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