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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00386
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00386
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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June, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor

A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


FROM: W. M. Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

A. (Enclosed)

A. Crop Injury Due to Herbicide-Nematicide Reactions
B. Extension Responsibility, Integrity and Hydroponics
C. Samples Submitted to Florida Plant Disease Clinic

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Adzuki Bean
B. Florida 4-H Congress
C. Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training Program

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Scitces is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




A. New Publications

The following publications are available from the Bradenton Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center, 5007 60th St. E, Bradenton, FL

1. Research Report 1982-1. The History, Development, Accomplish-
ments, and Programs of the Agricultural Research and Education
Center, 1925 1982.

2. Research Report 1982-5. List of Publications Dealing with
Vegetable Crops and Agronomy for 1981.

3. Research Report 1982-8. Hand Harvest Tomato Variety Trial Re-
sults for Fall 1981 by T. K. Howe, J. W. Scott and W. E.

4. Research Report 1982-9.
Howe and W. E. Waters.

Sweet Corn Trial-Fall 1981 by T. K.

5. Research Report 1982-10. A Research Update on the Chemical
Control of the Vegetable Leafminer on Tomatoes by D. J.
Schuster, P. H. Everett and D. E. Dougherty.

(May nard)

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

August 25-27: Master Gardener Program In-Service Training, Gaines-

September 16: Tomato Institute, Marco Island

(Maynard and Stall)



A. Crop Injury Due To Herbicide-Nematicide Reactions

Identification of the cause of injury to crops usually is ex-
tremely difficult. Air pollution, such as sulfur dioxide and ozone as
well as fertilizer nutrient excess and deficiencies will in many cases
give symptoms that are mistaken for herbicide damage.

More information is coming from research and unfortunately from
experience that crop injury can insue from the use of certain herbi-
cides in combination with specific insecticide/nematicides.

The chemical reaction of the herbicide and nematicide make one
or both more injurious than either alone. The phytotoxic effects are
usually blamed however only on the herbicide used.

When combinations of herbicides-nematicides are known to cause
injury, the information will be as a precautioary statement on the
labels) The most common example of herbicide-nematicide incompatibi-
lity is metribuzin (Sencore, Lexone) with organophosphate nematicides
as Mocap, Dasanit, Counter or Nemacur. The Nemacur label also has a
precautionary statement in reference to propanil (Prowl, etc.).

Specific crops also may be more susceptible to combinations.
For example, cotton may be damaged from the use of dinitroaniline her-
bicides applied preplant incorporated and chemically reacting with
nematicides already incorporated in the soil.

Phytotoxicity may also occur when urea herbicides-phosphate nem-
aticides combinations are used.

When trying a new herbicide or nematicide in the production of a
crop, it is wise to check these combinations on a small scale first.

It should be remembered that the materials do not have to be
tank mixed to be injurious.



B. Extension Responsibility, Integrity and Hydroponics

Each year from February to May, County Extension Agents and Ex-
tension Specialists receive a great number of questions about hydro-
ponic culture of vegetables. Many of these contacts are for school
science projects, some are from serious hobbyists, and many are from
people considering this challenging method as a full or part time en-
terprise. This third category deserves some frank and open discussion.

What is hydroponics from a modern point of view? Growing plants
without soil at one time meant providing a continual, low concentra-
tion nutrient solution in a tank culture system by itself or may have
included sand, gravel, cinders, etc. as a physical support. The nu-
trient solution in nearly all systems was recycled and used over and
over again for as much as a week or ten days with careful monitoring
of pH and nutrient content.

Modern hydroponics now includes the supply of the dilute nutri-
ent solution in a thin film of water in a tube (nutrient film tech-
nique or NFT), misting of the suspended roots, and thirdly the supply
of solution to small beds or individual bags of synthetic media (peat,
vermiculite, etc) in which the plants are placed.

Hydroponics in theory is very sound. It is a system of culture
used by scientists to study plant growth and nutrition. In many parts
of the temperate world hydroponics is a stable, challenging, practical
form of crop production.

This specialist has been involved with hydroponics in various
forms and intensity for almost 30 years, 10 of which have been in
Florida. What success ratio has been observed for hydroponic vegeta-
ble production in the Sunshine State? The success rate has been
frankly very poor. Why? In a few words: disease, poor pH control,
poor financial return, and nutritional imbalance. The cause of fail-
ure does not change the soundness of hydroponics in general, but it
does raise some question about Florida as a place for this type of

In Florida, the humidity, temperature, and appealing climate for
micro-organisms seem to create an extraordinary pressure on enclosed
hydroponic production. A few outdoor gravel culture systems have sur-
vived 10 to 12 years. Bag culture, in which little or no recycling of


solution and thus the chance of spore buildup is reduced has one of
the highest longevity and success rates. The adjustment of pH of the
solution and monitoring of the nutrients are technicalities which can
be cured by more careful attention to detail.

Hydroponic growers often compete directly with field vegetable
growers in the "natural greenhouse" of most of Florida in the spring
and fall. The lower economic cost of field versus hydroponic culture
places an added strain on the hydroponic enterprise. The culinary ad-
vantage of hydroponically produced products is often claimed but this
may or may not be real in the market place.

What should we in Extension do when interested, prospective hy-
droponic growers come to us for guidance? I feel we should state
clearly that we will help them all we can if they decide to enter this
challenging area of horticulture. I feel we should also tell them
that the $10,000 to $20,000 dollar investment has quite a bit of risk
associated with this enterprise, and that a visit to existing or form-
er hydroponic growers may help them make the best decision. I think
to do less would be failing to serve the public with the openness and
fairness they deserve from the State University System.


C. Samples Submitted to Florida Plant Disease Clinic

Accurate diagnosis of plant diseases is prerequisite for econo-
mical and effective plant disease control. The "fresher" the sample
the "shorter" the turn around time for a given disease. Most samples
we receive are in adequate condition to work on but a few are---. Row
crop (vegetables and agronomic) samples are best sent by submitting
the entire plant (roots and shoots) regardless of the dysfunction.
With thick leafed plants like cabbage or tobacco, leaves arrive in
good condition without submitting the entire plant assuming the pro-
blem is related to leaves only. Single leaves and leaflets of less
turgid plants sent to the clinic take up an excessive amount of time
and may not be representative of the problem at hand. Sometimes the
answer for such samples upsets the sender but the sendee has no

When sending entire plants, wrap the root system only in wet
paper and place the entire plant in a plastic bag. This allows us to


examine the root system if leaf symptoms are indictive of a root pro-
blem and/or allows the foliage to maintain turgidity if a leaf or stem
problem exists. Remember, early diagnosis and controls) for plant
disease are in the growers' best "interest."



A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Adzuki Bean

Adzuki beans, Phaseolus angularis (Willd.) W. F. Wight, also
known as azuki (Japan) and adanka beans, are not at all common in
Florida gardens, but are sometimes grown. They originated in Japan
where they are the second most important pulse (dry bean) crop, and in
China, where they are still very popular. Anyone wishing to purchase
seeds to eat have to pay a fancy price in the food stores, so consid-
eration for growing at home should be given.

The seeds are used primarily as a dry bean, for sprouts, whole,
or ground into bean meal. However, many use them green. Since they
have a sweeter taste than most beans, they are used in desserts.

The plant is erect, 1 to 2 feet high, although some gardeners
have reported them to be "indeterminate, growing and producing until
frost." The yellow flowers are followed by the smooth, short, small,
cylindrical pods borne several to a cluster.

The seeds are smaller than common beans, but are 2 to 3 times
larger than mung beans. They are variously colored, most often dark
red. Types with green, straw-colored, black-orange, and mottled seeds
are known. The round seeds have a hilum (seed scar) with a protruding
ridge on the long side.

Climatic Response

Adzuki beans need about 120 days from sowing to the time the
seeds and pods are dry. They need cool nights for best production,
but will not tolerate frosts and freezes. They should be planted in


the Florida garden during the traditional frost-free periods. Septem-
ber through February in south Florida is the best planting period, and
February through March in the rest of the state.

Growing adzukis

Prepare the soil and plant very much as for green snapbeans.
Sow seeds 1/2 to 1 inch deep, then thin the plants to stand about 2 to
3 inches apart in the row. Space rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Give
ordinary care (no trellis is needed). Adzuki is said to be fairly
drought resistant, although the soil moisture should be maintained at
a consistent level.

Harvesting and Using

The young tender pods may be harvested for use as snap beans.
However, they are very small at this stage (when the seeds are just
beginning to show up inside the pods). Pick every 5 or 6 days.

They are most useful as a dry bean. When ripe the seed contains
25% protein so is highly nutritious. The dry pods will eventually
split open and scatter the seeds, so harvest the pods after the seeds
are ripe but before they shatter. The entire plant with dry pods
still hanging on may be pulled and stacked in a dry, well-ventilated
place to dry completely (a week or two after harvest is sufficient
usually). Then, shell the dry beans and put the shelled beans in a
tightly sealed jar in the refrigerator.

Bean sprouts from adzuki beans are particularly nutty and tasty.
Sprout as you would other beans such as mung and soy.

Dried adzuki beans are said to require only a short soaking (1
hour) before cooking.

Seed Sources

Seeds may be purchased from such garden seed companies as:
Johnny's Selected Seeds, Albion, Maine 04910, and Thompson & Morgan,
Inc. P. 0. Box 24, 401 Kennedy Blvd., Somerdale, N.J. 08083.



B. Florida 4-H Congress

The State 4-H Congress is rapidly approaching. It will be held
Tuesday, July 27. Two horticultural events will be taking place at
that time. The Horticultural Demonstration Contest and the Horticul-
tural Identification and Judging Contest. Both events will be held at
the Horticultural Science/Plant Pathology Building.

Eight district champion demonstrations are scheduled for the
demonstration contest, and each county may enter a team in the identi-
fication and judging event. I encourage all of you to participate.
Resource material for training is available through the department and
Editorial Department.

C. Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training Program

Florida Master Gardeners from throughout the State will be
traveling to Gainesville on August 4-5, to participate in the Advanced
Training and Recognition Program.

Representatives from 13 counties, Brevard, Hillsborough, Polk,
Volusia, Osceola, Orange, Lake, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Pasco, Broward,
Dade and Leon are invited to attend the 2 day program.

The program will include: Hands-on insect identification, Pesti-
cide spray equipment demonstrations, Tour of soils lab., Plant disease
clinic service, Turfgrass problem solving and demonstrations. Hands-
on vegetable identification and Concepts of landscape design. Pre-
registration material will be mailed to appropriate agents in the near


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 135.56 or
22 i per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical and
educational materials to extension, research and industry personnel.

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