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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00385
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00385
Source Institution: University of Florida
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May, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor

A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


FROM: W. M. Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist l

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar
B. New Publications

A. Label Approval of Dual 8E Herbicide on Several
B. Section 18 Label for Benomyl on Head Lettuce Granted
C. Crises Exemption for Use of Metabalaxyl on Potatoes

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sx, or national origin.

A. The IR-4 Program Expanded Pesticde Labels for Minor
B. Start Planning to Avoid Herbicide Residue Problems
C. Providing a Safe Basis for Changing Practices in Vege-
table Production

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Bambara groundnut
B. Master Gardeners Agent Training

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


A. New Publications

1. Vegetable Field Day, ARC Research Report IMM 82-2, is avail-
able from the Immokalee ARC, Rt. 1, Box 2G, Immokalee, FL

2. Vegetable Field Day Report is available from the Belle Glade
AREC, P. 0. Drawer A, Belle Glade, FL 33430.

3. A Summary of Results from Water Research Projects Supported by
the Southwest Florida Water Management District and Conducted
at the AREC-Bradenton, ARC Dover and ARC Immokalee, Bradenton
AREC Research Report GC 1982-2, edited by C. D. Stanley, is
available from the Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th St. East,
Bradenton, FL 33508.


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 27: Fertilizer and Lime Conference, Orlando, 9:15 AM

August 25-27: Master Gardener




September 16:

Tomato Institute, Marco Island

(Maynard and Stall)


A. Label Approval of Dual 8E Herbicide on Several Vegetables

Ciba-Gergy has announced that on March 5, 1982, the EPA has ap-
proved amended labeling for Dual 8E on 20 new crops. According to the
Technical Release, the vegetables covered under the labeling now in-
cludes: sweetcorn, potatoes, and pod crops, including: garbanzo, great
northern beans, guar, kidney beans, lima beans, mung beans, navy
beans, okra, peas (English, Southern peas, such as blackeye, pinkeye,
crowder, etc.) pinto beans and snap beans.


B. Section 18 Label for Benomyl on Head Lettuce Granted

A section 18 specific exemption for the use of Benomyl to control
lettuce drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and bottom rot (Rhizoctonia
solani) on head letuce has been granted by the EPA. The specific
exemption is in effect until May 31, 1982.

C. Crises Exemption for Use of Metalaxyl on Potatoes

Doyle Conner, Commissioner, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services has granted a crises exemption for the use of
Metalaxyl (Ridomil) on potatoes to control late blight (Phytophthora
infestans). This crises exemption expires May 31, 1982. A Section 18
specific exemption has been filed for this use.



A. The IR-4 Program Expanded Pesticide Labels for Minor Crops

Manufacturers budget time and funds for research and development
(R&D) to register specific major pesticide uses. These uses must be
large enough in order that pesticide sales exceed costs and profits
are maintained. Many pesticide uses, however, are of such small scale
that R&D costs would exceed income; therefore manufacturers will not
become involved and essential needs remain without registration. The
IR-4 Program is working to secure those "minor use" pesticide regis-
trations which are neglected by the industry.

The IR-4 Program is a nationwide cooperative effort of the USDA-
SEA (ARS and CSRS), EPA, separate state experiment stations, indivi-
dual researchers, manufacturers and growers. With National Headquar-
ters at Rutgers University, IR-4 is administered through a state agri-
cultural experiment station in each of the four regions of the U. S.
(southern, northeastern, northcentral and western) plus a special
Agricultural Research Service Unit.

Requests for expanded pesticide uses as well as essential data
from field and laboratory research flow through each regional office
to National Headquarters. Information from all regions plus the manu-
facturer or registrant is compiled into a complete package and sub-
mitted to EPA for a national tolerance and subsequent registration.


The southern region office is located at IFAS, University of
Florida and serves 13 states plus Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Each state or territory, in turn, has a Liaison Representative who
maintains communication with the regional office for regular updates
on IR-4 progress and pesticide needs in his/her office.

At the beginning of the year IR-4 National Headquarters identi-
fies priority pesticide requests and each region establishes a work
plan to develop data on high interest pesticide needs. This year, the
southern region is coordinating and partially supporting a record num-
ber of 65 vegetable projects. The following list is alphabetized ac-
cording to commodity and includes the pesticide request I.D. number,
pesticide, pest and location of field research. Research scientists
in Florida are setting out 42 field trials.


319 Bravo/Cercospora leaf spot (OK)
1650 Disyston/aphids (NC)
1670 Lasso/weeds (NC)

1249 Botran/Sclerotinia post harvest rot (FL)
1573 Paraquat/weeds (AR)

1526 Paraquat/weeds (AR)

1730 Ambush/insects (FL)

1867 Benlate/Sclerotinia (FL)

1869 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (FL)
1810 Metasystox-R/aphid (FL)
1888 Monitor/insects (FL)
1855 Pydrin/insects (FL)

1612 Pydrin/insects (GA)


1160 Dithane M-45/leafspots (GA, SC)

1725 Pydrtn/insects (FL)

1868 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (FL)
1872 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)
1885 Monitor/leaf miner, lep. larvae (FL)

1874 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)

894 Nemacur/nematodes (FL)
1259 Pydrin/insects (FL)

1865 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (FL)
1886 Monitor/leafminer, lep. larvae (FL)
610 Phosdrin/aphids (FL)

1450 Diazinon/insects (NC)
992 Manzate 200/Alternaria blight (NC)

1657 Pydrin/insects (GA)

1875 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)

1870 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (FL)
1809 Disystan/aphids (FL)
1878 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)
1811 Metasystox-R/aphids (FL)
1889 Monitor/leafminer, lep. larvae (FL)
1856 Nemacur/nematodes (FL)

1782 Triforine/powdery mildew (SC)


1873 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)
925 Lorox/weeds (FL)
1884 Monitor/leafminer, lep. larvae (FL)

394 Bravo/Alternaria leaf spot (VA)

581 Roundup/weeds (FL)

998 Triforine/powdery mildew (VA)

1862 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (FL)
1876 Lannate/lep. larvae (FL)
1890 Monitor/leafminer, lep. larvae (FL)

632 Terraclor/wirestem (VA)

1861 Benlate/Sclerotinia rot (VA)
1858 Pydrin/insects (AR)
1764 Vydate/aphids (AR)

1731 Ambush/insects (FL)
1246 Difolaton/Phytophthor blight (GA)
1783 Triforine/powdery mildew (FL)

1671 Blazer/weeds (FL)
1559 Amaze/insects (NC)
1676 Dual/weeds (FL)
1182 Nemacur/nematodes (FL)
1409 Roundup/weeds (FL)

1003 Amaze/insects (LA, NC)
1619 Ambush/insects (LA, NC)


1463 Roundup/weeds (FL)

1654 Pydrin/insects (OK)
836 Terraclor/wirestem (VA)

1946 GLbberellic acid/promote growth (FL)
1789 Manzate 200/Cercospora leaf spot (FL)
1791 Phosdrin/aphids (FL)

The IR-4 National Program provides pesticide users with the most
efficient means for expanding pesticide labels. This fact was sup-
ported by a statement in Pesticide and Toxic Chemical News, Feb. 25,
1981: "IR-4 takes the lead in obtaining tolerances for minor use pes-
ticides." Every year for the past six years, IR-4 has obtained a
greater number of EPA pesticide tolerance than any other institution.

Anyone aware of a pesticide need may alert IR-4 by completing a
Pesticide Clearance Request form. Contact the Florida Liaison Repre-
sentative: Dr. Art. W. Englehard, AREC, 5007 60th St., Bradenton, FL
33505, (813) 755-1568, or the Southern Region Coordinator: Dr.
Charles W. Meister, Pesticide Research Lab., IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL (904) 392-1979.


B. Start Planning to Avoid Herbicide Residue Problems

Rotational crop and multi-crop per year production systems pre-
sently used in Florida have a high potential for problems arising from
herbicide carry-over from one crop to the next.

In selecting a herbicide, one must not only consider the weed
species selectivity encountered, but must carefully consider the resi-
dual life of a herbicide in the soil and the crops that can be planted
after its use.

Herbicide recommendations are formally based on soil texture and
organic matter content, but temperature, rainfall and soil pH also ef-
fect herbicide residual activity. Atrazine, for example, will have a
greater activity as well as a longer persistence in soils that are

well limed than in more acid soils. This is a very important consid-
eration when planting sensitive vegetables after corn. On the other
hand, corn is sometimes injured by residues of certain dinitroani-
lines. Reduced corn growth has been experienced when planted in
fields containing trifluralin residuals from previous crops.

Many times herbicide labels will contain precautionary statements
and a listing of crops that can be planted safely after a certain time
period. Herbicides are often classified as to persistence, or the
time that amounts toxic to sensitive plants remain active in the soil.
The longevity of phytotoxic effects of herbicides in soils under North
Carolina conditions can be found in Table 1, page 9, of Herbicide In-
jury Symptoms and Diagnosis which can be found in the IFAS Weed Con-
trol Guide.

The key to avoid potential problems is to plan, and plan well in
advance. In this way herbicide selection as well as other weed con-
trbl procedures can be implemented to reduce weed competition and pos-
sible herbicide carry-over problems.


C. Providing a Safe Basis for Changing Practices in Vegetable Pro-

Vegetable growers, seeking relief in the everwidening cost-price
squeeze are prone to consider new innovations, materials, and prac-
tices with less caution then they would under less strenuous circum-
stances. This specialist can list eight instances at this writing in
which serious field production problems could have been avoided by a
small scale on farm testing program, observations over a broader span
of time, or an objective conference with the friendly agent.

Growers can protect themselves from many field and economic pro-
blems by developing their own simple testing and evaluation program.
The simplest test involves "treating" a few rows in a standard produc-
tion field by application of a test material, growing a new variety,
or change of practice. With a bit more effort the grower can evaluate
the influence of a test factor with much greater precision by follow-
ing these simple guidelines:

1. Be a skeptic. The magic claimed for many new materials may or
may not be effective on your farm or with your method of cul-
ture. Try a few rows in different parts of a field to be sure


that the material was in an average as well as best part of
the field. Try enough of the new practice, variety or
material to allow for a realistic yield response.

2. Short, s uare test areas (or bLocks) repeated sever;il places
in a field are much better than a few very long rows. If
several factors are to be compared at the same time have all
treatments in each test area (or block).

3. If several treatments in each test area (or block) can be put
out in a way so that each comparison occurs in a mixed pattern
or at random (1-2-3, 3-1-2, 2-3-1 for example) the effective-
ness of the test will be greatly improved. One treatment in
each block should always be a non-treated or control unit.

4. All treatments should be clearly marked with wood stakes and a
map of the test area should be kept in the farm office in case
the stakes are accidently removed.

5. All treatment comparisons should be grown under conditions as
uniform as possible (except for the specific factor to be
tested). A growth regulator test, for example, should use the
same cultivar, date of planting, method of culture, etc. as
the rest of the test area.

6. Make frequent observations of the crop during the season.
Scientists usually make systematic notes but even simple writ-
ten observations can save a lot of wear and tear on the memory
later. A written record of tests should be made and kept on
file for future reference.

7. Make careful harvest records. If the entire test area can
not be harvested with a fair degree of accuracy, pick and re-
cord carefully the yield of 10-15 plants for each treatment in
each repeated area (block). Keep records for each treatment
and block separate, do not pool the figures as the influence
of the field area may be lost.

8. Summarize the records. A possible test of two growth regula-
ting materials for influence on yield may result in yield pat-
terns such as these:


Treatment Yield of Cucumbers, Ibs per 30 plant block
or Spray North Field East Field South Field Total Average
Material A 97 69 91 257 86
Material B 63 77 47 187 62
Water Spray 80 70 75 225 75
Total 240 216 213 669 74
Average 80 72 71 74

9. Evaluate the records. The yield records could be subjected to
statistical analysis but most vegetable growers may not wish
to go to this trouble and rely on best judgement of treatment
effect by comparison of averages. If only one test area had
been used, such as that in the East field, material B may have
been considered better than the untreated control or Material
A. The yield in the East field favored treatment B for some
reason; whereas, material A outyielded the control and materi-
al B in the other two fields. It is quite evident that sever-
al blocks provides a more effective evaluation than one block.

10. Draw conclusions with caution. One years results may not be
enough for practices that promise to be costly or could harm
the crop under unfavorable environmental conditions. A rule
of thumb worthy of consideration is to test carefully over
several years and then decide. A good carpenter may measure
twice before he cuts a piece of lumber.



A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Bambara groundnut

Bambara groundnut (Voandizeia subterranea (L.) Thouars. has other
common names such as congo groundnut, congo goober, Madagascar ground-
nut, earth pea, bafftn pea, Njugo bean ( S. Africa), voandzou, nzama
(Malawi), indhlubu, and underground bean.

The leguminous plant is grown for its underground seeds. The en-
tire plant is similar to the common peanut, being a low, flat annual
with compound leaves of three leaflets. There is also an erect form.
Like the peanut, it Forms pods and seeds on or just below the ground.
To achieve this, the flower stalk elongates and penetrates the soil.
The bulbouns tip creates a tunnel through which the fertilized flow-
ers, attached just behind the tip, are drawn into the soil.

The pods are round, wrinkled, and over 1/2 inch long. Each con-
tains one or two seeds which are round (1.5 cm diameter) smooth, and


very hard when dried. They may be cream, brown, red, mottled, or
black-eyed. There are numereous nodules on the roots.

While seldom grown in the U. S., Bambara (also spelled Bambarra)
groundnut produces a nutritious food under cultivation throughout
Africa. It was carried to America by slaves, but has never caught on,
probably due to the more popular peanut being higher in protein.

Bambara groundnuts grow best in climates suitable for peanuts
(includes Florida). It needs bright sunshine, high temperatures, at
least 4 months free of frost, and frequent rains to grow best. How-
ever, it seems to he highly adaptable and tolerates harsh conditions
better than most crops. For example, it yields under conditions too
dry for peanuts, such as the Bambara district near Tinbukta on the
Sahara Desert' s southern fringe. It also is know to be grown in rain
forest areas, and the cool moist highlands of Rhodesia.

It should be a natural for Florida gardens since it tolerates
poor soils. In overly rich soils, high in nitrogen, it produces most-
ly top and only a few pods and seeds, as is the case with most fruit-
ing vegetables.

When grown like the peanut, Bambara groundnuts take about 3 to 6
months to mature, depending on climatic conditions and cultivar type.

The seeds may be eaten raw when immature, but become too hard
when mature. When roasted or boiled, even the mature (ripe) seeds are
sweet and pleasant tasting. Sometimes the seeds are roasted and then
ground into a nutritious flour. Seeds contain 14-24% protein and
about 60% carbohydrate. The protein is reported to be higher in the
essential amino acid methionine than is found in other grain legumes.
Bambara groundnuts contain 6-12% oil, which is less than half the
amount found in peanuts, making them non-useful as an oilseed crop.

Some of the pest problems known to attack it are Fusarium wilt,
leaf spot, root-knot nematode, and a virus. These are worse in the
rainy climates than in the dry areas.

The crop has possibilities as a garden vegetable in Florida.
Finding a seed source is one of the biggest drawbacks, along with the
selection of a most suitable cultivar.



B. Master Gardeners Agent Training

After considerable discussion among County Agents, District Di-
rectors and myself, dates for the In-Service Training for Agents in-
terested in the Master Gardener program have again been rescheduled.
The new dates are August 25 27, 1982. The meeting will be in the
Horticultural Science/Plant Pathology Building. If you plan to attend
please make motel accommodations early, this is also the first week of
Fall Semester for students and motels are usually filled to capacity.

The dates for this meeting were changed in order to give Agents
more time to prepare for a fall training session if they are so inter-

Leon County Extenison Agent, David Marshall, has completed train-
ing of his 38 Master Gardeners. These volunteers will assist David in
home horticulture programs. Leon County is the fourteenth county in
Florida to have the Master Gardeners program introduced to their com-

Anyone who would like to share with others information about pro-
gram or projects your Master Gardeners have worked on are welcome to
do so. Send the information to me and it will be compiled and pub-
lished in the "Vegetarian".


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $212.47
or 31 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical
and educational materials to extension, research and industry person-

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