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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00360
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1994
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00360
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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SUNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural Science Department DP.O. 110690 Gainesvillc, F 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134

Vegetarian 94-4

April 15, 1994

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

A. Transplant Growers Association Update.
B. 1994 Tomato Institute Call For Topics.
S/ C. Spinach Variety Evaluations Winter 1994.


A. Banding Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers for
Cucumber Culture.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
Recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

May 26, 1994. Organic Gardening
Field Day, 10 A.M. 12 Noon, Fifield Hall,
U.F., Gainesville. Contact Jim Stephens
(904-392-2134 ext. 209).


A. Tran
Association Update.

plant Growers

The checks are rolling in and the
luncheon dates, locations and times have
been set! Please mark your calendars for
the following:
May 3rd, noon, at the Holiday Inn -
Riverfront, Bradenton. Exit 1-75 at exit 42
and head west, just west of US 41 at FL 64
adjacent to the Manatee Memorial
Hospital. We will meet on the balcony
overlooking the dining room.
May 11th, noon, at Perkins in Ft.
Myers. Exit 1-75 at Rt. 80 (Exit 25) then
go west about 1 block, it is in the Morse
Shores Shopping Center.
Please note the date of the first
meeting has been changed from May 4 to
May 3. This was done to accommodate the
schedule of Dr. Daniel Cantliffe, Chairman
of the Horticultural Sciences Department,
University of Florida. Dr. Cantliffe will
speak on the role of University research as
it pertains to vegetable transplant
production and our association. On May
11, Dr. Calvin Arnold will join us and
speak on the Southwest Florida Research
and Education Center Interfacing with
the FL Vegetable Transplant Growers.
A prestigious list of transplant
producers (Collier Gro, LaBelle Plant
World, Plants of Ruskin, and Speedling to
name a few) have shown considerable
interest in an association and many of

these producers will be offering their
personal insights at these luncheons. So
we encourage you to attend, remember
there's strength in numbers! Join up and
join in on May 3rd and llth.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 94-04)

B. 1994 Tomato Institute Call For

As you know, the Tomato Institute
is the University of Florida educational
program that "kicks-off' the Tomato
Committee/Exchange meetings in early
September. What you may not know is we
begin to formulate this program in April!
We have already been approached from a
few sources requesting the opportunity to
give input for the '94 Tomato Institute
program. Therefore we would like to
extend an open invitation for such input
from you. If you have any suggestions,
advice, or comments please contact Charlie
Vavrina at 813-657-5221 (FAX 813-657-
5224) as soon as possible.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 94-04)

C. Spinach Variety Evaluations
Winter 1994.

Spinach, (Spinacia oleraceae L.) is
a fast-growing, cool-season, annual
vegetable of relatively limited importance
in the United States. In 1993, fresh-
market spinach was grown on 21,800 acres
which produced 2.7 million cwt of spinach
for an average yield of 131 cwt/acre. The
value per cwt was $23.20 and the total
U.S. crop was worth $62.6 million.
California produced over half of the U.S.
spinach crop.
Spinach production in Florida for
processing was a flourishing industry until

the processing plants closed. In the mid-
1960's, more than 2500 acres of spinach
were grown on organic soils in central
Florida. Current acreage is estimated to be
about 200 statewide.
In an earlier trial, based on yield
and growth habit, 'A&C #30' was the most
outstanding smooth-leaf entry, 'Gladiator'
and 'Chinook II' were the most
outstanding semi-savoy leaf entries, and
'Hybrid 612' and 'Ambassador' were the
most outstanding savoy-leaf entries.
This trial was initiated because of
grower interest in spinach as an
alternative crop for winter production.
Seeds of 31 spinach hybrid entries
were planted in three rows 8 in. apart on
the bed with a Model 1001B Earthway
precision seeder using the spinach seed
plate on 12 January 1994. Each plot was
10 ft long; replicated entries were repeated
three times in a randomized complete
block design and observational entries
were grown in single plots. The spinach
was thinned periodically to attain an in-
row spacing of approximately 3 in. Time of
harvest was judged subjectively according
to plant size. Plants were harvested
during the period between 3 and 10 March
by cutting at the base and then counted
and weighed.
Leaf form of the spinach entries in
this trial included three smooth leaf, 18
semi-savoy leaf, and ten savoy leaf types
according to detailed field assessments
made immediately before harvest. These
designations agree fairly well to those
provided by the seed sources in their
variety descriptions. As a broad
generalization, smooth-leaf types are used
for processing, savoy-leaf types are used
for fresh market, and semi-savoy leaf types
may be used for either processing or fresh
market. However, local market demand
may favor production of one type over the
Growth habit of the spinach entries
in this trial included eight prostrate types,

17 semi-erect types, and six upright types.
These designations generally agreed with
those included in the variety descriptions
provided by the seed source. Again, as a
broad generalization, those entries with an
upright or semi-erect growth habit provide
greater ease of harvest than those entries
with a prostrate growth habit. Also, the
upright types provide the advantages of
being cleaner because of less soil contact
and avoiding the possibility of being
infested by soil-borne pathogens.
Although plant populations were
thought to be standardized by thinning,
there was some variation among entries
because of less than planned stands and
late emerging seeds. Populations in the
replicated trial ranged from 64.5 for XPH
1615 to 94.7 thousand plants/acre for
Seven R and from 67.1 for AX 993 to 96.7
thousand plants/acre for AX 293 in the
observational trial. There did not appear
to be a direct relationship between
population and yield suggesting growth
compensation where populations were
lower. Populations in an earlier trial
ranged from 35.6 to 55.4 thousand
plantsacre where two rows per bed were
Spinach yields in the replicated
trial ranged from 39.7 for SP 3-16 to 690
25-lb bushels/acre for 'Gladiator'. Six
other entries had yields similar to those of
SP 3-16. In the observational trial, yields
ranged from 233 for AX 993 to 686 25-lb
bushels for AX 1393. In the 1991 trial,
yields ranged from 142 to 222 25-lb
bushels/acre. The higher yields obtained
in 1994 are attributed primarily to the
higher plant population obtained with
three lines per bed compared to two lines
per bed in 1991. 'Gladiator' and
'Ambassador' were among the highest
yielding varieties in 1991 and in 1994.
The only Florida yields for
comparison are those reported for
processing spinach in the 1959-67 period
which were equivalent to 432 bushels/acre.

Average fresh market spinach yields for
reporting states in 1993 ranged from 160
bu/acre in Virginia to 840 bu/acre in
California. The national average yield for
six reporting states was 524 bu/acre.
The average yield of the smooth-leaf
varieties in this trial was 490 bushels/acre,
semi-savoy varieties had an average yield
of 524 bushels/acre, and the highest yields,
542 bushels/acre, were from the savoy-leaf
varieties. These yields parallel
observations of plant and leaf size made at
From the results obtained in this
trial, based on yield and growth habit,
'Regency' was the most outstanding
smooth leaf entry, 'Fallgreen' and
'Gladiator' were the most outstanding
semi-savoy leaf entries, and 'Ambassador'
and 'Kent' were the most outstanding
savoy-leaf entries.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 94-04)


A. Banding Organic Soil
Amendments and Fertilizers for
Cucumber Culture.


In vegetable gardens, organic soil
amendments and fertilizers are most often
applied by the broadcast/incorporation
method several days prior to planting. For
the past 4 years I have been evaluating
several different kinds of organic
amendments using this procedure at our
Organic Gardening Research and
Education Park, Gainesville. Results of
the first three years of studies were
reported in the Florida State Horticultural
Society Proceedings Vol. 105:263-267.
May, 1993.
The purpose of this spring's trial (to
be conducted in the amended grow-boxes)

is to evaluate banding as a popular
alternative method for applying the
organic amendments and fertilizers.


'Poinsett 76' cucumbers were
seeded on 3-21-94 in grow-boxes (raised,
wood-bordered beds) which were previously
amended in 1993. At thinning time (18
days), a 4-inch deep furrow was dug in a
circle around each 2-plant hill of
cucumbers. Each amendment was placed
into the furrow and covered by soil, both at
a low and at a high rate on (4-8-94). One
month following this application, a second
and final application (same rate) will be
made. The following table gives the
various treatments and rates. Keep in
mind that this is a non-replicated,
observational study that will not be
analyzed statistically. However, the yields
per plot will be weighed for observational
comparison and reporting results.

Table 1. Organic soil amendments applied in grow-box demonstration, Gainesville,
Spring 1994.

Grow-box Amendment (lbs/100 so ft)

A-east oak leaves, whole residual
A-west oak leaves, composted 100
B-east sheep litter 50
yardwaste compost 50
poultry compost (RR) 10
B-west sheep litter 100
yardwaste compost 100
poultry compost (RR) 20
C-east chicken litter 50
C-west chicken litter 100
D-east turkey compost (sustane) 6
D-west turkey compost (sustane) 12
E-east yardwaste compost (YWC) 50
E-west yardwaste compost (YWC) 100
F-east yardwaste compost (YWC) 50
F-west organic 3-2-3 (Fertrell) 10
yardwaste compost (YWC) 100
organic 3-2-3 (Fertrell) 20
G-east organic 3-2-3 (Fertrell) 10
G-west organic 3-2-3 (Fertrell) 20
H-east guano 5
H-west guano 10
I-east sheep litter 50
I-west sheep litter 100
J-east poultry compost (RR) 10
J-west poultry compost (RR) 20
K-east crabwaste compost 50
K-west crabwaste compost 100
L-east dairy compost (Bion) 50
L-west dairy compost (Bion) 100

Field day these grow boxes may be observed during the Organic Gardening field day set for
10:00 AM Noon on Thursday, May 26, 1994. Various other trials and plantings will be open
for public viewing at that time, so you county agents and interested Master Gardeners are
especially invited.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 94-04)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D.J. Cantliffe

Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. G.J. Hochmuth

Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W.M. Stall
P ofessg ] ior

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor

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