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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00359
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 1994
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00359
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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i UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


A iA Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
*. ... ... IHorticultural iencec Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, 11 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134

Vegetarian 94-3

March 15, 1994

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

A. Catfacing in Tomatoes and Gibberellic Acid (GA).

A. Gramoxone Extra on Eggplant.

A. Japanese Ring Method for Tomatoes in the Garden.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
Providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

April 14, 1994, Thursday.
Vegetable Field Day at 1:00 PM,
Yelvington Research Farm. Featuring
potatoes, cabbage, onions, nematode
control, varieties, fertilization, tour of
plots. Contact Dale Hensel

May 26, 1994. Organic Gardening
Field Day, 10 A.M. 12 Noon, Fifield Hall,
U.F., Gainesville. Contact Jim Stephens
(904-392-2134 ext. 209).


A. Catfacing in Tomatoes and
Gibberellic Acid (GA).

Last spring after the "Storm of the
Century" many pepper growers, nervous
about slow plant recovery, tried to "jump
start" their peppers (and in some cases
tomatoes) with applications of gibberellic
acid. GA's (there are over 60 of them!) are
naturally occurring plant hormones that
promote cell elongation. GA has also been
shown to promote seed germination,
flowering, and bud break in various

While GA has been labelled on
artichokes, celery, melons, cucumbers, seed
potatoes, and spinach, Abbott Laboratories
has recently labelled their GA product
called ProGibb (GA) on pepper. The
pepper label calls for a 1-2 gram active
ingredient (a.i.) application, about 2 weeks
after transplanting to promote early
growth, and on small fruit to increase fruit
set and size.

H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner of
Cornell University, have found that
catfacing in tomato which is generally
caused by cool weather can be induced by
foliar sprays of GA3 (HortScience, 29:36-37,
1994). These researchers have been using
GA3 as a screening tool to identify cultivar
susceptibility to catfacing. They found
that 22 gM applied twice at 1-week
intervals to 5 week-old tomato seedlings
increased catfacing and accentuated
cultivar differences to catfacing.

Wien and Turner found that
catfacing frequency was significantly
(P<0.001) increased with GA3 application
in both years and there was more catfacing
in 1991 than in 1990. Saito and Ito (J.
Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 40:128-138, 1971)
found the optimum temperature for
catfacing was 46.4F. Wien and Turner
believe that minimum temperatures in the
14 days after transplanting were closer to
46F in 1991 than in 1990.

Wien and Turner conclude "the
results of these experiments indicate that
GA3 foliar sprays can serve as a convenient
screening tool to identify genotypes
strongly susceptible or resistant to

Some of the data taken from Wien
and Turner's paper is presented in Table 1
below. The varieties listed in this table
represent those grown in Florida. Growers
should be forewarned about off label
applications of GA on seedling tomatoes
particularly in the spring when catfacing
may be a problem.

Table 1. Catfacing incidence (mean standard error) in 14 fresh-market tomato cultivars
grown in 1990 and 1991 as influenced by foliar sprays of 22 pM GAs at transplanting.
Catfacing (%)"

Cultivar Untreated GA3 Untreated GA3
1990 1990 1991 1991 Avg.

Olympic 21 4 53 6 35 + 2 56 5 38
Colonial 23 6 36 4 27 4 38 + 1 31
Mt. Spring 26 7 35 4 20 4 46 2 30
Sunbeam 13 3 24 + 5 30 + 4 36 8 24
Mean 18 38 28 48

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 94-03)


A. Gramoxone Extra on Eggplant.

Gramoxone Extra (Paraquat) has
just received supplemental labelling for
use as a directed shielded application to
row middles after crop establishment.
Previously Gramoxone Extra only had
labelling for a preplant or preemergence

The supplemental labelling is for
applications of 1.6 pints (0.5 lb ai) applied
by ground with precision directed spray
application equipment adjusted to prevent
spray contact with crop plants. Do not
exceed 30 psi nozzle pressure. More than
3 applications per season is restricted.
Other precautions, restrictions and
comments on the supplemental labelling
and the label must be followed.


A. Japanese Ring Method for
Tomatoes in the Garden.

As I visit gardens throughout the
state of Florida I am always encountering
a variety of interesting, innovative
techniques for growing the gardener's
favorite vegetable tomato. Recently I
described two of these techniques: a)
"canned tomatoes", whereby the plant is
grown in a can (actually a 5-gallon bucket)
filled with sawdust, and b) the "tomato
mound", on which a plant is grown using
cow-manure and/or yard waste compost.

Now I wish to revisit two other
methods that give good success to many

(Stall, Vegetarian 94-03)

1. Japanese tomato ring to prepare your
tomato ring, you will need the following

a) A piece of wire fence (hog or poultry
type 5 feet high by 15 feet long.

b) At least 2 pounds of all-purpose garden
fertilizer (or you may substitute 10 pounds
of chicken (or animal) manure.

c) One-to-two wheelbarrow loads of good,
clean garden soil.

d) Tomato transplants (your choice).

Procedure: Choose a sunny location, and
break up the soil to a depth of 6 inches.
Lime it if the pH is low, according to soil-
test resultE/directions. Fashion the wire
into a circle, then place the wire circle in
the center of the prepared ground. Place a
12 inch layer of compost or rotted leaves in
the bottom of the wire ring. Add a 6 inch
layer of soil onto the compost. Now scatter
1 pound of fertilizer (or 5 pounds of
manure) on top of the soil. Add a second
layer of compost or rotted leaves, followed
by a second layer of soil. Then dump on
another pound of fertilizer (or 5 pounds of
manure). Lightly scratch this into the soil
surface, then form a saucer shape to the
pile for catching rainfall. Be sure to water
the pile thoroughly.

Wait one week, then plant your
tomatoes. Set three or four plants spaced
equally around the outside perimeter of
the wire ring, water and fertilize lightly to
start them growing.

As the young plants grow, they will
develop roots in the composted soil inside
the ring. Top growth will be rapid from
that point on, so be prepared to tie the
stems to the wire for support. After 1

month, apply 2 more pounds of fertilizer
inside the ring and water into the
composted soil.

There can be several variations to
the procedures described, especially in the
kinds and amounts of organic soil
amendments and fertilizer placed inside
the ring.

Caged tomatoes: This method
differs from the above in that the plants
are placed inside the ring (cage) instead of
outside the ring. Fertilize the soil inside
the ring using a combination of organic
amendment and fertilizer, but at a rate
much reduced from the Japanese ring
method. Two shovelfuls of manure and
compost, fortified with 1/2 cup of 6-6-6
fertilizer, is about right for each cage. Add
another 1/2 cup after 30 days.

Animal wire may be used, but the
mesh-holes must be big enough for the
gardener to reach in and remove a large-
sized tomato fruit. Six-inch squares are
suggested. Concrete reinforcing wire may
be used, and there are brands of cages
specially retailed for this purpose.

To make your own cage, fashion it
cylindrical in shape, 3 1/2 5 feet tall, and
18-24 inches in diameter. Unrolled, about
5-6 feet of mesh wire is needed for one
cage. Snip off the bottom rungs so that the
vertical wires can be pushed into the
ground for anchoring purposes.

Set tomato plants 3 feet apart in
the row, then place the cage over and
around each plant while it is small. As the
plant grows upward through the cage, its
leaves and stems protrude sufficiently
through the mesh so that pruning and
tying is usually not required.

I have seen cages made large
enough to fit over a tomato plant growing
in a 5-gallon bucket, and I have seen the
cages anchored into the soil within the

As a final note of interest, there is
yet another similar method to be tried,
which will be saved for discussion at a
later date. Called "ring culture" it is
described as the old English method of
growing in the "round", and adapted for
U.S. greenhouse production (first reported
in the American Vegetable Grower, March

(Stephens, Vegetarian 94-03)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D.J. Cantliffe

Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
fes or Editor

Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W.M. Stall

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor

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