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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00350
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1999
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Volume ID: VID00350
Source Institution: University of Florida
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." UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
H Hotticlturaml W Siencea Department P.O. 110690 C* ainacville, FL 32611 Telephone (352)392-2134

-:* Vegetarian 99-07 July 1999


Florida Pecan Field Day

Tomato Institute Program


Controlling Vertebrate Pests in Vegetables
Biological Stimulation of Plant Growth of Vegetables in


SUpdate Scoring Table for a Largest-Vegetable

Gardens in a Sack

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Wheneverpossible, please
give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
_purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation
of the product.
The ansnirte oi Food and Agncultural Scences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research. educational
mrormanon and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex. age. handicap or national orig
11L r ip A T CM I Afnr1T IT TD AD A n an on rnc rmi rlrrv rnmuuilrcl Mv rnnPFRATIN.


The Vegetarian Newsletter is now available on the
internet. The website is
http://ww. hos. ufl.edu/.qihweb/veQetarian.htm

Vegetable Crops Calendar

Florida Pecan Field Day. Thursday, September 2,
1999. Monticello Country Club; Monticello, FL.
Contact Tim Crocker (352) 392-2134 x 310.

Tomato Institute Program. September 8, 1999.
Ritz Carlton, Naples, FL. Contact Charlie Vavrina
(941) 658-3400.

Commercial Vegetables

Controlling Vertebrate Pests in Vegetables
Insects are usually our primary concern in
protecting vegetables from pests. But many
species of wildlife are fond of foraging on
vegetable crops. Birds and rodents feed on seeds
at the time of planting. Fruits and melons are
attacked by rats, raccoons, coyotes, and birds.
The leaves and stems of many vegetables are
eaten by rabbits and deer. Pocket gophers
('sandy-mounders') and pine voles will feed on root
and tuber crops. Commodity crops like corn,
peanuts, and soybeans are eaten by deer,
raccoons, and hogs. In this article, I will attempt to
give you some useful suggestions. This is by no
means a comprehensive list of solutions to
nuisance vertebrate situations.
Deer and rabbits are browsers on
numerous plants. The simplest solution is not to
plant those species that deer and rabbits prefer to
eat. Plants like Indian hawthorn, roses, hibiscus,
yews, etc. are deer candy and should be avoided
as landscape plants in deer country. For the
vegetable producer, plant selection is often limited
to highly palatable species, so other solutions such
as exclusion and repellents are needed.
Exclusion is a good, permanent solution;
but it can be difficult and is often expensive.
Rabbit fences only have to be 2-3 feet tall and can
be made of inexpensive wire fencing. Deer fences
made of wire need to be 8 feet tall (6 feet tall if the
fence is installed at about a 60 angle). Solid
fences, such as wood privacy fences, only need to
be 6 feet tall because deer will not willingly jump

over a barrier if they can't see the other side. The
bottom of woven wire fences should be held
firmly to the ground, with stakes if need be.
Wooden fences in contact with the ground
should be made with pressure treated lumber to
reduce termite damage.
Electric fences can be very useful for
keeping deer, hogs, raccoons, bear, and coyotes
out of fields or gardens. An excellent overview
of electric fence design is available in the
chapter on deer in the "Prevention and Control of
Wildlife Damage Handbook" produced by the
University of Nebraska. This excellent reference
on all kinds of wildlife problems can be ordered
through the Internet for $40.00 for the book or
CD-ROM or $60.00 for both at
http://www. ianr. unl.edu/pubs/hand.
Chemical repellents. There are
numerous chemicals that will act to repel
nuisance wildlife. The advantages of chemical
repellents to reduce nuisance wildlife damage
are that they are often simple to use and may be
the only option to discourage wildlife feeding on
valuable plants. The disadvantages of the use
of chemical repellents are that it is only a
temporary solution and may be expensive over a
long period. Below is a list of the active
ingredients used in animal repellents. Many of
these compounds cannot be used on
vegetables. Always read the entire label to be
sure the repellent is approved for use on human
and animal food plants. This will save you
money, protect plants, and protect the
environment. Many of these ingredients have
other functions in the yard or garden. Look for
these compounds in the list of active ingredients
on any repellent you are considering. Remember
to always follow the label directions when using
any pesticide. It is a violation of the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act to
use any pesticide for any purpose not listed on
the label.
Ammonia soaps of higher fatty acids are
used to repel deer and rabbits from fruit trees,
vegetables, field crops, and ornamental plants.
These are the deodorant soaps. Soap sprays
are used or bars of soap may be hung in trees or
over plants to be protected.
Capsaicin is the highly concentrated
extract derived from hot peppers. Hot pepper
animal repellent is used to deter deer, rabbits,
and rodents from feeding on ornamental, fruit,
and nut trees and shrubs. Only use on fruit trees
during the dormant season.


July 1999

2 July 1999

Check individual labels to see if the product
is registered for use around vegetables. Some
labels say not to use it on edible portions of food
Captan (a fungicide). When captain is used
to protect seeds from fungi, it also appears to deter
birds from feeding on the planted seeds.
Castor oil. Used as a soil treatment, by
itself or mixed with Capsaicin, to repel moles,
voles, gophers, and armadillos. Some labels say
"Not for use on human or animal food plants."
Check label on any product you use.
Dog hair mulch. This has been used to
discourage cottontail and marsh rabbits from
feeding in our demonstration gardens for up to six
weeks. When we tried it to repel feral domestic or
European rabbits it did not work. Dog hair is
sometimes available free from dog groomers. The
hair should be from a dog that has not been
shampooed recently for best effect.
Dried blood meal is primarily used as a slow
release nitrogen fertilizer, but it has been used as
a folk remedy rabbit repellent in gardens.
Methyl Nonyl Ketone is used as a repellant
for nuisance wildlife and stray cats and dogs, as
an anti-cribbing agent for horses, and as a pet
training aid.
Naphthalene (moth balls) is primarily used
as a repellent for clothes moths and is an
ingredient in repellents used for rabbits, squirrels,
bats, birds and, when mixed with sulfur, snakes. It
is of limited use in open areas like gardens. In
Florida's heat it also dissipates quickly and has to
be continually replaced.
Putrefied whole egg solids are used in
repellents to deter deer and elk from browsing on
ornamental plants and non-bearing fruit trees.
Some labels say "Not for use on human or animal
food plants". Check label on any product you use.
Ro-Pel or Bitrex (Benzyldiethyl [(2,6 xylyl
carbamoyl) methyl] ammonium saccharide and
Thymol) is an extremely bitter substance that is a
very effective feeding deterrent of rabbits, deer,
some rodents, raccoons, opossums, birds, etc., on
ornamental plants, garbage bags, and any
situation where the animal will bite or chew a
surface. It is not for use on human food plants.
This product is not permitted on certified organic
Thiram (a fungicide) has been used in
repellents for deer, rabbits, dogs and cats, and
Urine (e.g., human, coyote, fox, lion). The
smell of predators has been used for millennia to

repel garden pests. Deer are repelled by human
urine only in areas where they are hunted. In
Suburban areas, deer are not repelled by human
or dog odor because they are around it all the
Ziram (a fungicide) has been used as an
ingredient in repellents for deer and rabbits.
Frightening devices. The scare crow is
the classic example of a startle device. The
current arsenal of products meant to scare
nuisance birds and mammals is formidable.
Models of owls, hawks, cats, snakes, and
humans are available. These models are only
effective if they are moved often. A rabbit soon
learns that a plastic hawk that never flies from its
perch is not much of a threat. Kites and balloons
with startling eye patterns move with the wind to
give the appearance of life. Reflective mylar
streamers move and undulate like snakes in the
weakest breeze. Alarms, flashing lights,
recorded bird distress calls, propane cannons
(automatic gas exploders), and pyrotechnics like
shellcrackers, fireworks, and whistle bombs are
available. They are most effective when used in
a random, unpredictable pattern. Some systems
use motion detectors to activate the startle
device when the nuisance animal approaches.
This makes the system much more effective.
Devices that produce a constant sound or light
are rarely effective for long. Animals will adapt to
a constant sound, whether audible or ultrasonic,
as long as the attractive conditions persist.
Ultrasonic devices often fail to repel
nuisance animals because they generally
produce a constant sound and due to the
limitations of ultrasonic waves themselves.
Ultrasonic waves, like light, do not go around or
through objects but are reflected; and this
creates shadows. Animals learn the location of
these sound shadows and utilize these areas.
Another problem with ultrasound devices is that
our pets, especially dogs, can hear these
frequencies even if we cannot. The use of some
ultrasonic pest repellers has been linked to
hearing loss in pet dogs.
Raccoons and coyotes that are causing
damage to fruit and melon crops can be live
trapped or shot. Steel leg-hold and
body-gripping traps are illegal in Florida without
special permits from the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission. The use of snares
on private property is legal. If you plan on
shooting depredating wildlife at night with
anything other than naturally available light, you



need a Gun and Light Permit from the Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Light from
a permanent security light on a pole would be
legal; but a flashlight, headlight, spotlight, or light
from a vehicle would be illegal. One farmer I heard
about made almost as much selling the raccoons
he trapped for meat as he made on his watermelon
crop. If you plan to sell any part of nuisance
furbearing animals, you have to have a Trapping
License. If you are just protecting your crop on
your property and will not be selling any animal
parts (fur, meat, skulls, etc.), no licenses are
needed. Electric fences can also be effective at
keeping large and medium-sized animals out of
crops and gardens.
Roof rats (a.k.a. fruit rats or citrus rats) are
pests in citrus (except lemons and limes), mangos,
papayas, lychees, tomatoes, melons, grapes and
other fruits as well as a serious pest of sugar cane.
Roof rats are controlled by trapping and use of
poison baits held in tamper-proof bait stations. By
law, all rat poisons must be kept and used in areas
inaccessible to children, pets, livestock, and wildlife
or kept in tamper-proof bait stations. Tying blocks
of rat poison in the branches of trees is illegal.
Isolated fruit trees can be protected with rodent
guards around the trunks. Elimination of
harborage sites, like improperly stored construction
materials and farm machinery, and mowing to
prevent areas from becoming over grown will
decrease rodent populations and increase the
success of predators like hawks, owls, snakes,
foxes, bobcats, and even domestic dogs and cats.
Hispid Cotton Rats are hamster-sized
native rodents with salt-&-pepper colored fur and
a medium long tail (3-4 inches). They fill the
ecological niche of the meadow vole here in the
Southeast. I tell people to think of a cotton rat as
a long-tailed bunny. They feed on grasses and
herbaceous plants. Cotton rats are a pest in sugar
cane and occasionally cause some damage in
truck crops, like green beans, peas, young sweet
corn, etc. They can be controlled by many of the
same methods used for rabbits. Keeping edges of
fields and between rows mowed will help by
reducing cover and increasing predation success
of hawks, owls, and other natural predators.
The Southeastern pocket gopher (a.k.a.
'sandy-mounders') and pine voles are the two
burrowing native rodents that occasionally cause
damage to root and tuber vegetables.
Southeastern pocket gophers occur in upland
habitats with deep well-drained sandy soil
throughout the state. Gophers can cause some

damage to carrots, beets, potatoes, yams, and
various ornamental plants, but this damage is
scattered. The primary food of gophers in
Florida is rhizomes of bahia grass in pastures,
yards, and roadsides. Pocket gophers can be
excluded from small garden plots with buried
fences or hedges of repellent plants like
oleander or castor bean. Be aware that castor
bean can become an invasive weed. Fences
intended to keep out voles and pocket gophers
are constructed by having a small mesh
hardware cloth fence extended 2 3 feet below
the surface and 6 inches to 1 foot above the
surface. Pocket gophers can be removed by
trapping with special gopher traps. If any poison
is used (poison pellets, poison peanuts, burrow
fumigant, or gopher gasser) to control pocket
gophers, then a Permit to Poison Wildlife from
the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission is required to legally use these
products. When I asked the Law Enforcement
Division about why stores could sell these
products, the answer came back, "It's not illegal
to sell it, it is only illegal to use it (without a
Pine or woodland voles are mouse-sized
native rodents that live at or below the forest
surface under the leaf litter. They are a forest
species confined to hardwood hammocks and
pine woods in north Florida and the Panhandle.
Up north, they are pests in orchards in winter,
feeding on the bark of apple trees under the
snow. In Florida, they seldom cause problems in
gardens. Small garden plots and flower beds in
forested yards can be protected from vole
damage with underground fences described
Several types of vibrating devices are
sold for repelling moles, voles and gophers.
These include wind-driven devices and electronic
devices. These vibrations are intended to drive
moles or gophers from the immediate area of the
device. The effectiveness is an individual
response. Consider the analogy of people who
have a jet airport or train track built near their
house. Some people may be driven out of the
area while others learn to adapt to the noise.
Animals act the same way. An animal may be
driven out or it may learn to tolerate the
vibrations. Since pocket gopher mounds are
often seen very close to major highways, I tend
to question the effectiveness of these devices on


July 1999


I hope these suggestions will help you
better protect your fruit and vegetable crops in the
future. You can also plant a little extra parsley for
the black swallowtail butterflies and an extra row of
beans on the outside of the fence for the rabbits.

1:50 p.m.

2:10 p.m.

(Kern, Pinellas Co., Vegetarian 99-07)

Tomato Institute Program
September 8, 1999 Naples

9:00 a.m.

9:10 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

9:50 a.m.

Opening Remarks Dr. Mike Martin,

TYLCV incidence in West Central
Florida tomatoes in 1998199 Jane
Polston, Virologist, GCREC,

Applying insect growth regulators
on demand for managing the
silverleaf whitefly and irregular
ripening- David Schuster,
Entomologist, GCREC, Bradenton

Telone C-17 application broadcast
vs in bed as a means of mitigating
the PPE and other issues-
Jim Gilreath, Weed Scientist,
GCREC Bradenton

10:10 a.m. Methyl bromide issues,
formulations, availability, and
alternative practices- Joe Noling,
Nematologist, CREC, Lake Alfred

10:30 a.m. Covercrops, biomass, and nitrogen
accumulation; weed and nematode
control; tomato yield and fruit
quality responses- Herb Bryan,
Horticulturist, TREC, Homestead

10:50 a.m. FQPA- Dan Botts, Environmental &
Pest Management Division, FFVA

11:10 a.m. Food Safety Issues: The Industry
Perspective- Wes Roan, Six-L's
Farms, Naples

11:30-1:00 Lunch

1:00 p.m.

1:30 a.m.

Industry Updates- Industry
IPM adoption evaluated: A strong
foundation for a safe, profitable
tomato crop- Galen Frantz, Glades
Crop Care, West Palm Beach

2:30 p.m.

2:50 p.m.

3:10 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

Impact and management of TYLCV
in Southwest Florida- Phil Stansly,
Entomologist, SWFREC,

Phytophthora capsici on tomato:
Survival, severity, age, and
variety- Pamela Roberts, Plant
Pathologist, SWFREC, Immokalee

Tomato little leaf revisited Steve
Olson, Horticulturist, NFREC

The critical period of nutsedge
interference in tomato Bill Stall,
Weed Specialist, Hort. Science
Dept., Gainesville

Farmworker Income Fritz Roka,
Economist, SWFREC, Immokalee

NAFTA, FTAA, Agenda 2000 and
GATT International trade and
competiveness issues for Florida
tomato growers- John VanSickle,
Economist, Food and Resource
Economics Dept., Gainesville

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 99-07)

Gardens In A Sack
Have the most fun and the least fuss by
growing plants in bags using a technique that
is a cousin to hydroponic culture. Buy sterile
potting soil, and let the bag it comes in be the
container. Or mix your own potting medium in
a thick plastic garbage bag.
Put a bag on a balcony, patio or vacant
lot. It's portable, so the location can be
temporary. Once a crop is finished, grab the
sack and run. Many gardeners won't settle for
just one bag but will plant several, each with a
different crop.
Any flat surface in a sunny place can be
the growing area. If the surface is soil, keep
down competition from weeds and reduce
contamination by stretching out a sheet of
plastic before placing the bags flat on the
Cut two slits about an inch long on the
sides near the bottom of each bag for drainage.
Slit the top of the bag, or make an X in the top,
for growing seeds or transplants. Each bag can
hold one or more plants depending on the room
needed by the vegetable.


July 1999


Crops such as tomatoes, peppers,
cucumbers and melons usually are installed as
transplants; lettuce, beans, carrots and corn often
are sown directly in the bags of soil.
Water and fertilizer tell most of the rest of
the story. Gardeners who water by hand should
check daily to see if the growing medium needs
However, bag culture lends itself to the
more carefree system of drip irrigation. Kits,
available from garden centers, are quick and easy
to install. Place an emitter at each bag and the
watering is accomplished by turning on the faucet.
Better yet, set a computerized timer on the faucet
and escape for the weekend, worry-free.
During the less stressful months, plan to
water about twice a week for 20 minutes at a
stretch. When plants are large, and during hot, dry
weather, set the system to turn on every day or
two. Monitor results and fine-tune the schedule as
To keep them growing vigorously, plants in
bags will need regular doses of fertilizer. Check to
see that soil is moist, then soak individual sacks
twice a week with half-strength solution of
20-20-20. Make maintenance easier by supplying
fertilizer through the drip irrigation system.
Fertilizer tablets and other concentrated
products made for this purpose can be found at
garden centers. Follow manufacturers'
Vigorous plants may need vertical support.
Maximize use of space by finding ways to hold
cucumbers, tomatoes and other vining crops up off
the ground. Bag culture is so easy that this may
be the most time-consuming task connected with
Expect the usual pests, except that
nematodes and other soilborne organisms should
not be a problem. To reduce threatening
infestations, follow pest control suggestions in the
University of Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide
SP 103.
When one crop finishes, be ready with the
next. Bags of soil can be used again. Sift out old
stems and roots and replant. A clean bag of soil
can produce several harvests before the soil
becomes contaminated and it is time to add it to
the in-ground garden or the compost pile.

(MacCubbin, Orange Co., Vegetarian 99-07)

Biological Stimulation of Plant Growth of
Vegetables in Florida.
Back in March, the Vegetarian reported
on the chemical stimulation of plant growth with
cytokinins, auxins or gibberellins commonly
present in products called biostimulants.
Recently however, several biological
preparations designed to suppress soil borne
disease such as Gliocladium virens (SoilGard),
Trichoderma harzianum (RootShield), and
Bacillus subtilus (Kodiak), have been shown to
measurably increase plant growth as well.
Apparently, colonization of the target plant's root
system by the biological initiates a cascade of
biochemical pathways (e.g., phytoalexins,
pathogenesis proteins, lignification, salicylic acid,
vitamin complexes, etc.) within the plant thereby
activating a state of systemic acquired resistance
(SAR) or induced systemic resistance (ISR).
The increase in host plant biochemical
activity seemingly impacts some aspects) of
plant growth regulation as evidenced by growth
promotion in the greenhouse (Fig. 1)

Rg 1. R lperGathithwBarattfrrniTreu*nt
v~ha BEtrium

E LS256
ELS 260
* Check

Leaf Area

LSD= 0.05, Transplants at sixv weeks after seeding.

Rg. 2 G virens effecton tomato plat infield cky
eight 30 DAP

E 16

Tomato DW
r Control : G. v irens
I raCnrl~0 iesI

Data sig. p<0.08


July 1999

'G R N S TJuly 1999

and improved stand establishment in the field (Fig.
2). Field research in this area is relatively new so
the volume of available yield data is fairly small,
however results from ourwork (Vegetarian 98 11)
and that of Datnoff (Proc. Tomato Inst., 1998) with
several different biologicals is encouraging. In
fact, plant growth enhancement by PGPR (plant
growth promoting rhizobacteria) is not new. Joe
Kloepper (Auburn University) has been working in
this area for years and has developed a very nice
electronic newsletter on PGPR's which can be
f o u n d a t
Further field research is necessary on
systemic acquired resistance (SAR) but if the
effects are real, the question then arises, "why
apply manmade chemicals to induce plant growth
and yield responses when mother nature can do it
for you, and do it more consistently and
continuously?" But don't count the snake oils out
yet! French researchers have recently found that
extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum, the seaweed of
choice in many biostimulant products, may also
invoke SAR-like responses in plants. Lizzi
(Phytoma, 1998) has shown both foliar sprays and
soil drenches of A. nodosum can retard the spread
of Phytophthora capsici in pepper. Furthermore,
we have preliminary data that indicates this same
seaweed extract promotes root growth in
watermelon transplants compared to the control.
Surely more research is needed before
these biological and chemical routes of plant
growth enhancement in vegetables can be honed
into a best management practice. However,
results from all sectors are encouraging enough to
warrant further research. As our understanding
increases of how these aspects of plant growth
regulation fit together we will be better able to
serve agriculture through the proper manipulation
of this diverse complex of approaches.

conduct such events. Two popular ones held
annually in Florida are at the South Florida Fair
in West Palm Beach, and the Urban Gardening
Harvest Fair in Jacksonville.
Please do not confuse these contests
with the record-keeping I do on the state's
largest vegetables ever grown. There is no
competition in the latter-just a way of recording
To conduct a contest, you will need a
good set of scales. Most specimens brought in
will weigh between 1 and 50 pounds, although
occasionally, someone will bring in a larger
pumpkin or watermelon. You can cut these
into parts and weigh the parts.
First, make sure the specimen is
trimmed according to the rules in the table. If
not trimmed properly, you may have to trim it
Second, weigh the specimen, and
convert to ounces.
Third, using the table, multiply the
weight in ounces by the number of points given
per ounce. The attached table is revised for
1999. It reflects Florida's biggest specimen
(current) for each kind of vegetable. The table
is calibrated so that different kinds may be
compared, i.e. a tomato versus a pumpkin.
For example, a person brings in a
tomato that weighs 2 pounds (32 ounces) while
someone else has a 32 ounce summer radish.
Which one wins? Just follow the table. The
tomato wins because it generates 2.1 points
per ounce (for a score of 67.2) as compared
with the radish's 1.7 points per ounce (for a
score of 54.4).

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 99-07)

Vegetable Gardening

Update Scoring Table for a Largest-Vegetable
Many of you Extension workers will want
to hold a contest for gardeners who grow the
biggest vegetable. Fairs are the usual places to


July 1999


Revised Scoring

Corn, sweet
Potato, Irish
Potato, sweet
Radish, summer
Radish, winter
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Squash, Zucchini
Winter melon
Yam, true

Table for Big Vegetable Contests in Florida

Supersize (Lbs)


Points Per Ounce
Trim stems and tap root to 1"
No multiple roots
Trim stalk to 1"
Trim stalk to 1"
Trim stalk to 2"
Trim leaves to 1"
No multiple roots
Trim stalk to 1"
Un-shucked and trim stalk to 1"
No stem
Trim stalk to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim roots and top to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim stem to 2"
Trim root and leaf stems to 1"
Trim base to 1"
Trim base even-no leaves
Trim stem to 1"
Trim stalk to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim top and roots to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
No multiple tubers
No multiple roots (bonlatas separate)
Trim stem to 2"
Trim stems and tap root to 1"
Trim stems and tap root to 1"
Trim leaves and tap root to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim stem to 1
Trim stem to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim leaves and tap root to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
Trim stem to 1"
One continuous tuber

(Note: For any vegetable achieving a score of 100 +, check to see if it is a state record.) For contests,
weigh vegetable, convert to ounces, and multiply by points/ounce. High score wins!

(Stephens, Vegetarian 99-07)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. T. E. Crocker

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. S. M. Olson

Dr. S. A. Sargent

Dr. W. M. Stall
Profess o

r. J. Stephens

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor

Julv 1999

JU V199

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