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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00299
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1995
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00299
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

, FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gaineville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134

Vegetarian 95-3

February 17, 1995



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.


A. Seed Propagated Shallot.

B. 41st Vegetable Field Day.


A. Vermitechnology.

^'l r r Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
-h Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
S information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
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A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

May 17, 1995. 41st Vegetable Field
Day, 8:15 AM-4:00 PM. Gulf Coast REC,
Bradenton, FL. (Contact D. N. Maynard).

May 25, 1995. Organic Gardening
Field Day, 10:00 AM 12 noon. Organic
Park, Fifield Park, UF. (Contact J. M.


A. Seed Propagated Shallot.

Shallot, Allium cepa Aggregatum
Group, is traditionally vegetatively propagated
by bulbs. A feasibility study conducted here
on vegetatively-propagated shallot was
unsuccessful because the plants continued to
divide without forming bulbs. Recently, seed-
propagated shallot have been developed for
direct-seeding at high plant populations for
single bulb production.

The purpose of this study was to
determine the feasibility of seed-propagated
shallot production in west-central Florida.

'Creation' and GS-106 shallot seeds (de
Groot en Slot) were planted in 080 Todd
planter flats (0.8 x 0.8 x 1.75 in.) on 17
November 1993. The transplants were grown
by a commercial plant grower. They were set
3 in. apart in the bed in three rows 8 in. apart
on 12 January 1994. Each entry was
replicated three times in 10-ft. long plots
arranged in a randomized complete-block
design. Additional fertilizer was sidedressed
on 31 January and 17 February at 30 lb N/acre

from 6-6-6 (N-P20,-K20). Weeds in the bed
were hoed or hand pulled and row middles
were cultivated.

Time of harvest was judged
subjectively when about 50% of the plants had
dry tops. The bulbs were lifted on 21 April
and allowed to air dry before clipping the tops.
The bulb clusters were air dried on wire
screens in a greenhouse before weighing and
counting. Then, 25 clusters of each entry were
selected at random for determination of
bulbs/cluster, wt/cluster, and wt/bulb.

Yields of GS 106 (10,386 lb/acre)
were almost five times those of 'Creation'
(2,237 lb/acre). Likewise, GS 106 had
significantly more bulbs/cluster, higher weight
per cluster, and higher weight per bulb. GS
106 bulbs had better appearance too, scale
color and finish was superior to that of

There are no published yield data for
shallot in Florida. In Louisiana, yields of green
bunching shallot range from 1000 to 2000
dozen bunches/acre and yields of shallot sets
range from 2000 to 3000 lb/acre (Southern
Region Extension Vegetable Specialists,
1994), but these yields cannot be compared
with those obtained here. Data are available
from France, the major producer of dry shallot
bulbs. The average yield of dry bulbs there is
about 14,000 lb/acre. Accordingly, the more
than 10,000 lb/acre obtained here is close to
the average yield obtained in the leading
production country. So, there is the possibility
of commercial production here based on yield

(Maynard, Vegetarian 95-03)

University of Florida, IFAS
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Bradenton, Florida


Wednesday, May 17, 1995

AM 8:15







PM 12:00




Three tours will b

Field Day Coordinators: Don N. Maynard and John Paul Jones

Moderator: Don N. Maynard, Extension Vegetable Specialist


Welcome and Introduction W. E. Waters

IFAS Research Overview Richard L. Jones,
UF-IFAS Dean for Research

"Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Fumigation"
by Jim Gilreath and John Paul Jones

"Management of Silverleaf Whitefly"
by David Schuster


Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2, or 3)


Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2, or 3)


Individual Talks with Faculty

e available:

(1) Vegetable Crop Improvement
(2) Vegetable Crop Protection
(3) Vegetable Crop Production


A. Vermitechnologv

Even as a boy growing up in
Hardee County I associated earthworms with
moist, rich, organic soil. When grubbing up
fish bait, I knew not to search for earthworms
in sandy, dry, infertile areas. Instead, I would
look for dark, damp, crumbly soil, and there I
would drive down my grubbing board or start
shoveling for the wiggly crawlers. Little did I
know that through that happy endeavor I was
treading (ever so lightly) into the science of
worm technology known as vermitechnology
(vermi [worm] from Latin vermis).

Today, as a horticulturist, I find an
occasional dip into mainstream vermi-
technology quite refreshing, especially as it
relates to earthworms. Therefore, and since
many of you county agents and Master
Gardeners also receive frequent or infrequent
inquiries about earthworms and their
importance to gardening and the environment,
I will launch into an article or two on that

Vermitechnology may be broken down
in to several sub-topics, some of which are:

a) vermiculture: raising earthworms;
b) vermicomposting: making compost
with earthworms.
c) vermifarming: farming (and garden-
ing) with earthworms.
d) vermifertilizing: producing nutrient-
rich fertilizer from castings or

It may be helpful to familiarize the
reader with certain worm jargon before

discussing the above topics at length. First,
let's look at some worm-words from Webster.

vermi: worm, from L vermis.
vermicelli: pasta strings slimmer than
vermicide: agent that destroys worms.
vermicular: resembling a worm.
vermiculate: marked with worm-like lines; full
of worms; wormy; worm-eaten.
vermiculite: expanded mica into "little worm"
vermiform: worm-like in shape.
vermifuge: to destroy or expel worms.
vermin: a worm-like animal or person.

Now, here is worm jargon, from Larry
Martin, vermitechnologist and Marion County
Master Gardener of Orange Lake. Larry has
been kind enough to teach classes at various
Extension sponsored events, such as 4H
Horticulture Institute and our organic
gardening field day. Much of the following
information I have received from him.

Bedding: moisture-retaining medium
that provides a suitable environment for
worms. Worm beddings are usually compost,
leaf mold, or a combination of the compost
with cellulose-base material such as shredded
newspaper or corrugated cartons.

Breeders: Sexually mature worms
(usually 6 weeks old) as identified by a band
(clitellum) encircling the body.

Castings: a very fertile worm manure,
acts like a sponge to hold water.

Castings tea: a solution of nutrients
made from dissolving castings in water.

Egg capsule (cocoon): structure
formed by the clitellum which protects
embryonic worms until they hatch (usually 4-
10 babies per capsule).

Eisenia foetida: scientific name for the
redworm used is vermicomposting. It is the
only domesticated redworm for earthworm
farming. Also called fishwormm".

Lumbricus rubellus: a common
redworm not suited for worm farming.

Lime: for worm beds, use calcium
carbonate, ground limestone, egg shells, or
oyster shells. Avoid caustic, slaked, and
hydrated lime. (Dolomite apparently o.k.).

Pit run (bedrun): worms of all sizes, of
which 50% should be breeders for organic

Regenerate: to replace lost parts.

Other jargon (from "The Complete
Gardener's Sourcebook" by Duane

Helodrilus spp.: gray pink worms
important in a garden.

Value of earthworms: soil builders and
waste converters.

In later articles I will put all these
terms together into a detailed discussion of
how to do vermicomposting and
vermigardening. Vermiculture (raising
earthworms for the worms as a product) will
not be discussed further as there is quite a lot
of information written about it.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 95-03)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor & Etor

Dr. S. A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W. M. Stall

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor

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