Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00253
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: February 1990
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00253
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201990%20Issue%2090-2 ( PDF )

Full Text




A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Departmcnl 1255 ISPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephonic 392-2134

Vegetarian 90-02

February 15, 1990


A. Calendar

A. Greenhouse Vegetable Industry in Florida.
B. Use of Transplants for Watermelon Production.
A. Tank Mixing Herbicides for Vegetables: A Case Against
B. Section 18 for Bolero on Lettuce, Endive, Escarole and

A. Florida Record-Size Vegetable Update.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
rntroco AnT\I CyTCNiM imi ln Iu I Afoii TimIe At& ilme Aun II int crnlfMir' RTATF OF FI IRIIl)A IFAS UNIVERSITY OF


A. Calendar.

March 5, 1990. FFA Vegetable
Identification School, Central Florida Fair.
(Contact J. M. Stephens.)


20, 1990. State FFA
Identification Contest,
(Contact J. M. Stephens)


A. Greet
Industry in Florida.

house Vegetable

During the last few years, the
greenhouse vegetable industry in Florida
has expanded in size by nearly 50%.
There were about 40 acres of greenhouse
vegetables, mostly cucumbers by 1985.
Today the industry has grown to about 60
to 70 acres with much of the expansion
occurring in northern and central Florida.
Cucumbers still constitute the largest
acreage, however tomatoes are becoming
very popular.
Florida presently ranks in the top
greenhouse producing states in the nation
along with Pennsylvania, Ohio, California,
New Jersey, and Colorado. In terms of
numbers of greenhouse vegetable
operations, Florida probably ranks near
the top. We have many single-house
operations in northern Florida.
The warm, sunny climate of
Florida makes greenhouse vegetable
culture profitable. In addition, our
nearness to metropolitan areas makes
shipping possible. The only northern
operations that can effectively compete
seem to be the co-generation projects with
power companies.
During the last couple of years,
several Extension Specialists and County
Agents have expanded our programs in
the greenhouse vegetable area. We have
established a demonstration greenhouse
for vegetable culture at the Live Oak
AREC and presently have tomatoes
growing in rockwool and modified
Nutrient Film Technique systems. In

addition, we are finalizing a greenhouse
vegetable production handbook which will
be a four-volume handbook dealing with
topics ranging from new growers,
construction, production, and postharvest.
A few years ago, Bill Thomas, Bill Smith,
and George Hochmuth began a
greenhouse workshop for vegetable
producers in north Florida. This program
has been expanded by Bob Hochmuth to
include a trade show and is now one of
the biggest greenhouse vegetable
programs in the U.S.
Judging from the numbers of calls
we receive here in Gainesville concerning
greenhouse vegetables, I suspect some
counties would be similar. The growth of
the greenhouse vegetable industry will
probably continue. If there is any
programming help needed in the counties,
give us a call.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 90-02)

B. Use of Transplants for
Watermelon Production.

There are several reasons to use
transplants for watermelon production.
These would include the following: 1.
Harvest is earlier and early yields much
higher; 2. Much less seed is used which
is important when expensive hybrids are
used; 3. In 'seedless' watermelon
production transplants must be used due
to poor vigor of 'seedless' watermelon
seeds and 4. Precise hill placement is
possible which is necessary for uniform
melon size.
Trials have been conducted at
NFREC, Quincy comparing transplanting
to direct seeding (plug-mix planting).
These trials were conducted in 1984,
1985, 1986 and 1989 on Charleston Grey
and in 1988 and 1989 on Jubilee
watermelons. All production was done on
black polyethylene mulch. An earlier
Vegetarian article (89-1) discussed
selection of transplant cell size and
transplant age for watermelon production.
This article will outline the benefits
observed from use of watermelon


Table 1. Effect of Transplanting on Early and Total Yields of Charleston Grey Watermelons.
NFREC, Quincy.

Yield (cwt/A)
1984 1985 1986 1989
Treatment Early Total Early Total Early Total Early Total

Transplanted 317 371 377 603 153 373 338 438

planted 146 354 156 486 38 384 136 282

** NS ** ** NS ** **

Table 2. Effect of Transplanting on Fruit Weight of Charleston
Grey Watermelons. NFREC, Quincy.

Fruit Weight (Ibs)
1984 1985 1986 1989

Transplanted 18.3 24.6 21.1 26.8

planted 18.7 21.3 21.3 24.0

NS ** NS **

Table 3. Effect of Transplanting on Early, Total Yields and Fruit Weight of Jubilee
Watermelons. NFREC, Quincy.

1988 1989
Yields fcwt/A) Fruit weight Yields (cwt/A) Fruit weight
Early Total (Ibs) Early Total (Ibs)

Transplanted 114 304 27.5 284 442 30.4

planted 29 267 28.6 157 300 27.5

NS NS ** ** **


The reduction in days to first
harvest with transplants have varied from
only 4 days (late frost damaged crop in
1988) to a maximum of 8 days. The early
yield was significantly higher for
transplants with both cultivars and in all
5 years the experiment was conducted
(Tables 1 and 3). The early yield was
comprised of the first 2 harvests of the
transplants and 1 harvest of direct seeded.
The first harvest of the direct seeded was
at same time as second harvest of
With Charleston Grey, total yields
of transplants were higher in 1985 and
1989 but not in 1984 and 1986 (Table 1).
In 1984 and 1986 yields were reduced due
to infestation of Watermelon Mosaic II
Virus in plots. The average melon weight
of Charleston Grey followed the same
pattern as the total yields (Table 2).
With Jubilee, total yields with
transplants were significantly higher in
1989 but not in 1988 (Table 3). As
mentioned earlier a late frost removed
some foliage from plants in all plots. The
average melon weight followed same
pattern as total yields.
This study has shown that, in some
cases, use of transplants has resulted in
increased yields and melon size.

(Olson, Vegetarian 90-02)


A. Tank Mixing Herbicides for
Vegetables: A Case Against Alchemy.

A common practice in the control
of insects and diseases in vegetables is to
tank mix pesticides. That is, to mix in
the same tank, for application at one
time, an insecticide with a fungicide. In
many cases, two insecticides may be tank-
mixed with two fungicides for an
enhanced spectrum of control.
Unfortunately with the tank-mixed
pesticides there is a tendency to include
other materials such as foliar fertilizers,
plant growth "stimulants" and sundry
other items both proven and

unresearched, beneficial and unknown for
application on the crop.
Before the initiation of IPM
research, it was not uncommon to count
over 15 materials going into a spray tank
at once. What chemical reactions taking
place in the spray tank between all the
additives was never known. I often
thought of the sprayer tanks as cauldrons
and watched the spraymen for Alchemist's
hats wondering if the addition of several
toads' tongues, along with a dozen
leafminer wings and a dash of Alternaria
spores might turn the green, slimly glob
of precipitate at the tank bottom into a
squirming blob that would devour IPM
scouts, fieldmen, and unsuspecting county
agents. The increased gold sought after
with the concoctions sprayed was never
achieved. Occasionally the application of
the dukes' mixture would cause crop
damage. Often we observed reduced
control of insects and diseases from
incompatibility of materials added in this
The tank-mix mentality prevalent
in insect and disease control can cause
disastrous results in herbicide
applications. Unless the labelling of the
herbicide has tank-mix instructions,
growers are well advised not to mix the
particular herbicide with another for use
on the crop. There are several herbicides
that have tank-mix instructions for use
with vegetables. Premix materials are
also available. Premixes are two active
ingredients that are already combined in
one formulation and sold under a separate
trade name. Examples of these are Bicep,
which is a premix of atrazine and
metolachlor, and Laddok, an premix of
atrazine and bentazon. Metolachlor and
bentazon sold alone as Dual or Basagran
have a tank-mix label with atrazine for
sweet corn. The premix formulation is
for ease of measuring and may help
reduce mixing problems in the tank with
the separate formulations.
Many recommended herbicides
have research showing the safety and
increased spectrum of weed control when
they are mixed with other specific
herbicides. Two examples that are widely


used in Florida are the Prefar Alanap
tank-mix in watermelon, cucumber, and
muskmelon, and the Dual-Treflan tank-
mix in beans.
Although Prefar and Alanap are
labelled for tank mixing, the registrant of
Curbit, another herbicide for cucurbits
specifically states that Alanap and Curbit
should not be tank mixed at this time.
Another caution is to check if both
products are recommended for use in the
area. There are tank-mix labels as well as
premises where one herbicide is not
suggested for use on the crop in Florida.
For example, because of the lack of
research with Bladex on supersweet corn
varieties, and indications that some
varieties may be damaged due to their
weak germination, Bladex and premixes
containing Cyanazine are not suggested at
this time.
Postemergence application of
herbicides is another time when a strong
desire to tank-mix is seen. In research,
we have seen synergism between Alanap
and Poast. At rates where neither
herbicide applied alone would cause
problems, when tank-mixed, weeds not
normally controlled were controlled as
well as the crop being damaged. Some
research has shown that slight
incompatibility can be put to a beneficial
use, as in the tank mix of Gramoxone and
Basagran on peanuts. In the tank-mix,
Gramoxone will burn the peanuts less
than when applied alone.
Be aware, also, that in several
cases in tank-mixes, the labelled
herbicides must be mixed in a certain
order and with specific adjuvants to
overcome mixing problems or to maintain
the efficacy of one or more products.
It is extremely important that
before two herbicides are tank-mixed, that
the label be thoroughly read and followed.
An alchemist's hat is no substitute for a
thinking cap and reading glasses. The
Alchemy gold will disappear before the
end of the season.

B. Section 18 for Bolero on
Lettuce, Endive, Escarole, and Celery.

A specific exemption under Section
18 of FIFRA has been issued for the use
of thiobencarb (Bolero 8EC) for the
control of purslane and barnyardgrass in
lettuce, endive, escarole, and celery grown
on organic soils.
A single ground application at the
rate of 6 pounds a.i. per acre in 60 to 80
gallons of water at the time of direct
seeding or transplanting and prior to weed
emergence is authorized for lettuce,
endive, or escarole. A 60 day pre-harvest
interval will be observed. In celery a
maximum rate of 8 pounds a.i. may be
used with a 70 day phi.
The specific exemption expires on
August 31, 1990. All conditions,
restrictions, and precautions of the
specific exemptions must be followed.

(Stall, Vegetarian 90-02)


A. Florida Record-Size Vegetable

Back in November, more than 40
newspaper articles around the state
heralded the beginning of a system for
keeping track of record-size vegetables
grown in Florida. As many of you recall,
we in Extension began this public
relations effort in February of 1989. It so
happens that we had a few records
verified before that time, so we still
consider them to be official. In recent
weeks, several new records have been set,
so here is the current list of record
holders as of February 1, 1990.

(Stall, Vegetarian 90-02)


Florida Record Size Vegetables, February 1, 1990


Cucumber (wt.)
Cucumber (Ith.)
Okra, (stalk)
Potato, Irish
Potato, Sweet
Radish, Summer
Radish, Winter1
Radish, Winter
Squash, Zucchini
Squash (pumpkin)



30 oz.
13 lb.
16 lb. 8 oz.
26 oz.
19 Ib. 1 oz.
19 oz.
43.5 oz.
19 5/16 in.
62 oz.
42 oz.
4 lb. 15 oz.
17 ft 61 in.
16.1 oz.
32 oz.
20 lb.
60 oz.
25 lb.
9 lb. 10 oz.
56 oz.
7 lb. 8 oz.
200 lb.
40 oz.
8 lb. 10 oz.
146 lb.


Dorothy Fritz
Wayne Boynton
Raymond Ashley
Mike Lazin
C. Bonvechio
M. Lazin
Gene Muehlbauer
Gene Muehlbauer
Henry Orth
Sam Eisenberg
Bud Crosby
Richard Amestoy
John Mullins
Hannah Vanderlaan
Herbert Breslow
Tom Yee
M. Lazin
Frank Willbright
Theron Hunter
Lloyd Lucas
Clyde Bumgardner

Royal Palm Bch. (Palm Beach)
West Palm Bch. (Palm Beach)
St. Augustine (St. Johns)
Gainesville (Alachua)
West Palm Bch. (Palm Beach)
Gainesville (Alachua)
Spring Hill (Hernando)
Spring Hill (Hernando)
Gainesville (Alachua)
Lake Worth (Palm Beach)
Jacksonville (Duval)
Brooksville (Hernando)
Boynton Bch. (Palm Beach)
Jacksonville (Duval)
N. Jacksonville Bch. (Duval)
Lake Worth (Palm Beach)
Ruskin (Hillsboro)
Boynton Bch (Palm Bch)
Gainesville (Alachua)
Jacksonville (Duval)
Keystone Hts. (Clay)
Jacksonville (Duval)
Kissimmee (Osceola)
Inglis (Levy)

'Old Guinnes World Record not verified by J.M.S.

Thanks to all Extension agents
who have assisted their gardeners and
growers in certifying their records. If any
of you need the forms and rules for
taking measurements, please let me know.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 90-02)



Prepared by

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. G. J. Holmuth Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor (Editor) Assoc. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W. M. Stall

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs