Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00234
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: June 1987
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00234
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 loSDP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134

Vegetarian 87-06

June 12, 1987



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

B. New Publications


A. Vegetable Demonstrations at Live Oak.

B. Estimation of Vegetable Yields.

C. Cool Vegetables Properly to Preserve Quality.


A. Jacksonville's Harvest Fair a Success in 1987.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

.. L



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

June 20, 1987. Live Oak Vegetable
Field Day, Live Oak AREC.
(Contact G. Hochmuth)

June 22 26, 1987. 4-H
Horticulture Institute. Camp Ocala.
(Contact J. M. Stephens)

July 27 30, 1987. 4-H State
Congress. Gainesville.
(Contact J. M. Stephens)

August 20 21, 1987. Master
Gardener Advanced Training. Reitz
Union, University of Florida,
(Contact Jim Stephens or Bob Black)

September 9, 1987. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, Florida.

September 10 11, 1987. Joint
Tomato Conference. Ritz Carlton
Hotel, Naples, Florida.

B. New Publications.

Onion Variety Trial Results for the
1985-86 Season. T. K. Howe and
W. E. Waters. Bradenton GREC
Research Report BRA 1987-4.

Temperature and Rainfall Report for
1986 (Bradenton GREC). C. D. Stanley.
Bradenton GREC Research Report BRA

Weed Control in Row Middles of
Mulched Cauliflower.
J. P. Gilreath, J. A. Dusky and
D. Botts. Bradenton GCREC Research
Report BRA 1987-6.

Evaluation of Herbicides for
Cabbage, Fall 1985. J. P. Gilreath
and P. R. Gilreath. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA 1987-7.

Evaluation of Fusilade 2000 in
Eggplant, Fall 1985.
J. P. Gilreath. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA 1987-8.

Tomato Variety Trial Results for
Fall 1986. T. K. Howe, J. W. Scott
and W. E. Waters. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA 1987-10.

Control of Nightshade and Other
Weeds in Row Middles of Mulched
Tomato. J. P. Gilreath, Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA 1987-11.


A. Vegetable Demonstrations at
Live Oak.

As part of the effort by IFAS
to develop programs in north Florida
to help the profitability of farm-
ing, the Vegetable Crops Department
is demonstrating vegetable
production practices and crops at
the Live Oak AREC. These plots will
be at their peak viewing quality
during June. A field day will be
conducted on Saturday, June 20.
There are 14 separate vegetable
demonstrations at the station most
of which involve mulching, trans-
planting, and fertilizing vegeta-
bles. The major crops are water-
melons, muskmelons, peppers, and
sweet corn. A short description of
the major demonstrations follows.
If you have growers who would like
to see the demonstrations, please
contact me and we can set up a date
to see the plots. Everyone should
be encouraged to attend the field
1. Watermelon Planting Systems
Watermelons grown on plastic mulch
compared to growth on bare ground;
transplanting versus direct-seeding;
plant spacing. All the factors are
included in one large demonstration
so that we can evaluate any
interactions. Projected harvest for
the transplants on plastic is June 4.

2. Watermelon Cultivars -
Trials include full-size melon
cultivars and several ice-box
3. Muskmelon Planting Systems
- This study is similar to the
Watermelon Planting System demo. We
have included a few seed treatments
such as seed priming in an effort to
achieve uniform stands with fast
emergence and early yields.
4. Muskmelon Cultivars Ten
cultivars are being evaluated for
yield and horticultural characters.
We have included some of the
"Eastern types" in an effort to find
a melon that we can produce here in
Florida and ship into the northeast
markets. In addition, we have
several of the newer "West Coast"
shipping melons.
5. Sweet Corn Planting Systems
- We are evaluating methods to
achieve early and uniform stands of
supersweet-type sweet corns. We are
evaluating plastic mulches of
various types and application
methods in addition to studying the
possibility of transplanting sweet
6. Pepper and Sweet Corn
Fertility Several demonstrations
are underway to show optimum
fertilizer levels (determined by
soil testing) and optimum placement
and time of application. The focus
is on nitrogen and potassium.

(Hochmuth Veg. 87-06)

B. Estimation of Vegetable

The prediction of crop yields
before the harvest aids in the
scheduling of harvests of various
fields for total yields, as well as
harvest to obtain highest yields of
a particular grade or stage of
maturity. To estimate yields,
follow these steps:

typical 10-ft section of a row. If
the field is variable or large,
select several 10-ft sections.
2. Harvest the crop from the
measured section or sections.
3. Weigh the entire sample for
total yields or grade the sample and
weigh the graded sample for yield of
a particular grade.
4. If more than one 10-ft
section has been harvested, divide
the yield by the number of sections
5. Multiply the sample weight
in pounds by the conversion factor
in the table for the appropriate row
spacing. The value obtained will
equal hundredweight (cwt) per acre.

Conversion Factors for
Estimating Yields

Row Spacing (in.) Conversion Factor

12 43.6
15 34.8
18 29.0
20 26.1
21 24.9
24 21.8
30 17.4
36 14.5
40 13.1
42 12.4
48 10.9

Example 1: A 10-ft sample of
carrots planted in 12-in. rows
yields 9 lb of No. 1 carrots.

9 X 43.6 = 392.4 cwt/acre

Example 2: The average yield of
three 10-ft samples of No. 1
potatoes planted in 36-in. rows is
26 lb.

26 X 14.5 = 377 cwt/acre

(Maynard Veg. 87-06)

1. Select and measure a

C. Cool Vegetables Properly to
Preserve Quality.

Fresh vegetables are living
products and will continue to be so
during the varied handling opera-
tions from harvest to consumption.
The most significant life process is
respiration wherein carbohydrates
and flavor ingredients are lost;
energy required for this life
process is heat which is also a
by-product of respiration.
On a typical day this time of
year, when vegetables are harvested
the temperature may be in the 90's
but temperature of the produce that
has been exposed to the sun may be
as high as 120. Under such
conditions, quality of the harvested
vegetables can best be maintained by
the rapid removal of field heat,
thus reducing the respiration
process to a minimum.
The normal rate of respiration
varies considerably among vegetables
and therefore not all of them
benefit equally from the rapid
removal of field heat. Generally
speaking, vegetables with the
highest respiration rate benefit
most from precooling. Vegetables
with a high respiration rate are
broccoli, sweet corn, snap beans,
okra, and spinach. Vegetables with
a low rate of respiration are
cucumbers, dry onions, potatoes and
watermelons; other vegetables have
an intermediate respiration rate. A
few of the vegetables are chilling-
sensitive and therefore are damaged
by exposure to low temperature.
Snap beans, cucumbers, eggplant,
melons, okra, peppers, squash, sweet
potatoes, and tomatoes are
chilling-sensitive vegetables and
therefore exposure to temperatures
below 40 450F should be avoided.
Quality of other vegetables can be
best maintained by holding near
Method of precooling should be
based on availability, compatability
of the vegetable and container to

the particular method, and economics
of the operation. Listed below are
various types of cooling methods and
some of their advantages or
ROOM COOLING Can be used with
all commodities. Too slow for most
perishable commodities, uneven
cooling within loads, pallets, and
individual containers. Major
benefit is for holding commodities
that have been precooled by some
other method.
COOLING) Well adapted to
fruit-type vegetables, tubers,
cauliflower. Much faster than room
cooling, and cooling rates are more
uniform if properly used. Container
venting patterns and stacking
arrangements are crucial to
effective cooling.
stems, leafy vegetables, and
fruit-type vegetables. System is
very fast and there is uniformity in
cooling. Requires daily cleaning
and adhearance to sanitation
procedures. Product and container
must be tolerant to wetting.
PACKAGE-ICING Best adapted to
roots, stems, some flower-type
vegetables and green onions. Method
is fast but limited to commodities
and containers that can tolerate
water/ice contact. Limitations are
that "bridging" may occur between
layer of ice and product, thus
transfer of heat is diminished.
"Slush" or "ice slurry" is a special
adaptation whereby crushed ice is
mixed with water and the blend is
injected into the container with
vegetables. This method cools
produce very rapidly and is
to leafy vegetables, some stem and
flower-type vegetables with
"wetting" which proceeds the actual
vacuum cooling process. For
effective cooling the commodity must
have a favorable surface-to-mass
ratio. The process causes about 1%

wt. loss for each 60 C cooled;
addition of water during cooling can
prevent this weight loss.
Water-tolerant containers are
required. "Hydro-vac cooling" is a
special adaptation of vacuum
cooling; cold water is added prior
to release of the vacuum which
additionally cools the product, and
also some of the water lost during
vacuum cooling is replaced by the
added water.
Of the five precooling methods
only the room cooling and forced-air
cooling systems are restricted to
stationary installations; all other
systems can be mobile, however,
there are restraints as to cooling

(Gull, Veg. 87-06)


A. Jacksonville's Harvest Fair a
Success in 1987.

Once again samples of a
bountiful harvest from downtown
gardens in Jacksonville were on
display by proudful owners during
the 1987 Urban Gardening program's
Harvest Fair. The annual event was
held at Riverside Park (5-Points) on
Saturday, May 30. It attracted
approximately 1000 exhibitors,
participants, and visitors during
the course of the 4 hour period of
The Urban Gardening project in
Jacksonville is Florida's only
participating city in the Federal
program which includes 21 cities.
Cities receive various amounts to
promote gardening in low-income
disadvantaged areas, but
Jacksonville has gotten $150,000
each year since 1979 to operate the
program. The Jacksonville project,
dubbed "Gardening Lots", assists
residents who want to improve family
nutrition, eat fresher vegetables,
and enjoy the other benefits of

gardening. While door-yard
gardeners are also helped as
participants in the program, the
primary educational thrust is aimed
at community gardens.
Currently the Jacksonville
Department of Housing and Urban
Development calculates that about
69,000 low-income residents live
inside the target areas of the
program. In 1986 the Urban
Gardening staff made about 15,000
contacts with about 6,500
participants in the program, which
included 34 community garden sites
(510 plots per season, 1,530 plots
per year, and 4,590 persons per
year). Community gardens involved
20.67 acres of produce valued at
$756,000. In addition there were 92
school gardens (2,760 participants),
223 container gardens, and 8.35
combined acres of home gardens. The
total estimated value of all gardens
was $1,120,000 (using the SMOG
Sites for the community gardens
range across the city in a variety
of locations and situations. One of
the largest and best is located
adjacent to the Gardening Lots
headquarters building, an old WWII
canning center. Its close proximity
to the staff allows them to conduct
more in-depth demonstrations than
out in the fringes of the city.
Another outstanding garden is
situated next door to a bank. Noon
time finds bank employees racing
over to pull a few weeds, eat a
quick sandwich garnished with
home-grown lettuce and tomato, then
quickly returning to report progress
to co-workers. Many gardens are
located in school-yards, where proud
3rd and 4th graders are eager to
show you their radishes (always
badly in need of thinning). And
still other gardens sit precariously
on the brink of extinction, balanced
delicately between apathy and
drought, yet coaxed onward by the
steadfast efforts of some loyal
ex-farmer's wife.

From this hodge-podge of plots
the produce came in to the Harvest
Fair, to be shown with pride and
with hope for the bright red, white,
and blue ribbons. Prizes and awards
also included general gardening
merchandise from local garden seed
and supply stores. Competition
first was by districts within the
city, then over-all. Prizes were
given for best vegetables, largest
vegetable, (won by a 5 1/2 pound
zucchini), vegetable basket,
scarecrow, canned products,
container garden, and winners of
such contests as watermelon seed
spitting, potato pushing, and potato
It was a fun-filled day,
helping to prove once again that
gardening is one of the most
enjoyable, rewarding, and wholesome
activities for young, old, and

(Stephens, Veg. 87-06)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe Dr. D. D. Gull
Chairman Associate Professor

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Dr. D. N. Maynard
Assistant Professor Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson, J Dr. W. M. Stall
Associate Professor / /'--' Professor

J. M. Stephens

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