Table of Contents

Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00218
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1986
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00218
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Full Text

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I N"Re-~~m



SA Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vabl, Crop Dcparl ;-' 1255 H6DP Gainc-' i FL 32611 Tcpho l '" U

SVegetarian 86-03 March 24, 1986

' \ Contents



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A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


A. Pumpl,: i Varieties for Florida

B. 1986 Commercial egelahbl- In-Service
Training Program

C. Summary of Result/Demonstration Project
Examining the Use of Row Covers for Frost
Protection In Strawberries


A. Florida State Fair Horticulture Contest

B. 1986 National Community Gardening Contest

Nore: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necess&r .' constitute a recommendation of the product.

T n sn i;nru" F F- l- OFti Ui r tuh ural! SCtiences Sr an Eo1al EMrTploymnt por turu AftrrnanivO Actionr Emooer aunrizeP-Ld pO provide resrech
ducatio al irrrr-an oni adr othli- servticT nti to individual and instl tin ns thai iunc-m i without; regar' to c, color, tax- ofr national orgir,.

ICI____ _

..... I m I I


this issue, we are tryi-: out a new
format for the Vegetarian. Hope-
fully as the new format develops, we
can add the use of art work and col-
ored paper. If you have any s.'.'s-
tions, please pass them alo;i-.

1. '.oT-:. OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

Agricultural .:x.eriment Station,
Circular S- ';, June 1-%:. HORIZON
A Fresh Market Tomato with Concen-
trated Fruit Set by J.W. Scott, J.A.
Bartz, H.H. .ry.-nr, P.H. Everett,
D.D. Gull, T.K. Hw.,, P.J.
Stoffella, and R.B. Volin

B. Vegetable Crop-- Calendar

April 28-3r., 1986. Commercial VeL-
etable Crops In-Service Tr.A-.ing,
Sanford, Seminole County Agr. Cen-
ter. Contact George Hochmuth, Ve;-
etable Crops, Gainesville.

May 8, 19'3`. Cucumber/S' uai h Vari-
ety Demonstration 4: 'Ip -:(.'..lE,
AREC Leesburg, G.W. Elmstrom

M1., 29--,-,, 1986. Home horticulture
;aents In-Service Training. Camp
Ocala. Contact Jim Stephens.

June 4, 1986. Watermelon Field D.j-.
1 :1--, 5: -l-im, AREC Leesburg,
G.w. Elmstrom


A. -'.imphin Varieties for

Fij-iipkiL.. have not been grown
commonly as a commercial -r-,r in
Florida. The demand for pumpkins
dur;,i: the fall holiday Halloween
and Thang.iv;iK,',-;.,a3on, however,
suggests that considerably more
pumpkins could be ..-' and profit-
ably sold within the state. Pump-
kins, like other cucurbits, can be

;ucc-s;~flly double cropped on full
-bed plastic mulch in the summer and
fall following a spring tomato
crop, for example.
As with other vegetables, it is
essential to have a marketing plan
before one can decide which varie-
ties are appropriate to consider for
production. F-r local market-road-
side stand or PYO all sizes of
pumpkins are in demand, hence grow-
ers would want to select an array of
varieties bearing quite irre to
miniature fruit. On the other hand,
for wholesale the focus probably
should be on varieties oredu'in-7
medium to large fruit.
To identify pumpkin varieties
for West Central Florida, a variety
demonstration was conducted as a
second-crop following spring toma-
toes on a commercial farm in Manatee
County in the summer-fall of 1985.
In the absence of more specific
information, these results may be
used as a guide for variety selec-
tion for other parts of the state.
Seed of 18 varieties or ad-
vanced breeding lines were direct
seeded on July 22. Spacing was 4
ft. between plants on raised beds
covered with black plastic on 13 ft.
centers with irrigation ditches
between each row. The pumpkin crop
was grown on residual fertilizer
remaining from the spring tomato
crop. Standard -esticides were ap-
plied approximately w,-'-.ly for dis-
ease management and as needed for
insect management. Fruit were har-
vested on October 3 and October 15.
Average fruit weight ranged
from 1.9 lb for 'Little Lantern' and
'Small Sugar' to 11.1 lb for 'Con-
necticut Field', and average fruit
size (H x D) ranged from 4.0 x 5.3
inches for 'Little Lantern' to 9.6 x
10.2 inches for 'Qronnectictu Field'.
Highest marketable yield based
on fruit weight was produced by
'Jack O'Lantern' (4,,52 Ibs/1000
linear bed ft.), an n-;;.n-rpllinated
vining type pumpkin. 'ItM:4679', a
semi-bush hybrid -:',r. Harris-Moran,

peiededn the e>rgfltt.1. '' .. 9 mar ct>-

bed it. : "P;.-kow: '- Field ,r r-hnii-i:n .
open-pollin*ted variety ran[ at 4456 fbs/i' "i linear bhcd ft
arketable &I eld base:i on f~~ t
number was nighest for 'Lit:l an-
tern* with a :-ield of i":-, Fr- it
I !' i near -. ft. 'Li t>.e a -
tern' and 'Small Sugar' were the
smallest varieties in the 7iti-
-e Treat', a small r. .-'-' '. fo:
pier an jack-o- anterns ranke d
second_ i- number produced, with .'I,
fruit ,' linear b'e :, The nei:
.hi-' ._ yield was 'Spookie' at 780
fruic/n]I linear bed fr. Yield
(fruit number) was low for 'Trick or
Treat' due to poor germination and
plant stand.
'Little Lantern' produced an
earlier yield than most, with 74%
harvested at the first pi>1.;..:-
'Jack O'Lantern' also had a 1i,;
early fieldd with 71% harvested at
the first [ick.in:, The majority of
the entries had a more even distri-
bution between harvests. .-:- excep-
rions were 'Triple Treat' and 'How-
den' which produced 777 and 73%,
respectively, at second harvest.
Based on the results of this
trial and a 1982 trial conducted by
T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters at the
Gulf Coast He:_ rch & Education
Center, growers n.ay wish to coi-.J9:"
the following pumpkin varieties:
t Max. A nearly rourd, deep-
.ange colored, faintly-sutured,
very large-fruited, late maturing,
open-pollinated variety. Although
bi-. Max is a true -',^-rn' (Cucurbita
maxima), it can be marketed as a
pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo).
a3Tik._'w's TFi d (Harris Moran).
A late, l.'rwe-fruited, orange-
skinned, open-pollinated variety.
Jackpot (Harris Moran). A com-
pact-vine, hybrid, bearir.- medium to
large, orarge-yellow fruit.
.'-nnecti.it1 Field. The stan-
dard, medium to large fruited,
.ra,,ne-~kinned, open-pollinated

.,ack r'Lantern Io;:: ,' :, -
;.2i ot'.iJ I) pc1- I'na(e vareie C' -rig

Y : e n- g e i -~ na ed i r-: varM et
p mn-p'o_ 4nated, vi1 variety
p-iducing; medium-sized, dar -o-..i

Little Lantern (Sto'kTs). A
prolific '. !: u* .-.. .1 *. _" ,- variety
bearing i L nature to small, orain

Growers should take inrt
consideration yield, marker poten-
'i-al and past experience, if avail-
able, when choosing varieties.
Early yield -:., also be a factor in
some situations. It may be helpful
to plant a number of varieties
of different sizes to determine what
best fits a particular market situ-
ation. The 7,er- small varieties
seem to be popular for use in
crafts, seasonal decorations and as
children's rifts.

F.-,r more details, request Brad-
enton GCREC Research Report
BRA1986-1 from the authors.

(Maynard & Gilreath Veg. '.-..',)

.;. 19S6 CjametciV '_e' c.,>.
r'- ervi e T.-'inn k n r' 'r

On the following page is the
program for the upcoming commercial
-enetaibie inservice training oro-
zrai., This year's program will be
held in asnrord, FL and will focus
on vegetable fertilizer management.

(Hochmuth '.eg. 'P-93)


: prilJ -30, 1986
Place: Seminole County Agricultural Center
Topic Courmercial :-r :table rtilizatio

April, 2i

-..;table Soils, Planr Nutrition,; and Soi" T.estin

8:00 A.M. Assemble

: ]5 JJerry KIidder The "._-Lai. nL. of q

9uO '.,-. Maynard -.inciples of Plant fiurition
-' red nitrient and r les i. plant physiology
Lime and relation to plant nutr'-ior
-Mobility of plano t ut lrien;- .n oil ;in plant
Crop demand curves
Deficiency :' -. -osis
Cultivar differeLncas in plant T ut-riio,
En:vironmien.Ca.i -_ffects n) R p .- n1rition

0' 00 Break

015 Ed -ianinl Soil and Tissu- Testin
S '., we soil cest
Sil saample coiiactior for iferti izer recomiMendation
SoL ,samorile collect ionr ~o dcsf -.-
Tistsu sampling and tesL ini:erp iLat: t oni
Samp, il, soil for olubl e sair3
Sasmp. .'- 1o%].e fcr couibI-c'"or, crtnmes
Test interpretations
'.. per acre" or "linear ,0 i f ee, :'
The rUnversity of Florida soil test repor- forrma
-Using -ommerciai labs
Looking at somIe test results front variLcos la_-'s
Effect of soil type on the .ime -*euireen':

12:, 0 PM Linch Ouincy's Restaurant

1:30-5:00 Tour Zellwin Farms, Zeltwood
Transplant production
Field production
Packing houses

- On your own Entertainment nS sibiities will he oro .id


F'ez-6.-s lvn s ScW 'c riiv'e'Y ; -ene


Movie: Fertilizer Mining andu anufo*cur
International mineralss and Cbemicals '

nrnsent-4 hr

8:0 AN


12: '0 PM Lunch Catered lunch at Agric. Center

Demonstration Tour Sanford K'dhL
- Fertilizer recommendation formulation
- ;,x-'cuLri r' a fertilizer demonstration trial
- Deficiency symptoms and soluble salt demonstrations
- Liquid fertilizer injection wheel demonstration


April 30

Planning Session


8:15-12 Noon

Planning Session The topic of the next Commercial Vegetable In-Service
Training program will be "Vegetable Culti.'ars, Seed Technology, and Stand
Establishment." (An agenda f.-r the planning session will be provided;
please send your ideas so that they can be placed on the planning session

George i 1i, F rtilizers and Fertilization
- Sources, placement, timing
- Slow release fertilizers
- Foliar fertilization
- Costs of fertilizer misuse

Dorota Hamon Fercigation
- Drip irrigation
- Overhead irrigation


Jerry Kidder Fertilizer practices and groundwater issues

Ei Hanlon Laboratory and Field ,:,.ci. Tests (Bring your pH and soluble
salts meter).




1: ,'.-5:00


8:00 AM

C. ',;umnary Of Result/Demonstra-
Go '- de.av _: 1 '-T"C7 7 1E
or ,_ o- *- v 'i '- [V ,r ,:- ruct'e -l J ,i

LOCATION: Keene ~c .0.j, Plant City
J' PE i'.7Ti;: Steve :i:. ,:c [, I>, (
McDonald Farms

Three row cover materials
(polypropylene 0.6 oz./yd. and i15
oz./yd. ,ai.-i-actured by Kimberly-
Clark and a plastic foam material
approximately 1/8 inches thick manu-
factured by IPM, Inc.) were placed
in a commercial strawberry field to
examine their potential for pro-
-ti-'. against frost/freeze damage,
The covers were loosely placed over
20 ft. of individual beds at 2 p.m.
on January 27, 1986 and removed at 3
p.m. on January 29, 1fr: One half
of the plots received overhead irri-
L-at'oio when the -rr, ,Ir irrigated the
remali.-,in portion of his field for
the purpose of frost protection.
The remaining plots were kept dry
trhou''h the placement of .-ni-,.l er
shields at the necessary locations.
Two -u lrir r:r; check plots were
also included in this trial. Mini-
mum air temperatures in the field
reached 23 degrees F, on the morning
of January F`, and 26 degrees F. on
the mo'rin'-. of January 29. The dur-
ation -f temperatures below 28 de-
grees F. was approximately six hours
on both days, I,.a'; were generally
calm with speeds occasionally reach-
ing 3 4 miles per hour. Air tem-
peratures beneath the row covers
measured before sunrise (at apprn:-' -
mately 6:30 a.m,) were running ap-
proximately 7 degrees F. above air
temperature for the plastic IPM
material and 6 7 degrees F. and 5
- 6 degrees F. for the 1.5 oz./yd.
and 0.6 oz./yd. Kimberly-Clark
materials respectively.
After removing: the covers, the
plots were inspected for any -.ai.a-
to blossoms, ----r.. fruit, ripe fruit
and foliage. Plots receiving no

irrigation and without cover had
100% damage to thl blossoms and all
fruit. All plot .-ihi row covers
were essentially free of damage to
blossoms as wel., as the :. e-. and
ripe fruit. The plots where the
._..- carried out his normal irri-
i.-ni.Lm practices for r'.'-.t protec-
tion were also free of damage except
in a few small areas where there was
an i:.iW:u.. over ap of his sprin-
iler pattern .-_'.,-- due in parc tc
the light winds. Some foliar damage
was noticed on plants covered with
the IPM material. It is oe!ived
that this "foliar burn" was caused
by C;: temperatures underneath this
cover that we-r reached prior to its
removal on the afternoon of the
29th. It should also be noted that
the covered plots that were zo
receive no irr.i likely
received some minimal amount of
water from drift and spray that
could not he blocked. This primar-
ily occurred on the first evening of
' c-.Ln temperatures.
This demonstration showed thac
if these or similar row cover mate-
rials could be made cost effective,
"h-" should provide adequate pro-
tection for strawberries from cold
temperatures at least down to 23
degrees F. The major obstacles to
commercial adaptation of this prac-
tice currently are the high cost of
the materials and the absence of .
suitable method for quick applica-
tion and remroval of the row covers.

(Mitchell, Hochmuth, :,'~. ---33)


A. Florida State Fair
Horticulture Contest

Over 150 students participated
in the 4-H and FFA State Fair Horti-
culture Contest on February 8 in
Tampa. There were four sections in
the contest: identification of
Fruit Crops, Vegetable Crops and
Ornamentals and the judging of 3

classes of horticultural .-oducts*
The winners and oDrticipants in the
4-H Section were the following:

Individual Score

Team Score

r-en .a r. c;; C.
Shannon '-epper
Mark F.:ishlei

County: Duval

83 222

6th Place

Ann Eberly
Elaine Davis
An lea Heitmeyer
Joe Judge

County: Leon

Eric Hernandez 9
Nick Hernandez 8
-ea, York 9
Donna Lidel '

County: Sarasota

Dana Robinson 9
Jan Worthington 8:
Jennifer 91

County: St. Johns

I.orts Carnes 8(
Su.y Eurphy 7:
Laura i13Cir--son 8;

County: Osceola

David Jimenez
Steve Hart
Sue Hart

County: Hillsborough

Kathy Thorson 87
Trina Medford 67
Christina Jensen 68
Tammy Brown 54

County: Clay

Ist Place

2nd Place

3rd Place

4th Place


5th P;.ace

6th Place

Natasha Green 66
Alison 85
'iiris McLeod 65
Gilda Alexander 63

County: Taylor

Ricky Blackman 74
.ng-Ila Blackman 67
Johnny Longhurst "C
April Head 71

County: Leon

Janet Schock 59
ioanne Whitfield 64
Gavin Farrell 47

County: Sarasota

8th Place

9th Place

10th Place

Any 4-H or horticulture agent,
'",cationai Agricultural teacher, or
any 4-H/FFA member who is interested
in participating in future contests
(all events except the State Fair
are separate for 4-H and FFA) may
obtain more information from the
following horticultural specialists
at Gainesville:

Jim Stephens or Kathleen Lelate-
Vegetable Crops
bob Black Ornamental Horticulture
Jim Ferguson Fruit Crops

(Delate "'e. 86-03)

B. 1986 National Community
Gardening Contest

For the third consecutive year,
a National Community Gardening
Contest will be co-sponsored by the


American Community Gardening Asso-
ciation (ACGA) and GLAD Wrap and
t.-. The purpose of the contest is
to focus public attention on the
importance of community gardening,
as well as to n.rnuragr and reward
the efforts of the country's thou-
sands of community gardeners.
In a letter to Dean Woeste>
Secretary of Agriculture John R.
L-.i.ck stresses the importance and
need for the Extension Service to
get involved in the po-L tion of
community r7,'denin.r He and his
wife have a plot in a ';D hnrington
community garden. He points out
that commniT)i" p.,i .i'- 1. in America
is "an important example of people
helping themselves and others in the
task of affo. i i, e home food produc-
Most of the one-million-plus
vegetable gardens in Florida are of
the back yard or container grown
variety. hvjwei-r, 1 know many of
you agents are aware of community
gardens in your county that could be
enrolled in the national contest.
In fact, some of you are responsible
for helping establish those gardens.
And, most of you act as an educa-
tional resource .r.:'"i:Ji.. technical
Florida has had many entries in
the national contest during its
first two years. In l:it ., there
were 25 entries from this state. We
have had award-win -l i'aiE:.ien from
at least two counties Duval and
Osceola and I may have overlooked
one or two more.
At the national level in 1985,
there were 620 entries and 118 win-
ners. Once the field was narrowed
down to 20( semi-finalists, garden
coordinators were interviewed by
telephone. In July, site visits
were made, which presented a problem
for Florida gardeners since our sea-
son was over by then.
The contest offers :'26, '. I in
cash prizes divided into 5 cate-
gories: large site (Si, '), small
site ($1,000), new site ($1,":0 ),

special .... i.-_ '.ns site ($1, -'...),
and food for othe-r ($1,000),
Entry information is provided
in the form f: r a Contest Kit. These
kits will be sent directly from
contest .:*_-ijdciSiters this month
(March) to all those who requested
information last year. r.- groups
interested in entering can obtain a
Contest Kit by writing to: ACGA,
P.O. Box 93147, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
The Contest Kit contains:
a. Contest rules and
b. Official entry and site
information form.
c. Prize e:,.'lanation sheet.
d. Other information.
Contest rules and regulations
Tho is eligible: Any community gar-
"i..;' group with 10 or more r-e.ple
who are engaged in the operation and
maintenance of a community garden
site- There must be at least one
adult leader or advisor. Note: A
gardener does not enter his indi-
vidual plot, but the group enters.
Important dates: Florida ..
forms must be postmarked on or
before It;- 1, 1986.
luadjTi:L: Gardens are judged on one
or more of the following:
a. Evaluation of official
:.r, tr form.
b. Telephone interview with
contact person to establish -.i,-den's
history, organization, community
involvement, and impact.
c- Site visit to semi-fi-
nalists to evaluate practices and
Entry requirements:
a. A community garden must be
at least 100 square feet in area,
~in'ioudin a minimum of four vege-
b. Major focus on vegetable
c. Phot.L rLc:iL may be neces-
d. Official entry signs must
be posted at ,ar.;n sites.

Extension Agents
Please be looking for your
Contest Kits soon if you have
requested them. Once more, the
address to obtain kits and more
information is:
American Community Gardening Contest
P.O. Box 93147
Milwaukee, WI 53202
If you need help on establish-
ing and conducting community gar-
dens, feel free to vet in touch with

(Stephens, Veg. 86-03)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. G. J. Hochmut. ,F"'
Assistant Professp

Dr. M. Sherman
Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Sr. W. M. Stall

Dr. D. N. Maynard

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