Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00206
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1985
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00206
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

/getable Crops Department 1255 H&PP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134

Vegetarian 85-1 January 17,1985
A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar
g.i A. Section 18 for Monitor on Escarole/Endive,
Parsley and Chinese Cabbage
A. Crop Losses Due to Weeds
B. Soluble Fertilizer Starter Solutions
C. A Caution on the Use of the Word "Fritted"
f D. Preliminary 1984 Florida Vegetable Production
i 1Statistics
:' j i E. Vegetable Production Outlook in Florida
S. 1 .,\, A. The National Junior Horticultural Association
(NJHA) and Its Role in Florida

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
.. .the purpose of providing information and does not
I- "necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.

The Insttute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex. or national origin.


A. New Publications

1. Watermelon Production in Florida, Circular 96G by W. M. Stall
and R. K. Showalter.

2. E. E. Albregts and C. M. Howard. 1984. Strawberry Production in
Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 841.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

Feb. 11, 1985. 6:30 P.M. Vegetable Crop meeting for Dixie,
Gilchrist, and Levy counties, Trenton Community Center.

Feb. 20-21 IFAS Florida Seedsmen & Garden Supply Association
Annual Educational Seminar, 1 P.M. University Centre Hotel,

Mar. 9, 1985. State teachers of vocational agriculture train-
ing session on FFA vegetable judging and identification contest,

Mar. 12-13, 1985. Florida Weed Science Society, Quality Inn,
Cypress Gardens, Florida.

Apr. 19, 1985. State FFA Vegetable judging and identification
contest, Gainesville.

May 16, 1985, 9:30 A.M. Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Vegetable Field Day, Bradenton, Florida.

May 29-31, 1985. Home horticulture extension agents in-service
training, Camp Ocala.


A. Section 18 for Monitor on Escarole/Endive, Parsley and Chinese

The Environmental Protection Agency has granted a Section 18
exemption to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser-
vices for the use of Monitor (melhamidaphas) to control aphids and
leafminers on escarole/endive, parsley and Chinese cabbage.
A maximum applied rate of 0.75 lb a.i. per application on a 4 to
7 day interval up to 2.0 lb a.i. per acre per crop may be made. A 10
day pre harvest interval will be observed for Chinese cabbage and a
28-day PHI for escarole/endive and parsley.
This exemption applies for 12,453 acres of these crops in Martin,
Seminole, Brevard, DeSoto, Lake, Palm Beach, Sarasota, Orange, Hills-
borough and Charlotte counties.
This exemption expires June 30, 1985.
(Stall Veg. 1-85)


A. Crop Losses Due to Weeds

"Crop Losses Due to Weeds in Canada and the United States", a
special report of the Losses Due to Weeds Committee has been published
by the Weed Science Society of America. The basic objective of the
report was to provide estimates of crop losses due to weeds in
agronomic and horticultural crops in 10 regions. Florida, Georgia,
Alabama and South Carolina are included in the southeast region.
The reported estimates were based on current crop-production
practices, crop yields and prices received for commodities. They were
based on extrapolation from weed-crop competition studies, comparative
observations between weedy check plots and herbicide control plots,
and numerous observations made in producer fields in which mixed
populations of economically important weeds existed.
The report points out several advantages of estimating weed-crop
losses. Documenting monetary losses would help guide the development
of new herbicides and improvement of other weed-control methods by
identifying areas of greatest need and greatest potential monetary
returns. This can also provide a basis to direct research and
extension activities toward crops for which the greatest need exists
and the greatest gains can be expected.
The table indicates the losses from potential production from the
southeast U.S. and were pulled from numerous tables in the survey.
For an example it is estimated that in the 4 southeast states 13% of
the potential green snapbean production is lost due to weeds. This is
equivalent to 316000 cwt of beans with a value of $7,342,000.
It should be remembered that surveys of this nature have
limitations, but do provide the best estimate of crop-weed losses
without on site research data. Weed control data is being developed
in Florida along with crop competition data for several crops and
weeds. In the future we will try to incorporate Florida data to
compare this state to the southeast and nation.

Estimated average annual losses due to weeds in vegetables in the
southeast, 1975-1979.
Losses from potential production
Crop Reduction Quantity Value
(%) (cwt x 1000) ($ x 1,000)
Bean, green snap 13 316 7342
Cabbage 9 503 3858
Potato 7 722 5012
Sweet Potato 8 121 1466
Sweet Corn (fresh) 12 707 7076
Lettuce 3 55 827
Cucumber (fresh) 10 394 4580
Cucumber (pickled) 5 1 191
Cantaloupe 13 63 438
Watermelon 15 2940 10128
Pepper 5 101 2306
Tomato (fresh) 9 395 1754
(Stall Veg 1-85)

B. Soluble Fertilizer Starter Solutions

Although plants use from 5 to 10 times as much nitrogen and
potassium as they do phosphorous, application rates of phosphorous
often approach one-half that of N or K. This is to make up for the
poor plant recovery of P by annual vegetable plants. One reason for
the poor recovery is that added P is rapidly fixed in insoluble forms
in the soil. The plant's ability to gather P from the soil is re-
stricted even further under cool soil conditions because the root's
growth and nutrient foraging capacity is reduced.
Under this situation, crop establishment can be enhanced by
providing abundant soluble P at planting time. This starter P,
especially in the presence of small amounts nitrate-nitrogen, stimu-
lates rapid root growth and enables the plant to become established
quickly. This translates into more uniform stands and in many cases
increased earliness and higher total yields.
There are many suitable soluble starter fertilizers on the mar-
ket. Special grades such as 14-28-14, 23-21-17, 12-36-14,
5-50-17,10-52-17, 10-30-20, or 20-20-20 can be used at the rate of 3-6
pounds per 50 gals of water. Some are already prepackaged in 3-pound
units. They are applied at the rate of about 1/4-1/2 pint of solution
per plant either by the water wagon or by the transplanter or water
wheel. The lower rate should be used on melons and cucumbers. For a
crop such as pepper the cost of the starter would be approximately
$20-$40 per acre.
(Hochmuth Veg. 1-85)

C. A Caution on the Use of the Word "Fritted"

The following appeared in a soils newsletter, "Highlights in Soil
Science" written by G. Kidder, Extension Soils Specialist:

There is a fair amount of misuse of the term "fritted" in refer-
ence to micronutrients. The purpose of this article is to call atten-
tion to this fact and to provide a basis for Extension faculty to
better understand certain fertilizer products that are in common use
and avoid using incorrect information in their educational efforts.
A "frit" is a finely-ground, glass-like material which has a low
solubility in soil. A fertilizer frit is produced by melting together
silica sand and minerals which contain plant nutrient elements. When
cooled, the glass-like material is ground to near powder fineness and
is ready for use as a slowly-soluble source of plant nutrients.
In the 1950's and 1960's, there was considerable research done on
various fritted materials and they were generally found to be good,
long-lasting sources of otherwise highly soluble nutrients such as
boron (B). Unfortunately, the fritting process requires a tremendous
amount of energy--first, to melt the minerals and then, to grind the
product. The rapid rise in cost of energy in the 1970's had a direct
effect on the cost of producing fritted fertilizer materials. The
economics shifted and it was usually far more economical in field
situations to apply soluble sources more frequently than to use the
longer-lasting frits.

A victim of the high cost of energy was a popular micronutrient
mixture sold under the trade name "FTE 503." FTE stood for 'fritted
trace elements."' That product had been recommended by name in many
IFAS publications as a general purpose, prophylactic micronutrient
treatment. Unfortunately, it continues to be recommended by trade
name today, years after it ceased to be manufactured. Contributing to
the confusion is the existence of newer products which have "F" and
"503" as part of their trade names. The following table contains data
on products which are available in Florida. Please avoid using
outdated terms in your talks and publications.


"FTE 503" (Has not been marketed
for several years)

"F-503 (powder)" 3.0% B, 3.0% Cu, iron and boron are
18.0% Fe, 7.5% Mn, fitted; other
0.07% Mo, and 7.0% Zn nutrients are
oxides or sulfates

"F-503 Oxide" or 3.0% B, 3.0% Cu, boron as borax, all
"F-503 OX" 18% Fe, 7.5% Mn, other nutrients as
(powder) 0.2% Mo, and 7.0% Zn oxides; none are

"F-503 G"(granular) 2.4% B, 2.4% Cu, boron as borax,
14.4% Fe, 6.0% Mn, other nutrients as
0.06% Mo, and 5.6% Zn oxides or sulfates;
none are fritted

It should be emphasized that the sole purpose of this article is
to call attention to the fact that some Frit Industries, Inc.,
products may not contain the glass-like, fritted materials some people
are assuming are there. The Frit Industries, Inc. products are
comparable to others of similar formulation such as the Traylor
Chemical & Supply Co. product "TEM 300."
Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty
of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
others of suitable characteristics.
(Hochmuth Veg 1-85)

D. Preliminary 1984 Florida Vegetable Production Statistics

The Crop Reporting Board of the USDA confirmed that Florida
continued to hold a strong second place in fresh market vegetable
production in 1984. The report, issued on December 27, 1984, is for
nine principal vegetables and melons. A more detailed report for
Florida including most of our commercial crops will soon be issued by

the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
The federal report shows data for broccoli, carrot, cauliflower,
celery, sweet corn, lettuce, honeydew melon, onion, tomato and
strawberry production. Nationally, these vegetables were grown on
about 1 million acres and had a farm value of nearly 3.5 billion
Florida ranked first in sweet corn and tomato and second in
celery and strawberry production and value. Florida ranks high in
production of many other vegetables not reported in these data.
Ranking of the leading states by harvested acres, production and
value for the crops reported is shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Leading Fresh Market Vegetable States in 1984

Harvested Area Production Value
Rank State Percent State Percent State Percent

1 California 45.9 California 51.9 California 51.6
3 Texas 6.5 Arizona 6.6 Texas 5.7
4 Arizona 5.6 Texas 4.7 Arizona 4.4
5 New York 5.2 Oregon 3.7 New York 3.1

(D. N. Maynard Veg. 1-85)

E. Vegetable Production Outlook in Florida

The following article by John VanSickle appeared in the November
issue of Florida Fbod and Resource Economics:

The outlook for vegetables produced in Florida is becoming more
and more difficult to determine. Uppermost in creating uncertainty in
the market is the effect of freezes experienced in three of the last
four production seasons. These freezes have had the effect of creating
hardship for those whose crops were affected by the freeze, and
creating an economic bonanza for those areas not affected by the
freeze. Another factor placing uncertainty in the market for
vegetables grown in Florida is the production situation in Mexico as
most fresh vegetables consumed in the United States between October and
June come from either Florida or Mexico.
Two conflicting forces have been in motion in Mexico over the past
few years which affect the competitive position of Mexico with Florida.
These forces are the-rapidly increasing exchange rate of Mexican pesos
for American dollars and the high rate of inflation in Mexico relative
to the United States. An increasing exchange rate means that Mexican
growers are realizing returns almost two times greater in 1984 than in
1981 (assuming the same price received in American dollars for each
period). These factors combined with the high prices received for
vegetables marketed in the United States because of the disasters of
Florida's recent mid-winter freezes have led to Mexican growers

receiving extremely high returns for vegetables marketed in the United
States. The bottom line is stronger competition from Mexico now and in
the future than at any time in the past. Florida will probably
increase production for many vegetables in many areas. These facts
combined with what used to be considered a "normal" production season
without killing freezes could lead to depressed prices received
compared to previous years' returns.
(D. N. Maynard Veg. 1-85)

A. The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) and Its Role
in Florida

"I dropped a seed into the earth. It grew, and the plant was
mine." This statement by Liberty Hyde Bailey (1903), was quoted in
Hort Science by J. Lee Taylor, Michigan State professor, to demonstrate
the natural curiosity that youth have in plants. This curiosity is the
basis for 4-H gardening projects and the development of The National
Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA).
Actually, The NJHA started out as the National Junior Vegetable
Growers Association (NJVGA), with projects based just on vegetables.
Prof Grant B. Snyder, Massachusetts, along with others originated NJVGA
fifty years ago.
When I started at the University in 1962, Florida was
participating in the activities of NJVGA through project work in 4-H
and FFA. Obviously, due to the vegetable connection, leadership for
this and all programs in vegetable youth work came from the Extension
Vegetable Specialist.
In 1965, the NJVGA became the NJHA, expanding the scope of its
projects and activities to include ornamentals, turf and fruits in
addition to vegetables. However, the scope of NJHA projects in Florida
continued to focus on vegetables for a number of years.
Gradually there did come a change in Florida. First, vegetable
4-H demonstrations were changed to 4-H horticultural demonstrations.
In 1976, 4-H vegetable judging became the 4-H horticultural contest.
Today 4-H and NJHA activities are conducted jointly by all three
horticultural departments. The Florida FFA, however, continues to
conduct separate vegetable and other horticultural events. Currently,
no NJHA chairperson has been from Florida since the resignation of Ann
MacDonald in 1983. The age limit for NJHA projects is 15 except for
The Young America Division, through 22.
NJHA projects conducted nationally fall mainly into 2 major types:
report-type projects, where individuals or groups carry out a project
and then complete a written report describing and illustrating what
they did and how; and performance-type projects, where individuals and
teams compete in a variety of contests, including demonstrations,
public speaking, and plant identification and information.
State-wide contests are held in many states, including Florida, to
select participants for the national contests held during the NJHA
annual convention. The state 4H contests (Florida) in the
Horticultural Demonstrations and Hort Identification are held at State
4th Congress in July, at Gainesville.
The procedure for selecting winners in report-type contests is

quite different. Around October 1 participants forward their reports
to their state chair-person, who is usually an extension specialist or
agent. This state chair-person, often with a committee, evaluates all
reports and determines a state winner in all the project areas. State
winners then go to the national meeting where they are interviewed and
their records evaluated for national awards. In previous years, it was
not imperative that project winners attend the national convention.
Instead, their records were forwarded and evaluated based on written
and graphic evidence.
The NJHA annual convention is a 4-day event (Friday through
Monday) held in a different city each year in late October. Two have
been held in Florida, in 1962 at The Deauville Hotel, Miami Beach, and
in 1971 at The Sheraton Beach Hotel, Miami Beach. Florida has had
representation at all the conventions since 1962, and even prior to
that year. Our 4H'ers participated in October 1984 at Grand Rapids,
Michigan, and will do so in October 1985 at Lexington, Kentucky.
In Florida, the programs of the NJHA are interwoven in the fabric
of the projects and activities of 4-H and FFA programs. There is no
clear-cut delineation of where one groups' program begins and the
others end. We have had 4-H and FFA members who served as national
officers in NJHA, but we do not have a state NJHA organization as do
some other states.
(Stephens Veg. 1-85)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe Kathleen Delate
Acting Chairman Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professo .,$ Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman Dr. W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens Dr. D. N. Maynard
Associate Professor Professor

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