Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00181
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00181
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSPP Gainesville, FL 32611* Tclcplonc 392-213
I 1

Vegetarian 83-02

February 04, 1983



A. New Publications


A. Determining Partial Crop Losses

B. Ethephon Use on Pickling Cucumbers


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Hanover Salad

B. Master Gardener Training Advances

C. Upcoming Youth Activities

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




A. New Publications

1. Disease Control Program for Watermelon, Extension Plant
Pathology, Report 15 by Tom Kucharek.

2. A Plant Protection Glossary for Master Gardeners, Plant Pro-
tection Pointers 34, by G. W. Simone, D. E. Short and R. A.

Both are available from Extension Plant Pathology, Plant
Pathology Department, 1415 HSPP, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

3. The Cyclamen Mite: Understanding this Pest Recently Dis-
covered in Hillsborough County, Florida, Research Report BRA
1983-2, by J. F. Price is available from the Bradenton AREC,
5007 60th St., Bradenton, FL, 33508.

4. Strawberry Variety Trials 1982, Research Report DOV 1982-4,
by E. E. Albregts and C. M. Howard.

5. Strawberry Field Day Program, Research Report DOV 1983-1, by
E. E. Albregts and W. E. Waters.

Both of the above are available from the Dover ARC, Rt. 2,
Box 157, Dover, FL 33527.


A. Determining Partial Crop Losses

Agricultural consultants; seed, fertilizer and farm chemical
sales personnel; and insurance adjusters are often called upon to
determine varying degrees of crop loss due to a wide range of
factors. In some cases the damage involves loss to high value
crops in which acre-yield figures are of limited value.

A recent case in which this specialist was called upon for
assistance illustrated the need for a more specific "measuring
stick". Due to some faulty navigation equipment a large contin-
gent of paratroopers landed on a field of watermelons which were
enjoying a rather good early market price. The farmer was irate
and demanded settlement. The military lawyers were willing to
pay the damages but they wanted to be sure the amount was fair
and reasonable.


Many vegetable growers have a pretty good idea of yield per
acre, costs per acre, and so forth, but how do you determine loss
as spotty as "parachute blight" might cause? Losses seldom hap-
pen in nice neat rows squared off for easy measurement. Most ve-
getable growers estimate per plant yields with only moderate ac-
curacy, and depending on who wants to know the guesstimate can
vary like a Texas tall tale.

The watermelon grower felt that a specific damage and loss
level was in order. The grower felt that each watermelon plant
would have produced 7 to 8 marketable melons at $3.00 or more
each. To him that was reasonable and fair. The Army lawyers
wanted to have some comparisons. Let us look at some Florida
facts together.

At a plant spacing of 30-32 inches between plants and 84
inches between rows each plant utilized 18.7 square feet of grow-
ing space. In a perfect acre (100% use) one could put 2,329
plants on the 43,560 square foot plot of land. With roadways and
ditches the utilization is usually about 65-70% or would have
been about 1,500 plants. The statewide watermelon yield in 1981
-82 was approximately 200 hundred weight per acre, but yield of
top growers do exceed 400 hundred weight per acre. If we divided
the 40,000 pounds by an average melon weight of 25 pounds we
would get a surprising figure of 1,600 melons per acre.

This indicates an average yield per plant of approximately
1.1 melons per vine. Even with a 100% use acre of 2,329 plants
we could only expect 2,561 melons per acre. The farmer was very
reasonable when these figures were developed from crop reporting
publications in which he had a long standing trust. The settle-
ment was made on a 1.5 melons per plant basis at the going market
price times the number of damaged plants. The case was resolved
out of court and both parties seemed pleased.

In cases of partial damage, per plant counts can help to
achieve a reasonable loss estimate. The following figures are
based on medium to high per plant production levels. I hope the
figures will be of use to others should a similar need arise.


Vegetable Pounds Vegetable Pounds
Crop Per Plant Crop Per Plant

Artichoke 0.6-1.5 Lettuce, Leaf 0.6-1.2
Asparagus 0.4-1.1 Lettuce, Head 1.3-2.5
Beans, Lima 0.1-0.3 Muskmelon 2.9-3.7
Beans, Snap 0.1-0.5 Okra 1.1-2.3
Beans, Pole 0.5-1.5 Onion, Bulb 0.3-1.0
Beets 0.1-0.2 Onion, Green 0.1-0.12
Broccoli 0.5-0.8 Peas, Garden 0.1-0.2
Brussels Sprouts 1.9-2.5 Peas, Southern 0.2-0.4
Cabbage 1.1-3.5 Pepper, Sweet 1.0-0.2
Carrot 0.1-1.15 Pepper, Hot 0.4-1.5
Cauliflower 1.0-1.5 Potato, Irish 1.8-2.4
Celery 0.7-1.1 Potato, Sweet 1.4-2.2
Chard 1.2-2.0 Pumpkin 18.0-25.0
Chinese Cabbage 1.8-2.2 Radish 0.1-0.11
Collard 2.5-3.6 Spinach 0.2-0.4
Corn, Sweet 0.6-0.9 Squash, Summer 2.1-0.4
Cucumber, 0.8-1.5 Squash, Winter 12.0-20.0
Pickling Strawberry 0.8-1.5
Cucumber, 1.1-2.0 Tomato, Standard 7.0-30.0
Slicing Tomato, Cherry 6.0-0.6
Eggplant 4.0-7.5 Turnip 0.4-0.6
Endive 0.5-0.8 Watermelon 28.0-33.0
Garlic 0.8-1.1
Kale 1.8-2.4


B. Ethephon Use On Pickling Cucumber

Pickling cucumber yields are limited by the number of female
blossoms that open during the season, the greater the number of
female flowers that are available, the greater the potential for
high yield.

Monoecious cultivars produce male flowers on the early
nodes, then interspace female and male flowers on the intermedi-
ate nodes. The plants will eventually go into an all female
flowering phase, however, this does not usually occur until ex-
tremely late in production.

With the recent developments in gynoecious hybrids, female
flowers are produced at nearly every node, hence, the possibility
of higher yield.

Ethephon, a chemical that releases ethylene, induces female
flowering in cucumber. Dr. Dan Cantliffe, Vegetable Crops De-
partment, Gainesville, has carried on numerous tests showing that


the use of ethephon will increase the yields of pickling cucum-

Ethephon now has a label for use on pickling cucumbers under
the trade name Florel.

The rates for use are 1.25 to 2.5 pints of material in 50
gallons of water. Use the lower rate on gynoecious varieties to
maintain femaleness under adverse environmental conditions and
the higher rate to induce femaleness in monoecious varieties.

Two applications are recommended, the first when the plants
are in the 2 to 4 leaf stage and then the second 5 to 7 days

The label recommends leaving one untreated row in 10 for
male blooms to insure pollination. Dr. Cantliffe feels that 1 in
4 or 5 rows is needed in Florida.

We do not recommend that growers use this material on a
large scale basis immediately. There are differences in expres-
sion due to variety. The use of ethephon would be probably more
cost effective on monoecious varieties than the more expensive
gynoecious hybrids, also.

We would recommend the use for the time being on a 1 to 2
acre basis only. With experience on variety and timing the use
could expand.



A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Hanover Salad

Hanover salad, Brassica napus L. (Pabularia group) is also
known by such other common names as Hanover kale, spring kale,
Siberian kale, and Hanover turnip. It is a member of the cabbage
family (Cruciferae).

Hanover salad varieties and strains vary considerably in
appearance. The plant might best be described as resembling the
ordinary collard, although the leaves are much more curly. They
are not as curly as kale, however. The leaves form a rosette,
and are usually smooth like the collard rather than hairy like
the turnip. The stems vary from a purplish to a whitish color.
Although it is sometimes compared in growth to turnip, it does
not form a fleshy root.


Use The leaves are used both as a cooking green potherbb)
and in salads. Young tender leaves are best for both purposes.
For storage, first wash the leaves, then place in the refrigera-
tor crisper in plastic bags.

Climatic Response Hanover salad is a cool weather crop, so
grow it in Florida during the fall, winter and early spring.
When planted the first of September in Gainesville, the few
plants in the demonstration trial grew vigorously well into the
winter. Plant state-wide from September through March.

Planting and Care Hanover salad can be grown in a like
collard. Plants may be started directly in the garden from
seeds, or by setting transplants. Space rows 24-30 inches apart,
and plants 10-18 inches apart. For direct seeding broadcast seed
very shallow (1/4 1/2 inch deep) in a wide-band method. Thin
and use the young tender plants until the proper spacing is ob-

Fertilize with liberal amounts of compost or animal manure
worked into each row or hill 1 to 2 weeks before planting. Where
inorganic fertilizer is the sole source, use 5 pounds of 6-6-6 or
4 pounds of 8-8-8 per 100 square feet at planting. Sidedress
with the same fertilizer, or a high nitrogen fertilizer at 2 to 3
week intervals.

Hanover salad is susceptable to cabbage loopers and other
worms that chew holes in the leaves.

In the fall trial at Gainesville, Hanover salad was rela-
tively insect pest free. However, spring plantings generally re-
ceive a great deal more attention from insects such as the


8. Master Gardener Training Advances

The Florida Master Gardener Program is growing; Clay, Baker,
Putnam, Duval and St. Johns Counties are in the midst of their
first training. The agents in the various counties are conduct-
ing the training. Approximately 80 potential gardeners are in

A field trip to Gainesville is planned for these new gar-
deners on February 22.

The morning hours will be spent meeting with State Special-
ists and Dean Brasher. After lunch gardeners will tour the Or-
namental Horticulture Greenhouses, the Wilmont Gardens and the
Fruit Crops Orchard.


Hillsborough, Alachua and Marion are other counties that
have just completed training. These counties trained approxi-
mately 60 Master Gardeners. Leon, Broward and Palm Beach Coun-
ties are still retraining Master Gardeners, 60 gardeners are also
attending these sessions.

As you can see a lot of training and retraining is taking
place all over the state.

The slide sets are still being improved by the addition of
tapes and other materials. Let me know if you need any materials
for training.

The Extension Plant Pathology Department in conjunction with
the Entomology and Nematology Department have released a Plant
Protection Glossary for Master Gardeners. The number is 34 and
you may order these for your Master Gardeners through the Plant
Pathology Department.

C. Upcoming Youth Activities

The State 4-H and FFA programs are gearing up for the spring
by planning contests, workshops, and camps.

The Florida State Fair Horticulture Contest was held on
February 12th. Those who attended found the contest an enjoyable
learning experience. The results will be released in the next

Mark you calendar for the State FFA Workshop to be held here
in Gainesville, March 12. The Vegetable Judging and Identifica-
tion Contest will be reviewed on that day. This should help pre-
pare your FFA members for the State Contest on April 22.

4-H members should begin their training now for the State
4-H Horticultural Contest.

Suggested activities might include planting a garden, re-
viewing seeds and making picture flash cards. If any additional
help is needed by the agent, I will be glad to assist.

The Horticultural Institute will again be held at Camp
Cloverleaf. The dates have been set for June 13-17, 1983. The
activities in the camp this year will emphasize vegetable crops.
I will have more on this in a later issue.



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe

W.M. Stall 1Oh
Associate Professor

S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor

A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


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mendation of the product.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $127.46
or 22 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical
and educational materials to extension, research and industry person-

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