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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00175
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00175
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September 1, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe Mark Sherman
Professor Assistant Professor

J. M. Montelaro Ann McDonald R. K. Showalter
Professor Emeritus Visiting Extension Agent I Professor Emeritus

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. New Publications

A. Permethrin Granted Section 18 For Tomatoes
B. Dacthal To Be In Short Supply

A. Influence Of Length Of Season On Yield Of The Duke
Tomato Variety, Manatee-Ruskin Distric, Spring, 1981.
B. SULFUR: The Next Element That May Worry Florida
Vegetable Growers.
C. Weed Control In Crucifers

The Institute of Food end Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.


A. Dietary Fiber In Vegetables


A. The Medfly And The Florida Vegetable Garden

B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Orach


A. Results Of The 1981 State 4-H Horticulture Events

B. Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training and

Recognition Program




A. New Publications

1. Cucurbit Variety Evaluation, Spring 1981, Report WG

81-3 by G. W. Elmstrom is available from the Leesburg, ARC,

P.O. Box 388, Leesburg, FL 32748.

2. Research Report CF 82-1, Results of Cabbage Variety

Trials -1980-81, by J. 0. Strandberg and J. M. White is

available from the Sanford AREC, P. 0. Box 909, Sanford, FL


3. Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial, Zellwood Florida, CF 82-

2 by J. M. White is available from the Sanford AREC, P. O.

Box 909, Sanford, FL 32771.

4. Exhibiting Florida Vegetables, VC Fact Sheet 32 by

S. D. Gray and J. M. Stephens is available from the Publi-

cations Distribution Center, Building 664, University of

Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.



A. Permethrin Granted Section 18 For Control of Leafminer

On Tomatoes

A Section 18 exemption has been granted for the use of

permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) for the control of leafminer on

tomatoes in certain counties in Florida. The counties in-

cluded in the exemption are Gadsden County and all counties



south of and including Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola

and Brevard.

Permethrin is labeled at the rate of 0.05 to 0.1 lbs.

A.I. per acre per applicat-ion. A maximum of ten (10)

applications is authorized. The exemption will expire June

30, 1982. Other restrictions are specified. Read the label

and follow all specifications.

B. DCPA (Dacthal) To Be In Short Supply

A major factory explosion has stopped the production of

DCPA (Dacthal). I have been informed by a representative of

Diamond-Shamrock that the warehoused material will not be

adequate to supply the demand for the herbicide this year.

Specific decisions have not yet been made whether to

rebuild the plant as before or buy an intermediate product

that is needed in the formulation from another company.

No new product will be available for sale until probably




A. Influence of Length of Season on Yield of the Duke

Tomato Variety, Manatee-Ruskin District, Spring 1981.

Tomato production practices, such as method and rate of

fertilizer application, mulching, fumigating, time of



planting, pest control, and irrigation are quite uniform

throughout the Manatee-Ruskin area. This uniformity makes

possible interesting comparisons of varieties and other

production variables under commerical conditions.

The Duke variety was the leading variety in the Spring

1981 production season for this tomato growing district.

Manatee County Extension Agent, R. T. Montgomery, Vegetable

Program Assistant, E. H. Shannon, and this specialist

studied the performance of the variety Duke at three

different harvest dates to look at the influence of length

of season on yield and quality. Blocks of seven plants from

each of three farms on three different harvest dates were

observed. Each plant was cut off at the soil line and

subjected to uniform measurements of yield, size, and grade

of fruit; plant weight (stem and leaves); and stem

diameter. Per plant and farm averages were recorded and

between-farm and between-harvest-period averages were

compared. All fruits were ring-sized individually and

placed in the 4 grade-size categories used by the Florida

tomato industry. The per plant averages of the 3 farms at

the three harvest dates are shown in Table 1. It is

interesting to note that 53% of the marketable yield at the

first harvest was in the extra-large and large size

category. On the second harvest date this proportion stayed

about the same; but on the third harvest date these two

largest sizes accounted for 66% of the marketable fruit.



Table 1. The number and weight of marketable fruit of the
Duke tomato variety at three different harvest
dates, per plant averages, 3 farms each date.

Date of Extra Large Large Medium Small Total
Harvest No. Wt.* No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt.

22 Apr. 16 7.6 10 4.2 12 4.0 11 2.6 49 18.4
30 Apr. 18 9.1 19 7.0 14 4.5 19 4.8 70 25.6
6 May 26 12.7 24 8.9 17 5.6 9 2.2 76 29.5

*Pounds per plant.

The fresh weight of the stem and leaves, and stem dia-

meter of this variety at the three harvest dates are shown

in Table 2 along with total fruit set. The reason for the

small difference in top weight at the third harvest date is

probably due to the drying and loss of lower leaves. The

total fruit set figures show that this variety produces

about 70% marketable size fruit within the normal harvest

period. An extended harvest period may have allowed more

small fruit to reach the larger sizes.

A word of caution should be made in regard to comparing

these yield figures with the standard three continual-pick

harvests. The destructive harvest used in this study show

only the yield and growth condition at a single date rather



than accumulative yield. Table 1 reflects the shift in

sizes by dates such as Extra Large increasing from 16 to 26

fruit per plant.

Table 2. The fresh weight of top, stem diameter and total
fruit set of the Duke tomato variety at three dif-
ferent harvest dates, 3 farms each date.

Date of Stem-Leaf Wt. Stem Diameter Total Number Marketable
Harvest Kg. Lbs. mms. Fruit Set/ Fruit %
Plan t

22 Apr. 3.4 7.6 18.4 85 58
30 Apr. 4.7 10.5 19.6 100 70
6 May 4.4 9.8 20.5 106 72

This study helps to understand this fairly new tomato

variety which produces such a large proportion of large

fruit. With caution, yield and growth projections from a

per plant to acre basis can be made. In a 7260 row feet

"acre" of plants spaced 30 inches apart there are approxi-

mately 2900 plants. The green top weight of tomatoes in

this "acre" would weigh 14.5 tons and produce (24.5 Ibs x

2900) 71,050 lbs of fruit or 2368 30-lb boxes.

The manufacturing plant of 29,000 lbs producing 71,050

lbs of fruit per row acre is rather impressive. Each pound

of top produced about 3.45 pounds of marketable tomatoes.




B. SULFUR: The Next Element That May Worry Florida Vege-

table Growers

Until recently, growers received more than an "adequate"

supply of sulfur for their soils from the atmosphere. Sul-

fur originated in the so-called "dirty" fossil fuels-- oil

and coal. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act, this is no

longer the case. In fact, in the estimation of the writer,

sulfur deficiency could be the next headache for the Florida

vegetable grower. Extension agronomists are already recom-

mending supplemental sulfur for some agronomic crops in

North and West Florida. These areas of the state are isola-

ted from the large population centers, and their associated

"air pollution".

Fortunately for the vegetable growers, the problem is

not yet serious in vegetable production. So growers need

not worry about applying additional sulfur to their soils at

the present time. However, a sulfur deficiency was found on

turnips in South Georgia in the recent past. The author and

others noted what appeared to be a lack of sulfur on mustard

from the Central Florida sandy soils over a year ago.

Sulfur deficiency can be easily confused with nitrogen

deficiency. The lack of sulfur, like nitrogen deficiency,

causes a yellowing of the lower leaves, and the yellow color

is almost white in appearance. On crops like mustard and

turnip, there is a simple diagnostic test to detect sulfur



deficiency. If one were to crush some normal green leaf

tissue from a mustard plant, it would give off the charac-

teristically pungent odor of mustard oil. By contrast, the

sulfar-deficient yellow leaf tissue, when crushed, is prac-

tically devoid of the odor of mustard oil. Sulfur is re-

quired in the synthesis of oil, and without sulfur, the

plant cannot produce mustard oil normally.

There is no need at the present time for vegetable grow-

ers to make a special attempt to apply sulfur. Many

fertilizers and amendments contain sulfur. Sulfate of

potash (K2S04) and epsom salts (MgSO4) both contain sulfur.

However, at some future date, it may become necessary to

apply additional sulfur to our vegetable soils. In the

meantime, growers should keep an eye open for possible

sulfur deficiency, and then call on the University

Specialists, if it is even suspected. We, too, are in the

learning stage when it comes to recognizing and diagnosing a

potentially new problem.


C. Weed Control In Crucifers

1980-81 has not been good years for herbicides in the

production of crucifers. Nitrofen (TOK) and CDEC (Vegedex)

have been withdrawn from use and now Dacthal is in short



There are two remaining herbicides that can be used for

weed control in crucifers, CDAA (Randox) and trifluralin


Randox is labeled for cabbage only. It is a

preemergence or post transplant material that can be used on

both organic and mineral soil.

Randox controls germinating annuals, especially

grasses. It has proven fairly weak in broadleaf control.

Care must be taken in the application of Randox, it is quite

irritable to the skin, eyes and nose.

Treflan is labeled on several crucifers, but cannot be

used on the organic soils. Treflan must be preplant

incorporated and again has a better control on grasses than

broadleaf weeds.

Both herbicides should be used at less than the upper

limit rates if the crucifers are direct seeded.

Phytotoxicity has been seen when the labeled rates are


Joan Dusky, AREC, Belle Glade has submitted an emergency

specific exemption (Section 18) for the use of Dual for

several crucifers. If and when this is granted by the EPA,

I will immediately inform you.

This year, as never before, cultural weed management

practices should be practiced. This includes the following:



plowing at different times to change weed species survival,

cover cropping to suppress weeds, and land selection so that

non herbicide controlled weeds are not the predominant


Methyl bromide is labeled for nematode control in cab-

bage seed beds. Fumigation will also control many weeds and

should be considered this year as an alternative to other

nematode control practices in seed beds. Broadcast and bed

fumigation can be contracted through licensed applicators in

several parts of the state.



A. Dietary Fiber In Vegetables

Vegetables are an important source of fiber in the

diet. The increasing evidence that fiber is an important

health factor has focused considerable attention on dietary

fiber. American public interest in eating nutritiously is

greater than ever before, and nutritional knowledge is es-

sential for improved diets. Fiber in the diet was formerly

considered to be the indigestible part of foods, measured as

crude fiber, that had little influence on nutrition. Re-

search has shown that plant fiber includes a mixture of sub-

stances, including cellulose, that are partially digested or

changed by secretions in the intestines.

Tables of vegetable composition which report crude fiber

actually include only that portion of the total fiber left



after extraction with acid and alkali. Dietary fiber is a

more inclusive term for a complex mixture that includes cel-

lulose, hemicellulse, pectin and lignin. There are no com-

prehensive tables of dietary fibers for vegetables and its

significance in view of the changing attitude about the role

of fiber in man's food. Nutritional analysis should be a

regular part of horticultural research and extension, espe-

cially since vegetables provide more nutrients per calorie

than any other food category.

Refinements in the analysis of dietary fiber include the

acid-detergent method for more accurate measurements of cel-

lulose and lignin, and the neutral-detergent method (3)

which also includes hemicellulose. Dietary fibers (deter-

gent methods) in carrots, cabbage, broccoli and okra ex-

ceeded the crude fiber (AOAC method) (1) by more than 100%

in recent studies at the University of Florida (4). The 14%

cellulose in broccoli was 5% higher than the cellulose in

okra. Hemicellulose was much higher in cabbage, 6%, than in

the other vegetables. Lignin was less than 2% in all four


Among nine vegetables analyzed (7) for neutral detergent

fiber (NDF) and crude fiber (CF), potatoes were the lowest

with 4.7% by NDF and 0.5% by CF on a dry weight basis.

Green beans ranked highest with 22.0% NDF and 10.6% CF. The

pectin content of 2.2% (fresh weight basis) in carrots and

sweet potatoes (2) exceeded the cellulose components of 1.0



and 0.6% in these vegetables. The crude fiber of 1.0 and

0.9% for these crops (9) does not include the water soluble

pectin and therefore this component of dietary fiber is ex-


The physiological functions of fibers in human food are

difficult to determine because of their unique physical and

chemical properties that vary with source, plant age, cook-

ing and digestion. Dietary fibers are recognized for their

water-holding capacity, gel filtration, cation exchange and

adsorption or excretion of other metabolites.

Scientific evidence on fiber in the diet was inadequate

for inclusion of dietary fiber in the 1980 Recommended Die-

tary Allowances (5) of the National Research Council which

publishes dietary standards for the United States. However,

the 1980 Dietary Guidelines (8) issued by USDA and

HEW recommend increasing consumption of complex carbohy-

drates for adequate starch and fiber. With the average

American diet relatively low in fiber, increases in vege-

tables, fruits and whole-grain cereal products were recom-

mended. United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association has

published a review (6) of many kinds of plant fibers plus

possible nutritional benefits and hazards resulting from

fiber in the diet. Industry is currently sponsoring pro-

jects to measure the nutrient content of vegetables for nu-

tritional labeling and use in promotion and point-of-sale



information. This update emphasizes the need for more fiber

research in the scientific community.


1. AOAC. 2970. Crude fiber. Official Methods of

Analysis. Association of Official Agricultural Chem-

ists. Washington, D. C.

2. Briggs, G. M. and D. H. Calloway. 1979. Bogert's Nu-

trition and Physical Fitnes. W. B. Saunders Co.

Philadelphia, PA.

3. Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber

analysis. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 379.

Washington, D. C.

4. Matthee, V. and H. Appledorf. 1978. Effect of cooking

on vegetable fiber. J. Food Science. 43:1344-45.

5. National Research Council. 1980. Recommended Dietary

Allowances. 9th Edition. National Academy of Sciences.

Washington, D. C.

6. Seelig, R. A. 1979. Dietary fiber a review. United

Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association. Alexandria, VA.

7. Spiller, G. A. and R. J. Amen. 1975. Dietary fiber in

human nutrition. Crit. Rev. in Food Sci. & Nutrition.


8. USDA and USDHEW. 1980. Nutrition and your health.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Gov. Printing

Office. Washington, D. C.



9. Watt, B. K. and A. L. Merrill. 1963. Composition of

foods. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 8 Washington, D.C.



A. The Medfly and The Florida Vegetable Garden

With all the attention and news-service the Mediterrane-

an fruit fly (Medfly) is getting in the current eradication

campaign, many home gardeners are wondering what effect it

will have on their vegetable gardening activities.Most are

anxious to know that their garden vegetables do not contri-

bute to the proliferation of the pest, while others might

fear that the fly could become yet another pest injurious to

their vegetables.

Actually, at the current level of infestation, the Med-

fly should have little if any effect on what, when, and how

to plant vegetables in gardens anywhere in Florida. Vege-

tables are not included in the list of preferred hosts, some

of which are kumquat, sour orange, Surinam cherry, calamon-

din, grapefruit, mango, plum, roseapple, and guava. However,

at least two of the fruiting vegetables, tomato and pepper,

are on the list of host plants for the fly, and would be

subject to possible attack if the pest should ever become

heavily populated in the state.

Gardeners inside and outside the quarantine area, which

at this writing is centered in Hillsborough County, should



continue their normal gardening activities. Any vegetable

ordinarily planted at this time of the year may still be

planted and harvested. It is neither necessary nor sug-

gested that the gardener's pest control program be altered

in any way in an attempt to avoid or kill the Medfly.

Control of the Medfly within the quarantine area

should be left to the eradication efforts of the Division of

Plant Industry, Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer

Services. Aerial spraying of baited malathion insecticide,

coupled with the release of sterile adult flies, probably

will be the primary methods employed for combatting the

fly. It is doubtful that Florida gardeners will have to

strip their garden produce and dispose of it even in the

event the fly is found in their area.

Since malathion is one of our safest and most commonly

used garden insecticides, most gardeners are already using

it to control other insect pests on vegetables. Therefore,

it is possible that a very small degree of protection from

the Medfly might result with regular spraying. It would be

advisable for gardeners throughout the state to be able to

recognize the Medfly and to take suspicious insect specimens

to their county Cooperative Extension Service Office for

identification. It is very unlikely that Medfly will show

up in a vegetable garden, but there is a remote chance.



The best way gardeners within a quarantined area can

assist in the eradication of the Medfly is to keep and use

all their vegetables at home. Since unfumigated host fruits

and vegetables will not be allowed out of quarantine area,

no gardener within the area should transport any form of to-

matoes or peppers out of the area. Better yet, a gardener

should not attempt to share any garden produce, particularly

fruiting vegetables, with friends or relatives outside the

quarantine area. Within this classification, most vegeta-

bles such as beans, eggplant, melons, and peas might not be

considered as hosts, yet should remain inside to remove any

question about their host possibilities. Leafy vegetables

such as celery, lettuce and cooking greens, along with other

forms of non-fruiting vegetables, such as carrots, broccoli,

and potatoes, could legally be transported in and out of the

area; however, since they could possibly possibly be carri-

ers of the insect in some unforseen way (soil on roots,

in containers, etc.) gardeners would be wise and helpful not

to transport them outside.

Many entomologists have called the Medfly the most

feared pest of fruits and vegetables in the world. However,

its presence in Florida is limited at the moment and should

not keep vegetable gardeners from "keeping on keeping 'em





B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Orach

Orach (Atriplex hortensis L.) is a member of the Cheno-

podiaceae family. It is also commonly known as mountain

spinach, French spinach, and sea purslane. Some variations

of the name are orache, arache, and orage. The name derives

from the French "arroche", a corruption of the Latin

"aurago" (golden herb). It is sometimes called "salt bush"

due to its tolerance of alkaline soils.

Orach is a native of Europe and Siberia, and is consi-

dered to be one of the oldest cultivated plants. It is

grown as a substitute for spinach in Europe and in the nor-

thern plains of the U.S. It is seldom seen in the tropics,

but is occasionally grown in gardens in Florida.

Description-Orach is an annual plant grown for its

leaves, which are used like spinach. Leaves are arrow-

shaped, 4 to 5 inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide, slightly

crimped, soft and pliable. Stems are 5 to 6 ft. high, angu-

lar and furrowed. A rosette of leaves first develops, fol-

lowed by a seed stalk which may reach up to 8 feet.

Flowers, which have no petals, are small, green or red


Seeds are flat, russet-colored, and surrounded by a

light yellow leafy membrane. The plant also produces some

seeds which are black, membraneless, and often non-viable.



Varieties There are four varieties of orach which

have been cultivated over the years and throughout the

world. White orach is most commonly grown. The leaves are

very pale green, almost yellow. Dark Red Orach has dark

red stems and leaves. Green Orach, also called Lee's Giant

Orach, is a very vigorous kind, with a stout, angular,

branching stem. The leaves are rounder, less toothed, and

darker green then those of the white variety. The fourth is

a copper-colored variety which is rarely grown.

Culture Orach is a cool season vegetable, and should

be grown much like garden spinach. It is quick to bolt in

summer. In South and central Florida, plant in October

through January. From Orlando northward, plant seeds mid-

September through February.

Sow seeds one half to one inch deep in rows spaced

2 feet apart. Thin seedlings to stand 6-12 inches in the

row. Seedlings may be transplanted.

Use Leaves and portions of tender attached stems are

ready for harvest 40 to 60 days following seeding. Pick the

leaves as they are wanted. The leaves are eaten boiled like




A. Results of 1981 State 4-H Horticulture Events

The 1981 Florida 4-H Congress has turned to memories.

During the Congress, the State Horticulture Identification



and Judging Contest was held on July 28, 1981, with a total

of 14 teams participating in this event.

Marion County received first place honors with Brevard

and Volusia taking second and third place, respectively.

Ricky Jefferies, a Leon County 4-H Club Member, took

first place in the Horticulture Demonstration Event at State

4-H Congress.

Ricky along with Jeannie Piotrowski, Kim Ambrose, Rip

Haskins, and Tom Siverson (the Marion County team) will com-

pete at the NJHA Contest this year.

The National Junior Horticulture Association will hold

its Annual Convention this October 30, through November 2,at

Colorado Springs, Colorado. The meeting was last held in

Colorado (Denver) in 1970.

Congratulations to each winner.


B. Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training and

Recognition Program

Approximately 95 Master Gardeners who volunteer their

time and skills working at their county extension office

traveled to Gainesville on August 25 and 26 for the "Ad-

vanced Master Gardeners Course".

Representatives from the six pilot counties,

Hillsborough, Dade, Brevard, Manatee, Polk and Volusia at-

tended the two-day program covering subjects from care of

house plants to IPM principles.



The highlight of the event was the Recognition Banquet.

Each Master Gardener was awarded a certificate of completion

for the advanced training, by Dr. J. T. Woeste, Dean for Ex-

tension. Special recognition went to Bruce Lauenborg and

Larry Bearse, both Manatee County Master Gardeners who have

each volunteered 500 hours of service to their county.

The Master Gardener Program is expanding into three new

counties this fall. Orange, Lake and Osceola counties will

begin their course work on September 9, in Orlando. The

Florida program will begin its third year this fall.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost

of $ 324.07 or 49 4 per copy for the purpose of communi-

cating current technical and educational materials to exten-

sion, research and industry personnel.

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