Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00174
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July/August 1981
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00174
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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July-August 1, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe
W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor
J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor



FROM: W. M. Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
SUniversity of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. New Vegetable Crops Faculty
B. New Publications

A. Weed Control By Contact Applicators
B. Some Points To Consider In The Development Of Crop Water
Budgets: Tomatoes

A. Fungicide Treatment Of Bean Seed

A. Drying Garden Vegetables For Storage
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Potato Onion

The Institute of Food and Agrlcultural Sciences It an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmtive Action Employer outhorizf d to provide rm rch,
educational information and other aervicn only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to racn, color, "x, or nmtisde origin.




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A. New Vegetable Crops Faculty

Three new faculty members have recently joined the IFAS
Vegetable Crops Faculty.

Dr. J. W. Scott was appointed as Assistant Professor at
the Bradenron Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Jay is responsible for the tomato breeding program and will
coordinate the improvement and evaluation of tomato varie-
ties for Florida. He was born in Rochester, N.Y., received
his BS and MS from "'ichigan State University and Ph.D. from
Ohio State University. lH has most recently been in charge
of the greenhouse tomato breeding program at Ohio State.

Dr. S. M. Olson was appointed as Assistant Professor at
the Quincy Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Steve has research and extension responsibilities for the
culture and management of vegetables in West Florida. He
was born in Stillwater, hN, received his BS at the Citadel,
and MS and Ph.D. at Clemson University.

Ann M. McDunald was appointed as Visia'ing Exte iioni
Agent I in the Vegetable Crops Department. She is respon-
sible for coordination of the Master Gardenerr Program and
youth activities in vegetable crops. Anln received her BS
from the University of Florida.

We're pleased to welcome these 'new= addition' to thel IFAS
Vegetable Crops Team.


B. New Publications

1. Watermelon Field Day, ARC Research Report WG 81-1 is
available from the Leesburg Agricultural Research Center,
Leesburg, FL 32748.



2. Vegetable Field Day, VC Research Report 81-3 is
available from the Vegetable Crops Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

3. Vegetable Field Day, AREC Research Report GC 81-3 is
available from the Bradenton Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Bradenton, FL 33508.

4. Non-staked Tomato Variety Trial Results, Immokalee
ARC Research Report SF 81-2 by Paul H. Everett is available
from the Immokalee ARC, Rt. 1 Box 26,.Immokalee, FL 33934.


5. Florida tomato growers may be interested in reading
"U.S. Winter Fresh Tomato Price and Quantity Projections for
1985," Report No. ESS-4, by G. A. Zepp. The author projects
winter fresh tomato prices, consumption, and supplies for
1985 under rapid inflation, slower inflation and most likely
situations. He also estimates the effects of new
Carribbean-area imports and changes in current import
duties. Free copies are available from the National Techni-
cal Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,
VA 22161.



A. Weed Control by Contact Applicators

The application of non-selective systemic herbicides
(such as glyphosate) to weeds infesting growing fields has
been tried for several years. Several types of application
equipment have been developed and a few are in use in agro-
nomic crops in the mid-west and soybean areas of the south.

Machines for this type of application were detailed at
the Florida Conference on Pesticide Application Technology
sponsored by IFAS in March of this year. A discussion on a



few of these are also outlined by Wills, G.D. and C.G.
McWhorter, 1981. Developments in post-emergence herbicide
applicators. Outlook on Agriculture 10(7):337-341.

This type of herbicide application may have use under
certain conditions in the production of some vegetables in

The most familiar type of contact applicator is the rope
wick applicator. Although modifications of the rope wick
and other types of applicators such as roller applicators,
and carpet wipers are to be found, they are here briefly de-
scribed as to type 'only.

Rope Wick Applicator.

Most rope wick applicators are constructed of PVC pipe,
with two rows of braided nylon rope with both ends inserted
into the pipe at specific distances.

The herbicide is supplied to the PVC pipe, which acts as
a reservoir. The herbicide moves into the rope from the pipe
by capillarity similarly to a wick of a lamp.

At the present time most rope wick applicators apply
herbicides to weeds growing above the crop. Contact to
these weeds is made by keeping the herbicides and the wick
just above the crop.

The rope wick applicators are light weight, easy to
build, and relatively inexpensive. In many cases, however,
the slow.wicking nature of the ropes plus applying herbicide
to one side of the weed makes control uneven or reapplica-
tion in the opposite direction necessary. The speed of
travel for application also must be slow. There is no
splash problems with the rope wick and the total amount of
herbicide per acre used is greatly reduced.



Roller Applicators.

Roller applicators are constructed of a metal tube
covered with an absorbing pad of carpet. The roller re-
volves counter-clockwise to the direction of travel. The
herbicide solution is applied to the carpet through plastic
tubes spaced at short intervals above the carpet.

As with the rope wick, the roller applicator applies
herbicides to weeds growing taller than the crop.

The roller applicator wets weeds better than the rope
wick applicator but can drip herbicides onto the crop if not
adjusted properly.

Carpet Wipers.

The carpet wipers usually consist of a shag carpet at-
tached face down or on an angle and covered with a hood.
Herbicides are applied to the back of the carpet through
nozzles positioned inside the hood. A few models have re-
circulating pumps to return the excess herbicide to the

The carpet wiper can also be adapted to cultivators and
used to place herbicides on low growing weeds in close
proximity and/or underneath the canopy of many crops.

Two other types of applicators that may also be of in-
terest are the recirculating sprayers and high voltage dis-
charge devises used as weed killers.

Recirculating Sprayers.

Recirculating sprayers (RCS) utilize nozzels arranged in
such a way that a trap can catch the sprayed herbicide
material not deposited on the weeds.



There are several types on the market, from one row to
broadcast. In most cases the nozzels are arranged horizon-
tally with a pump in the trap recirculating the unused her-
bicide back into the original tank. Although the rate of
travel through the field can be much faster than other
types, splashing or dripping onto crop plants can be a pro-

High Voltage Discharge Devises

Lasco Inc., has demonstrated a machine in Florida that
kills weeds by electrical shock.

This particular machine generated 15,000 volts using the
PTO of the tractor to power the generator. When a plant
comes into contact with the conducting unit, an electrical
charge grounds through the plant rupturing its cells.

Here, as in many other contact type of applicators, the
control is to weeds growing above the crop.


B. Some Points To Consider In The Development Of Crop Water
Budgets: Tomatoes

A serious attempt to develop crop water budgets by
several of the water management districts is now underway.
County Extension Agents, State Specialists, and University
Research Personnel are being asked for specific information
The answers given should be consistent, as accurate as cur-
rent information available will allow, and above all realis-

The realistic input requires an intimate knowledge of
all the water requiring periods in production, protection,
harvesting and handling of any given crop for any planting
date. Omission of water needs for any operation could re-
sult in erroneous water allocation and severe stress in the
crop management enterprise.



An example of a realistic water budget for tomato pro-
duction may be of interest.

1. First, we must realize that rainfall should not be
programmed into the budget. Zero based water budgets are
realistic and valid. Farmers do not waste money pumping
water if there is adequate rainfall. Just think of what
would have happened this year if the budget system was
operational and based on expected rainfall.

2. Adequate soil moisture must be available during
land preparation, as well as for planting and growing the
crop to harvest. 'In sandy soils, a soil moisture of 10% is
needed 5 to 6 weeks before transplanting to allow for
effective bed formation; fumigants and herbicides to react;
and added nutrients and lime to modify the soil solution.

Average day evaporative pan readings for a fall crop may
range from 0.38 down to 0.20 inches per day, and spring crop
from 0.11 up to 0.40 inches per day. For the 4 to 6 week
land preparation period (average 0.24 inches per day) a
total of 6.7 to 10.1 inches of water may be needed depending
on the planting date, amount of land in beds, shape of the
field, and how dry the soil was initially.

3. Water must be available for transplant production
during the field preparation time, too. Some growers pur-
chase seedlings, but those who grow their own must program
this water need.

To grow plants for an acre of tomatoes (about 2500 -
3000 transplants) about 0.1 of an acre inch of water would
be needed for watering, adding nutrients, and spraying of

4. Water needs for crop production may seem insigni-
ficant but should be counted. Herbicide sprays (usually 1
pre-plant, and 1 post plant) require from 30 to 70 gallons
per acre. A non-selective spray for the row middles may be
used 3 times per season at 100 gal/acre. Insecticides, fun-
gicides, and bactericides are usually put on with about 150



gal/acre and the number can vary from a 5 to 10 day fre-
quency depending on weather conditions, disease and insect
population pressure, and amount of foliage.

For the entire protection program, water needs range for
1.0 to 1.5 acre inches per acre of crop.

5. Water needs to grow the crop depend on when the
crop is transplanted, type of bed and mulch used, weather
conditions during growth, shape of the field, amount of run-
off, percolation, and efficiency of the irrigation system.
An evapotranspiration figure of 23 acre inches has been cal-
culated for August set tomatoes for SW Florida, 21.7 for
South Florida and 21.0 for Central Florida. To deliver this
21 inches by seep (30 to 50% efficient) 40 to 70 acre
inches would be needed. When effective drip technology can
be used with tomatoes (80 to 95% efficient), 22 to 26 acre
inches would be needed. Mulching helps to reduce water loss
and increases irrigation efficiency. These figures assume
that the water is piped to the field from the water source
with little or no conveyance loss.

In summary the water required to grow and protect the
crop up through harvest could range from 47.8 to 81.7 inches
of water per 100 day tomato season. The water needed to re-
ceive and wash the harvested fruit should also be charged to
some budget as this amount can be considerable. This brief
article can only point out the fallacy of presenting the
water management districts with a simple number that would
be good for all seasons, soil types, cropping patterns,
field configurations, etc. A realistic figure can be gene-
rated from specific situations that would encourage wise use
of water by the farmer, be helpful in the allocation of
water by the planners, and help to provide consumers with a
steady supply of food and water for our daily life.





A. Fungicide Treatment Of Bean Seed

Bean seed can be treated prior to planting with numerous
seed treatment fungicides. The purpose of such a treatment
is to reduce seed rot and seedling blight caused by soil
borne fungi after planting. Seed treatment is not a substi-
tute for healthy seed; rather it should be used in conjuc-
tion with healthy, certified seed.

Because most seed treatment fungicides (e.g. captain,
thiram, maneb etc.) are not systemic, they contribute to
better initial stands and yields by reducing seed rots and
premergent seedling blights. A systemic seed treatment
fungicide contributes to better stands by reducing post-
emergence seedling blights and debilitative effects of non
lethal stem lesions in addition to reducing seed rots and
preemergent seedling blights.

Rhizoctonia solani, a common soil fungus, causes seed
rot, seedling blight and mid to late season debilitative ef-
fects on beans and numerous other crops (see Plant Pathology
Fact Sheet No. 1). For example, on soybeans five replicated
large scale farm tests conducted in Florida in 1979 and 1980
demonstrated a 42.2% reduction of plants with discrete stem
lesions caused by Rhizoctonia solani on young plants (less
than 30- days old) and a 9.2% increase in yield when Demonson
65W, a systemic seed treatment fungicide, was compared to no
seed treatment. The return on the $1.25/acre cost for seed
treatment averaged $18/acre. Although such data is not
available on vegetable beans the value of the crop is such
the returns should be higher assuming that the disease situ-
ation is similar. From numerous observations made in
Florida on sandy, calcareous and organic soils, Rhizoctonia
solani, by itself or in conjunction with other soil patho-
gens, is a major parasitic fungus on Florida grown vegetable

Demoson 65W is currently- labelled for use on beans
(which means all kinds of vegetable beans and southern peas)
as a slurry or dust treatment of seed in Florida.

Extension Plant Pathologist




A. Drying Garden Vegetables For Storage

If the home garden is properly managed it will supply a
never ending succession of vegetables each day of the year.
This does not mean, of course, that the vegetables will be
fresh all the time. Every gardener should be adept at the
various methods of extending the harvest through nonproduc-
tive times. One of the oldest methods of preparing vege-
tables for storing is evaporating, or drying.

Drying was popular as a means of preserving vegetables
at the turn of the century and earlier. It is becoming
popular again today due to the increasing costs of other
energy-dependent methods such as canning, refrigeration, and

Dried vegetables make very tasty ready-to-eat snacks.
For example, evaporated carrot cubes rival any of the dried
fruits as a snack item. In fact, given the choice,
youngsters and older "kids" alike might prefer the dried
veggies to candy and other less nutritious snacks.

After soaking in water, rehydrated vegetables can be
used in favorite recipes for any number of dishes. Some
authorities suggest however, that the vitamin content par-
ticularly vitamin C, is reduced with drying, along with
change in color, shape, and taste.

Almost any vegetable can be dried, although not as suc-
cessfully as many of the herbs and fruits. Peas, corn,
beans and strawberries can be evaporated in a few hours.
Dried pumpkins and squash make just as good pies as fresh
ones, according to many cooks. Also onions, okra, pepper,
greens, and tomatoes are just some of the vegetables which
* may be dried.Even tomato paste, first cooked down to a very
thick consistency, may be dried. Once the paste is spread
on a drying pan, it is dried until leathery. When water is
added, it is just like fresh tomato paste.



Most vegetables need to be blanched before drying.
Blanching saves some of the vitamins, sets color, hastens
drying by relaxing tissues, prevents flavor loss, and im-
proves reconstitution during cooking.

Drying requires a method of heating the vegetable to
evaporate the moisture, and a means of removing the water
vapor formed. Some of the popular methods used are solar
drying, oven drying, and dehydrator cabinet drying. In-
structions and plans for the various methods are usually
available from local and state Extension Service Offices.

Simple Solar Device:

An inexpensive, easy-to-build solar dryer has been de-
signed by SEA workers C.J. Wagner and R.L. Coleman, as
reported in Agricultural Research, April 1981. Detailed in-
structions are available by writing to the U.S. Citrus and
Subtropical Products Laboratory, P.O. Box 1909, Winter
Haven, FL 33880.

The energy-efficient dryer may be constructed for less
than $20 using simple handtools such as a hammer, drill,
pliers, clamps, and a handsaw,'and materials such as string,
aluminum foil, glue, and framing wood.

The unique feature of the dryer is a low-cost, curved
focusing surface that concentrates radiation from the sun
just enough to dry foods but not enough to overheat or burn
them. The focusing surface is made of household aluminum
foil drawn over strings held taut by a framework of lami-
nated wood curves. The framework is designed to focus 16
sq. ft. of incoming solar radiation onto 5.3 sq. ft. of dry-
ing surface.

The dryer Is covered with polyethylene (cl4ar plastic)
with slit openings arranged at the top and bottom for air-
flow control. The plnatic also keeps out dust, flies, and
other pests.

A final plus for dried vegetables is that they occupy
but very little space, as most of the water which gives them
bulk has been removed.



Before storing solar dried vegetables, it is wise to rid
them of possible insect infestation. This is accomplished
by heating dried food at 150*F for 30 minutes in the oven,
or to freeze for 48 hours. Both of these practices remove
some of the energy savings rendered by solar drying, yet are
necessary where contamination is suspected. Store in
sealed, insect proof containers in a cool, dry, dark place.


B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Potato Onion

The potato onion, Allium cepa L. (Aggregatum group), is
also known as multiplier onion. This type of onion more
frequently forms a cluster of underground bulbs of irregular
shape than a single round bulb. One of the larger bulbs
might be from 2 to over 3 inches in diameter and about 2
inches thick. The skin is thick and of a coppery yellow

After removing outer scales, bulbs may be used for
various cooked dishes, and green immature onions may be used
similarly to regular green onions.

The potato onion rarely produces seeds, so it is propa-
gated by the small bulblets or bulbs which are formed under-
ground. When a strong bulb is planted, it forms a number of
smaller bulblets each with a leafy top. However, a weak
bulb generally grows into a single large bulb.

The culture is similar to that for regular onions.
Since little is known about the plant's sensitivity to day-
length for bulbing initiation, it is suggested that bulbs be
planted as for green onions during the period September
through March.


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