Table of Contents

Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00172
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1981
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00172
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201981%20Issue%2081-5 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text


May 13, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
G.A. Marlowe S.D. Gray Mark Sherman
Professor Assistant Assistant Professor
W.M. Stall J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor Associate Professor
FROM: W. M. Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. Retirements
B. New Publications
C. Publications Available

A. Mites, Mites and Mites
B. Expanded Label for Demosan on Beans
C. Section 18 Exemption for Permethrin on Beans

A. The Onion as a Computer
B. Potato Vine Killing for Fresh Market Sales

A. Results of 1981 State FFA Vegetable Contest
B. Master Gardener Program
C. Common Problems in the Vegetable Garden
D. Know Your Minor Vegetables Skirret

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sax, or national origin.




A. Retirements

Two long-time Vegetable Crops faculty Jim Montelaro
and Bob Showalter have retired after many years of service
to the Florida vegetable industry.

James Montelaro was born March 3, 1921, in Melville,
Louisiana. He received his B.S. from Southwestern Louisiana
Institute in 1941 and entered Louisiana State University as
a graduate student. He served in the U.S. Navy during world
War II and completed his Masters work at L.S.U. in 1950. He
received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida in 1952,
and was employed by the University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station as an assistant horticulturist.

Dr. Montelaro began his Extension career in 1953 as a
Vegetable Crops Specialist. With the exception of 3 years
as director of Vegetable Research for Minute Maid Corpora-
tion, his professional career has been devoted to Extension
work. Through field days, grower schools, demonstrations
and publications, he has worked to transmit research infor-
mation to growers.

Dr. Montelaro has long been recognized for his leader-
ship in developing production practices and his work with
soil testing, fertilization, soluble salts and water qual-
ity. He is well respected by his professional colleagues
and the Florida vegetable industry which he has served.

A strong supporter of horticulture and its professional
organizations, Dr. Montelaro has served in many capacities
and recieved numerous awards. He has been the recipient of
the Henry M. Covington Extension Award from the Southern
Region, ASHS and the Carl S. Bittner Award from the American
Society for Horticultural Science. He has also received the
Outstanding Specialist Award from the Florida County Agents

Bob Showalter grew up in Elkhart County, Indiana. He
received his B.A. degree from DePauw University in 1938 and
his Master's in Horticulture from Purdue in 1940. From 1940
to 1943 he was a Research Assistant at Purdue and continued



graduate study. From 1943 to 1945 he was employed as a re-
search chemist by the U.S. Rubber Company. He moved to
Gainesville in 1945 and has been with the University of
Florida conducting vegetable research since that time.

Professor Showalter's research activities have been in
quality evaluation, handling methods, packaging and other
technological aspects of marketing. Throughout his career
he has stressed methods that would result in a better qual-
ity product for the consumer.

He has published more than 100 scientific papers and
earned awards for outstanding research papers. He has also
won the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association Research
Award for outstanding contributions to Florida Agriculture
and been recognized as a Fellow of the American Society for
Horticultural Science "for providing exemplary direction,
guidance, and extension service to the vegetable industry on
the handling, packing and shipping of Florida produce; for
painstaking conduct of field studies and demonstrations to
ascertain and modify factors responsible for quality loss,
physiological deterioration, and mechanical damage of vege-
tables; for establishing through research the basis for in-
dustry standards of quality for tomatoes, watermelons and
sweet corn; and for 25 years of unselfish service on numer-
ous Society committees and as Chairman of the Southern Region
and the National Postharvest Horticulture Section."


B. New Publications

Research Report PR 81-3, Publication List 1975-81 is
available from the Hastings ARC, PO Box 728, Hastings, FL

Stake Tomato Variety Trial Results, Immokalee ARC
Research Report SF81-1 is available from the Immokalee ARC,
Rt. 1, Box 26, Immokalee, FL 33934


The report of the 26th Hastings ARC Field Day held on
April 16, 1981 is available from the Hastings ARC, PO Box
728, Hastings, FL 32045.



The following publications pertaining to Vegetable plant
diseases are available.

A. Publications in list A order from:

Administrative Services
University of Florida
IFAS Bldg 664
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Fact Sheets (list A)

PPI Rhizoctonia Seedling Blights of Vegetables and
Field Crops.

PP2 Downy Mildew of Cucurbits.

PP3 Bacterial Spot of Tomato and Pepper.

PP4 Stem Rot of Agronomic Crops and Vegetables
(Southern Blight, White mold).

PP6 Late Blight on Potatoes and Tomatoes.

PP7 Early Blight on Tomatoes on Potatoes.

PP8 Early, Late and Bacterial Blights of Celery.

PP10 Bacterial Speck of Tomato.

PP11 Wet Rot of Vegetable Crops.

PP12 Bacterial Soft Rots of Vegetables and Agronomic

PP13 Black Rot of Crucifers.

PP14 Powdery Mildew of Vegetables.

B. Publications in list B order from:

Extension Plant Pathology
Plant Pathology Dept.
Bldg. HS/PP
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



Plant Protection Pointers (list B)

No 10 Chemicals for Plant Disease Control Chemical
Common and Trade Names.

No 11 Selected Literature List Pertaining to Plant
Diseases and Their Diagnosis.

No 13 Plant Disease Resistance.

No 15 Disease Control Program For Watermelons.

No 20 Guidelines for Effective Chemical Control of Plant

No 22 Integrated Pest Management Development of an
Alternative Approach to Control Tomato Pests in

No 25 Control of Soilborne Diseases of Peppers, Tomatoes
and Tobacco in Transplant Beds.

No 26 Interpretation of Recommendations for Fungicide and
Bactericide Usage.

No 28 Tomato Pest Management Program Guidelines for

No 31 Small Batch Preparation of Fungicides.

(Extension Plant Pathologist)




A. Mites, Mites and Mites

Dr. Ken Pohronezny, Extension Pest Management Specialist
has reported that severe outbreaks of mites have been seen
in South Florida this spring. The mites, especially the
two-spotted mite has been a problem on beans, squash, and
tomatoes. Early infestations have been mistaken by many
growers as nutritional deficiencies.

It may be wise to carry a hand lens and check for mite
damage on crops in your area, especially since we are having
a dry season.


B. Expanded Label for Demosan on Beans

A local need, state label for Florida(24C), has been
granted for the fungicide Demosan 65W as a dry on the farm
seed treatment for beans. By law the term beans includes
green beans, lima beans, navy beans, red kidney beans, snap
beans, wax beans, cowpeas and blackeyed peas. The rate of
the formulated product is 4oz/cwt. Demosan will reduce le-
thal and dibilitative effects from Rhizoctonia seedling
blight and stem rot. Previously this fungicide was regis-
tered as a slurry treatment on the seed or as an in-furrow
treatment only.


C. Section 18 Exemption for Permetrin on Beans

A section 18, specific exemption has been granted for
the use of Permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) to control vegetable
leafminers on 40,000 acres of green beans in Florida.

Application may be made to fields that lies below a line
formed by and including the counties of Citrus, Sumter,
Lake, Seminole and Brevard.

The specific exemption expires June 30, 1981. Several
restrictions are imposed for the use of the product. For a
list of the restrictions and application rates, the applica-
tors must refer to the supplemental label.





A. The Onion as a Computer

The speedometer in your automobile, the onion, and your
skin all have something in common. They are all computers.
The speedometer integrates a time-distance relationship.
Your skin integrates a wide range of conditions such as
heat, cold, pressure and many other stimuli into a response
with a speed which often matches electronic computers. The
onion is a very sensitive computer in its response to very
slight changes in temperature, hours of day length, soil pH,
soil moisture levels, and nutrient concentration in the soil

The day and night temperatures, and length of daylight
exert the most influence over the formation of bulbs in
onions. At low soil pH, bulbs form sooner at appropriate
day lengths than those grown at more neutral soil reaction.
Excess nitrate nitrogen tends to delay bulb formation, cause
thick necks, and reduce yields; whereas, nitrate deficiency
causes poor curing of the bulbs. Excess soil phosphorus
hastens maturity and the development of seed stalks, where-
as; deficiency causes slow growth and delayed maturity. A
deficiency of soil potassium reduces vigor and growth, and
increases disease susceptability; whereas, moderate to high
amounts increase disease resistance and promote vegetative

Onion seedlings are very sensitive to light, tempera-
ture, and soil moisture, too. If germinated in the light or
planted so shallow that the seeds are exposed to light, the
seedlings may be malformed and root development retarded.
Onion seed ages rapidly, seldom retaining high germination
for more than 1 year.

Under favorable growing conditions the young seedling
initiates a new leaf each week. New roots are initiated
from the small stem or base plant at the rate of 4 or 5 per
week. Rooting is shallow, therefore, onions are sensitive
to fairly small changes in soil moisture. The ideal mois-
ture regime would be to maintain 70-80% of field capacity
from germination until bulbs begin to approach maturity.

To encourage drying of the roots and tops before har-
vest, soil moisture should be decreased and bulbs allowed to
"ripen". The ripening process involves the following steps
if the proper soil moisture, day length, and temperature are



a. root tips darken
b. leaves above bulb (neck) soften
c. roots begin to die
d. rapid transfer of food from leaf tips to bulb
e. tops begin to fall over while still green
f. roots dry
g. tops dry
h. outer scales of bulb begin to dry

If soil moisture is abundant during this ripening pro-
cess, as frequently happens in Florida during April-May when
October planted onions are reaching large bulb size, the
ripening process can be interrupted and a bulb that keeps
poorly results.

The onions grown in Florida are called Texas types which
means they form bulbs on short days. The high solids, pun-
gent onions grown in California for processing, do not form
bulbs until the long days of summer. It is believed that a
young onion seedling of 6 to 7 true leaves can receive and
integrate the length of day-temperature stimulus to initiate
bulbing. Growers try to get as much top growth as possible
before the critical day length for bulbing has been reached
in order to get large bulbs. Most of the short-day types
(Granex, Creole, Grano) form bulbs as soon as the day length
reaches 10 1/2 to 11 1/2 hours. The long day types (South-
port White Globe, Sweet Spanish and Australian Brown) re-
quire 14 to 15 hours of day length to bulb. If onions are
grown under day lengths below 9 1/2 to 10 hours, new leaves
and roots continue to develop without bulbing.

The onion integrates temperature extremes in an inter-
esting way, too. If the ideal growing temperatures of 60 to
70F drops below 40F or above 860F the plants become dor-
mant, but will resume growth as soon as the temperature be-
comes favorable. If onions are fairly large when a cold
period comes, flowering results. This is referred to as

The next time you drive by a field of growing onions,
think of the more than 100 thousand tiny computers per acre
at work!




B. Potato Vine Killing for Fresh Market Sales

Florida grown potatoes sold on the fresh market are at-
tractive when they are washed and handled properly.

Tubers harvested from living vines are likely to skin
and bruise severely during harvest, and the heavy foliage
interferes with harvest machinery.

Skinned potatoes not only appear untidy due to bits of
protruding skin, but also the skinned areas become discolor-
ed, ranging from light brown to dark brown or black. The
skinned areas are also a site for pathogen infection and
diseases such as bacterial soft rot can build in transit and
cause loads to be rejected.

Skinned tubers also lose significantly more weight than
unskinned tubers in storage and in transit.

Vine killing and harvesting 14 to 21 days after the tops
are killed allows the periderm to set and reduces the amount
of skinning and scuffing.

Senescent vines and vines in poor conditions due to
disease or other factors do not have to be killed as long as
vigorous vines for the periderm to be set.

Vine killing can be accomplished mechanically or with

Rapid killing of vines sometimes results in vascular
discoloration. This occurs as often when vines are mechani-
cally killed as when herbicides are used. The discoloration
does not increase in storage or affect storage quality.

When vines are killed, sunburn and greening can affect
tubers that are not sufficiently covered with soil. Hilling
enough soil around the plant to keep the tubers covered is

Several herbicides are labeled for preharvest potato
vine killing:



Below is a partial list of these.

Preharvest Potato Vine Dessicants

Herbicide Rate Remarks
(lbs ai/acre)

Ametryn 1.0 to 2.0 Apply in 100 gals of water/
(Evik) acre. Complete vinekill is
obtained in 10-14 days. May
add lqt. nonphytotoxic oil
for added coverage.

Dinoseb 1.5 to 2.0 Follow label instructions
(Dinitro-3 for use of oil or fuel. Do
Dow General not spray on exposed tubers.
Weed Killer
Premerge 3)

Paraquat 0.25 to 0.5 Apply once or split higher
(Paraquat CL) (1 to 2 pt.) rate when vine growth is
dense and apply twice. Use a
nonionic spreader to assure
thorough wetting.



Results 1981 State FFA
Vegetable Contest

Thirty-nine FFA Chapters from throughout Florida entered
teams in the 1981 State Vegetable Contest held May 1 in
Gainesville. The total possible number of points for a team
was 2730. The top ten teams were as follows.


Santa Fe Senior
South Sumter Senior
Auburndale Junior
Groveland Senior
Dade City Senior
Santa Fe Junior
J. G. Smith
Plant City




High individuals (910 possible points) for the event

1st Randy Vaughn Santa Fe Sr. 873
2nd Wesley Asbell Bronson 870
3rd David Youngbluth Bronson 864
4th Jeff Mudd Bronson 855
5th Paula Gentry Santa Fe Sr. 843


B. Master Gardener Program

Florida's Master Gardener program continues to grow and
expand to involve more counties. Two years after its initi-
ation, there are 6 counties and more than 220 volunteers in-
volved. The pilot counties (Brevard, Dade and Manatee) have
trained additional volunteers and the counties added last
year (Hillsborough, Polk and Volusia) are also anxious to
train more volunteers.

In September 1981, Lake, Orange and Osceola counties
will begin programs. Plans are also underway to add more
counties in January.

Extension specialists who have done most of the training
until now are developing audio-visual materials to enable
county personnel to conduct a large part of the training
themselves. These materials should be available in early

Many Master Gardeners who have been actively donating
time to their county Extension offices have asked for addi-
tional training. To meet this request, plans are underway
for a workshop to be held in Gainesville in late August.
Extension agents working with the program will provide sug-
gestions for topics to be coveredin the 1 day session.

The Master Gardener program has proven to be an asset to
the Extension horticulture programs in the counties partici-
pating in the program. Well over 5,000 hours of service
have been contributed by the Master Gardeners, thus enabling
local Extension offices to serve a much larger clientele.
More counties have shown interest than can be included at
the present time. This interest level should remain high
and the program should continue to grow.




C. Common Problems in the Vegetable Garden

May is a productive month for most vegetable gardeners
around the State of Florida. If garden production has been
less than expected, it is also a time to determine why and
to look at the problems and their causes.

Problems associated with the production of a spring gar-
den may be categorized in various ways. Those frequently
encountered are discussed briefly here. Of course, many of
these overlap, affecting each other in one way or another.

Varietal Problems

Perhaps the biggest cause for the failure of a particu-
lar crop in Florida gardens is the selection and use of an
improper variety (cultivar) of that crop. This is not sur-
prising since Florida conditions are quite different from
areas of the country from which most gardeners come. Unless
a variety is adapted to Florida's climatic conditions, all
the best care possible will fail to make it produce.

Gardeners should follow Extension Service recommenda-
tions on best varieties to plant, or they should check with
neighbors on varieties which were successful in past sea-
sons. Letting the fingers do the walking through the pages
of the seed catalogs is a good practice only if the gardener
knows what to look for.

Climatic Problems

Such climatic conditions as precipitation, wind, night-
time temperature, day-time temperature, humidity, and day-
length, may have a drastic effect on the growth and develop-
ment of vegetable plants. The most obvious effects result
from such severe weather conditions as drought, flooding,
freezes, hail, and heat.
As would be expected, climatic conditions have both di-
rect and indirect effects on other problem-causing agents.
Effects on problems relating to fertility, insect, and di-
sease problems are quite clear, whereas climatic induced
physiological disorders are more subtle and difficult to di-
agnose. An example of such a disorder would be a change in
a plant's growth habit from vegetative to reproductive at an
inopportune time (pre-mature seeding), induced by a period
of low temperatures.



While climatic problems are often considered unavoid-
able, many could be reduced or eliminated by planting at a
more appropriate time.

Physiological problems

Physiological problems relate to the growth habit of a
plant being sufficiently altered so as to adversely affect
the production of the plants' edible product. The greatest
contributing factors are climate, fertility, and variety

One type of physiological problem relates to pollina-
tion. For fruiting vegetables like beans, corn, squash and
tomatoes to be productive, transfer of pollen within the
flower or from another flower must take place. In some
cases insects are required, while in others the wind or
movement of the plants are required.

Many physiological problems are genetically induced,
such as chimeras, off-flavors, wierd-configurations, and

Fertility problems

Improper fertilizing and liming techniques contribute
greatly to the incidence of crop failures and problems.
These problems stem most often from: (a) failure to have
the soil tested; (b) under- and over-liming, creating micro-
nutrient deficiencies and disorders; (c) over-fertilizing,
or poor placement of fertilizer, causing fertilizer burn and
toxicities; and,(d) under-fertilizing, creating nutritional
deficiencies and disorders.

Cultural problems

Improper techniques used by gardeners create many of the
problems reducing the productivity of plants. Some of the
more common cultural errors are: (a) planting too deeply,
(b) spacing too closely, (c) planting at the wrong time, (d)
planting old seeds, (e) planting old or weak plants, and (f)
use of improper watering techniques.



Insect problems

Insects are present in every vegetable garden. At times
their numbers reach a level of destruction so high as to
warrant some form of active control. Most are not difficult
to control if frequent and close-scrutiny scouting is done
to detect a build-up, followed by the proper application of
an effective insecticide. Vegetable insects may attack the
seeds, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the
plants. Some, such as the sweetpotato weevil, are fairly
specific as to the crop they prefer, while others attack a
rather broad array of vegetables. Obviously, injury to
edible portions of the plants cannot be tolerated to the
same degree as damage to inedible portions. However, a
point is reached even in the latter case where yields are
reduced. Furthermore, insect injuries act as points of en-
try for disease organisms.

Disease problems

plant diseases are a continuous threat to vegetables
from the time the seeds are sown almost up until time the
vegetables are served. Many of these diseases may be avoid-
ed or reduced by application of good cultural practices.
Keeping plants otherwise healthy, using resistant varieties,
rotating the garden site, and watering properly are just
some of the ways gardeners can keep vegetables disease-
free. At times, however, spraying or dusting an approved,
effective fungicide on a preventive basis becomes neces-
sary. Gardeners are not always able to determine the exact
disease pathogen causing the poor condition of the plant;
thus, plant disease diagnostic clinics operated by Exten-
sion are extremely helpful in controlling diseases.

Nematode problems

A variety of plant parasitic microscopic worms called
nematodes attack mainly the roots of vegetables and some-
times above-ground parts. Generally, damage is first notic-
ed as stunting, yellowing, wilting, and dying back of vege-
table plants. Close observation of the roots usually reveal
abnormalities severe enough to reduce proper root function.
By the time symptoms of nematode injury is noticed, it is
too late to treat and save those plants. Pre-plant soil
treatment with an approved nematicide is necessary where se-
vere infestations occur. Various cultural practices, such



as rotation, fallowing, mulching, resistant varieties, and
use of resistant cover crops, are helpful in combatting ne-
matode problems.

Weed problems

Weeds growing in close proximity to vegetables compete
for water, nutrients, space, and sunlight. They harbor in-
sects and diseases, and impede good cultural care of the
vegetables. In some cases they may actually injure vege-
tables by growing into the tissue, as is the case with nut-
grass growing through a potato tuber. Weeds are best con-
trolled in home gardens by such mechanical means as hoeing,
disking, or hand-pulling, and by such cultural means as
mulching and the use of trickle irrigation.

Bird and Animal problems

Vegetables are susceptible from seeding through harvest-
ing and storing to a fairly large number of birds, rodents,
and larger animals such as rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, and
deer. In most cases, the use of traps, barriers, repel-
lants, and scare-tactics are all that can be done for these

Toxicity problems

Often vegetables are subjected to contact with various
substances which adversely affect the plant's growth and de-
velopment. Substances most often at fault are animal urine,
herbicides, chlorine, air pollution (sulfur diozide), ferti-
lizers, and erroneously applied pesticides. These substan-
ces generally injure or kill only the plants on which con-
tact is made. The injury does not spread, and usually the
plant grows out of the condition if it is not too severe.

Man-made problems

The gardener is sometimes his own worst enemy, either
through carelessness or ignorance. For example, failure to
harvest fruits when mature often causes the plant to cease
production until those fruits are picked. Many physical in-
juries accrue to plants due to human carelessness and rough
handling (cutting roots when hoeing, for example). Vandal-
ism, such as youths shooting B-B's into eggplants, contri-
butes to losses in quite a few gardens.



Most problems associated with the reduced yields and
otherwise sub-standard performance of any particular vege-
table garden generally fit into one or more of the above
groupings. Understanding the problem and its cause is, of
course, the first step to finding a solution. Not all of
the problems have an immediate solution. Many require some
action be taken by the gardener prior to the next garden.

B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Skirret

Skirret (Sium sisarum L.) is derived from the Dutch
"suikerwortel", meaning "sugar root". It is also known as
"skirwort". It is a vegetable grown for its sweet, edible
roots. This member of the carrot and parsley family (Umbel-
liferae) originated in Eastern Asia. It is still used
largely in China and Japan, but is a very minor crop in the
U. S.

The plant grows 3 to 4 feet high and has large shining
dark green compound, pinnate leaves. The roots grow in
clusters from the stem base like sweetpotatoes, but are
longer, more cylindrical, and somewhat jointed. They have a
sweet taste if well grown, but have a tough, woody non-
edible core. Germination lasts 3 years.

Plants are usually grown from seeds, whether in seedbeds
for transplants or direct seeded. The plants may also be
started from root divisions. Here in Florida skirret should
be sown or planted in the fall, since it is a hardy, cool
season crop. It usually requires 6 to 8 months from seeding
to harvest. Space rows 12 to 18 inches apart, and space
plants 6 inches apart within the row. Sow seed 1/2 inch
deep, or set roots two inches deep.

Skirret may be boiled, stewed, or roasted. The fibrous
central core must be removed before cooking, although seed-
lings differ in the amount of core. The core is difficult
to remove after cooking.


Statement: This public document was promulgated at a cost of $_228.55
or 424 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical and
educational materials to extension, research and industry personnel.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs