Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00147
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1979
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00147
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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1255 Horticultural Sciences and Plant Pathology Bldg. #717

April 10, 1979

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman

R. D. William
Assistant Professor

R. K. Showalter

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro


FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist





Vegetable Field Days
Herbicide Update

Set Second Announcement


A. IPM A Lesson in Vegetable Crop Management
B. Crop Pollination and Bee Behavior


A. Increasing Watermelon Consumption


Pest Management in Home Vegetable Gardens
Know Your Vegetables Bean Sprouts

NOTE: Anyone

is free to use the information in this newsletter.
give credit to the authors.

Whenever possible,

The Institute of Food end Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.



A. Vegetable Field Days Set Second Announcement

Put the following dates on your calendar and make plans to attend
these vegetable field days. Detailed programs for these field days are
being mailed. They are as follows:

1. Location: ARC, Hastings, Florida

Date: April 19, 1979, 1:30 P.M.

2. Location Belle Glade, Florida

Date: May 10, 1979

3. Location: Bradenton, Florida

Date: May 22, 1979

4. Location: FAMU, Tallahassee (Vegetable Gardening)

Date: May 25, 1979, 9:00 A.M.


B. Herbicide Update

The herbicides listed below have recently been registered for use in
the following vegetable crops:

1) Row middles for full-bed plastic mulch.

a) Tomatoes and peppers chloramben (Amiben) 24(c) label in
Florida only.

b) Tomatoes and peppers napropamide (Devrinol) 24(c) label for
full-bed plastic mulch or conventional culture without plastic
mulch in Florida only.

c) Tomatoes metribuzin (Sencor only) 24(c) label for established
tomatoes as pre- or postemergence treatment in Florida only.

2) Other labels for vegetables.

a) Carrots linuron (Lorox) 24(c) label for preemergence weed
control in Florida only.


b) Lettuce paraquat 24(c) label for postemergence, directed,
shielded application in Florida only.

c) Potatoes metribuzin (Lexone and Sencor) for preemergence
weed control.

d) English peas and edible beans glyphosate (Roundup) for
perennial weed control applied prior to field preparation
and planting the crop.

e) Dry ditch banks and water furrows glyphosate (Roundup)
for general weed management when ditches or water furrows
are dry.



A. IPM A Lesson in Vegetable Crop Management

Growers or their crop production managers should take a lesson from
Integrated Pest Management. Periodic "scouting" for potential pests and
the careful integration of this information into a workable pest management
program is beginning to pay dividends for some vegetable growers in Florida.
If nothing else, it has served to emphasize the value of careful monitoring
in crop production management. Why not, then, incorporate this type of
philosophy into other aspects of the crop management programs in vegetable

For instance, are production managers giving similar attention to
irrigation and drainage needs, supplemental fertilization, weed control and
cultivation, protection against the elements of nature, etc.? In many cases,
the answer is no. An incipient moisture shortage or nutrient deficiency is not
easy to detect. Yet, either stress can result in loss of potential yield and/or
quality. Not only that, but the oversight or mistake can mean additional costs
for materials which were not needed in the first place. Take the case where a
grower sidedressed because a crop looked "hungry", only to find later that the
condition worsened. A soil test to measure total soluble salts prior to side-
dressing would have shown that the problem was not too little, but too much
fertilizer. Instead of wasting money on more fertilizer with further crop
injury, an effort should have been made to lessen the effects of salts present
in the soil.

The technology available to manage most production practices is as ad-
vanced and just as applicable as it is in IPM. Inexpensive testing equipment
is available which can be used with little time and effort. These include
simple items like moisture, soluble salt and pH meters. The more technical
laboratory tests cost only little more in time and money.


The most valuable ingredient in any management system is an under-
standing of the basic principles and the experience to interpret and integrate
them into a good, workable program. Vegetable crop producers cannot afford
to farm on a hit or miss basis and expect to remain in the business over the


B. Crop Pollination and Bee Behavior

Several vegetable crops, especially the vine crops such as watermelon,
squash, cucumber and cantaloupe require insect pollination for fruit set and
proper development of an attractive, uniform product. The most common pol-
linators for these crops are bees; honey bees being the most dependable when
properly managed. In most situations where insect pollination is required,
a thorough knowledge of bee behavior can improve the performance of these
pollinators in your field.

Pollen and nectar are the sole sources of food for bees. Pollen pro-
vides food for young bee larvae and protein for the adults. Carbohydrates
or energy are obtained from nectar which can be stored as honey. Bees pol-
linate the flowers while collecting nectar or when they are deliberately
foraging for pollen. According to research conducted at Leesburg ARC, pol-
lination of vine crops is improved when bees visit the female flower 8 or
more times.

Bees tend to collect either pollen or nectar primarily from a single
type of flower that is abundant, attractive to the bee, and relatively near
the hive. Because flowers of vine crops are not particularly attractive to
bees, hives should be placed around the perimeter of the field when the crop
begins to bloom. Generally, one active hive per 5 acres of vine crops is
considered a minimum requirement for adequate pollination. For best produc-
tion of watermelons or cucumbers, one hive per three acres is recommended.
If crop flowering and the placement of hives in the field do not coincide
(or if crop flowering is interrupted), bees will begin foraging neighboring
wild plants and may not return to the crop.

Bees also require water for daily survival to dilute honey when con-
sumed for food or to cool the hive. Consquently, bee efficiency can be in-
creased by providing a source of water near the hive. Because bees will not
drink from pails or drums, dripping or a shallow water source should be

Bee activity begins in the morning when temperatures warm up to about
60oF and the dew or free moisture from rainfall or irrigation evaporate from
the leaves and flowers of the crop. By mid-afternoon, bee activity diminishes.


Insecticides, therefore, should be applied in the late afternoon or evening
to minimize bee kills. If there is any chance of poisoning the bees, be
certain to cover and protect the hives. Choose insecticides that are less
harmful to bees, avoiding or restricting the use of carbaryl (Sevin),
methomyl (Lannate or Nudrin), parathion, and others, while bees are actively
pollinating the crop.

Although the beekeeper will undoubtedly check the hives frequently,
the grower may wish to evaluate bee activity. A practical method is to walk
into the field on a clear day and count the bees observed in a 30 ft. diameter.
If fewer than 30-40 bees are counted, the grower may wish to consult the bee-
keeper to determine if enough hives are present, whether the hives are over-
crowed, whether the bees are pollinating the crop or foraging elsewhere. Then
both the beekeeper and the grower can agree to needed solutions such as: add-
ing frames to the hives or adding more hives. Also, hives can be moved within
or between fields to increase pollination of the crop and maintain healthy bees.

For more information, growers may purchase a copy of USDA Agriculture
Handbook No. 496 entitled "Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants".

(William, Johnson* & Harris)

*F. A. Johnson is Ext. Entomologist and C. L. Harris is a graduate of the
Entomology and Nematology Department who provided assistance and gained
experience in our Vegetable Crops Extension programs.


A. Increasing Watermelon Consumption

April is the month when another Florida watermelon harvesting season
starts and growers are looking for improved marketing conditions after rela-
tively depressed prices during the last three seasons. In the January 1979
Vegetarian Newsletter, over-production was blamed for the recent disastrous
marketing seasons. In the October 1978 Bulletin of the National Watermelon
Association, it was reported that several weaknesses exist in the total
watermelon production and marketing program and adjustments were needed to
soften the drastic risks. Low prices have been blamed on cold weather up
north and lack of transportation, but it was stated that the greatest pro-
blem was too many acres of watermelons.

Supply of watermelons does influence prices as indicated by the rela-
tively high prices during April and May when supplies from South Florida are
limited. Prices decline as more northern areas and other states begin har-
vesting. On a yearly basis, average prices were much lower in 1972 and 1976
when planted acreage in Florida exceeded 61,000 acres compared with prices
in 1975 from 47,000 acres of watermelons.


Much importance has been placed on the supply and price relationship,
but consumer demand and consumption trends are also important for successful
production. Per capital consumption of watermelons has declined for many years
from 20 pounds to a present level of 12 to 13 pounds per person. In the de-
cade of the 70's,total vegetable consumption has increased, particularly the
consumption of raw vegetables. Vegetables vary in their appeal to the food-
buying public, and consumption of salad vegetables has increased with the pro-
liferation of salad bars, away-from-home eating and an increasingly calorie-
conscious public.

The characteristics of a good watermelon make it universally popular,
especially in hot weather, for its sweetness, juiciness, red color and crisp
texture. It makes a quickly prepared, no cooking, dessert or snack that can
be served in several ways in any place that meals are served, or it is well
adapted for out-door eating without table service. Watermelon's chief con-
tribution is enjoyment rather than a heavy quota of nutrients, since they
have 93% water and only 26 calories per 100 grams compared with 600 to 700
calories in high energy foods. This melon is a good source of vitamin A and
a fair source of vitamin C, plus variable amounts of sugar.

With these excellent possibilities for high consumer demand, why do
Florida growers have difficulty selling watermelons at a profit when the vol-
ume increases? Improved quality and additional merchandising and promotion
have increased sales of other fruits and vegetables. The Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services surveyed terminal market watermelon re-
ceivers several years ago and found that 33% wanted better quality, 14% wanted
better shipping practices and 11% wanted better sizing. Fifty-six percent of
the respondents mentioned bruising and 25% listed cracking as primary problems.
So, improvements are needed in grading, sizing, and shipping. Rough handling
and carelessness in harvesting and transporting cause internal breakdown of
the flesh that results in dumping the melons into the garbage at the store or
home when they are cut.

Improved handling, packaging and transportation were main topics dis-
cussed at the March meeting of the National Watermelon Association in Jackson-
ville. A new conveyorized handling system was described that transfers melons
from field trailers into transport trucks in less time and with less melon
damage than present methods. Another system of unloading field trucks had
mechanical weighing and counting to provide greater uniformity among loads.

Stores are able to sell large numbers of watermelons through special
promotions and advance advertising during periods of heavy production which
often occurs in June. Before planning these promotions, retailers need infor-
mation 7 to 10 days in advance concerning the prospective supply, quality and
melon size. Growers with small acreage need to sell through a shipping organ-
ization, state farmers market or an experienced broker who is familiar with
shipping point and terminal market procedures. The detailed nature of store


orders and advertised prices make advance specifications necessary. For
example, a buyer who ordered truckloads of melons averaging 22 pounds, an-
ticipated 1600 melons per load and advertised them at $1.19. One truck
making a direct store delivery arrived with 1250 melons averaging 28 pounds,
and the load was rejected because the store price could not be increased to
compensate for the reduced number and larger size.

Produce buyers are very influential in marketing melons, but consumers
make the final decision on what looks and tastes best. Judging the quality
of a watermelon is very difficult unless it is cut, and the sale of halves,
quarters and slices now dominates sales in many stores. Watermelon eating
quality is influenced by variety, maturity and handling practices, but shoppers
make their purchasing selections on the basis of appearance, color and freedom
from blemishes. People prefer to eat food that looks good and slices of red-
ripe watermelon can have an appearance that tempts customers and increases

New U.S. Standards for grading watermelons become effective January 15,
1978, with two levels of optional internal quality to indicate "good" and
"very good" sweetness levels. Florida growers and shippers have mostly dis-
continued using the U.S. or any grade standards that indicate consumer qual-
ities or maturity. The industry grading system is a marketing tool that aids
in faster and more efficient pricing based on size, diseases, insects and ex-
ternal damage. Everyone talks about quality, but harvesting and marketing
decisions for melons shipped to distant markets are not always controlled by
those factors which persuade consumers to buy more watermelons.

The National Watermelon Association raised nearly $69,000 for promoting
sales this year, but the Florida Avocado and Lime Commissions have budgeted
$350,000 and the Florida Citrus Commission $3,500,000 for promoting their
products. Watermelon growers who think they have over-produced may find some
answers in terms of under-demand by joining together to improve consumer qual-
ity and selling strength.



A. Pest Management in Home Vegetable Gardens

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a relatively new concept in commer-
cial crop pest control. However, home vegetable gardeners and commercial gro-
wers have long used the basic principles of IPM in one form or another.
Successful gardeners have employed every trick in their bag and at their dis-
posal to eliminate or reduce pest problems, and should continue to do so.

Keywords have been prevention through proper planning, choice of
varieties, site selection, cultural practices; early detection through con-
stant monitoring; and combative action through safe use of pesticides.


Here are some of the common sense techniques which have been combined
(integrated) into an orderly and managed system to eliminate pest problems
from the gardening experience.

1. Use of resistant varieties.
2. Selection of pest-free site.
3. Planting early, thus avoiding peak pest periods.
4. Rotating garden sites and crops.
5. Early soil preparation so soil vegetation has sufficient
time to rot.
6. Planting seed and cuttings from disease-free plants.
7. Selecting pest-free transplants.
8. Mulching to avoid fruit rots, reduce weed growth, and
minimize nematode effects.
9. Placement of card board or tinfoil collars around transplant
stems to reduce injury from cutworms and soil blight.
10. Controlling weeds, both in and around the garden.
11. Cleaning up crop refuse early.
12. Summer fallowing (clean cultivation).
13. Summer flooding, where soil type permits.
14. Careful and constant monitoring for pest infestation.
15. Hand-picking insects and weeds.
16. Removal of severely diseased plants.
17. Timely watering to avoid pest build-up.
18. Soil sterilization, through baking, etc.
19. Use of sterile soil media.
20. Use of resistant cover crops where available.
21. Use of natural predators where available.
22. Harvesting early or at right stage or maturity to avoid
pest damage.
23. Quick use of good portions of pest damaged produce, and
grading out rotten vegetables to reduce further contamination.
24. Proper storage in clean containers at best temperature
and humidity.
25. Use of safe pesticides where necessary.

While the utilization of these and other practices in a planned and
orderly fashion would result in an effective pest management system in home
gardens, the article does not imply that all successful gardeners, if any,
use these steps completely. How thoroughly and effectively these practices
are integrated into a pest management system is dictated by such factors
as pest pressure; gardener experience, ability and motivation; and avail-
ability of resources.

Furthermore, the article does not attempt to minimize, simplify, or
explain the concept of IPM as it applies to commercial crop production.
Commercially, IPM is broader, more involved, and a great deal more complicated
than the random, non-systemized use of practices outlined here.



B. Know Your Vegetables Bean Sprouts

While various kinds of legumes may be eaten as sprouts, the two most
common are the mung bean (Phaseoius aureus R.) and the soybean (Glycine max M.)
(see VC Extension Report 17-1978 "Know Your Minor Vegetables", page 26 and 19,
respectively). Mung bean is the most commonly used and preferred bean for

Until recently, the use of mung bean sprouts in America has been re-
stricted to so-called Chinese dishes. Lately, however, they have become
increasingly popular in U.S. kitchens, particularly to health enthusiasts
because sprouts are rich in vitamins and low in carbohydrates.

Methods of Sprouting

Many methods have been used in sprouting mung beans. In Oriental
countries, the beans are usually soaked in water for about eight hours and
then placed in tubs or crockery jars provided with adequate drainage and
darkness. Then they are sprinkled with water at room temperature about
three times a day. The sprouts are usually ready for use in about 4 to 6
days, depending on the room temperature.

Chinese masters of the art of sprouting modify the procedures somewhat,
but the general principles of soaking and sprinkling are the same everywhere.
For example, many cooks place a wet, absorbent towel over the top of the con-
tainer, and then soak the cloth two or three times a day. Experience is ne-
cessary to determine just when to soak the cloth for best quality sprouts.
To keep sprouts short and plump, a clean bag of sand has been placed over the
sprouts instead of the towels.

Simple Technique for Sprouting at Home

The simplest method for doing it yourself right in your own kitchen
is to use the "wide-mouth jar" technique. A one quart (or larger) jar with
lid is fine.

First, punch 8 or 10 holes in the lid so that it will drain easily and
allow the heat of sprouting to escape. Then measure out 1/3 cup of mung beans
for each quart of sprouts desired. Wash the beans thoroughly, and sort out
any discolored or bad ones.

Place the beans in the jar, cover them with water, and let them soak
overnight in a dark place. Sprouting in light allows a green color to de-
velop. Most people prefer white sprouts.

The next morning, drain off the water by turning the jar upside down.
Shake the beans on to the side of the jar and place the jar with this side
down in a dark cabinet.



Each day rinse the beans and developing sprouts with water, pouring
off the excess water each time.

By the fourth day of rinsing, the sprouts should be at least an inch
long and ready for using.

When the sprouts reach the desired state of development, place them
in cold water and wash to remove seed coats, fibrous roots, and other un-
desirable residue. The sprouts are best eaten soon after washing, but can
be stored for several days at 40-450F.

Commercial Production of Bean Sprouts

Again the methods used by different producers are quite varied, yet
the principles are the same.

In most instances, according to Beeskow (Michigan State), the beans
are soaked in water at 700F for eight hours and then transferred to large
uncovered metal tanks in quantity to produce a depth of about 12 inches of
beans. Tanks may be 90 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. A mechan-
ical sprinkling device waters the sprouts. The sprinkler moves from one
end of the tank to the other once every 4 hours.

The waterings hold the sprouts at a moderate temperature, wash out
accumulated carbon dioxide and the other wastes, and replenish the oxygen
supply. Under these conditions the hypoctyl (sprout) emerges from the seed
coat during the first day of germination. Growth is rapid, with the sprouts
reaching the desired size in about 5 days. The best sprouts are considered
to be 3-1/2 inches long with a diameter of 1/8 inch. Under the conditions
just outlined, considerable non-uniformity in size and shape has been en-

Nutritional Aspects

Nutrient composition tables (Cal. Ag. Bul. 788) show the following for
1-1/8 cups or 100 grams of mung bean sprouts: 0 refuse; 25 calories; 92 g
water; 2.7 g protein; 0.1 g fat; 3.5 g carbohydrates; 25 I.U. Vit. A; 0.11 mg
thiamine; 0.03 mg riboflavin; 6 mg niacin; 20 mg calcium; 6 mg iron; 16 mg
magnesium; 35 mg phosphorus; 130 mg potassium; and 2 mg sodium.

The vitamin C content of mung bean sprouts has been studied from a nu-
tritional standpoint. In one report, the vitamin C content ranged from 0.06
mg per gram of dried beans up to 0.346 mg per gram of fresh sprouts. Max-
imum vitamin C was reached during the second day of germination. However,
at this stage, the sprouts were quite small.


Bean sprouts may be used either raw or cooked. They may be used in
stews and soups; they may take the place of onions or mushrooms in fried or
roasted dishes; or they may be eaten raw as a salad. Most bean sprouts



produced commercially are canned before reaching the market. Obviously, the
most palatable sprouts are those produced and eaten fresh.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $187.46 or 31 3
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.

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