Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00139
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1978
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00139
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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August 2, 1978

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

C. B. Hall
Acting Chairman

R. D. William
Assistant Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.

M. E. Marvel

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

James Montelaro


FROM: R. D. William, Assistant Professor & Extension Vegetable Specialist




A. Index for 1977-78 Vegetarian Newsletters

B. Tomato Growers' Institute Plans for 1978 Last


A. Greenhouse & Hydroponic Tomato Production in Florida

B. Problems in Starting Vegetables During Summer Months in

C. Weeds, Insects, and Crop Management


A. Toxic Lead and Cadmium in Florida Gardens

B. Know Your Vegetables Roquette

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

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A. Index for 1977-78 Vegetarian Index

The 1977-78 index to the Vegetarian Newsletter is enclosed for your
reference. Based on our production season for vegetables, the index con-
tains the titles of articles printed between July 1, 1977 and June 30,
1978. We suggest that the index and the twelve monthly issues of the
Vegetarian Newsletter beginning with 77-7 and ending with 78-6 be main-
tained as a reference. Previous indexes of the Vegetarian Newsletter are
available upon request from this office beginning with a general index
from the early fifties to 1971 followed by yearly indexes thereafter.


B. Tomato Growers' Institute Plans for 1978 Last Announcement

Plans have been finalized for the Annual Tomato Growers' Institute.
It is set for Thursday, September 7, 1978 and is to be held at 18710 SW
288th Street (County Agents' Office) Homestead, Florida. The program
promises to be a good one. A detailed copy of the program will be mailed.
Please put this date on your calendar now and make definite plans to at-



A. Greenhouse & Hydroponic Tomato Production in Florida

The increase in the number of greenhouse and hydroponic units in
Florida over the past two or three years has brought to light a number of
problems not noted before. Growers anticipating going into this type of
production should realize that it is not trouble-free as one may be led
to believe. We asked our Extension Nematologists, Plant Pathologist, Ento-
mologists, and Vegetable Specialists -- "What production problems have you
noted in greenhouse and hydroponic tomato culture in Florida recently"?
The replies produced an impressive list as follows:

(1) White flies
(2) Root and foliage aphids
(3) Leaf Miners
(4) Pinworms
(5) Cutworms & foliage-feeding caterpillars


(6) Nematodes
(7) Bacterial Wilt
(8) Fusarium Wilt
(9) Pythium root rot
(10) Cladosporium leaf mold
(11) Viruses
(12) Poor fruit set & fruit disorders
(13) Nutritional disorders

On a number of occasions, part or all of a greenhouse or hydroponic
tomato crop had to be destroyed as a result of one or more of the above
problems. Crops produced under hydroponic culture are subject to total
infestations and crop loss. Introduction of a pest in the nutrient solu-
tion which is recirculated means that every plant is subjected to the
pest. Nutrient solution-borne pests like bacterial and Fusarium wilt,
nematodes, root aphids and Pythium root rot are next to impossible to con-
trol once introduced into the solution.

It can be seen that greenhouse and hydroponic tomato production is
subject to many problems; some quite serious. Growers anticipating this
type of production as a commercial venture should realize that, like any
other, it is subject to many potentially disastrous problems.


B. Problems in Starting Vegetables During Summer Months in Florida

"Stretching" production of some vegetables into mid-summer in Florida
is a hazardous business. Planting late in spring for summer harvest is
gamble enough, but growers who try starting crops in mid-summer are really
tempting disaster. It is true that some succeed in producing fair crops
and marketing them at a profit. However, many fail miserably.

The most serious problems are encountered when vegetable growers try
to start "fall" crops one or two months early. July and early August
weather, especially, can be disastrous to seed and seedlings. Overall,
the problems generally are as follows:

(1) Poor germination and seedling development
(2) Extremely heavy pressure from nematodes, insects and diseases
(3) Poor fruit set and product quality
(4) Some crop injury or even total destruction from heavy rains,
hurricanes, early fall frosts, etc.

Cultural practices can be modified to overcome some of the problems.
For instance, frequent overhead irrigation to reduce temperatures on the
soil surface has been used to aid germination of seed and transplant sur-



Little, if anything, can be done by the grower to improve fruit set
and product quality under adverse weather conditions. The same is true
of other weather hazards except for frost. Growers can protect fully-
grown crops from frost damage. Properly operated overhead sprinkler ir-
rigation can, in most cases, save vegetable crops which might otherwise
be killed. Any practice which might reduce freeze and frost injury should
be considered carefully and used if proven to be economical.

Growers who choose to grow vegetable crops under the severe conditions
of summer should pay special attention to pest control. Nematodes should
be controlled with a pre-plant soil treatment. Diseases and insects, on
the other hand, require constant attention to the details of identification
of pests, selection of pesticides, timing, coverage, etc. Insect and dis-
ease pressure in mid-summer can be many times greater than under normal
planting conditions. Here again, even the best effort may prove futile.

In brief, planting of vegetable crops in mid-summer is extremely
hazardous in Florida. Any grower attempting to do so should understand
the need for increased efforts to (1) obtain good germination; (2) control
severe disease insect and nematode outbreaks and; (3) continually
counteract the effects of leaching rains, hurricane storms, early frost
and other weather hazards.


C. Weeds, Insects and Crop Management

Weeds are often defined as plants growing where they are not desired.
In vegetable fields, most plants other than the desired crop are considered
to be weeds and, therefore, become targets of the cultivator or herbicide.
Recently, however, considerable scientific evidence is beginning to sug-
gest that certain weeds provide food sources such as pollen and nectar for
beneficial insects. Weeds also host larger populations of diverse prey for
beneficial insect predators. For example, at Belle Glade AREC, W. G. Genung
observed fewer vegetable leaf miner larvae (Liriomyza sativae) infesting
celery near the drainage ditch where increased populations of flowering weed
species were growing than elsewhere in the field. Evidence also suggests
that surrounding areas adjacent to fields can influence the populations of
beneficial insects. In the Quincy tomato region, many agriculturists have
speculated that the limited use of broad spectrum insecticides and the iso-
lated fields have resulted in minimal evidence of leaf miner, even though
the insect is found in the area.

In other situations, weeds are a preferred host for some pest insects.
Note, for example, the list of insects and weed hosts presented in Table 1.
Some weeds, especially pigweed (Amaranthus sp.), legume cover crops
(Crotalaria sp. and Sesbania sp.) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea), are



preferred hosts to several general groups of insects such as armyworms,
cutworms, stinkbugs and others. Although these insects prefer the weeds
mentioned above, they will move to a nearby crop when the food source
(preferred weed host) is consumed or is destroyed by man. Thus, vegetable
growers are advised to carefully observe the weed or plant flora to deter-
mine whether pest insects are present before destroying the weed hosts.

Another situation includes specific weeds or plants that provide a
physical or biological interference between the crop and insect pests.
Although some of the following examples may seem more intriguing or experi-
mental, they may spark your imagination and result in being adapted in a
vegetable management system in Florida. Strip cropping cotton and alfalfa
in California or intercropping corn and beans in the tropics reduced the
incidence of pest insects associated with the crops by increasing beneficial
insects in the plant community. A green weedy or artificial green back-
ground under collards and Brussels sprouts reduced common insect pests of
the Brassica family because the insect's ability to detect the crop is de-
creased. Flea beetles became confused or avoided a collard crop inter-
planted with tomato or tobacco. In Colombia, either planting two common
grasses, goosegrass (Eleusine indica) and red sprangletop (Leptochloa
filiformis), around dry beans or spraying an extract of the grasses over the
beans reduced the colonization and reproductive efficiency of leafhoppers.

These are a few examples of weed-insect relationships that can effect
crop management decisions and practices. As Genung and Orsinego advised
in 1970, "the grower who knows the weed flora and its relationship to the
injurious insect fauna can utilize this information to control, delay or
reduce occurence of particular insects in crops".

NOTE: This article was adapted from information compiled by William, R. D.
1978. Weed Management in Vegetable Crops. Invited paper presented at the
Tenth Anniversary meeting of the Philippine Weed Science Society, Manila,
May 1978.



Table 1. Examples of weed hosts

Weed host

for many vegetable insect pests in Florida,

Insects found infesting weeds

Pigweed family
- Mostly (Amaranthus spinosus)

Legume family
- Wild cowpea (Vigna marina)
- Crotalaria sp.

- Sesbania sp.

- Tick clover (Desmodium sp.) and
other legumes.
Grass and Sedge families
- Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.) and
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica)
Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and
Cucurbit family
- Wild cucurbits including ubiquitous
balsamapple (Momordica charatia)
creeping cucumber tMel ithria pendula)
Okeechobee gourd (Pepo
Cabbage family
- Wild mustard (Brassica juncea and
B. kaber), pepper weed (Lepidium
virginicum), Tansey mustard
(Sisymbrium sp.) and wild cresses.

Wild mustard only

Granulate cutworm (Feltia subterranea)
Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon)
Southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania)
Beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua)
Banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata)
Cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)
Garden fleahopper (Halticus bractatus)

Cowpea curculio (Chalcodermus aeneus)
Lima bean pod borer (Etiella zinchkenella)
Stinkbug complex (Nezara sp. and Euscnistus sp.)
Leaffooted plant bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus)
Stinkbug complex (Nezara sp. and Euschistus sp.)
Bean leaf roller (Urbanus proteus)

Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus)

Pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis)
Melonworm (D. hyalinata)
Striped cucumber beetle (Acalyma vittata)
Squash bug (Anasa tristis)

Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella)
Turnip aphid (Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae)
Green peach aphid (M zus persicae)
Imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae)
Gulf white cabbageworm (P. monuste)
Harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica)
Southern green stinkbug (Nezara viridua)
Granulate cutworm (Feltia subterranea)
Saltmarsh caterpillar (Estigmene acrea)

(Continued on next page)



Table 1 (Continued)

Weed host

Insects found infesting weeds

Composite family
- Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

- Beggar tick (Bidens pilosa)
- Hairy galinsoga (Galinsoga ciliata)
Solanum family
- Nightshade (Solanum sp.)

Sweet potato family
- Wild morningglories (Ipomoea sp.)

Purslane family
- Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Long horned stem borer (Hippopsis lemnescata)
Salt marsh caterpillar and red-legged grasshopper
(Melanoplus femurrubrum)
Long horned stem borer and salt marsh catepillar
Cabbage looper and various species of armyworms

Convict bug (Coreocoris sp.)
Green peach aphid and a host for Microtalus
malleifera, a vector of pseudo curly top virus.

Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus)
Southern armyworm, sweet potato hornworm (Agrius
cingulatus) and others

Various species of cutworms

Adapted from: Genung, W. G. and J. R. Orsenego, 1970. Some insect-weed inter-relationships
that the grower should know. Florida State Horticultural Society. 83:161-165.



A. Toxic Lead and Cadmium in Florida Gardens

With the rise in interest and escalated activity of city gardening has
come an accompanying bugaboo side effect -- possible pollution poisoning.
Around the U.S., the primary culprits of suspect are lead and cadmium. Con-
cern is centered on these two heavy metals because health authorities warn
of possible health hazards when ingested in large enough quantities, and be-
cause both are known to be present as pollutants near garden plots in urban

We in Florida need to be aware of possible dangers from these and other
environmental pollutants, for urban gardening is burgeoning throughout the
state. A federally funded urban gardening program called "Gardening Lots"

__~ ~___~~~_~_~
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is underway in Jacksonville at this time with the possibility of other
Florida cities to be included later.

Increased levels of lead and cadmium are present in the air and soil
in cities as a result of automobile traffic and related exhaust emissions.
Perhaps highest levels result from old pipes, lead-based paints, and other
building rubble that may be found as litter on vacant lots used for gardens.

There is much yet to be learned concerning the possible dangers from
lead, cadmium and other pollutants. Other states have been studying the
problem for several months. Cornell University has analyzed garden soils
and vegetables in New York City to determine if it is hazardous to grow
vegetables in an urban environment. Their preliminary tests have shown
that New York City garden crops do not present any apparent health hazard.

Garden crops tested at Cornell had somewhat lower cadmium concentra-
tions than vegetables purchased in the local market. Garden tomatoes,
cucumbers, squash, eggplant, and peppers grown in New York City were as low
as or lower than market samples in both lead and cadmium. However, in some
garden vegetables, lead concentrations were slightly more than those of
market samples. Conclusions were that lead intake by adults still was well
below World Health Organization (WHO) standards for weekly intake tole-

Since WHO has not established a tolerance level for children, there
remains a question of possible danger to the very young from these increased
levels occasionally encountered.

In California, gardeners are advised not to grow vegetables near busy
streets where auto exhaust may contaminate vegetables. In Boston, concerned
groups are testing urban garden soils and testing plant tissue samples. As
a result, the Extension Service of Boston's Suffolk County is issuing public
statements to gardeners on ways to avoid lead and cadmium contamination.

Because of the potential dangers, a symposium "Toxic-Element Studies:
Food Crops and Urban Vegetable Gardens" was sponsored by the New York City
Gardening Program. From the symposium it was concluded that more investiga-
tion is needed, and states were advised to monitor soils and food plants
grown in urban situations.

Therefore, we plan to test the garden soils and vegetables from the
Jacksonville Urban Gardening project for lead and cadmium. With this infor-
mation, we will be in a better position to advise gardeners of possible



B. Know Your Vegetables Roquette

Roquette (Eruca sativa Mill.) is also known as true rocket, rocket
salad, tira, arrugula, and in England as white pepper. The name 'rocket'
derives from the French 'roquette', a diminutive form of the Latin eruca,
the Italian 'ruccetta', and medieval French Provencal 'roqueto'.

Roquette is a low growing, 8 to 24 inch, annual with dull-green,
deeply-cut, compound leaves. The edible leaves are characterized by a
distinctive spicy, pungent flavor resembling horseradish.

The plant belongs to the cruciferae family and is a close relative
of the mustards. Its sharp tasting leaves are used in a young tender
stage in salads and sometimes cooked as a potherb. The plant was spoken
of by old writers as a good salad herb, but they cautioned, "if rocket be
eaten alone it causeth headache and heateth too much, therefore it must
be eaten with lettuce or purslane". Ancients such as the Egyptains and
Italians often used the leaves in salads as an aphrodisiac. A classical
Latin poem mentions them as "foul provocative of lust".

Roquette is a very minor crop in the U.S. In Florida, it is grown
to a very limited extent in home vegetable gardens. Seeds often are
listed in a seed company catalogs- under the category of herbs. It is a
cool season vegetable plant best grown in Florida during the same season
as for radishes fall, winter, and spring. It matures from seed in two
to three months. Periods of very warm temperatures cause it to bolt (go
to seed) rather quickly.

In the garden, thin seedling plants to 3 to 4 inches apart in the row.
Should more than one row be desired, space the rows 12 inches apart. Apply
fertilizer and plant using similar recommended practices for commonly grown
vegetables. Few pests will bother roquette, perhaps due to its pungency.

Harvest leaves a few at the time, so that others will continue to
sprout from the main stalk. Use them when young and tender.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 178.00
or 30 4 per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and
educational material to extension, research and industry personnel".

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