Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00124
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00124
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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3026 McCarty Hall Vegetable Crops Department Gainesville, Florida

June 1, 1977

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly

James Montelaro

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

R. D. William
Assistant Professor

Wanell S. Cheshire


FROM: R. D. William Extension Vegetable Specialist





A. Irrigation Value In Watermelon Production in 1977

B. Aids To Field Diagnosis: Portable pH and Soluble Salt Meters

C. Herbicide Registration For Minor Crop Uses


A. Timely Gardening Topics

B. Know Your Vegetables Ornamental Gourds

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




A. Irrigation -- Value In Watermelon Production In 1977

For many years, we have advised growers in Florida not to attempt vegetable
production without an adequate irrigation system. Watermelon growers as a group,
more so than any other, have failed to heed this advice. This is especially true
in central, north and west Florida. The 1977 season, one of the driest springs on
record, will probably cause many growers to have second thoughts before attempting
to produce watermelons without irrigation in future years.

A tour of watermelon plantings grown on sandy soils from central to west
Florida clearly demonstrated the benefits of irrigation. Many growers without
irrigation experienced almost total failure. First-crop watermelons were small,
badly bleached from lack of leaf cover and of poor quality. Non-irrigated fields
showing poorly developed vines and small, misshapen and in many cases "soft-ended"
or blossom-end rotted fruits were common. Many growers pruned undesirable melons
from the vines in hopes of obtaining a later crop from late May and June rains.
Considerable labor cost was incurred from this practice alone.

In contrast, the 1977 season proved to be a very good one for growers pro-
ducing watermelons under irrigation. Yields in irrigated fields were excellent,
quality and size good, and prices satisfactory.

In a series of meetings with watermelon growers last fall and winter, vege-
table extension specialists tried to discourage the production of watermelons without
adequate irrigation. We have been stressing the point that growers would be better
off concentrating their efforts on less acreage with more intensive cultural practices.
Growers who have tried irrigation together with proper rates, timing, placement and
sources of fertilizer, adequate lime and good pest control feel that it paid off. Many
have doubled or tripled their yields. High yields in most cases have helped to keep
unit costs in a range which permitted growers to make a fair profit in most seasons.


Even under conditions of short droughts of 10 to 14 days, irrigation can
pay. During the period of rapid fruit enlargement, adequate soil moisture is of
utmost importance. A minor shortage at that stage of development can result in
reduced fruit size and, possibly, shrivelled blossom-ends.

In summary, irrigation for watermelons has proved its worth this season
and over the past decade. Growers presently not using irrigation should give it
serious consideration for future crops.

B. Aids To Field Diagnosis: Portable pH and Soluble Salt Meters

In the field diagnosis of crop problems, a rapid assessment of soil pH and
total soluble salts can be of great help to extension agents, commercial field men,
and agricultural consultants. Light weight, reliable, portable pH meters and
soluble salt meters are now available at fairly low cost. There are several differ-
ent types of portable meters available, but we have only procured and field-tested
the pH meter manufactured by Corning Scientific Instruments Company and a soluble
salt meter from the Myron L. Meter Company. Mention of these two products does not
constitute endorsement. Names and addresses of manufacturers of portable pH and
salt meters will be furnished on request by writing G. A. Marlowe, Jr., Vegetable
Extension Specialist, UF/AREC/Bradenton 33508.

Both meters are relatively simple to operate. The validity of results de-
pend on the preparation of the sample and thorough knowledge of the meter and its
capability. Agents interested in a soluble salt meter should try to procure
a model which reads directly in parts per million (ppm) because most of the I and
B results reported in IFAS research are in ppm and a conversion multiplication from
micromhos to ppm can be eliminated.

The samples most frequently encountered are likely to be irrigation waters,
sandy soils, and plant growing media. Each salt meter should be calibrated, using
a standard solution of known concentration. A standard solution can be prepared


using a chemically pure (CP) or reagent grade salt, a good balance, and distilled
water. Remember that 1 mgm of a salt (such as KC1) in 1 liter of water equals one
part per million. A KC1 standard of 2000 ppm (made by dissolving 2000 mgm (2 gms)
in 1000 ml (liter) of distilled water) has been very useful in calibrating meters
in the southwest Florida area.

1. Well water samples can be read directly on both meters. The pH meter
discussed has a temperature correction knob which should be adjusted for the temp-
erature of water. These meters correlate quite well with the laboratory pH meter
and the Wheatstone Bridge, respectively. The circuit test button should be checked
before reading samples on the portable salt meter. The pH meter should be tested
against a known pH standard solution. A small quantity of a pH standard is usually
provided with each pH meter.

2. Moderately moist sandy soil samples should be prepared with distilledwater
by mixing two volumes of soil to one volume of water, stirring for about one minute.
Enough of the liquid portion should be poured into the salt.meter test chamber to
cover the upper metal contact point.

The sample reading should be multiplied by a correction factor of 5 to give
results similar to the laboratory equipment for testing soluble salts. The pH
reading can be made directly on this 2 to 1 solution.

3. Plant growing media samples are quite different from sandy soil samples.
With moderately moist media samples a proportion of one volume of media to two
volumes of distilled water is desired. The media should be stirred for about a
minute in the distilled water. The liquid portion should be separated for the pH
or salt tests. The pH samples can be read directly, but the total salt reading
should be multiplied by a factor of 5 to correlate with laboratory equipment.

Both pieces of equipment are relatively durable if proper care is taken.
The probe for the pH meter should not be used as a stirring rod! The probe
should be inserted into the liquid sample before turning the pH meter on, and


be rinsed with distilled water between samples. When not in use the probe should
be soaked in distilled water if possible.

Crop problems in the field are not necessarily solved by a pH or soluble
salt reading, but these bits of information can contribute to an orderly approach
to the diagnostic process.

C. Herbicide Registration for Minor Crop Uses

Several persons have requested information pertaining to herbicide registra-
tion for minor crop uses or for changes in label approval of modified application
methods. The comments of Ms. Mary C. Harris, Division of Inspection, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services; Mr. James E. Brogdon, UF IR-4 Liaison
Representative; and Dr. Richard L. Lipsey, UF Pesticide Chemical Coordinator are
summarized below:

Determine first if a residue tolerance level has been established in the
crop for the herbicide in question. Examples of established tolerances are where
the herbicide is already registered in another state for use in the same crop, or
when a changed use pattern is preferred, such as aerial versus ground application

Special local need registrations If residue tolerance limits exist,
applications for a "special local need registration" (sometimes referred to as a
"24(c) label" from FIFRA, Section 24(c))may be requested from the Division of
Inspection, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in Tallahassee.
Preferably, the basic manufacturer should be encouraged to seek the 24(c) label
for use within Florida. However, some basic manufacturers are unwilling to assume
the liability associated with registering an herbicide for many minor crop uses.



Any organization or individual can apply for a "special local need
registration". Distribution of these 24(c) labels is the responsibility of
the registrant and may be limited to use within the organization or by the
individual listed as the registrant. If other organizations or individuals
wish to become registrants for exactly the same chemical, application methods,
etc., they may also apply for a 24(c) label with their name listed as registrant.
Implications of liability pertaining to registrants other than the basic manufac-
turer are not yet clearly defined. For example, one law states that the basic
manufacturer is still responsible even though they may not be consulted or even
in agreement with the 24(c) labelling of their product by another party.

In addition to completing and submitting the request for a "special local
need registration", scientific data including weed control efficacy and phyto-
toxicity data, crop yields, etc., must be submitted for evaluation and approval
purposes. The information may be supplied by the applicant, by authorized govern-
mental agencies, or both. Testimonials are not considered scientific data.

IR-4 registrations If tolerance levels have not been established for the
crop and herbicide in question, an IR-4 registration may be sought. In this case,
the IR-4 Liaison Representative, Mr. James E. Brogdon, should be consulted because
both efficacy data and tolerance data must be obtained and the basic manufacturer
must ultimately seek the label registration. Obviously, fewer chemicals will be
registered using this procedure due to the increased data requirements and basic
manufacturers' decisions related to estimated profit/risk margins associated with
the chemicals used in that crop.

For additional information, you may contact any of the persons mentioned
in this article including myself. Application forms and related information can
be obtained from the Division of Inspection, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida.



A. Timely Gardening Topics

Four timely topics on vegetable gardening are offered each month to assist
Extension agents in developing periodic (weekly) radio and newspaper shorts.

1. 'Floramerica' A New Tomato Variety for the Home Gardener -- A new
improved variety of tomato, named 'Floramerica', has been developed by the Univer-
sity of Florida and should be available to home gardeners by spring of 1978. It
has received and will continue to receive much publicity due to its Bronze Medal
Award winning performance in the 1974 All-America Vegetable Variety Trials. This
award means that 'Floramerica' is adapted to a wide range of growing conditions,
since it received good ratings in many states.

In many ways, the new variety resembles 'Walter' which has become the stand-
ard variety in Florida. Both are bush or ground (determinate) tomatoes, meaning
they have bushy growth habit rather than tall, vining habit of indeterminate
varieties such as 'Floradel'.

Under suitable conditions, 'Floramerica' loads up with fruits, usually from
15 to 25 fruits on the plant at one time. Fruit-size is generally large, with some
fruits on each plant measuring over three inches in diameter. While overall fruit
quality is good, fruits tend to be a bit soft at full maturity. In taste,
'Floramerica' is comparable to 'Walter'.

Disease resistance contributes to its potential as a good Florida home
garden variety. While it is not immune from attack by all common diseases in
Florida, it is resistant to such notorious ones as Fusarium wilt and gray leafspot.

Gardeners wishing to try 'Floramerica' should have little trouble finding
seeds or plants by the spring of 1978. Most major seed companies likely will
offer seeds for sale in their 1978 seed catalogs. Likewise, due to the widespread
publicity, many garden supply stores around the state should have transplants
available about February through April.


2. Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes -- To say that the long drought of this
spring has adversely affected gardening in north Florida is certainly a gross
understatement. While the results of drought are many, one which should be blamed
on the dry weather is blossom-end rot of tomato (also affects others such as pep-
pers and watermelons).

Tomato fruits are most commonly affected by this non-parasite disease when
they are one-third to one-half grown. However, they may be affected at most any
stage. The first sign is a darkened, slightly depressed spot near the blossom-end
of the fruit. The spot becomes brown and enlarges until as much as one-third to
one-half of the fruit surface is covered. As it becomes large, the surface of the
spot becomes flattened, almost black, and quite leathery. There is no soft rotting
of the spot unless it is invaded by bacteria or fungi.

The basic cause of the disorder is an inadequate supply of calcium to the
developing fruit. Proper liming helps maintain an adequate level of calcium in
the soil. Yet, even with sufficient soil calcium, other conditions can and often
do bring on a lack of calcium in the fruit, resulting in blossom-end rot. Infre-
quent watering or fluctuations in the water supply (going from dry to wet, or
vice versa) tend to increase blossom-end rot. Applications of other fertilizer
materials which interfere with the uptake of calcium by the plant also contribute
to the disorder. Since calcium does not readily move about in the plant from
older to younger tissues, any temporary disruption of its constant supply results
in injury to the developing tissue at the blossom-end. To avoid the disorder,
make sure the soil is well supplied with calcium, then maintain a steady, uniform
moisture level in the soil.

Once the disorder starts to appear, it is usually too late to correct by
applying soil applications of lime or gypsum (calcium sulfate). Further develop-
ment on unaffected fruits can be decreased by spraying the foliage with calcium
chloride solutions. Mix in water at the rate of 4 tablespoonfuls per gallon of
water. Spray 1 gallon per 400 square feet. On an acre basis, mix 4 pounds calcium
chloride to 100 gallons of water. Do not exceed these rates, as leaves can be


burned with excessive amounts of the chemical. Spray once a week for minimum
occurrences, or twice weekly for severe cases. Avoid prolonged use (over 3 weeks).
The salt may be mixed with most commonly available fungicides and insecticides. Calciun
nitrate may also be used where available; calcium sulfate, however, is too insoluble
for application by spraying.
3. Gardening Conversions -- Quite often label directions for use of both
liquid and dry materials suggest amounts in measurements not easily made by the
average home gardener. Therefore, it becomes necessary for the gardener to make
conversions based on his size garden and application methods. For example,
directions on a pesticide container may suggest 4 pounds per 100 gallons per acre.
The gardener, however, wishes to use a lesser amount for his small plot, so must
make mathematical conversions. The following table should help gardeners with
some of the more basic and frequently used conversions.

1 teaspoon (tsp. level) = .17 fluid ounce
1 tablespoon (level) = 1/2 fluid ounce
3 teaspoons (level) = 1 tablespoon (level)
2 tablespoons (tbs. level) = 1 fluid ounce
8 fluid ounces 1 cup
2 cups = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
454 grams = 1 pound
1 cup ammonium nitrate = 7 ounces
1 quart ammonium nitrate = 28 ounces or 1 3/4 Ibs.
1 pint hydrated lime = 11 ounces
1 quart dolomite = 25 ounces
1 ounce Captan (WP) = 3 1/2 tbs.
1 ounce copper sulfate (soluble powder) = 1 2/3 tbs.
1 ounce Chlordane (WP) = 3 tbs.
1 ounce Kelthane (WP) = 5 tbs.
1 ounce Malathion (WP) = 4 tbs.
1 ounce Methoxychlor (WP) = 4 tbs.
1 ounce pyrethrum (powder) = 5 tbs.
1 ounce Sevin (WP) = 6 tbs.



1 ounce Sulfur (WP) = 3 tbs.
1 ounce Toxaphene (WP) = 3 tbs.
1 ounce Zineb (WP) = 3 2/3 tbs.

NOTE: These measurements will vary slightly with differing formulations,
but they should be helpful to gardeners making necessary conversions.

Finally, here are two rough approximations for use when no better figures
are available.

1.) For each pound of wettable powder suggested for 100 gallons, use one
level tablespoon in one gallon of water.

2.) For each pint of liquid (concentrate or emulsion) suggested for 100
gallons of water, use one level teaspoon in one gallon of water.

4. Summer Vegetable Garden Summertime in Florida is probably the most
difficult time of the year to grow a vegetable garden. By late June, most of the
vegetables that were planted in February and March will have been harvested or
soon will be nearing that stage. Particularly, most of the cool season vegetables
will be long gone, except for some late cabbage, Bibb lettuce, collards, second
crop mustard, and perhaps some lingering rutabagas. Fast growing and maturing
warm-seasoned crops, like beans, summer squash, and cucumbers usually are harvested.
Sweet corn, lima beans, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, southern peas, sweet potatoes
and okra are providing most of the late June activity.

But what to plant behind all those matured crops? Hot, wet weather will
narrow the choices to the following: Collard greens, mustard, New Zealand spinach,
okra, sweet potatoes, cherry tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, butter beans, and lots
of southern peas. Southern peas are an especially good choice even if they don't
produce a lot of peas when planted in June. They make a good summertime cover
crop producing a lot of vine that can be plowed under. Spring planting of egg-
plant and peppers may produce through the summer and ending in a fall crop. So
for those who are willing to brave the frequent, heavy cloudbursts, long hot days
with their effect on fruit set, and innumerable insects and diseases, there is
still a lot of good activity to be had in the Florida garden in the summertime.


For those who are closing out their garden until the fall or later,
there are certain chores needing attention.

Clean up and put away gardening tools, equipment, and materials. Remove
caked soil and rust from rakes, hoes, plows, trowels, and other soil-contact
tools. Using an oily rag, coat all metal surfaces. Be especially mindful to
clean and oil sprayers and fertilizer spreaders, as these are extremely suscep-
tible to rust and corrosion. Sprayers should be dismantled and parts such as
nozzles, screens, and gaskets washed in kerosene or mineral spirits. A sprayer
which has been used for chemical weed control should be used only for that purpose
since most weed killers are hard to wash out of a sprayer. Sensitive vegetable
plants later may be injured by a mere trace of the chemical remaining in a sprayer.

Dusters should be wiped clean and moving parts cleaned. All tools and
equipment should be stored out of the weather and each should have its own place
for safety and convenience.

At the end of the gardening season, there usually are several opened bags
of chemicals, such as insecticides, fungicides, and baits lying around; some
without identification. Play it safe and completely dispose of chemicals which
cannot be positively identified. Make sure the others are properly bagged,
labeled, and stored. Many of the chemicals are poison and should be treated as
such. Store them where pets, livestock, and children cannot reach them. Leftover
seed which have been treated with a chemical are also poisonous and should be
either disposed of or stored in a safe, dry place. Small batches of seed should
be discarded and new seed bought the following season, for seeds improperly stored
lose their viability and the cost of good, new seed is good insurance for a suc-
cessful garden.

As a final thought, keep the garden plot in good shape during the summertime
by either leaving it fallow (no plants) or by growing a cover crop.




B. Know Your Vegetables Ornamental Gourds

Ornamental gourds are the gaily-colored, oddly-shaped, squash-like fruits
of plants belonging to several genera and species of the Cucurbitaceae family.
They are closely related to the edible squashes and pumpkins, and belong to such
genera and species as Laqenaria siceraria, Luffa cylindrica, Benincasa hispida,
Cucurbita pepo var. ovifera and Cucurbita maxima.

It is usually the fruit that is considered ornamental rather than the
growing plant. These fruit are generally most useful and attractive as ornaments
when the pulp dries and the shell becomes hard. There are many, many shapes and
colors of these fancy gourds -- some are warty, some are smooth, some long, some
round, some striped, and some banded. For the most part, they are not considered
edible; however, some are edible if eaten at an immature stage, such as the luffa
gourd sometimes called running okra. Furthermore, a few of the edible squashes
are quite ornamental when mature. Two such examples are the yellow crookneck
squash and the turban (Turk's-cap) squash.

Most all of the fancy gourds have long, climbing, creeping stems. They
can be grown on trellises, arbours, or fences, thus making rather attractive dis-
play plantings.

While the number of varieties is almost unlimited, with new kinds being
constantly raised from seed, the following kinds are probably more common.

Turks Cap -- This 5-10 pound edible turban squash has a round orange bottom
with top one-third a protruding cream colored "acorn" or "navel". Rind is relatively
soft and fairly smooth.

Club Gourds -- Are shaped somewhat like a bowling pin.


Luffa Gourds -- Also called running okra and dish-rag gourd. Pods have
sharp ribs running lengthwise; from 1 to 3 feet long; best eating quality when
1 to 2 inches diameter; when mature, pulp dries to consistency of rag.

Siphon Gourds -- Have a large, 8 to 12 inches broad base and a long neck
which curves back alongside the base toward the ground. These should be grown on
the ground rather than trellises to prevent breaking the neck.

Calabash Pipe Gourds -- Are shaped much like a summer crook-neck squash,
but are smooth skinned. They are often painted and made up into penguin figures.

Bird House Gourds -- These jug-shaped gourds are often made into bird houses.

Pear Gourds -- Most of this kind are pear-shaped, but differ in color and
markings. Some are white and smooth; some have dark and light green stripes; some
have two colors, one half of which is yellow and the other green; some with two
colors have bands; others may be found with these different variegations in various

Apple and Orange Gourds -- These are round with slightly flat ends, smooth
textured, and either white or orange colored.

Flat Fancy Gourds -- These pumpkin shaped gourds are small, only 2-3 inches
diameter, and are striped or marbled with various shades of green.

Warty-skinned Fancy Gourds -- Small round gourds with warty surfaces colored
white, green, yellow, or orange.

Bottle Gourds -- Typical shape is a combination of a broad round base, a
bottle-neck, then a smaller round neck. There are many sizes, some holding as
much as two gallons.




Where grown -- Since they are so closely related to squashes and pumpkins,
ornamental gourds may be grown throughout Florida, they may be planted September
through March.

Planting time -- In north and central Florida, plant as soon as the danger
of killing frost is past; in south Florida, they may be planted September through

Seeding -- If a trellis is to be used, hills (1 to 2 seed each) may be
spaced every 12 to 24 inches at base of trellis. If planted in open garden, allow
4 feet between vines in the row and 4 feet between rows. Plant seed 1 to 2 inches
deep. Gourds do best if grown on a trellis.

Fertilization -- In addition to organic or animal manures used, apply at
planting time about two pounds of 6-8-8 fertilizer per 100 square feet of area
planted. You may broadcast this amount over the entire area and work well into
the soil; or, you may distribute it around each hill in a ring about 4 inches out
from the plants.

Diseases -- It is probable that the diseases downy mildew and powdery mildew
will be encountered while growing these plants; in fact, these two diseases may even
determine the success of growing these gourds in Florida. To control downy mildew
(yellowish brown spots on leaves), dust or spray with maneb or zineb. To control
powdery mildew (infected areas on leaves show whitish, powdery substance on surface),
spray or dust with Karathane.

Insects -- At some time or other various insects might attack the leaves,
blossoms, and fruit. Lindane or Malathion (dust or spray) should be used, preferably
on a preventive basis. Since bees are needed for pollination, apply these insecti-
cides late in afternoon to avoid bee injury.



Harvesting and Curing

Unlike edible squash which are picked in an immature stage, gourds should
be allowed to mature and dry on the vine if possible. Use sharp shears to harvest
the gourds; never twist them from the plant. Cut specimens with a few inches of
fruit stem attached.

Once harvested, the fruits may be washed in mild, warm soapy water; then
rinsed and dried. Lay gourds out to dry in a warm, sunny, well-ventilated place.

Uses of Gourds

As ornaments, the gourds may be used with natural colors and shape unchanged;
or, they may be sanded and painted in imaginative colors and designs. Odd shapes
of gourds often inspire certain modifications making them into figurines (for
example the calabash gourd is often called penguin gourd since it is easily made
into a penguin figurine). In addition to ornamental value, fruit bowls, dippers,
smoking pipes, bird houses, and toys are some of the practical uses made of them.

Preparing Gourds for Decorations

Shells should be dry and rough spots sandpapered. During curing, the thin
film-like outer skin may be scraped off. Sometimes during curing, mold growths
form on the shell in attractive patterns and may be left on.

More Information

One of the best publications available on gourds is "Gourds of All Types for
Garden and Market", by J. A. Martin, South Carolina Research Series No. 64, March,
1965, Clemson, South Carolina.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 525 or
89 cents per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical
and educational material to extension,research and industry personnel".

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