Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00120
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1977
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00120
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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February 1, 1977

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly

James Montelaro
G. A. Marlowe, Jr.

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor
R. D. William
Assistant Professor


FROM: James Montelaro, Extension Vegetable Specialist CQ, -, ,-t Lu

V'F.GC IA].:I.:I ]:EWSI.ETTUR 77-2



Rodent Damage-Prevention in Watermelon Crops
Vegetable Field Days Dates Set for Two in June


A. Soil Fumigants Vs. Granular Nematicides for Vegetable
Crops in Florida
B. Transplant Production Problems
C. Root Injury Prevention in Vegetable Crop
D. Cutworm Control in Watermelon
E. Tractor Furrow Weed Control for Tomatoes


A. Harvesting and hIanll inr. Freeze-Damaged Vegetables


Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables -

Vegetable Spaghetti

NOT(E: Anyorne is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, plAease give credit to the authors.

When ever

Their irnstwute of Food end Agricultural Sciences is an Ecqual Employrnent Opportunity Affirmative Action Enmponyr autholiJ .d to provide retIerch,
j. C. r ^+^n;^-r T i n ; i';;i~ t ;rrf 1 I knn It f, nm tion w!'i t niit -n"irl t-( r- rni' rnr 'v nr npin r -li I




A. Rodent Damage-Prevention in Watermelon Crops

Several growers have asked about preventing field rodents from eating
watermelon seed from the row after planting. To prevent rodent damage, water-
melon seed may be treated with a watermelon seed treatment kit. To the best of
our knowledge, these kits can be purchased from Asgrow Florida Company or Seminole


B. Vegetable Field Days Dates Set for Two in June

Dates for two Vegetable Field Days have been set. They are as follows:

I. Location Agricultural Research Center
Leesburg, Florida
Date and Time 1:15 PM, Wednesday, June 1, 1977
Crops Watermelon, Cantaloupe and Cukes

II. Location Vegetable Crops Department
Gainesville, Florida
Date and Time 9:30 AM, Thursday, June 2, 1977
Crops General Vegetables

A more detailed announcement on both field days will be sent out later.
Put these dates on your calendar and plan to attend both.


A. Soil Fumigants Vs. Granular Nematicides for Vegetable Crops in Florida

Vegetable growers in Florida are on the lookout for pesticides that are
easy to apply. They are especially interested in the possible use of the granular
nematicides (Mocap, Dasanit, Furadan and Nemacur) in the place of the liquid soil
fumigants. Equipment and application techniques for the granular nematicides are
simpler than those used for soil fumigants. The only questions are relative effi-
ciency and difficulties which may be encountered. We asked Dr. Robert A. Dunn,
Extension Nematologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University
of Florida to answer these questions. His reply is as follows:

"Many vegetable growers would like to use the new granular or
contact nematicide-insecticides for nematode control in their
vegetables this year. These materials are convenient to apply at
the time of planting or immediately before planting and many people
prefer to handle a granular material rather than a liquid fumigant.
However, there are several difficulties that should be considered
before making this important management decision: 1. Is the
material labeled for the specific use which you have in mind?
Several of these chemicals are labeled for low rates of use for insect
control but not at rates high enough for nematode control. If the label



does not indicate nematode control, do not try to use the material
for that purpose on that crop. A grower with several different crops
who wants one contact material that he can use for nematode control
on all of his crops is not very likely to find one. There is almost
no contact material which is labelled for a wide variety of crops.
Of course, use of an unlabelled material on a crop may result in
illegal residues and seizure and other legal penalties to the grower."

Contact materials offer very good control of many kinds of
nematodes, but fumigants are often superior to contacts for control
of rootknot nematodes. Since the rootknot nematodes are the principle
pests of vegetables in many parts of the state, this should be con-
sidered very seriously. Growers are strongly encouraged to use
fumigants wherever rootknot populations are moderate or higher where
susceptible vegetables are to be grown."

"A third pitfall of use of granular nematicides on vegetables
is the temptation on the part of the grower to put off soil preparation
until just before planting, thinking that it's not as necessary for
this kind of nematode control program as for the fumigants. That is
wrong. Destruction of roots by soil preparation several weeks in
advance of planting is just as important for successful use of the
contact nematicides as it is for the fumigants. Nematodes which are
protected inside unrotted plant roots may escape the effects of either
a fumigant or a contact nematicide and provide a ready source of
inoculum for infection of the crop."

"In short: granular nematicides should not be looked upon as
a shortcut to nematode control with less work; many vegetables do
not have contact nematicides available for legal use on them in
Florida; contact nematicides may not be as effective as soil fumigants
against high populations of rootknot nematodes. The grower should
balance these disadvantages carefully against high populations of
rootknot nematodes. The grower should balance these disadvantages
carefully against potential ease of application and additional control
of soil-borne insects that he may enjoy from use of these materials."

Anyone contemplating use of granular nematicides should read Dr. Dunn's
statement carefully. Any questions on this matter can be referred to him or
this office.

B. Transplant Production Problems

The production of vigorous, disease-free vegetable transplants is
an important part of growing a crop. The field grower depends heavily on his
plant source, expecting high quality plants to be ready at an agreed-upon date
for field setting. Plant production requires a special understanding of the many
details necessary to grow a balanced transplant. Attention to these details re-
quires a continual monitoring of the environment provided the young seedling.

Many tomato, pepper, and cucumber growers have started to grow their own
trarnsplan-s this year for the first time. Some have had tremendous success and
some have had problems they never knew existed. Most of the problems observed are
related to a practice sometimes referred to as "over-kill". In their concern to
produce excellent plants they may over-water, over-fertilize and/or over-spray.


Some growers spray seedlings 5 times with pesticides and apply 3 or more
nutrient feedings before the seedlings develop their first true leaves. Actually,
nutrient feedings before the first true leaves are visible usually do more harm than
good. The stored food in the seed is usually very adequate to carry the seedling
through the first leaf stage. The small root system could probably not absorb very
much of the extra feeding until that time anyway. Soluble salt readings in some of
these production media have been found to exceed 4000 ppm--about 3200 ppm more than
the level considered ideal for these tiny plants.

A sound, but not excessive pest control program is absolutely necessary.
Usually one good covering spray every 5-7 days of a recommended fungicide (Maneb
or Bravo) and one of the recommended insecticides (endosulfan:thiodan); (dimethoate:
Cygon, Defend); or (azinophosmethyl:Guthion) should provide good control. Plants
should not be sprayed when wet, and plants should not enter the night hours with wet
leaves, if this can be avoided.

A balanced transplant should have the following characteristics:

1. Root system should be large in proportion to top growth.
2. Seed leaves should be large, free of defects, and of a healthy green
color. These should persist until field setting.
3. Stems should be hairy, turgid, and with a slight purple tinge of color.
4. True leaves should be well spread, moderately dark green in color, with
no yellowing.

In the past three years the importance of the seed leaves has achieved new
significance. Recent research in Israel and Japan has shown that the condition of
the seed leaves is closely related to the days to flowering and fruit set. Cotyledons
(seed leaves) were removed or shielded from light in a wide array of combinations.
The number of days from cotyledon expansion in a Japanese tomato cultivar was as
follows (Chin, Phulscn and Beavers, 1972. Plant. Physiol. 49:482-489.


No. Cotyledons removed 1st cluster 2nd cluster 3rd cluster

0.0 39 46 54
1.0 43 50 57
1.5 46 52 59
2.0 49 57 62

The Israeli research on 'Cal Wonder' pepper seedlings showed that seed-leaf
removal or covering delayed pepper first bloom as much as 10 days (Ryalski and Halevy,
1972. HortScience 7:69-70). This could mean that the first cluster or crown set has
bDen blanked out or at least seriously thwarted and reduced in function.


The cotyledons tell us a great deal if we take the time to "read" them.
overwatering, drought, excess nitrogen, spray burn, inadequate light, toxic fumes
are but a few of the many factors which may cause one or more cotyledons to become
discolored, malfunctional, or drop from the seedling. Almost any serious stress can
throw the plant out of balance and cause the cotyledons to drop.

The first cluster of tomatoes or crown set of peppers is often the most
profitable in early market production. It pays to take the time and effort to
produce a steadily growing, healthy transplant.

C. Root Injury Prevention in Vegetable Crop

This is the second in a series of articles on root injury in vegetable crops.
The first dealt with factors contributing to this problem. This article points out
ways of avoiding root injury.

The primary injury to roots in vegetable crops is caused by soil nematodes,
diseases and insects. These three groups of soil pests can be attacked singly or all
together. The multi-purpose fumigants containing Chloropicrin, Methyl Bromide and
other chemicals, separately or in combination will give fair to good control of all
three soil pest groups. In addition, some weed seeds may be killed.

If a multi-purpose fumigant is not used, the three groups of soil pests
must be attacked separately. Crop rotation, alternate flooding and drying of land,
and complete decay of crop residues will help control all groups.

Soil nematodes alone can be controlled by use of the simple soil fumigants
of granular nematicides. Care should be exercised in the use of these materials.
Label instructions as to interval of time between application and planting, soil
mositure requirements, temperature effects, etc. should be adhered to closely.
Avoiding root injury to crops from soil pests is extremely important as there is
little, if anything, that can be done after the crop is planted.

The use of clean seed free of disease organisms, seed treatment with a
fungicide, and use of fungicide in the drill furrow will all tend to reduce root
diseases. Even depth of planting can play an important role in development of root
diseases. Seed should be as shallow as possible consistent with moisture needs to
obtain good germination. Deeply planted crops are much more subject to attack from
soil fungi than those planted to a lesser depth.

Soil insects causing root injury can be attacked in two ways. Seed treat-
ment with a good insecticide is inex.pensive insurance. Secondly, a broadcast
application of an approved insecticide disked into the soil prior to planting will
help control many soil insects.

The next three factors contributing to root injury are closely interrelated.
1lhe: are (1) salt injury, (2) misuse of fertilizer and (3) misuse of irrigation and
drainage. Salt injury is just another name for "fertilizer burn". Roots of young
seedlings are V- -r', susceptible to this type of injury. Young tomato seedlings can be
killed at levels less than 1000 ppm total soluble salts in the soil solution, i.lih-e-
as, full grown plants can withstand 4,000 ppm salts. The use of "in the drill"
application of fertilizer beneath, with, or above seeds should be. avoided. In
addition, split applications and use of low salt-index maLerials will do much to
reduce sal L injury to roots.

Since soluble salt concentrations are inversely proportional to soil
moisture contents, irrigation and drainage play an important role. Permitting soils
to dry out excessively increases the hazards of salt injury to a crop at any stage
of development. Overhead irrigation can be used to keep fertilizer concentrations
from building up excessively by moving them downward periodically. Overuse of
irrigation or poor drainage can cause injury by excluding oxygen from the root zone.
Quality of water used for irrigation must be taken into consideration, also. Use
of water high in salts can increase soluble salts significantly in a soil.

Plant roots often are damaged or retarded by certain properties which are
not conducive to normal root development. These include soil compaction, shallow
water tables, large clods, stoned, low soil temperatures, etc. Chemical damage can
result from pesticides or fertilizers formulated or used improperly. A hazard of
recent origin is injury from a herbicide used for the crop or previous crops. All
pesticides, fertilizers, and other amendments should be used with care to avoid root

Mechanical damage is results from the use of poor cultural practices. Roots
can be damaged by excessively close or deep cultivation, improper injection of
fertilizer and other materials, soil erosion and heavy wind. These problems can be
avoided, at least in part, with good production practices. The channeling and up-
rooting of small plants by certain soil and rodents can be controlled to a degree
with approved insects chemicals.

Most of the factors contributing to root injury in vegetables are discussed
here in a brief fashion. It should be noted that avoiding the problem from any
source is the most economical approach. The next article will deal with correction
of root injury after it occurs.

D. Cutworm Control in Watermelon

Cutworms may seriously damage newly planted watermelon, especially if the
melons are planted following pasture, sod, turf, or any grass crop. By walking through
the field every other day or so, growers can monitor the emergency and growth of their
crop, especially being alert for symptoms of cutworm damage. Initially, the cutworm
will nibble at the stem, and later the stem and cotyledons may be cut completely from
the root system.

If cutworm damage is observed, Dr. Freddie Johnson, Extension Entomologist,
suggests that either a 2.5% methomyl bait at the rate of 40 lbs. commercial product/acre
or a 5% trichlorfon field bait at the rate of 20 Ibs. commercial product/acre be
broadcast as a soil application. The bait should be applied uniformly over the entire
area using aircraft or tractor-mounted granular spreader equipment. If banding equip-
ment is available, the bait may be applied directly over the row, but the rate should
be adjusted according to the area being covered with banding equipment.

Because cutworms feed at night, baits should be applied in late afternoon to
avoid decomposition of the active ingredient by sunlight and to reduce vaporization or
dilution from irrigation or rainfall.




E. Tractor Furrow Weed Control For Tomatoes

Weeds growing in the tractor furrow between fully mulched tomato beds can be
controlled with a combination of chloramben (trade name Amiben) at 3 lbs. active
ingredient/acre plus paraquat at 0.5 lb. Active ingredient/acre. The combination
must be applied with a shielded boom to avoid contact of the spray solution with the
tomato foliage and should not be applied during periods of strong winds. Weed control
can be improved by applying the herbicides when the weeds are 2 to 2.5 inches high.

After application, the grower will recognize immediate dessication and bleach-
ing of the green color in the weed foliage, usually the day following herbicide applica-
tion. These symptoms are caused by paraquat. Chloramben is added to the mixture be-
cause it offers residual weed control of susceptible species for a few weeks after



A. Harvesting and Handling Freeze-Damaged Vegetables

Harvesting and handling of all vegetables will require special attention
and care following the freeze. Freezing resulted in physical damage that will produce
scarring, leaf burn, or actual breakage even on those crops that survived. Foliage
loss of some crops may lead also to increased sunburn. Damaged and weakened tissue
will be of lowered quality and also will be more susceptible to rapid decay and addition-
al damage. Grading and selection should be carefully supervised. Supplies are too
limited to permit indiscriminate elimination of marketable vegetables. However, quality
in general has been adversely affected by the freeze, and containers should not be
improperly marked. U.S.D.A. inspections are not required for most vegetables, but
vegetables must meet U.S. No. 1 grade standards, for example, if they are so labeled.

Cool-season crops cabbage, lettuce, celery, etc. suffered mostly leaf burn
and some cracking. Cabbage and lettuce may develop soft rots within damaged heads, and
more sampling and cutting will be needed to insure their elimination. Young celery
probably has been chilled enough to induce bolting that will be evident in the spring

Warm-season crops peppers, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes, beans, etc. were
essentially all killed. Those that were not have now been subjected to a prolonged
period of temperatures within the chilling range (below 50F). These may begin to show
chilling symptoms in the field, ruseting of beans, for example, or very soon after
harvest if not handled properly. All of these vegetables will be in a weakened con-
dition and very susceptible to decay and further physical dtamiage. Some attempts will
be made to salvage tomatoes from damaged plants. Loss of foliage will probably increase
the amount of sunburned fruit. All fruit remaining on tomato plants should be permitted
to reach full maturity before harvesting. Fruit chilled on the plant will more nearly
overcome the effects if they remain on the plant until mature or ripe. Immature fruit
should be discarded. Attempts to ripen immature chilled fruit off the plant will result
in severe losses from abnormal ripening, decay, soft fruit, and generally poor quality.


In no case should tomatoes be held below 55F after harvest. Greater than normal
losses can be expected during the pipening of those severely chilled fruit.

NOTE: Dr. B. D. Thompson is a Professor, Vegetable Crops Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.



A. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are suggested here for your use in developing
periodic (weekly) radio or newspaper shorts. They are based on letters of inquiry
from gardeners around the state.

(1) Timely Topic for Week of February 13-19.


What can I do in my garden to overcome the shortage of fresh vegetables that
is bound to occur following this winter's record Florida freeze?


To answer this, it must first be pointed out that the danger of yet another
freeze is not yet passed. So gardeners should adhere to normal planting schedules.
Cool season vegetables can be planted with a better-than-average chance of success
anytime now throughout all areas of the state. However, warm season crops, such as
tomatoes, cucumbers, and squash, should not be planted until danger of frost is over,
which is mid-March in extreme North Florida.

Unfortunately, gardeners planting now can do little to provide fresh vegetables
from their gardens during the peak high price period, which extends to the end of March.
Vegetables grown in gardens take just as long to mature as vegetables grown in the
commercial fields. Therefore, garden production following the recent freeze will coin-
cide with commercial farm production. Vegetables from the garden could reach the table
a bit early if they are harvested in the young, immature stage. Certainly most leaf and
root crops, such as lettuce, mustard, turnips, collard, kale, spinach, chard, cabbage,
carrot, radish, potato, and beet could be eaten several days before they have reached
the best stage of maturity for marketing purposes. Even fruiting v-eetables, such as
cucumber, squash, and bean, are useful when harvested early.

In many cases during the freeze, gardeners were able to give more adequate
protection to their growing plants than the farmers trying to protect large acreages.
Those gardeners still having live plants, even though damaged, should strive to bring
them out by removing d:ii,:i;i ,.: leaves, fertilizing, watering and nurturing plants back
to good health. Skips in the rows may be replanted. Efforts should be made to thin
crowded seedling areas that escaped severe cold injury, and reset the extra plants into
sections of the garden where plants were killed.



Seeds that .were in the ground at freeze time probably were not injured. How-
ever, some time will be necessary for the soil to warm to proper germinating tempera-
ture before the plants will emerge. Gardeners should dig into the seed furrow to
examine the seeds and to determine if replanting is necessary.

Gardeners should expect to see more problems than usual from premature seeding
of leafy crops and a general reduction in quality. However, these problems can be
tolerated in light of the alternatives.

Vegetables that were nearing maturity may still be salvageable. For example,
potatoes whose tops were killed still have usable tubers. These should be dug,
cleaned, and sorted as soon as possible. They probably will not store long due to
the stage of immaturity, so should be eaten rather soon.

Looking further into the spring, gardeners will be unlikely to save as much
as usual on their home grown produce, for vegetables grown commercially will probably
be priced more reasonably than usual as soon as production resumes in April. These
lower prices could result from overlapping of supply from the various major production
points in Florida. Each area will be replanting many major crops about the same time
as the other areas, so that subsequent harvest periods will probably coincide more
closely than in normal years. The net results should be over-supply and lower prices.
However, such prognostication precludes future weather developments, which could offer
more cold before the winter is through, resulting in high food prices for a considerably
longer time than we might anticipate.

So in summary, those who can have a vegetable garden should be encouraged to
do so. But the benefits are not going to be much greater or much less than in other
years having more normal weather.

(2) Timely Topic for Week of February 20-26.


I often hear the terms "determinate" and 'indeterminate" used in reference to
tomato varieties. What does it mean and what are some example varieties?


The terms apply to growth habit of the tomato plants. In general, "indeter-
minate" refers to plants that are tall, vining, and continuous growing. The terminal
(tip) growth is vegetative rather than fruiting. Blossom clusters form about every
three leaf internodes. This plant habit makes such varieties adaptable to stal ing, or
trellising. Here is a partial listing of varieties within the "indeterminate" category:
Better Boy, Big Boy, County Fair, Fantastic, Bonny Best, Beef Steak, Earliana, Floradel,
Indian River, Jubilee, Manapal, Manalucie, Marion, Oxheart, Pondir-osa, Rutgers, San
Marzano, Super Sioux, Tropic, Beefmaster, Monte Carlo, Golden Boy, Glamour, Trip L
Crop Climber, Sugar Lump, Red Cherry, Red Pear, Red Plum, Yellow Cherry, Yellow Pear,
Yellow Plum.

The following fit best in the "determinate" category:Ace, Cal-ace, Early Pak,
Florida MNI-1, Homnestead, Marglobe, Napoli V.F., New Yorker, Pearson, Romn, Sheyenne,
Walter, Tropi-Gro, Tropi-Red, Spring Set, Bigset, Bonus, Patio, Terrific, Wonder Boy,
Americana, Tunmbin Tom, Small Fry, Royal Chico, Golden Delight, Cold Set, Heinz 1350,
and Tiny Tim.


(3) Timely Topic for Week of February 27- March 5.


I have noticed several kinds of melons on display in the supermarkets. They
look something like cantaloupes but are not netted. What are they?


These are all members of the muskmelon group, (Cucumis melo). Those having
distinctive "netting" on the surface of the rind and "sutures" (ribs) are generally
called cantaloupes. Muskmelon may mean more specifically the larger fruited, heavier
ribbed types. Those without netting, and to which you are referring, are mixed melons
more closely related to honey dews.

Some of the more common kinds are described as follows:

Casaba has wrinkled exterior skin, developing a rich golden color
when mature.
Santa Claus is a long casaba type with wrinkled skin and a dark-
green-and-gold mottling.
Cranshaw is a round, slightly corrugated, dark-green melon that turns
yellow when ripe.
Honey dew is nearly round, with a creamy white smooth surface.
Persian is similar to the others in size and shape, but is completely
covered by fine netting. Unlike the cantaloupe, it has no sutures.
Banana is a long cylindrical melon 4 inches in diameter by 12 inches
long. The surface is smooth with no netting, although it tastes more like
a cantaloupe than a honey dew.

(4) Timely Topic for Week of March 6-12.


How are some beans able to climb and others are not?

Re ly
Pole types are characterized by what is called an "indeterminate" growth
habit, whereas bush beans are "determinate" in habit. In the indeterminate habit the
flowers form in the axils of leaves and stem, thus, the stem may continue to grow
longer more or less indefinitely; in the determinate habit the main growing point
terminates in a flower cluster, thus, preventing further stem elonB.~-tion. Beans that
climb do so by virtue of their hairy, sinuous, twining stems. The absence of tendrils
or tendril leaves in beans helps in one way to distinguish beans from peas. The beans
do not have the ability to climb until well along in growth.


B. Know Your Vegetables Vegetable Spaghetti

V-'.etjbLIe :-'agi.liic't (Cucurbita pepo) is also known as spaghetti squnsh,
spaghetti gourd, MTnchurian squash and squaghetti. Tt has erroneously been called
cucuzzi, which is an edible gourd.


The interesting thing about vegetable spaghetti is its resemblance to a bowl
of spaghetti when properly prepared. If the yellowish-orange mature fruit is cooked
whole for about 20 minutes and then cut open, the flesh is in loose shreds, somewhat
resembling spaghetti in appearance. The taste, however, is squash-like, although
rather bland. Proper seasoning, as with salt, pepper, and butter, is required for
the best tasting dish.

The fruit is about ten inches long and five inches in diameter, weighing
about two pounds. The fruit stem is five-sided, grooved and not conspicuously flaring
at attachment to fruit. Like the other members of the vegetable marrow group, zucchini
and cocozelle, the smooth skinned fruits are produced on a bush.

Cultivation of vegetable spaghetti should be as for any summer squash. The
plant is tender, being damaged or killed by cold weather, so seed should be sown early
in the spring as soon as danger of frost is passed. In South Florida, it may be seeded
anytime from September through March. Space plants 3 feet apart in rows spaced 42-48"
apart. Major plant pests are mildews, pickleworms, and fruit rots. Both male and
female flowers are produced on the same plant, so bees are necessary for pollination
purposes. Fruits develop to harvest stage about 70-80 days after seeding.


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