Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00080
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1972
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00080
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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e RIA New setter

December 11, 1972

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

J. F. Kelly

J. M. Stephens
Assistant Professor

James Montelaro

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


FROM: James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops SpecialistN' ..../, 'I_-C tt,_t.L,-'




A. "Good Seed" A Partial Solution to Blackeye Cowpea
Mosaic Virus Control in Florida
B. Internal Discoloration and Breakdown in Tissue of
Eggplant Fruits
C. Weed Control in Sweet Potatoes
D. Greenhouse Tomato Production for Florida Some
Points for Consideration


Seeds and Plants A 4-H Special Interest Project
Know Your Vegetables Rutabaga

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.




A. "Good Seed" A Partial Solution to Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus Control
in Florida

A major problem in the production of southern peas (cowpeas) in Florida
is seed-borne viruses--one of the most serious of which is blackeye cowpea
mosaic virus (CV). Plants from blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-infected seed
may show symptoms of the disease quite early in their development. The disease
can be spread readily by insect vectors to the entire planting which often
results in total crop failure.

In a recent paper presented to the Florida State Horticultural Society,
Dr. F. W. Zettler and Dr. I. R. Evans reported results of studies that offer
excellent promise for the control of this disease. They found that incidence
of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus in seed was directly related to seed source. Of
four test lots of seed produced in Florida and Georgia, 13 to 30 percent of the
seed were infected by blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. On the other hand, two seed
lots from Oklahoma and one lot from Texas were free of the virus. All seven lots
were of the "Knuckle Purple Hull" variety. Seed of several other varieties grown
in Oklahoma, Texas and California were also found to be free of blackeye cowpea
mosaic virus.

The authors point out that western-grown seed has been reported in the
past to contain blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Likewise, seed grown in the south-
east can be virus free on occasions. However, if growers purchase western-grown,
certified southern pea seed for planting, they reduce the risk of serious outbreaks
from this disease considerably. Growers may not be able to obtain this type of
seed for all varieties, but when available it should be planted.

B. Internal Discoloration and Breakdown in Tissue of Eggplant Fruits

For the past three years, extension vegetable specialists and county
extension agents have been studying the problem of internal break.Jow-i and dis-
coloration in eggplants. It was first observed in Madison County, but was later
found to be a serious problem in some plantings in Hillsborough and Collier
Counties. Dr. R. S. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, has examined tissue and
has been unable to isolate pathogens. Based on this information and other pre-
liminary investigations, we feel that the condition is a "disorder" related to
the physiology of the plant.

The disorder is characterized by slight depressions of various sizes on
the surface of the fruit. In the early stages, the skin of the fruit may not be
broken. When the fruit is cut crosswise or lengthwise, discolored tissue may be
found internally in other isolated areas of the fruit. Fruit of this type is not

From our preliminary observations, we feel that it may be associated with
a calcium-boron unbalance in the plant. An affected planting of eggplants was
sprayed with calcium and boron. The grower and county agent involved reported a
significant improvement in the fruits harvested subsequently. This observation is
not conclusive as there were no unsprayed checks for comparison. This lead is now
being investigated in our laboratories at Gainesville.



There appear to be differences among varieties in susceptibility to
the disorder. This aspect and others need to be studied more closely. We
are asking our county agents to be on the lookout for this problem and to
report to us if they suspect it to be present in their county.

Anyone interested in internal discoloration of eggplants is referred
to the August 5, 1971 issue of the Vegetarian Newsletter for an article entitled
"Production of Quality Eggplants." In this article, we outlined suggestions
which should be followed in order to try to avoid the problem discussed here.
To the suggestions made in the article, we might add special emphasis on (1)
liming and calcium levels, and (2) minor elements to be certain of our adequate
supply of boron.

C. Weed Control in Sweet Potatoes

The sweet potato is a crop requiring a long warm growing season. It
is native to the tropics, but is grown in the southeastern part of the United
States with a great deal of success. As a rule of thumb, 120 to 150 warm days
and nights are required to mature a crop once it has been transplanted to the
production field. This length of time will vary according to the influence of
many factors such as variety, season and production problems.

Weeds compete with crops for soil moisture and nutrients and in this
manner can hinder optimum growth of the crop if weed populations are allowed to
go unchecked. In addition to the competitive effects, many species of weeds in
a long season regime can complete their reproductive cycle and produce an enormous
quantity of seeds. Thus, over a period of years, the weed problem can be self-
compounding to the extent that the seriousness increases with time.

The sweet potato by nature of its growth habit tends to help alleviate
weed pressures to a certain degree. The sweet potato produces a dense luxuriant
canopy of foliage as the plants develop. In this manner, the foliage of the crop
is able to "shade out" many of the newly germinating, young or low growing weeds
that occur during that time. However, many older, taller or more vigorously
growing weeds may not be greatly affected and may continue to be competitive.
There are also weeds which generally do not appear until late in the season and can
be a serious problem when and where they occur.
A "critical" period of weed control is the time between transplanting of
the crop to the field and -.,hen the vines meet in the middles and a vigorous canopy
of foliage is developed. Weed competition is especially undesirable when the
transplants are becoming established in the field. Mechanical cultivation and
herbicides are valuable tools in the grower's arsenal to combat weeds. The most
desirable herbicide would, of coc rs~e, be one in which a simple preplant or post-
transplant application would give complete season long weed control under a wide
range of conditions and locations. This level of sophistication has not yet been

The listing of herbicides below gives those which are currently suggested
for use in sweet potatoes. The materials and rates are suggested for trial on a
limited basis by interested growers. Research with herbicides in many areas has


shown varying degrees of success with the variations in climate, soil, and
application procedures exerting effects on a year-to-year basis. Only through
a limited scale trial evaluation can the grower obtain the experience and
confidence with the various materials, usage and application techniques, weed
specificity, timing, combination of techniques, etc., that will enable him
to develop a good weed control program for his operation.

Suggested Herbicides for Sweet Potatoes for Use
on a Trial Basis by Florida Growers

Time of
Application Lbs./Acre
Herbicide to Crop (Active Ingredient) Remarks
DCPA Pretransplant 10.5 Broadcast soil application at
(Dacthal) time of transplanting.
vernolate Pretransplant 1.5 to 2 Needs to be soil incorporated.
(Vernam) Rate depends on type of bed
preparation. (Consult label.)
diphenamid Post-transplant 4 Apply overtop immediately after
(Dymid) transplanting. Do not plant
(Enide) treated areas to crops not on
the label within 6 months after
tre a tmen ts.

DCPA Post-transplant 10.5 Broadcast soil application at
(Dacthal) time of last cultivation (lay-
by, up to 6 weeks after trans-


D. Greenhouse Tomato Production for Florida Some

Points for Consideration

The art and/or science of cultivating plants under modified conditions
in specialized growing structures to overcome undesirable climatic conditions
has been in existence for many years. A century or two ago, European market
gardeners used individual plant covers to protect plants set out very early from
frosts and cold weather. From this commercial application of a protective
principle, cold frames, hot beds, and eventually greenhouses appeared in com-
mercial production of fresh vegetables for market.

Much of the success with greenhouse production can be attributed to the
production of commodities for an early market, or at times when they are not
readily available from other sources or areas. In earlier years in the United
States, greenhouse production of tomatoes was for the most part the only source
of fresh tomatoes during the winter months in the northern areas of the country.
As transportation facilities and production practices improved, tomatoes from
southern areas of the United States, and more recently imports have made inroads
into the northern markets during the winter months. While the competition
picture has changed for northern greenhouse growers from what it had been in



earlier years, efficient greenhouse growers remain well established in their
areas and will remain so as long as high quality and low cost of production
can be maintained.

Some interest has been expressed in northern areas of Florida for pro-
duction of tomatoes in glass or plastic covered greenhouses. Let us briefly
look at some important points to consider when analyzing this type of culture.

A. Initial Investment

1. Glass Well in excess of $100,000 per acre for the physical
facilities alone. This size investment not practical if it is to be used only
a few months of the year.

2. Plastic Covered Houses Considerably less expensive than
glass depending upon what materials the grower already has. Plastic materials
need replacing every 1-4 years depending on type of material.

B. Production Costs

Many greenhouse production areas operate in the range of 30 to 40
thousand dollars per acre for production costs (20 to 254 per pound). Even if
cut in half, we are still speaking of a great deal of operating capital. Per-
haps the largest contributor to this expense is labor.

C. Aspects involved which require high-labor inputs.

1. Transplant production seeding, transplanting to pots, setting
in ground beds. A great many of the steps can be mechanized, but this calls
for additional investment outlay.

2. Tying plants to vertical support strings. Done periodically
as the plant grows in height.

3. Pruning. Removal of laterals to keep plants to a single stem.
This practice is done several times a week.

4. Pollination. Tomatoes are normally self-pollinated. Under
field conditions, the wind "shakes" the flower clusters with sufficient force
to effect pollen release and transfer resulting in normal pollination. Thus,
mechanical vibration of each flower cluster must be done to help achieve pollina-
tion. This practice is done every day.

5. Harvesting. Fruit are removed by cutting the fruit stem. This
puts less physical strain on the plant than pulling fruit off, i.e. less potential
for plant breakage. Greenhouse tomatoes traditionally have been marketed with
the calyx and small portion of stem attached to the fruit.

Many cultural practices such as fertilization, soil preparation, and
disease and insect control are similar to outdoor production. However, under
the modified or optimum conditions that exist, diseases and insects can be more
serious and rapid spreading problems than encountered in the field.


Under Florida conditions of high temperatures during the late spring,
summer and early fall, greenhouse production of tomatoes is out of the
picture. A method of cooling the houses during the high temperature periods
would be a necessity to insure fruit set (see Vegetarian 72-10 "Fruit Set in
Tomatoes"). The cost of doing this would be prohibitive. Production in the
northern areas of Florida during the winter months is a possibility from the
standpoint of being able to supply heat to protect the plants from the cold
weather at a reasonable cost.

Management is a key to the success of many enterprises, and in green-
house production it is even more critical. An important consideration is, of
course, maintaining costs as low as possible, but the day-to-day cultural
aspects related to the actual growing of the crop are of equal importance.
Light is the only production factor related to plant growth over which the
greenhouse operator has little, if any, control. The others such as temperature,
moisture, humidity and air movement can be manipulated. The operator must know
why they are important, how they are interrelated, and how they should be
coordinated. Thus, in a sense he must be part scientist, part artist, and part
technician in addition to being a businessman.

Thus, while it is correct to say that there are similarities between
"indoor" and outdoor production of tomatoes, it is the extent and importance of
the differences that must be considered also. In addition to the production
considerations, one must evaluate the marketing situation as well. Once the
tomatoes are produced, can they be sold at a profit? Is there a need and what
is the competition?

Detailed information in the form of extension bulletins and circulars
is available from many of the northern states that have significant greenhouse
tomato industries. A good starting source of information for persons interested
in such operations is a publication available from the USDA--"Commercial Pro-
duction of Greenhouse Tomatoes," Agriculture Handbook No. 382, available for 30
from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., 20402.




A. Seeds and Plants A 4-H Special Interest Project

Most of us should be aware that Florida is trying to boost 4-H enroll-
ment and reach an expanding urban audience through what have been labeled
Special Interest projects. These projects are designed to be taught in the
school classroom by the teacher. One such project which has met with limited
success in at least one county is Seeds and Plants. Between 2,500 and 3,000
fifth graders enrolled in the project in one county alone.

The Seeds and Plants project consists of 8 exercises, each of
be conducted in a 45-minute session and observed in a later session.
exercises offer 6 hours of instruction over a period of about 7 to 8

which may
The 8

Each exercise is written up as a teaching guide (a member piece for each
exercise is planned but not yet in print). Each teaching guide gives (a) the
purpose, (b) background information, (c) how to proceed, (d) materials needed,
(e) time considerations, and (f) how to evaluate.

SI 20.0

Exercise N

Here is a brief outline of the 8 exercises. (Note: The page numbered
is a table of contents page outlining the exercises).

lo. Title

"Introducing a Seed"

"Watching Seed Sprout"

"Testing Seed Germination"

"How Age Affects Seeds"

"Planting a Seed in a Peat Pellet"

"Plants and Fertilizer"

"Depth of Seeding"

"Light and Plants"

Soak a bean seed, examine its

Place seeds between side of
clear cup and wet towel and
observe germination.

Place a given number of seeds
in a paper towel (rag doll)
and count the percentage
germi nation.

Test old seeds and new seeds
in a rag doll.

Enlarge a peat pellet, plant
a tomato seed.

Plant seed in a fertilized
sand and a non-fertilized sand.

Plant seed at different depths
in cups of sand and observe.

Place the peat pellet plants
in sunlight and in darkness--
note plant response.

SI 20.1

SI 20.2

SI 20.3

SI 20.4

SI 20.5

SI 20.6

SI 20.7

SI 20.8


Copies of the literature for this project may be ordered from Mr.
J. H. Nininger, Cooperative Extension Service, Building 664, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32601.

B. Know Your Vegetables Rutabaga

Rutabagas are also referred to as swedes, Swedish turnips and turnip-
rooted cabbage.

It, like turnips, is a member of the Cruciferae or cabbage family and
belongs to the genus Brassica. Thus, rutabaga is related to turnip, cabbage,
and cauliflower, but belongs to a different species; Brassica napobrassica.

Rutabaga resembles turnip in size of plant, in general size and shape
of root, and in flesh colors. They differ chiefly in leaf characters and in
minor details of root shape and structure. While turnip leaves are usually
light green, thin, and hairy, those of rutabaga are bluish-green and smooth like
cabbage. Turnip roots generally have little or no neck and a distinct taproot,
while rutabagas often are slightly more elongated and have a thick leafy neck,
with roots arising from underside as well as from the taproot.

Rutabaga is a cool-climate crop which requires that they be grown in the
winter in Florida. For the most part, it is found primarily in home gardens
in this State. Rutabaga will withstand frosts and mildly freezing temperatures.

They require a longer growing season (about 90 days) than do turnips.
Culture is similar to that for beets in general. They are grown from seeds
spaced 3 to 4 inches apart in 30-inch rows.

The main varieties are American Purple Top, Macomber, Purple Top Yellow,
Long Island Improved, Sweet Russian, Laurentian, and Zwaan's Neckless Purple

Rutabaga can be baked, diced, mashed, creamed, played, fried, added to
casseroles, stews or soups, or served raw in salads.


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