Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00062
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00062
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Vegetable Crops Department


Victor F. Nettles James Montelaro
Acting Chairman Vegetable Crops Specialist

Mason E. Marvel James M. Stephens
Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist

June 3, 1969


NO: 85


1. Timing Pesticide Application on Beans
2. Placement of Fertilizer
3. Potassium Effect on Tomato Graywall
4. Recent Variety Releases
5. Membership in Florida State Horticultural Society

1. Timing Pesticide Application on Beans

Pesticide to control insects and disease on the foliage of beans are
generally used on a preventive basis. To obtain the greatest economic bene-
fits from pesticides, it is necessary that applications be made at the proper
time. Observations over the past five years by researchers shed some light
on this problem.

Working with beans at the Central Florida Experiment Station, Dr. Greene
and associates simulated different degrees of defoliation at various stages
during the development of bean plants. They observed that as much as 25%
defoliation one week before bloom resulted In a yield reduction. This was
not the case when plants were equally defoliated just one week later during

These results point to the importance of good insect control during
the early stages of growth. Secondly, if insects will cause no problems from
the standpoint of actual pod injury or in mechanical harvest, it may not be
necessary to attempt to control them just before harvest.

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Conover, working with pole beans, observed that rust control was of
great importance in the early stages of growth. In one of his reports, Dr.
Conover states, "Where sulfur was used before bean pod set, followed by 7%
maneb, yields were no better than sulfur alone, although rust control was
better. This is interpreted to mean that rust control before bean set has
more effect on yield than control later in the crop.

Both of these examples demonstrates the importance of early and timely
pesticide application. In some cases It is possible to reduce costs by elim-
inating applications of pesticides at the more advanced stages of maturity
when they will not materially increase yields. These same principles hold
true for some of the other important vegetable crops.

2 Placement of Fertilizer

Growers in Florida are using several different fertilizer placements
ac the present time. These include broadcast, broad band, single band, dou-
ble band, and a combination of these. Which of these should the grower use
in his operation? The answer to this question is a complex one. Stated
in simplest terms, fertilizer should be placed where crop plants can get
it easily, but will not cause injury to the crop. Two methods of placement
to be discouraged are: (1) In a band below the seed drill, or (2) as top-
dressing above the seed drill.

Until a few years ago the standard recommendation in almost all situa-
tions was to place the fertilizer in bands located two to three Inches to
each side and slightly below the level of the seed or transplant roots.

One must bear in mind that fertilization rates in general have increased
tremendously within the past decade. Recent research on fertilizer place-
ment in Florida indicates that the recommendation for band placement of
fertilizer may have to be modified in the near future. Researchers have
observed in many cases that broadcasting of fertilizer results in yields
which are as good or better than band placement when fertilization rates
are high. At the lower levels of fertilization this is not necessarily true.

It appears that a combination of broadcast plus band placement might
offer good possibilities. Until further research data is available, it is
suggested the growers test newer fertilizer placement techniques on a limited
basis only.

3. Potassium Effect on Tomato Graywall

Tomato graywall causes severe losses to growers planting varieties that
are not resistant to this disorder. After several tests over a period of
years, Mr. N. C. Hayslip and Dr. J. R. Iley concluded that there is a definite
relationship between potassium rates and incidence of graywall.


They tested rates of potassium (K20) ranging from 50 to 800 pounds per
acre. They summarized results from four experiments by stating, "there was
a highly significant increase in graywall at the 50 pounds K20 per acre level
in all tests as compared with the 400 and 800 pounds of K20 rates. in only
one of the four experiments was there a significant difference between 400
and 800 pounds of K20."

They noted some variations In intensity of graywall from one harvest to
another. These observations led them to conclude that, "This variation sug-
gests that graywall was not a simple potassium deficiency, but that the effect
of potash in reducing graywall was indirect." They observed that graywall
appears to be more prevalent in moist, cool, overcast weather and least pre-
valent during dry, bright, warm periods.

Based on these studies, it may be advisable for growers to apply about
400 pounds of K20 per acre If they plant varieties that are not resistant to

4. Recent Variety Releases

New vegetable hybrids and varieties are being released In large numbers
by seedsmen, the Land Grant Colleges and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Only a small percentage of these can be tested before they are made available
to growers. For that reason growers should go easy on planting new hybrids
a:;d varieties and put these in limited trials only. Some of the more recent
releases are:

1. Planter's Jumbo cantaloupe Released by USDA Vegetable Breeding
Laboratory at Charleston, South Carolina. Tested under code num-
ber VBL 67-1 in Flor!da. A large fruited, high quality melon pro-
duced on plants resistant to downy and powdery mildews. This variety
has looked good In our trials.

2. Southland cantaloupe Released by Auburn University. Southland
has good disease resistance but has not come up to Planter's Jumbo
performance in limited Florida trials.

3. Summerfield watermelon A release by U. S. Department of Agriculture
at Charleston. This large melon is a cross between Fairfax and
Blackstone. It is wilt and anthracnose (Race I) resistant. Summer-
field is a round-oval melon with rinds striped like a Congo. It
should be tried on a limited basis by growers wanting an attractive,
round, big melon.

4. Florida Releases Experiment Station plant breeders In Florida have
been busy also. Presently, several breeding lines of three types
of vegetables are under consideration for possible release. These
include sweet corn, celery and tomatoes.


5. Membership in Florida State Horticultural Society

The Florida State Horticultural Society is one of the oldest and largest
In the nation. Any person interested in horticulture should be a member of
this great society. Annual dues are only $6.00. Mr. M. E. Marvel, Chairman
of the Membership Committee, urges non-members to join now by sending their
dues to the Office of the Secretary, Florida State Horticultural Society,
P. 0. Box 552, Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850. The next meeting of the society
will be November 4-6, 1969 In Miami, Florida. Join the society and plan to


James Montelaro
'Vegetable Crops Specialist

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