Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00053
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1966
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00053
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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V..L ,i l,'. C o-ips Di)partimentu


July 18, 1966


NO: 74


1. Short Courses for Vegetable Growers.
2. New Bell Pepper Variety.
3. Effect of Freezing Temperature on Seed Potatoes.
4. Sidedressing Staked Tomatoes.
5. Short Items of interest.
(1) Copper Deficiency on Watermelons.
(2) Spray Tank Mixtures
(3) Liming Close to Planting Time
(4) New Tomato Bulletin
(5) Acreage-Marketing Guide Due Out Soon.

1. Short Courses for Vegetable Growers,

Vegetable Production is rapidly developing into a highly
technical, complex science entailing such basic fields as economics,
management, soils chemistry, plant pathology, nematology, entomology,
plant physiology, etc. To be successful today's vegetable grower
must have a working knowledge of these subjects.

At first glance, it may appear that these subjects are too
complicated and encompass too wide an area for anyone to understand
except the technically trained person. This is not true. We have
found that vegetable growers not only welcome this type of information,
but are very receptive to it provided it is presented in a way that
they can understand.

In one county, vegetable specialists worked with the agent to
present five weekly, two-hour lectures on soils chemistry. The
aim was not to give the "how" but the "why" of fertilizing vegetable
crops properly. The average attendance was 72 per lecture with the
majority of the group being farmers.

County agents are continuously increasing their technical
proficiency in vegetable production. We believe we will be seeing
more and more effort put into technical "short courses" for growers
in the near future. County agents are still encouraged to emphasize
grower meetings, clinics, and field days to present practical,
production information for teaching identification of insects,
diseases, nematodes and nutritional disorders and for review of
new research. Technical short courses for growers, we believe,
should be an extension or addition to these programs.


2. New Bell Pepper Variety.

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations released a new
bell pepper variety in April of this year. It was named Yolo Y.
As the name implies it is a selection from Yolo Wonder. Dr. A.
A. Cook, developer of Yolo Y reports that this variety is resistant
to potato y virus and tobacco mosaic virus.

The horticultural characteristics of Yolo Y are similar to
Yolo Wonder a variety widely grown for several years by pepper
producers in Florida.

A limited quantity of seed was released to commercial seed
produces in the spring of 1966 by the Florida Foundation Seed
Producers, Inc., Gainesville, Florida. It is possible that some
seed will be available to growers for the 1966-67 season.

A circular describing Yolo Y is available from the county
agricultural agent's office. Ask for Experiment Stations Circular
S-175 dated April, 1966.

3. Effect of Freezing Temperature on Seed Potatoes.

Freezing temperatures may or may not injure potato tubers to
be used for seed. This is the conclusion drawn from a joint study
conducted by research workers in three northeastern states.

They subjected potato tubers to the following temperature

(1) 400F continuously (check)
(2) 300F for 1 day (cooling)
(3) 300F for 10 days (cooling)
(4) 250F for I day supercooledd without freezing to initiate
ice crystal)

After treatment at these temperatures all potatoes were stored at
500F for two weeks.

Their results showed that emergence, tuber growth time, total
yields and U.S. No. 1 yields were lower from seed pieces subjected
to 25OF than in the check only when seed pieces had freezing symptoms.
Low temperatures (300F and 25' F) dd not reduce quality of potato
tubers for seed purposes when no freezing symptoms appeared in the

This information can be of benefit to Florida growers. Potatoes
should be protected from freezing temperatures at all times. If
subjected to freezing temperatures, avoid handling until the tubers
have warmed to temperatures above the freezing point. Potatoes
should be kept at a temperature of about 500F for 10 to 14 days
prior to planting to better conditions then for quick emergence and


growth. Growers should check each lot for freezing injury symptoms
which show up as external sunken crater-like areas and internal
darkening and necrosis. Such tubers will germinate and grow but
reduced yield may be expected.

4. Sidedressing Staked Tomatoes.

A common practice used in sidedressing staked tomatoes is to
apply a balanced fertilizer (containing N-P-K) each time at 7-to
10-day intervals. The need and possible benefits of continual
application of phosphorus are questionable.

In a study conducted at Immokolee, preliminary results indicate
that the excessive amounts of phosphorus now used rrmy not be necessary.
In this study, staked tomatoes were sidedressed every 5 days for 13
weeks with 2 rates each of 4 different sources of fertilizer. Rates,
sources, and yields obtained are given in the following table.

Treatment Grade & Total
No. Source (1) Pounds/Acre (2) Yield (3)

la 13-0-44 178-160-492 957
b 13-0-44 275-160-824 1094
2a 15-0-14 178-160-251 991
b 15-0-14 275-160-342 978
3a 15-0-50 178-160-492 922
b 15-0-50 275-160-824 996
4a 4-8-8 178-356-356 885
b 4-8-8 275-550-550 1028

(1) Sources 13-0-44 (potassium nitrate)
l5-0-14 (nitrate of soda potash)
15-0-50 (nitrate of soda potash + potassium sulfate)
4-8-8 (commercial fertilizer 30% organic)
(2) Includes 2,000 Ibs. of 4-8-8 plus side fertilizer
(3) Total Marketable yield (60-lb. boxes).

Although not yet.statistically.anialyzed, it can be seen from the
data presented that treatment Ib produced among the highest yields
eventhough only 160 Ibs. of P205 were used. Treatment 4a was
lowest in yield even though high in P205. Apparently N and K20 were
too low. Treatment 4b produced good yield which may be attributed
to high levels of N and K20.

If adequate phosphorus is available in the soil, additional
phosphorus may be beneficial as a sidedress only during prolonged
periods of cold weather. Then it should be applied to the active
root zone as phosphorus does not move over an inch or two In the

5. Short Items of Interest.

(1) Copper Deficiency on Watermelons.
Again this year, research conducted in various locations from
Immokalee to Chipley, Florida demonstrated a response from water-
melons to copper. This is especially true of new acid flatwoods
soils. The response to organic nitrogen observed in south Florida
several years ago is now known to be a response to the copper found
in treated sewage sludge.

It is suggested that about 4 pounds of copper per acre be
applied together with the other required minor elements in
fertilizer for watermelons to be planted on new, acid, flatwood
soils. On other new soils lesser amounts of copper may be beneficial,
also. Warning--do not use excessive amounts of copper. Too much
can be harmful.

(2) Spray Tank Mixtures
Another year of research has again shown that it is unwise to
add chemicals to the spray tank indiscriminately. In some cases
effectiveness of one or more of the pesticides was reduced.

Based on the work conducted at Leesburg on watermelons and
elsewhere on other crops, it is suggested that growers eliminate
the soluble fertilizers from pesticide sprays. A good rule of
thumb is--"Don't add anything to the spray mixture that is not
absolutely necessary." Nutritional sprays of minor elements or
calcium might best be applied in a separate operation rather than
combining with pesticides.

(3) Liming Close to Planting Time.

For the second year in a row research has demonstrated that
lime may be applied close to or at planting time to watermelons
with good results. In an emergency or under special circumstances
this method of timing lime applications may be used. However,
the time-honored method of applying lime well in advance of
planting is still to be recommended under average conditions.

(4) New Tomato Bulletin.
A new bulletin (No. 710) entitled "Tomato Production on the
Sandy Soils of South Florida" was released by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations. This bulletin was written by the staff of the
Gulf Coast Station at Bradenton but it draws on the research and
experience of all staff members working on tomatoes throughout
south Florida.

This bulletin will be available in your county agricultural
agent's office soon. Also check Extension Circular 98C entitled,
Tomato Production Guide, and all other University of Florida
publications on tomatoes for the most recent recommendations
for fertilization and pest control.

(5) Acreage-Marketing Guide Due Out Soon.
The Vegetable Acreage-Marketing Guide for the 1966-67
season is being prepared now and will be ready for release
within the near future. Growers and others interested in
commercial vegetable production should study this report
carefully and use the information in it as an aid in making
sound plans for the coming season.

F. S .'amison, Chairman
Vegetable Crops Department


Mason E. Marinl
Assoc. Vegetab e Crops Specialist

James Monte arro
Vegetable Crops Specialist

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