Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00041
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 1961
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00041
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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UNIVERSiTY O FLORIDA. AND Vegetable Crop Specialists COUNTY AGENT A..n

NO. 56
March, 1961

TO: County Agents

IN THIS ISSUE: Vegetable Research Summary (Belle Glade, Ft. Pierce and
Ft. Lauderdale Stations)

The Annual Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the
year ending June 30, 1960, is already out. Nevertheless, we felt that research
on vegetables should be pulled together in summary form for quick reviewing. In
this issue, (a continuation of Vegetarian No. 53 and 55), we summarize high
points of vegetable research conducted at the Everglades Ex>eriment Station,
Indian River Laboratory and the Plantation Laboratory.

Many of the chemicals mentioned in this report are for experimental pur-
poses only and should not be used on vegetable crops until approved by the Food
and Drug Administration.

I Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomatoes (Ft. Pierce)

Results indicate strain difference in the bacterial spot org rnism. Ten
isolates of this pathogen varied in their susceptibility to streptomycin. This
may explain difference in response to streptomycin under field conditions.

Comparison of Air Blast and Boom Sprayers (Belle Glade)

For control of Early Blight in celery on muck, best overall control was
obtained with the conventional boom sprayer. Disease control by air blast
sprayer decreased with distance from the sprayer. Rating used was 1 to 7
(1 = disease free and 7 = highest incidence of early blight as found in check
plots). Control with boom sprayer was 3.2. With air blast, control was 4.0
on the 5th row from the sprayer, 5.2 on the 11th row and 6.2 on the 17th row.
Penetration into the plant was considered inadequate with air blast sprayer.

III Viruses Affecting Vegetables (Belle Glade)

Two pepper farms that were isolated from known sources of virus Y by at
least 3/4 miles and on which excellent pre-planting weed (nightshade) control
programs were carried out, had very minor levels of infection of virus Y. There
was no influence on tobacco mosaic virus spread on these farms. This indicates
that tobacco mosaic virus is introduced on the farm by means other than flying

On farms where pre-planting weed control was good but isolation from
nearby sources was impossible, results were variable. One such farm nearly


escaped damage from virus Y, the other suffered damage as severe as on a fayr
in which no pre-season weed control was practiced. Virus Y incidence on all
these farms occurred shortly after the first increase in populations of winged
green peach aphid.

It appeared that weed control on the faj-s during the growing season may
help reduce spread of virus Y. This is probably due to the removal of host
plants of the aphid rather than removal of virus-host species.

IV Corn Stem Weevil Control (Belle Glade)

(DT (1 gallon, 25% EC per 100 gallons of water) applied at 4-day intervals
frcm sccdiinrig emergence for 6 or 7 applications resulted in increase stand and
yields. DDT WP was almost equal to DDT EC in control.

V rVe.table Varieties on Muck (Belle Glade)

A. Bush Snap Beans.-- In the spring of 1960, significantly better yields
and highest percentage of first picking were obtained with Extender,
B-3370,and Valentine type 942, than with Wade (check). Harvester and
Res. Asgrow Valentine produced yields similar to Wade, but their appear-
ance was outstanding. In observational trials B3125-X-5-2, B3489, NC
108, Slenderwhite, Harris Shipper and Asgrow St. Bl. Val. produced
the best yields. Florida 101-B was superior in appearance among the
yellow (wax type) varieties.

B. Celery.-- The 1959 fall trials were harvested December 1. Green Ligit,
iiroald, Improved Pascal 375 and Pascal 137-D5 were the best yielders
followed closely by 16-11. In the observational trials XP-15 and a
new selection of Green Light appeared to be promising. In the spring
trials, harvested June 1, 1959, 52-70, Green Light, 16-11 and Pascal
137-D5 yielded above 1000 crates per acre. Emerald yielded 990 crates.
In the observational trials, XP 22, Green Light new selection, XP 15,
Tall Utah 137H, 259-19A, MSU-162 and Tall Utah 70K yielded above 1000
crates per acre.

C. Sweet Corn.-- In fall trials grown under heavy rainfall conditions,
var--es. 630-35, 107, R-8, RSC, R8E, Florigold, lobelle and Si::typak_
yieldsd as well or better than Golden Security. In the 1960 spring
trials where no blight was observed, Golden Security significantly out-
produced all varieties (415 boxes/A.). Variety Cr. 770-1 was the best
yielder of the white sweet corn hybrids followed by Hybrid 31, Winter
Belle (R-62683) and Silverliner (check 298 boxes/A.). Variety R-52474
was inferior in yields to the check, but in appearance and quality
seemed superior.

D. Carrots.-- Best variety for fresh market was Gold Pak (10 tons/A. U.S.
extra) followed by Waltham Hicolor and Long Imperator. For processing,
Long Imperator and Red Cored Chantenay appeared to be the best.

E. Onions.-- Best yield was obtained with Granex and White Granex hybrids
(500 to 700 50# bags/A.).

VI Corn Earworm Control (Belle Glade)

DDT EC spray was more effective than DDT WP spray. Spraying pressures


of 200, 100 and 50 psi were no different in effectiveness against earworm. There
were no differences in nozzle arrargerments, either.

In each of the above experiments, both the fall arLywoinm, Laphyrn fru-i-
oerda, and the corn earwormn, Heliothis zea, were attacking ears and were con-
sidered as earworms.

VII Sweet Corn Breeding (Belle Glade)

Zever.l station hybrids show moderate to high resistance to H. turciuo:.
: commercial hybrids having high resistance and showing promise were FM 6256
and :-Harr-is D1189.

VIII Ireed Control in Vegetablcs (Belle Glade)

Amiben, diuron and simazin were promising pre-emergence and solon post-
eeniiLuce of weeds at lay-by of staked tomatoes on East Coast sandy soils. No
crop injury was apparent.

I--sil is well adapted and effective in control of emerged weeds in celery
and would be recommended upon appropriate clearance, labeling and commercial

Sinazin, CDEC and CDAA were effective in control of weeds in sweet corn.
CDAA was judged superior in weed control and yield of sweet corn.

IX Control of Insects on Crucifers

iFDring the fall, with low looper populations, combinations of toxapheine
+ bacillus (Bacillus thuringiensis), endrin + bacillus and phosdrin and bacillus
were equal to or superior to each used separately at twice the concentration.
2-cilluz used alone compared favorably with any of the chemicals used alone.

In the spring, with heavy looper populations, similar results were obtained
when polyhedral virus was used instead of bacillus.

X Effect of Foliar and Soil Applications of NPK in Combination with the
Fungicide Dyrene on Incidence of Bacterial and Early Blights of Celery -
(Telle Glade)

Plots receiving foliar urea had higher bacterial blight incidence, de-
creaed. yield, and increased N content of petiole tissue. P had no significant
effect except to increase P content of petioles. K decreased early blight inci-
dence and the amount of dead foliage. Increase in dyrene concentration increased
yield and rib length, reduced early blight and decreased N and P in petiole tissue.

Soil and foliar N increased fresh weight singly and together, decreased
percent dry weight and increased K and N contents of plants. Incidence of bacter-
ial blight was higher and early blight was lower on plots receiving either soil
or foliar nitrogen. The bacterial blight effect was significant in the field a
month after transplanting.

XI Control of Insects on Vegetables (Belle Glade)

-Tiodan and a combination of toxaphene and Bacillus thurengieusis gave

perfect control of bean leaf roller larvae. Toxaphene and parathion gave nearly
-rj'ect control.

SD4402 gave complete control and toxaphone nearly complete control of
corpea curculio. Phosdrin and dimethoate were fairly effective against this in-

BuLv;wou control on sweet corn significantly increased yield. DDT EC was
better than DDTI WP.

SD-3562, demeton, phosphornidon, thiodan, dibrom, phosdrin and thithion
were promising for green peach aphid on celery. SD 3562 of the above was
effective against sepentine leaf miner.

XII Vegotable Varieties (Ft. Pierce)

A. Tomatoes.-- In fall replicated trials Hicmestead 24 produced highest
yields and largest fruit, but quality was poor. Indian River and
Manapal produced intermediate yields of medium sized fruit of average

In spring replicated trials, Indian River and Manapal produce higher
yields and larger fruit than Homestead 24.

In trellis, pink-harvest trial, results ranked in order of preference
were as follows:
Yield Fruit size Crack-resistance

Manapal 2nd 2nd 2nd
Manlucie 3rd 1st 3rd
Indian River 1st 3rd 1st

XIII Diseases of Tomatoes (Ft.Pierce)

:a.eb-dyrene combination was similar to dyrene or dichlone alone for
botrytis control. This combination was similar to maneb alone for late blight
control and to dyrene alone for gray leaf spot control.

Low pH was correlated with high incidence of botrytis. Fruit rot was also
directly related to degree of foliage infection from botrytis.

XIV Vegetable-Pasture Rotation (Ft. Pierce)

Pure stands of pangolagrass eliminated root-knot nematode within 8 weeks
on small experimental plots. Clean-fallow and fallow with flooding eliminated
nematodes in same length of time. Blowing sand and bed erosion were worse in
clean fallow plots.

XV Bacterial Diseases of Vegetables (Ft. Pierce)

Copper or streptomycin applied separately to tomatoes did not control
bacterial leaf spot. The two combined reduced incidence of this tomato disease.
The most effective material was cupric cmadine (not approved for use).

XVI Sidedressing Potatoes (Ft. Pierce)

Sidedressing potatoes with N and K20 at rates of 0, 40 and 80 lbs./A. six

weeks afttr planting did not significantly increase yield following an applica-
tion at planting of 150 lbs./N, 200 lbs./P205 and 200 lbs./K20 per acre. Plots
receiving 4O lbs./N plus O4 Ibs./K20 per acre sidedress yielded best.

XVII Vegetable Varieties (Ft. Lauderdale)

A. Beans, Bush Snap.-- Harvester and Zxtender varieties produced high
yields of quality beans in the 1959 Southern Cooperative Vegetable

B. Cantclouoe.-- Florida No. 8 outproduced Smith's Perfect.

C. tc;-v .s.-- Florida Giant M.R. (Resistant Florida Giant), Keystone
resistantt Giant St. No. 3, and California Wonder produced hi.- yields
of quality peppers in the spring trial of the 1959 Sou'tern Coopera-
tive Sweet Pepper Trial. There were no significant differences in
the winter trial which was injured by low temperatures.

D. Sweet Corn.-- Hybrid 105 produced the highest fall yield of quality
corn in the 1959 Southern Cooperative Sweet Corn Observational Trial.
Golden I;ybrid RS, 25776 and Golden Security yielded the highest number
of marketable ears in the replicated trial.

XVIII Fertilizer Studies (Ft. Lauderdale)

A. Lime Test with Pepper.-- One tone application of agricultural lime-
stone resulted in increased yields of peppers and a higher soil
calcium level after 30 inches of rainfall.

B, Sidedressing Rates for Peppers.-- Yields were increased by raising the
rate of bi-weekly 10-0-10 applications from 200 to 300 pounds per
acre in a commercial field.

C. Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer.-- No significant differences were found
in bean and pepper yields between urea-formaldehyde and inorganic
sources of nitrogen.

D. Organic Fertilizer.-- Inorganic fertilizer containing copper, manganese,
and boron increased yields above those from organic fertilizer derived
from either garbage of humus. The yields from the organic fertilizer
plots were not significantly different from the check yields.

E. Method of Fertilizer Application.-- No significant yield differences
resulted between broadcast and banded surface fertilizer applications
for peppers and southern peas.

XIX Protecting Vegetables From Wind and Cold (Ft. Lauderdale)

A. Windbreaks for Cucumbers.-- The two rows of cucumbers on both the
east and west sides of sorghum windbreaks produced higher marketable
yields than the fourth row east of the windbreaks. The crop was har-
vested from new growth produced after cold wind injured the vines
the last of November.

- U -

3. SClo-in- of Cucu~boer Bedes.-- Sloping beds to the south gave higher
vrinter cucuibear yields on beds oriented east to west. There were
no differences following periods of warm weather.

Prepared by:

Jaies uMontelaro
Associate Vegetable Crops Spec.

F. S. amiasorn
Vegeta7c-le Crops Specialist

Mason E. Marvel
Assistant Vegetable

Crops Spec.

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