COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. AND COUNTY AGENT AND
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT Vegetable Crop SHeclis OME DEMONSTRATION WORK
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING V E G E T A R IA N AINSVILLE, FLORIDA
V E G E TA IR 1I A N
No. 8 Januarr 2, 1951
VG:c.-PLE GARD] IS -CT 1..1i DIS S2, COHTIOL GUIDZ
It is recognized that insect and disease problems in the home garden may be
reduced by may methods varying -with the year, location, crops grown, materials used,
tiring and thoroughness of application, equipment available, and mean oti-cr related
factors. However, this newsletter is devoted to a presentation of some of the more
important basic methods that may be used state-vride :ith a minimum of effort, equip-
ment and materials on the part of the home gardener.
Dr. I. H. Tissot, Entomologist, end Dr. W. B. Tisdale, Plant Pathologist, both
of the-F1 rio a Agricultural qpeorimnent Sta-ion, Uainesville, cooperated to the ful-
lest extent in preparing the material on their respective fields.
Insecticide-fungicide combinations are on the market which for general garden
use are quite satisfactol- in :..ost instances. Attention her-e is given to asparate
materials so that the gardener may better understand and use the iLLui-lamenitals
applicable under most home Ciadc.-, conditions. Co:n.2rciJl controls are of necessity
different from those pressen ted.
Insects and Nomiatodes
Root knot infested soil should be avoided where possible. If nematodes prevent
thee useof a garden spot, several methods of control mic- be attempted .with varying
degrees of success:
(a) Plant only resistant crops such as Crotalaria spectabilis and velvet beans
for one or more seasons.
(b) Use clean cultivation for one or more seasons, allowing no reeds or crop on
(c) Vhnere root knot prevents vegetable production, soil fumigation rith such
materials as DD and ethylene dibromide is suggested. If fumigation is oneo
used, it may be necessary to fumigate regularly for succeeding crops. I-F'uImL
nation permits planting the garden within two or three reeks and thus earle
use of the land. Follow manufacturer's recommendations closely.
Hany other good insecticides are on the market; however, materials are shown below
which control the insects indicated and are relatively safe for garden use.
Dusting is probably more satisfactory than spraying in the home garden. Evening
applications are generally preferable.
Chlordane 5% may be applied on the soil surface or as commercial bait for the control
of ants, cutworms, grasshoppers and mole crickets, or may be directed on the
insects as needed. Chlordane is sooti:.:os included in general garden fertili-
zers and may offer some measure of control of bhese insects and uidreworms.
DDT and chlordane should be applied strictly according to manufacturer's precautions
and recommendations. DDT should not be used on young plants of cantaloupes,
squash, cucumbers and vraternelons. As a matter of safety, plant parts should
not be fed to livestock, especially milk cows, unless a period of three weeks
has elapsed between treatment -with an insecticide and feeding, Rotenone is a
good ',nei',l insecticide h ore use on plant parts to be consumed is warranted.
Dusting sulfur is generally required for red spider control.
5% DDT 5 Chlordane 1% Rotenone
Arm.yTrorms x x x
Cabbage vroris x x
Colorado potato beetle x __ _
Cucumber beetles x x
Flea beetles x x
Fruit-, horn-, p"inworms x x
Flea hoppers x
Lesser corn stalk borer x
Leaf hoppers x x
Leaf rollers x x x
Melon-, picldewvorms x x
Mexican been beetles x
Pea pod reevils x
Pepper ireevils x
Stink bu:s x
Nicotine sulfate is the preferred material for aphids and thrips, but should
be applied ihen the air temperature is 70 F. or above.
iany chemical materials are available -ihich ive effective control of most
vegetable diseases; howTever, as a general practice, application of many specific
fungicides on a home garden scale is not warranted. Several measures of protection
may be afforded through adherence to the following:
Sanitation: Prevalence of many diseases may be reduced by -
(Ta Rotating garden locations of the saie or closely related crops from
season to season.
(b) Cleaning up refuse by removing plant or plant parts that are no longs
usable and by turning the crop under as soon as the harvest period is
(c) Preparing the soil three to four weeks prior to planting to insure
deterioration of the green vegetation.
(a) Transplants should be disease-free and the source of such plants
(b) Home-grown transplants should be propagated in disease-free soil.
blhere experience has shon this to be unavailable, practical sterili-
zation may be obtained by placing a two-inch deep layer of soil in a
pan and bal ing it in the oven at 350-h000 F. for at least one hour.
(a) Many seed sources furnish seed chemically treated for preventing seed
decay and certain other diseases. Treated seed are required to be lJabku.
(b) Spoeron h48 as a seed treatment offers a measure of control of most
seed borne diseases encountered in the home garden and may be used on
all vegetables except beets. Spergon should be applied to small lots
of seed according to manufacturer's directions. Thiram 50% and semesan
30% are among the other seed treatment materials effective on specific
Damping-Off In Garden Rov: -.etting the base of the plant stem and the soil surface
to a depth of one-helf to one inch as follows generally controls damping-
off in the garden row:
(a) One ounce of 48% wettable spergon to 3 gallons of water sprinkled on the
(b) Spergon 12% dusted on the soil surface and watered-in gives a measure of
Fungicides for Foliage Diseases:
(a) The most effective disease control is obtained by using specific materials
for specific diseases; however, as this is not generally practical for the
home garden, zineb applied as a -V-6-2 dust or 2 level tablEspoonfuls of
the wettable powder to 1 gallon of water is possibly the most suitable
material for general usage.
(b) From the standpoint of effective disease control in the home garden, a pro-
tective schedule will be more suitable than waiting for the disease to
develop and then starting the applications. The economics and manual
efforts involved should be a consideration of the individual gardener. A
satisfactory protective schedule necensitates fungicide applications at
least once a week and reducing the interval between applications to 3 or 4
days if the foliage disease continues to develop.
(c) Use of the materials as recommended ordinarily will not offer a hazard to
the person consuming the vegetable particularly if the product is thoroughly
washed before use in the home, Howevor, if a safety period is desired,
cease applications 10 days before harvest. Thisfurther -emphasizes the im-
portrnce of maintaining a protective schedule to have the crop free from
disease at the time applications cease.
Disease Resistant Varieties: Several varieties of certain vegetables have a degree
of resistance to one or more diseases, Some of these are shovm below:
Snap Beans: Contender (bean mosaic and powdery mildew), Logan (bean mosaic,
several rusts, powdery mildew and bacterial blight), Florida Belle (bean
mosaic, several rusts, and powdery mildew), and Top Crop (bean mosaic),
Pole Beans: US #4 (certain rusts).
Cabbage: Resistant Detroit, Globe and iiarion market (yellows).
Cantaloupe: Smith's Perfect and Texas Resistant #1 (dowvy mildew), and Po.de:.r
Mildew Resistant Nos. 5 and S5.
Cucumber: Palmetto and Santee (downy milder),
Eggplant: Florida market and Florida Beauty (phomopsis or tip-over).
Pepper: I;orld Beater (certain strains resistant to one form of leaf spotting).
Spinach: Virginia Savoy (mosaic),
Irish Potato: Kennebec (late blight).
Tomatoes: ianahill (wilt, early blight and leaf spot), Jefferson (wilt), Pan
America (wilt), and Southland (wilt, alternaria).
Watermelon: Congo anthracnosee), Blacklee (wilt), and Black Kleckley (wilt,
I1R. COUNTY AGENT:
'le feel that the material presented here would be of use to agricultural worked:
associated with home gardens in your county, If you agree, but do not have facili-
ties for duplicating, drop us a line and we'll supply you with the copies needed.
12-29-50 F. S. J.-.ISON
FSJ12-2 Vegetable Crop Specialist