Title: Berry/vegetable times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087388/00061
 Material Information
Title: Berry/vegetable times
Series Title: Berry/vegetable times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: March 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00061
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Calendar o

April 14 & May 12 P
Testing. Hillsborough
Extension Office, Seff
more information call
at 813-744-5519 ext.

April 17 Farm Tour -
See Page 5 for details.

April 21 Agriculture P
Collection Day. Held
7202 East 8th Ave. Ta
information call Steph

April 29 Horticulture
Conservation and Trea
Balm. See article.

May 1 Developing a F
Program for Vegetabl
Growers and Packers.
RSVP required. See a

Aug. 1 & 2 Florida Si
Alternative Enterprise
Osceola Heritage Park
For more information


October 28, 2009 is
next Florida
A University of Florid
Cooperative Extension
Hillsborough Count
Seffner, FL
(813) 744-
Joe Pergola, County E
Alicia Whidde
Gulf Coast Research &
14625 County
Wimauma, Fl
(813) 634-
Christine Cooley, La
James F Price,
Jack Rechcigl, GCRE(
htp ///gcrec ifa
IFAS is an Equal Employment O
function without regard to race,

Berry/Vegetable Times

March 2009

f Events From YourAgent

'esticide License Skin Cancer, the Sun and You!
ner. 9 am. For Now that the weather has warmed up people will be
Mary Beth Henry
103. getting even more sun exposure. Sun exposure gives us our
primary source of Vitamin D, but we do not need much time in
Jordan Farms. the sun to get the amount we need.
Sunlight contains three types of invisible ultraviolet rays-
'esticide UVA, UVB, and UVC. UVA causes skin aging and wrinkles
at EQ Florida, and skin cancer. Most of our sun exposure is made up of UVA.
mpa. For more UVB rays cause sunburns, cataracts and skin cancer. UVC is the
ten Gran at 813-
most dangerous but luckily is absorbed by the ozone layer.
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the US
BMPs for Water and more than 1 million cases are diagnosed each year. 1 in 5
atment, GCREC Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Basal cell
carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It can be
'ood Safety disfiguring but is rarely fatal. Squamous cell carcinoma is the
e and Berry second most common form of skin cancer. At least 250,000 are
GCREC, Balm. diagnosed each year and there will be 2,500 deaths in a year. Of
these two types of skin cancer at least 40 to 50% of those who
mall Farms live to be 65 will have at least on incident. Ninety percent of the
s Conference,
, Kissimmee, Fl. (Continued on page 2)
go to http://

Detecting Signs of Chili Thrips in Strawberries
James F. Price and Curtis A. Nagle, GCREC

SAEXpo The invasive chili thrips (S, il,,hrij,, dorsalis) has been
Sthe date for the a pest for a few years of Hillsborough Co. and much of south
Ag Expo at Florida's landscape and ornamental nursery plants including
Balm. rose, Indian hawthorn, and plumbago. In January 2008 the
a/IFAS and Florida thrips was discovered and controlled on two Plant City area
Service newsletter strawberry farms.
y, 5339 CR 579
33584 Later, during the summer of 2008, chili thrips were
teion Director found on numerous blueberry farms in central and west central
n, Editor Florida including blueberry farms in the Plant City strawberry
Education Center
Road 672, production area. During the fall and winter of the 2008 and
0033598 2009 strawberry season the thrips was discovered on field-grown
yout and Design then greenhouse-grown strawberry plants on the University of
C Center Director (Continued on page 3)
Is ufl edu
pportumty Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Umversity of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
Umnversity Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating

non-melanoma cancers are associated with
exposure to sun UV radiation and 90% of the
aging changes we see are attributed to the sun.
The most serious type of skin cancer is
melanoma. Melanoma is a cancer that begins
in melanocytes which are cells, that make the
pigment melanin. It can start in a mole or even
in other pigmented tissue such as the eye or
intestines. Other common cancer rates are
falling but melanoma is rising at a faster rate
than that of the 7 most common types of
cancer. Around 62,480 cases will be
diagnosed in a year and 8,420 will result in
death. Melanoma makes up 3% of the skin
cancer cases but accounts for more than 75%
of skin cancer deaths. One blistering sunburn
in childhood or adolescence more than doubles
a person's chance of developing melanoma
later in life. If you have had 5 or more
sunburns at any age the risk for melanoma
Whether working or playing outside
take the time to protect yourself from the sun
and the damage it can cause. Don't forget to
protect yourself even in the winter. Also wear
sunglasses with UV protection to protect your
eyes. A factsheet with simple sun protection
steps follows this article. In WPS training
when you give your workers heat stress
training, you can also have someone read the
factsheet to them about sun protection.

813-744-5519 ext. 134

Protecting Yourself from the
Harmful Effects of the Sun
Alicia Whidden, Hills. Co. Extension Service
Fact Sheet 08-01

Sun protection is protecting yourself
from the adverse effects of the sun. Sunlight
contains invisible ultraviolet (UV) rays. These
UV rays can damage skin. There are 3 types:
UVA, UVB and UVC. All are dangerous but
UVC is blocked by the ozone layer and does

not reach the earth. The two we must be
concerned about are UVA and UVB.
Outdoor workers are at high risk for skin
cancer, so you need to protect yourself every
time you are in the sun. Also, you should
routinely check your skin for any spots or
lesions that do not heal or look "funny" and seek
medical attention right away.

Sun Protection Steps
* Use a good sunscreen. At least SPF 15 or
higher -look for one that protects against
* Apply liberally don't skimp on the
* Apply 30 minutes before going out in the
sun so it can soak into skin and form a
* Reapply every couple of hours very
* Use waterproof types.
* Don't forget to wear lip sunscreen.
* Don't forget to put sunscreen on ears.
* Cover up with clothing to protect exposed
* Loose fitting long sleeve shirt and pants with
a tight weave are best.
* Wear a hat with a wide brim (at least
inches) to give your eyes, ears, face and the
back of your neck additional protection.
* Wear sunglasses.
* Choose ones that provide 100% UV
* Shades that wrap around will block more
light from entering from the sides.
* Wearing the correct sunglasses can protect
your eyes from cataracts.
* If possible, seek shade during the middle of
the day when UV rays are the strongest.
Even on cloudy days, UV light can burn you
through the cloud cover.


(Continued from page 1)
Florida GCREC in Wimauma. It is likely that
this pest was present but undetected or
unreported on other Plant City area strawberry
The episode on the University of Florida
GCREC field strawberries was detected only by
careful vigilance and trained eyes, was never
widespread, and largely disappeared either as a
result of a RadiantTM SC spinetoram application
or a combination of that insecticide and little-
understood environmental factors. In any case,
the episode seems to have ended by mid-March
2009 without significant fruit losses.
First apparent sign of chili thrips
infestation on GCREC strawberries was a
change in texture and color of leaf petioles from
the crown to the leaf blades and continuing on
into the bases of the mid-veins (Fig. 1).
Affected petioles were without the normal
smooth texture but possessed a slightly rough
and sandpapery texture. Affected petioles also
were tea-colored rather than light green. The
leaflet blades associated with chili thrips were
dark green on the upper side and possessed very
dark streaks especially near their bases (Fig 2).
Tea-color and rough texture of affected
petioles were readily apparent to observers who
pushed leaf blades to a side and exposed their
underlying petioles (Fig. 3). This action may be
an effective method to scout for chili thrips
infestations in strawberries.
Growers and scouts should become
familiar with the appearance of leaves and
petioles under chili thrips conditions. Through
understanding these signs, episodes of chili
thrips can be addressed early with least
economic impact.

Fig. 1. Underside
aspect of rough,
tea-colored petiole
of chili thrips
strawberry leaf
(right) and
unaffected leaf

Angular Leaf Spot, a Bacterial
Disease of Strawberry
Jim Mertely and Natalia Peres, GCREC

The most important bacterial disease
on strawberry is angular leaf spot (ALS),
caused by Xanthomonas fragariae. This
bacterium normally spots and blights the leaves
(Photos 1 & 2), but the berry cap (calyx) can
also be infected (Photo 3). During serious
outbreaks, the cap may turn brown, leading to
rejection of fruit shipments. This season,
weather conditions and other factors
combinedto produce a serious epidemic of
ALS in Florida strawberries. Why did the
epidemic occur and what could have been done
to control it?
ALS was first found in Minnesota in
1960, and has since been spread by infected
transplants to many areas where strawberries
are grown. ALS commonly occurs in
strawberry nurseries, but does not appear every
year in every nursery. Working at the
University of Florida, Dr. Pam Roberts
detected ALS lesions on transplants purchased
from Canadian nurseries as early as 1993. This

pattern continues today, since the disease is at
least as difficult to control in the nursery as it is
in the production field. ALS on transplants
may begin with the purchase of infected
transplants by the nursery operator. In
addition, plant debris in the field and plants
over-wintered at the nursery may harbor the
pathogen and serve to infect newly planted
spring crops. Subsequent disease development
depends on weather conditions as the runner
plants develop over the summer.
X fragariae infects the leaves through
tiny pores stomataa) that enable the leaf to take
in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.
Infection is most likely to occur when the
stomata are open (during the day), and when
water from rain, dew, fog, or overhead
irrigation is present on the leaves. The
frequent use of overhead irrigation for freeze
protection this season helped to spread X.
fragariae across our berry fields, just like
hurricanes helped to spread the citrus canker
bacterium across Florida in recent years.
Interestingly, the use of some spray oils and
spray adjuvants (e.g., penetrants, spreader
stickers, and wetting agents) also aids
bacterial penetration into the leaf and

I Photo 1. ALS leaf

increases disease severity.
The occurrence and spread of ALS is
suppressed by several cultural practices. The
best practice would be to obtain resistant or
disease-free transplants. Since this is often
not possible, growers should try to minimize
overhead irrigation, both for establishment and
frost protection. X fragariae is also spread by
pickers. Therefore, harvesting operations
should be avoided as much as possible when
the plants are wet. When ALS is of concern,
overuse of the previously mentioned spray
adjuvants should also be avoided.

Photo 2. ALS leaf

A number of copper "fungicides" are
labeled for ALS control on strawberry. These
products contain a variety of copper compounds
including copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride,
copper sulfate, and others. During a normal
season with light to moderate disease pressure,
researchers are hard pressed to detect differences
among these products. During this season (when
disease pressure was unusually high), we found
that certain copper products performed better
than others. However, more research is needed
to confirm that the suppression of ALS by copper
sprays meaningfully improves yield and/or fruit
quality. In addition, little information is
available on application scheduling. Should
coppers be applied regularly or only before or
after rains and overhead irrigation? Growers
should be aware that over use of copper
fungicides reduces plant growth and may lead to
phytotoxicity. Therefore, when a range of rates
is given on the label, the lower rate probably
should be used.

Photo 3. ALS spotting of
fruit cap (calyx).

Actigard is a plant resistance promoter
that Florida growers have used to control
bacterial spot disease on tomatoes. It is not
currently registered for use on strawberry, but
preliminary results from strawberry trials at
GCREC have shown that low rates of Actigard
suppress ALS as well as most copper products.

New Marketing Opportunity for

The Elder Farmers' Market Nutrition
Program (EFMNP) is a federally funded
program that supports small regional farmers
and low-income elders. Eligible elders are
given coupon books that can be used to
purchase fresh locally grown produce from
authorized farmers at farmers markets within
the county. In addition to improving the
nutritional wellbeing of the elders, this
program benefits the farmers and their
communities by promoting direct purchase of
local produce. This both allows the farmers to
keep a greater share of the food dollar and
increase the customer base at the local farmers'
This program is being expanded from
northern counties and is seeking to identify and
contact local growers who might be interested
in participating in the EFMNP. Involved
farmers would have to agree to:
* Be a verifiable grower of the majority of
the produce they sell.
* Attend a brief training session to learn
about program rules and be authorized to
* Follow the guidelines of the program,
including specific methods for accepting
and redeeming coupons.
* Sign a program contract.
* Permit inspection of their farm for
verification of facilities and acreage under
If you are interested, contact Kate
Raines, the program coordinator, at 850-414-
2169 or rainesk@elderaffairs.org.

FOG and Jordan Farms to Host
Organic Farming Demonstration
day April 17 in Dover

Gainesville, FL-Florida Organic Growers
(FOG) will team up with certified organic
producers Cherri and Ron Clark for an organic

farming demonstration day 9 a.m. to noon April
17 at Jordan Farms in Dover. The field day is an
opportunity for commercial growers interested in
transitioning to organic production or reducing
pesticide use to gain first-hand experience with
organic soil management, cropping, and pest and
disease control at a farm that grows strawberries
and vegetable crops.
Jordan Farms is located on 22 acres in
Dover off 1-4 in Hillsborough County. The
Clarks have farmed organically since before
adoption of the USDA National Organic
Program (NOP) and have been certified to NOP
standards since their implementation in 2002.
The field day is part of FOG's Organic
Transition and Pesticide Reduction program that
offers farmers free technical assistance to
transition to organic production by pairing
growers with an experienced organic production
crop advisor. Through the expertise of crop
advisors, FOG staff and allied professionals,
commercial growers who would like to transition
a portion of their operation to organic production
can hone their skills and access information to
assist with challenges that may arise during the
transition period.
Growers who transition to organic
production gain access to the organic foods
marketplace, which has grown in the U.S. from
$1 billion in sales in 1990 to an estimated $23
billion in 2008.
"The organic marketplace continues to
expand and Florida growers may want to
seriously consider the market opportunities,"
FOG Executive Director Marty Mesh said.
For more information and to RSVP contact Matt
Vargas at 352.377.6345 or email
matt@foginfo. org.
Directions to Jordan Farms: Take I-4 to Exit 14.
South on McIntosh Rd. to Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr. Blvd. East on Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Blvd. to Mott Rd. North on Mott Rd. to 3243
Mott Rd. Jordan Farms is located at 3243 Mott
Rd., Dover, FL 33527
Media Contact: Matt Vargas, 352-377-6345;

Developing a Food Safety Program
for Vegetable and Fruit
Growers and Packers

A food safety workshop for growers
and packers of tomatoes, melons, leafy green.
strawberries and blueberries will be held May
1, 2009 at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center in Balm located at 14625
County Road 672. Registration will begin at
8:30 with the workshop starting at 9:00 and
going till 4:30. There will be a $20 fee. Lunch
and snacks will be provided. The workshop
will cover food safety issues for producers and
packers. A certificate of attendance will be
given after completion of the program.
Attendees will receive handouts and
educational material that can be used for
training workers on food safety. Food safety
training is mandatory for tomato growers and
packers and is highly recommended for
personnel working with other commodities.
Please use the registration form on this page.
Registration closes April 29 at noon. If you
have questions about the program call Alicia
Whidden at the Hillsborough County
Extension Office, 813-744-5519 ext. 134.
Workshop is sponsored by IFAS, Hillsborough
and Manatee County Extension.

Developing a Food Safety Program
for Vegetable and Fruit Growers and

Registration Form
Pre-Registration is Required





State: Zip Code:

Phone #:

A Registration Fee of $20 is required.

Method of Payment (Cash & Check Only):

(Cash) (Check)

(Official Use)

Please Make Check Payable To:
Hillsborough County Vegetable
Advisory Committee

Choose Type of Lunch Box (circle one):
Ham Classic Turkey Classic
Prime Roast Beef Veggie Delight

Mail Form To:
Hillsborough County
: Extension Service
Attention: Lacey Marsden
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 x128

S or Fax To: (813) 744-5776

IJ ...................................................

Please remember...
The use of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing specific
information. It is not a guarantee or
warranty of the products named and does
not signify that they are approved to the
exclusion of others of suitable composition.
Use pesticides safely. Read and follow
directions on the manufacturer's label.

Revus Top, Tanos and Actigard for
the Management of Early Blight
and Target Spot on Tomato
Gary Vallad, GCREC

Early blight and target spot are a
constant management challenge for tomato
growers. Both are caused by fungal pathogens
that under ideal conditions can defoliate plants
and damage fruit causing significant yield
losses. Chemical control is the primary means
by which growers manage both diseases and
several fungicides are available. However,
there is a need to monitor both pathogens for
resistance by periodically reassessing the
efficacy of fungicides in the field, and
evaluating new products for activity.
In 2008, field trials were conducted to
test the effectiveness of several commercial
and experimental fungicides for the
management of early blight and target spot.
Fungicide treatments were integrated into a
standard weekly spray program consisting of
copper (Cuprofix Ultra 40D, UPI; or Kocide
3000, DuPont), mixed either with mancozeb
(Penncozeb 75DF, UPI) or chlorothalonil
(Bravo Weatherstik, Syngenta). Applications
were made to single bed, 24 ft plots with a CO2
backpack sprayer calibrated at 40 psi for 60 or
90 gal/A. Trials were inoculated 6-8 weeks
after transplanting with a spore suspension of
Alternaria solani and monitored for disease.
Spray programs that included Revus
Top (Syngenta) combined with Endura (BASF)
or Tanos (DuPont) alone or combined with
Endura, controlled early blight and target spot

better than the standard spray program. Endura
alone or Quadris (Syngenta) gave moderate
levels of control that were similar or slightly
better than the standard, copper-mancozeb/
chlorothalonil program (see table on page 8).
Several experimental materials from Syngenta,
DuPont, and Bayer, also gave superior control
(data not presented).
For proper resistance management, it is
important to take notice of the FRAC codes
based on the mode of action to help growers
rotate fungicides. For example, Tanos contains
the active ingredients famoxadone (FRAC 11)
and cymoxanil (FRAC 27) that inhibit fungal
respiration by targeting different regions of the
cytochrome bcl complex. Therefore, none of
the other FRAC 11 compounds, including all
strobilurins, would be appropriate rotational
partners with Tanos. Revus Top contains the
active ingredients difenoconazole (FRAC 3), a
sterol inhibitor, and a new compound
mandipropamid (FRAC 40) that interferes with
spore germination and cell wall deposition by
inhibiting phospholipid biosynthesis. Both
Tanos and Revus Top contain active
ingredients that are also effective against late
Actigard (Syngenta) also controlled
early blight and target spot (see table). The
active ingredient in Actigard, acibenzolar-S-
methyl, has no direct effect on either pathogen,
but stimulates plant defenses in a non-specific
manner. Actigard has been shown to confer
protection on numerous crops, including
tomato, to a broad array of pathogens.
Actigard is labeled for the control of bacterial

Figure 1. Leaves exhibiting symptoms typical of target spot (A) and early blight (B), and plots treated with a spray program that in-
cluded Actigard (C) or were left as a non-treated control (D).

leaf spot on tomato. These results make Actigard an attractive tool for the integrated
management of foliar diseases common to tomato production in Florida. As with all pesticides,
growers are reminded to read and follow the label instructions.

Table 1. Partial summary of 2008 early blight and target spot trials on tomato at UF/IFAS, GCREC,
Wimauma, FL.

% foliage with disease Marketable Yield (25 lb cartons/Acre)

(95% CI) Total (95% CI) Extra Large (95 CI)

Treatments in amts/A
Trial 1 Spring 2008
Actigard (0.75 oz; 8 apps) + STD

Quadris Flowable (5.4 fl oz; 3
apps) + STD

Standard (STD): Cuprofix Ultra
40D (3 lbs) + Penncozeb 75DF (2
lbs) or Bravo Weatherstik (2 pts)
Non-treated Control

Trial 2 Spring 2008
STD; alt. with 4 apps. of Revus
Top 4.17SC (6 floz) + Bravo
Weather Stik 720SC (2pt) +
Endura 70WG (3oz)
STD; alt. with 4 apps. of Revus
Top 4.17SC (7floz) + Bravo
Weather Stik 720SC (2pt) +
Endura 70WG (3oz)
Kocide 3000 (1.3 lb); alt. with
Kocide 3000 (1.3 lb) + Tanos
50WG (8 oz)
Kocide 3000 (1.3 lb) + Endura
70WG (2.5 oz); alt. with Kocide
3000 (1.3 lb) + Tanos 50WG (8
Endura 70WG (3oz) + Cuprofix
Ultra 40D (3 lb)
Standard (STD): Cuprofix Ultra
40D (3 lbs) + Penncozeb 75DF (2
lbs) or Bravo Weatherstik (2 pts)
Non-treated Control

Trial 3 Fall 2008
Actigard (0.75 oz; 8 apps) + STD

Standard (STD): Cuprofix Ultra
40D (3 lbs) + Penncozeb 75DF (2
lbs) or Bravo Weatherstik (2 pts)
Non-treated Control

56.3 (47.2- 65.3)

67.3 (58.2- 76.3)

72.0 (62.9- 81.1)

81.5 (72.4- 90.6)

7.9 (4.5 11.3)

7.9 (4.5 11.3)

13.8 (10.4 17.1)

10.3 (6.9 13.6)

23.3 (19.9- 26.6)

37.5 (34.1 -40.9)

23.2 (19.9- 26.6)

37.5 (27.3 47.7)

67.3 (57.0 77.5)

94.4 (84.2 104.6)

2598 (1779- 3416)

2973 (2154- 3791)

2262 (1443- 3081)

1419 (600 2237)

1802 (1359- 2246)

2113 (1607-2619)

2231 (1788- 2675)

2517 (2074- 2960)

1955 (1511 -2398)

1922 (1478 2365)

2117 (1674 -2561)

1783 (1552 2013)

1731 (1500- 1961)

1734 (1503 1964)

542 (415- 669)

522 (394 649)

647 (519- 774)

277 (149 404)

1108 (708- 1507)

1218 (759 1676)

1358 (958 1758)

1705 (1305- 2105)

1204 (804 1604)

1195 (796- 1595)

1342 (942 1741)

686 (579 793)

711 (604-818)

688 (581- 794)

Visit the 'Tasti-Lee'
GCREC's latest variety
release is ready for
market! The tomato breeding program is
pleased to present 'Tasti-Lee'TM tomato. This
fresh market tomato hybrid is now available
for the premium tomato market. It has high
lycopene content and an attractive, deep red
color due to the crimson gene. 'Tasti-Lee'TM
has been extensively tested in seven sensory
panels where it has always been the most
preferred group for overall flavor. 'Tasti-Lee'
is resistant to Fusarium wilt races 1, 2 and 3,
Verticillium wilt race and gray leaf spot. For
information visit the 'Tasti-Lee'TM website or
contact the Florida Seed Foundation (352) 392-

How Much Chill have We
Accumulated this year?
Clyde Fraisse and Alicia Whidden

How many times have you asked this
question and was left wondering about it or
trying to estimate based on temperature
observations? Now you can easily have this
information thanks to a new chill accumulation
tool available on AgroClimate.org (http://
Most temperate plants including
orchard crops and deciduous trees enter a
dormant period during late fall and winter
characterized as a state of reduced or stopped
metabolic activity of above ground parts. This
dormant condition is a mechanism which
enables plants to survive cold. The
development of dormancy and cold hardiness
is a gradual process which begins in late fall or
early winter in Florida. Once dormant, plants
require accumulated exposure to cool
temperatures during winter dormancy for
budbreak and the resumption of normal growth

in the spring. This minimum amount of
accumulated cool temperature exposure for
normal growth, which varies by species and
cultivar, is referred to as chilling requirement.
The new AgroClimate chill accumulation
tool lets you compare current chill accumulation
based on measurements made at a FAWN station
located within 20 to 70 miles from the center of a
selected county with the long-term average and/
or last year's accumulation. It also forecasts the
range of expected accumulation by the end of the
season based on the current El Nino Southern
Oscillation (ENSO) phase. The top graph in the
figure on Page 10 shows that the number of
hours below 450F accumulated at the Dover
FAWN station since October 1, 2008 amounts to
359 until February 15 (the number of chill hours
are updated every two weeks). The bottom graph
shows the total amount accumulated during each
biweekly period. Both graphs also show the long
-term average accumulation (line with yellow
squares) for Hillsborough County (selected in
this example). It can be observed that the amount
of chill accumulated this year (359) is above the
long-term average (257), If you click on either
graph it expands and show more details
including a table with values. Higher
accumulation this year was mainly due to three
periods of colder than normal temperatures: the
second half of November, the second half of
January, and the first half of February.
Each species and cultivar has specific
chilling requirements that are related either to the
accumulated hours below a chilling temperature
threshold or to cumulative chill units, which are
hours that are weighted for temperature effects at
breaking dormancy. The tool also allows you to
calculate chill accumulation based on the number
of hours with air temperature between 45 F and
32F and chill units (CU). In the case of chill
units the hours are weighted for the effectiveness
of satisfying chilling requirements depending on
the temperature. For more information contact
your local extension agent or Clyde Fraisse at

Chill Accumulation

Chill HOURS/Chill UNITS:

State + County


SGraph All

Accumulated hours at
stations within:
O m2le0 -e of

Select Station:
eDover, FL (8 miles)
OBalm, FL (13 miles)

SShow stations on a map
Data sources:


Cumulative Chill Hours


600 -


SShow County Average

[IShow Last Season

Chill Accumulated
this season 44 454
(Dover) 3359 365i

,I- 143
i 06

OB----^t---^t------------------L--'---------'--I- -----------

Forecast Range(25-75 pctile) -D- County Average
Biweekly Chill Hours

[ I I6 I I6
0 (o
'.. Ng p'- NP


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Free Agriculture Pesticide Collection Day Scheduled

Markyour calendars! Hillsborough County is again offering local agricultural operations chance to dispose ofpesti-
cides no longer used for FREE on Tuesday, April 21. The Agriculture Pesticide Collection Day will take place from 8
a.m. 2 p.m. at EQ Florida, 7202 E. 8th Ave. in Tampa. You should enter at 8th Ave. and Orient Road.

Hillsborough County's Agriculture Industry Development Program is organizing the collection in partnership with the
Hillsborough County Solid Waste Management Department, the CooperativeExtension Service, andthe Environmental
Protection Commission ofHillsborough County. Funding for the collection has been made available through the Envi-
ronmental Protection Commission Pollution Recovery Fund. This funding is limited; therefore once it is exhausted the
collection will be closed.

The purpose ofthe program isto eliminate potential public health and environmental hazards from stored pesticides that
are out-of-date, suspended or unusable. The program also further educates agricultural pesticide users on proper
handling, storage, and managementpractices.

The Agriculture Pesticide Collection Day is intended to provide a free pesticide disposal service for Hillsborough
County agricultural operations. Pesticide manufacturers and distributors, homeowners, universities and government
institutions, including state, county and local government pesticide users, are not eligible to participate.

For more information, contact Stephen Gran, Agriculture Industry Development Program Manager,
Hillsborough County Economic Development Department, at (813) 272-5506.

Complication the Methyl Bromide
Alternatives Picture with Shortages
of Telone
J.W. Noling, CREC and A.J. Whidden, Hills. Co. Ext.

Over a decade of university research and
grower field demonstration trials has been
conducted to identify and evaluate alternatives to
methyl bromide soil fumigation for use in
Florida fruit and vegetable crops. A summary of
this research clearly demonstrates that the next
best alternative system will require a
coapplication of different soil fumigants,
possibly in combination with other soil applied
herbicide products. In this coapplication
approach, chloropicrin has repeatedly been
shown to be the integral, foundation component
of any alternative chemical approach to replace
methyl bromide for disease control. In general,
chloropicrin has performed poorly as a
nematicide or herbicide in Florida trials. In some
trials, chloropicrin was actually demonstrated to
enhance weed seed or tuber germination and
growth. Much of the current field research
continues to focus on evaluations of chloropicrin
coapplied with other fumigants to expand its
spectrum of pest control efficacy, particularly
with 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone) for nematode
control, and either metam sodium or potassium
for weed control. Of the chloropicrin
combinations, Telone C-35, a combination of 1,3
-dichloropropene and 35 percent chloropicrin, or
Telone II applied prebed in advance of a separate
chloropicrin application continues to be
extensively evaluated and commercially readied
for use as a methyl bromide alternative
treatment. More recently the methyl bromide
alternatives research picture has changed even
further to include field evaluations of methyl
iodide (Midas) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS),
both of which are formulated with chloropicrin
to broaden pest control efficacy.
As growers are aware, methyl bromide is
currently only being made available through the
international approval process of a Critical Use
Exemptions (CUE). With each new year of CUE
submission, the amount of methyl bromide
awarded or allowed is significantly less than the

amount of methyl bromide awarded the
previous year and of the amount formally
requested. With high levels of existing
supplies, methyl bromide users have been
buffered from shortages in supply and
volatile pricing. This is however expected to
soon change. Because existing stocks of pre
2005 produced methyl bromide are thought
to be finally nearing exhaustion, high prices
and supply shortages are forecast to begin
Fall 2009. Interestingly, I do not believe that
EPA has yet to publish a final rule for
allocation of 2009 new production of methyl
bromide. It appears that EPA will provide the
final rule in May. This is significant because
the rule can affect when MeBr will actually
be produced and CUE materials distributed
during 2009. It is my understanding that EPA
has granted production authority to
manufacturers but it is not clear whether any
2009 new product has actually been
produced yet.
The CUE picture for 2010 and
thereafter doesn't look particularly good
either, given that higher proportions of CUE
stocks are expected to derive from existing
supplies, and significantly reduced quantities
of new production are expected in some
crops like Florida strawberry where because
EPA believes the availability of the newly
registered fumigant methyl iodide represents
an acceptable and effective alternative to
methyl bromide. With diminishing supplies
and expected scarcities, we have been
counseling growers to begin planning
accordingly, to begin the transition to
alternatives. For planning purposes,
considerations are first to efficiently
distribute what available methyl bromide
supply growers can afford or acquire, and
secondly, to then utilize appropriate
alternatives to the extent possible.
It was our hope and expectation to
see a more graduated transition to
alternatives such as Telone and Chloropicrin
during the period of declining market supply
and increasing price of methyl bromide.
Unfortunately, what was to suppose to be an

easy and orderly transition to alternatives is now
being driven not only by reduced market supply
of methyl bromide but also by reduced market
supply of Telone (1,3-d). It is ironic that after
such a long research cycle to develop and fine
tune the alternatives, and at the very time you
need the alternative in the hands of growers to
replace methyl bromide, it is not available.
Why the Telone shortage at such a
critical time. It is a relatively long story
beginning with Hurricane Ike in August. In
preparation for the hurricane moving on shore,
Dow AgroScience closed their coastal Telone
production facility near Galveston, Texas. At the
plant, Telone is produced as a down stream
byproduct of the manufacturing of a fiberglass
resin used extensively in the auto industry. After
incurring shutdowns for the hurricane and
afterwards for plant maintenance, the collapse in
the auto industry seriously reduced demand for
the fiberglass resin. If Telone flows from the
plant, it is my understanding that it currently
flows as a trickle of its former stream. Based on
conversations with distributors, the situation of
reduced production and scarcity in market supply
is expected to continue through 2009 and into
2010, a time when the economy and auto
industry is expected to rebound. Distributors
have been forewarned not to expect more than 50
-60% of their previous three year average sales
of Telone. Earlier in February, one Plant City
fumigant distributor only had 660 gallons of
Telone EC which was quickly purchased for
spring use. Other distributors are demanding
sales of formulations with chloropicrin until
short supplies of Telone that they do have are
exhausted. We have not been able to determine
whether even a trickle of market supply from the
Galveston plant will satisfy supplies needed for
sufficient production of Telone EC or
formulations with chloropicrin (eg., C35, InLine,
PicChlor 60). Currently, North Carolina tobacco
and sweet potato growers, Georgia vegetable
growers, and Florida strawberry and caladium
growers are all competing for any and all Telone
products produced and shipped into the

Given the scarcity, what are the
alternatives growers will be forced to explore
for spring 2009 and possibly into the fall of
2009? Methyl bromide is in short supply,
will likely only be formulated as 50/50, and
currently is priced in the neighborhood of
$5.60 to 5.75 per pound. We are concerned
that there will not be enough in available
supply to satisfy aggregate needs,
particularly if a scenario of 50% reduced
Telone availability is the reality for the fall.
If methyl bromide supply cannot be relied
upon to help fill the void created by Telone
scarcity, then Telone C35, Telone C17, or
PIC Chlor 60 (formulated with available
supply until exhausted), Chloropicrin alone
or Chloropicrin EC coupled with Vapam or
Kpam, or Midas 50/50 will have to be relied
upon for soilborne pest and disease control.
In Florida and other SE locations with deep,
sandy soils, use of any drip formulation of
these compounds will likely be challenged by
1 drip tape per bed delivery. For example,
last spring we were able to demonstrate the
limited vapor phase movement of Vapam and
Kpam into the bed shoulder when applied
with a single tape down the the middle of the
bed. This work is continuing this spring, and
are looking for nematode infested fields to
evaluate drip fumigation performance. All in
all, in the absence or scarcity of Telone, it
appears we will have to rely on higher levels
of chloropicrin use, (which in itself is not a
particularly effective nematicide). It would
seem that without Telone, we will be forced
to rely on compounds and formulations
which have never been recommended as
preferred options for nematode control. It is
easy to envision how it could evolve into a
rough time farming a sting nematode infested
field next year with so many considering
double cropping berries after berries. It will
surely be breaking some new ground. More
on this topic in our next newsletter.

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