Title: Berry/vegetable times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087388/00059
 Material Information
Title: Berry/vegetable times
Series Title: Berry/vegetable times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: December 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00059
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Berry/Vegetable Times

>) December2008

Calendar of Events

Jan.13, 2009 Pesticide
License Testing.
Hillsborough County
Extension Office, Seffner.
9 am. For more information
call Mary Beth Henry, 813-
744-5519, ext 103.

Feb. 5, 2009 Organic
Transition Program, Manatee
County Extension Office,
Palmetto. 9:30- 4:00. See
article for more information.

Feb. 13, 2009 Strawberry
Field Day, Gulf Coast
Research & Education
Center, Balm. 12:30 p.m. See
article for more information.

March 10, 2009 Resources
for Producers Meeting,
Hillsborough County
Extension Office, Seffner.
1:00 p.m. More information

A University of Florida/IFAS and Florida
Cooperative Extension Service newsletter
Hillsborough County, 5339 CR 579,
Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Joe Pergola, County Extension Director
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
14625 County Road 672,
Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, GCREC Center Director
http //gcrec ifas ufl edu

From Your Extension Agent...
Grower New Year Resolutions

As 2008 wraps up and we look toward 2009 what
most people do is make a list of New Year's resolutions so
here is a list for fruit and vegetable producers for this coming
First off since this is a new year the Florida Minimum
Wage Poster will need to be changed. On January 1,
2009 the new minimum wage for the state will
become $7.21 per hour. So be sure to change your
poster and to help you meet your first resolution there
is a copy of the poster in both English and Spanish at
the end of the newsletter.
Our second resolution will be to pass our Worker
Protection Standard (WPS) inspection. To do this we
are going to be sure all our employees are given WPS
training before their sixth day of work, our central
posting is not faded and the emergency contact
information is listed, our spray records are complete
and posted at central posting, and our
(Continued on page 2)

My Plan
Craig Chandler

Many Berry/Vegetable Times readers have probably
heard by now that I'm retiring from my position as strawberry
breeder for the University of Florida. Some of you have
asked me "What's going on? (You're too young to retire.)"
"What are you going to do?" "What do you have planned?"
Thinking that those of you with whom I don't communicate
regularly might also be curious about what's going on, I've
decided to write something in this issue about my future and
that of the UF strawberry breeding program.
First, the program. The breeding program is in good
shape. There are numerous promising selections, in various
(Continued on page 3)

IFAS is an Equal Employment OpportunityAffirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational formation and other services only to individuals and stitutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department ofAgriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating

December 2008

BerryNegetable Times

Berry/Vegetable Times

decontaminations sites are well
supplied. When we give WPS
training we are going to instruct our
workers on what a pesticide is, the
types of effects pesticides can have
on a person, where to find
information on what has been sprayed
and how the worker can protect
themselves from pesticides. We are
going to be sure that anyone that
sprays or handles containers of
pesticide concentrates is trained as a
handler. In doing all this we hope to
be rewarded in the new year by
passing our inspection.
*In this new year if we should have a
freeze and need to run water for
freeze protection we will remember
to do the freeze report for the
Southwest Florida Water
Management District and turn the
report in on time( within 2 weeks of
the freeze event).
*Another resolution will be to
regularly scout our fields or have
them scouted so we can make
informed decisions about our spray
program and only spray when and
with exactly what we need based on
what problem has been identified in
our field. For a good IPM (Integrated
Pest Management) program and also
to save money you want to be sure to
be wise about the chemicals you
spray and not spray more than is
* Our final resolution helps with all the
other resolutions-that is to keep up
with what is going on in the industry,
in research, and in government
regulations. To do this we will read
this newsletter, attend industry
meetings, and IFAS meetings like the
2009 Strawberry Field Day to keep
well informed. This also will help us
keep up with our pesticide license

CEUs so we will be able to renew our
license and not have to take the test

As we put this year to rest and start on
a brand new year let's stick to our resolutions
and have a great 2009!
May you and your families have a safe
and wonderful holiday season,

Hillsborough County Extension Service
813-744-5519, ext. 134

Organic Transition Workshop
Florida Organic Growers (FOG) will
partner with UF/IFAS to present a free
workshop Thursday, Feb. 5 from 9:30 a.m. to
4:00 p.m. at the Manatee County Extension
Office in Palmetto for farmers interested in
transitioning to organic production. The
workshop is intended for commercial
producers interested in transitioning to organic
production and will include an update on
financial support for organic transition made
available by the 2008 Farm Bill.
The workshop is part of FOG's
program that offers farmers free technical
assistance to transition to organic production.
By pairing growers with crop advisors
experienced with organic production methods,
the program gives growers the support,
technical know-how and assurance they may
need or desire to successfully make the
transition. Organic regulations allow
certification of split operations so producers
have the option of transitioning a portion of
their total acreage. The U.S. organic food
industry has grown from $1 billion in sales in
1990 to an estimated $23 billion in 2008 and is
expected to average 18 percent annual growth
through 2010.
"The organic marketplace continues to
expand and Florida growers may want to

December 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

seriously consider the market opportunities,"
FOG Executive Director Marty Mesh said.
In addition to assisting transitioning
growers, the program is open to any Florida
fruit or vegetable producer who is interested
in reducing pesticide use or switching to
lower-risk chemicals. Interested growers
please contact Matt Vargas at (352) 377-
6345 or matt@foginfo.org. More
information, including the application to
participate in the program, can be found at


2008 Florida Ag Expo Smaller,
but Successful
Christine Cooley

With nearly 700 in attendance at this
year's Ag Expo, the venue was a little more
cozy than past years. However, the response

was outstanding. Vendors and participants
alike were pleased with the new set up which
housed the vendors in 1/2 of the auditorium
while presentations were given on the other
side. Post-event surveys from attendees
mentioned an interest in seeing more organic
topics during the presentations. Everyone
seemed to prefer the one-day event verses

stretching the expo over two days as in the
past. Vendor surveys were also very positive
with comments such as "Up and Coming
Show", "We have participated the past
couple of years and hope to continue",
"Good grower contact at this event", and
"Show had fewer 'just looking' attendees vs.
real 'I need to' growers". Thanks to everyone
who participated and we look forward to
another successful expo in 2009.

(Continued from page 1)
stages of evaluation; a new, highly qualified
breeder will be hired by spring 2009; and the
program has sufficient operating capital
(mostly from royalties collected on cultivars
released from the program) despite a
continuing decline of state dollars to the
Now, my plan. I will retire from my
position at the end of June 2010. This will
allow the new breeder and me to overlap for
one full season and ensure a smooth
transition. I have been managing the UF
strawberry breeding program for over 20 years,
and, honestly, I am finding it increasingly
difficult to maintain the level of energy
and passion needed to successfully manage a
program that includes research and
development, extension, industry relations, and
graduate student education. Beyond June
2010, however, I don't have a detailed plan for
the rest of my life. But I do know I want to
continue to work with plants and I want to
continue to write.
I will consider special strawberry
projects, if they come along, but at this point
I'm leaning more toward doing something in
the area of urban landscaping. For example,
currently I'm on a crusade, of sorts, to reduce
the over-pruning of sabal palms (our state tree)
and live oaks in residential and commercial
landscapes. (Yes, I admit, I've been a closet
tree-hugger for many years.)

December 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

I would also like to have time to work on
some projects (possibly a book or other type
of publication) with my wife, Lynda, who
many of you know is a talented botanical
illustrator. And last, but certainly not least, I
am planning to have more time to spend with
my family and friends.

Asian Cockroaches Are Eating
Strawberry Fruit
James F. Price and Curtis Nagle

The Asian cockroach (Fig. 1) has
been recognized to remove seeds from
strawberry fruit and eat seed contents, but
additionally this insect eats holes in the fruit
that masquerade as sap beetle damage. There
are quick remedies for this though.
The Asian cockroach was not known
in the US until 1986 when the first invaders
were identified in Lakeland and found 1 year
later in Brandon and Tampa. Now they have
folks swatting over much of the Southeast. I
first encountered a few of them in Plant City
strawberry fields at the beginning of the
episode and now I can record them at 54,000
per acre in some late-season strawberry
spots. Others have estimated Asian
cockroaches at up to 250,000 per acre in
The Asian cockroach looks much like
our small German cockroach, but is much
more prone to fly. It is sometimes called the
"flying cockroach". It is the cockroach that
Floridians may see abundantly among leaves
and mulch in their yards and gardens. It is
not commonly found in homes.
Ripe fruit have been appearing on my
2008-2009 UF GCREC strawberry
entomology crop for about 2 weeks and I
have been finding fruit excavated by the
Asian cockroach almost as long. Feeding
damage consists of holes in the fruit surface
with slightly larger, dry excavations behind
the holes. Tiniest cockroaches make the

small holes, slightly larger than a strawberry
seed. Hole sizes range to the largest almost as
big as a pencil eraser formed by adults
common later in the season.
Sap beetles have been blamed for this
damage in the past, but the excavations by sap
beetles are rarely dry but instead quickly
become soupy.
Insecticides of pyrethrins such as
Pyrenone Crop Spray, Pyganic, and Pyreth-
It are registered for cockroach control and are
permitted for use on strawberries.
Additionally, the pyrethroids Danitol and
Brigade are permitted on strawberries and
performed very well for Asian cockroach
control in spring 2008 GCREC experiments.
Photos and additional information
about this insect is provided in an excellent
publication available on UF IFAS EDIS at
asian cockroach.htm

Fig. 1: AdultAsian cockoach

The use of trade names in this
publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is
not a guarantee or warranty of the
products names and does not signify
that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition. Use
pesticides safely. Read and follow
directions on the manufacturer's label.

December 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

Mark Your Calendar for the
2009 Strawberry Field Day

There will be a strawberry field day at
GCREC on Friday, February 13th. Details have
not yet been finalized, but current plans are for the
event to start at 12:30 with a complimentary lunch
in the auditorium, followed by several short
presentations. (We are hoping that one of these
presentations will be an update on what the
California strawberry industry is doing in terms of
food safety, methyl bromide alternatives, etc.)
Then we will move to the field to see promising
selections and new disease, pest, and cultural
management practices. You won't want to miss
this educational event. Come learn from the
experts, and this can be your lucky day!

Botrytis fruit rot control
Natalia Peres and Jim Mertely

Botrytis fruit rot or "gray mold" is caused
by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. This fungus
attacks a wide variety of crops. Strawberry leaves
may be infected in the nursery. After transplant,
the fungus colonizes the old dying leaves,
producing spores that infect new leaves and early
flowers and fruit. These spores will serve as the
main sources of inoculum for the eventual
infection that usually occurs during the main
strawberry crop. Fruit infection may occur by two
main routes. The most important is colonization of
flower parts such petals and stamens (photo 1).
The other is by direct contact of healthy fruit with
diseased fruit and dead leaves (photo 2). Past
research has shown that spore production and
infection are promoted by temperatures between
60 and 770F combined with long wet periods due
to rain, fog, or heavy dew. Conditions like these
during the upcoming bloom period could trigger
an epidemic of Botrytis fruit rot later in February.
Such "epidemics" are actually the result of slowly
progressing infections which start in the flowers
and culminate in visible symptoms 2 to 4 weeks
later on green fruit, ripening fruit, and harvested
fruit in the cooler.
Up to this point in the current season,
only one period conducive for Botrytis has been
occurred at the beginning of November and minor

losses have been observed. However, since spores of
Botrytis are always around in strawberry fields, all
that is needed is favorable conditions for spore
production and infection and thus precautionary
measures should still be taken. To avoid losses to
Botrytis, newly opened FLOWERS should be
protected with fungicides. During the upcoming
main bloom period (usually mid-January to mid-
February depending on the cultivar planted) the
bloom should be sprayed with one of the several
effective fungicides available for control of Botrytis
fruit rot. These include Captevate, Elevate, Pristine,
Scala, Switch and Thiram. Except for Thiram, the
other fungicides should not be used for more than
two consecutive applications or more than a total of
four applications per season. Keep in mind that
Captevate is a combination of Captan and Elevate,
and that Pristine and Switch also offer some control
against anthracnose fruit rot.
To reduce overall inoculum levels, diseased
fruit should be removed from the plants, and
preferably from the field. In addition, harvested fruit
should be cooled as rapidly as possible to slow
disease progress in storage. We are currently testing
the first prototype of a web-based predictive system
for timing fungicide applications for control of
Botrytis and anthracnose fruit rots. The system takes
into account temperature and leaf wetness
conditions that favor disease development and
fungicide applications are recommended only when
conditions are favorable for disease. Results from
our field trials have shown that the number of
fungicide applications for control of Botrytis fruit
rot could be reduced by half without affecting
disease incidence when using the predictive system
for timing fungicide sprays compared to our current
recommendation of preventive applications. The
web-based system should be readily available for
growers to use in the next strawberry season. So,
stay tuned!

Photo 1 Photo 2

December 2008

Fungicides registered for use on Florida strawberries

Product name Fungicide Maximum Rate Per Acre Min. Days Pertinent Diseases
(active ingredient) Group Per To Harvest
Application Season Remarks
Abound 11 15.4 fl oz 1.92 qt 0 Anthracnose Do not make more than 2 sequential
(azoxystrobin) Powdery mildew appl. and no more than 4 appl./crop
Botrytis (suppression only) year. See label for instructions on
dipping transplants

Aliette WDG 33 5 lb 30 lb 12 hr Phytophthora diseases Do not tank mix with copper
(fosetyl-Al) fungicides

Bumper 41.8 EC 3 4 fl. oz. 16 fl. oz. 0 Anthracnose Do not make more than 2
(propiconazole) Powdery mildew consecutive applications

Cabrio EG 11 14 fl oz 70 fl oz 0 Anthracnose Do not make more than 2 sequential
(pyraclostrobin) Powdery mildew applications and no more than 5
Leaf spot appl./crop year
Botrytis (suppression only)
Captan 50 WP M3 6 lb 48 lb 1 Anthracnose Rate per treated acre. Special label
captain ) Botrytis fruit rot for FL allows up to 24 applications
Leaf spot per season
Captan 80 WDG M3 3.75 lb 30 lb 1 Anthracnose Rate per treated acre. Special label
captain ) Botrytis fruit rot for FL allows up to 24 appl./ season
Leaf spot
Captec 4L M3 3 qt 24 qt 1 Anthracnose Rate per treated acre. Special label
captain ) Botrytis fruit rot for FL allows up to 24 appl./ season
Leaf spot
Captevate 68 WDG M3 + 17 5.25 Ib 21 lb 0 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2
captainn + fenhexamid) Anthracnose consecutive applications

(copper) Ml or M9 varies varies 1-2 Angular leaf spot Frequent use of copper fungicides
many brands may cause foliar burn

Elevate 50 WDG 17 1.5 lb 6 lb 0 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2
(fenhexamid) consecutive applications

Iprodione 4L AG 3 2 pt 2 pt N/A Anthracnose (suppression) Do not make more than 1 application
(iprodione) Botrytis fruit rot per season. Do not apply after first
Phomopsis soft rot fruiting flower

Leaf spot
Stem end rot

Orbit 3 4 fl. oz. 16 fl. oz. 0 Anthracnose Do not make more than 2
(propiconazole) Leaf Spot consecutive applications
Powdery mildew
(potassium bicarbonate) 33 varies varies 1 Powdery mildew Do not mix with highly acid products
many brands

(potassium phosphite ) 33 varies varies 0 Phytophthora diseases May cause foliar burn if applied with
many brands _____ copper based products
Pristine 11 + 7 23 oz 115 oz 0 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2
(pyraclostrobin + Anthracnose Powdery consecutive appl. and no more than 5
boscalid) mildew Leaf spot appl./ crop

Procure 50WS 3 8 oz 32 oz 1 Powdery mildew Do not plant leafy vegetables within
(triflumizole) 30 days or root vegetables within 60
days or rotational crops not on label
for one year after application

Quintec 13 6 fl. oz 24 fl. oz 1 Powdery mildew Do not make more than 2
(quinoxyfen) consecutive applications

Rally 40W 3 5 oz 30 oz 0 Powdery mildew Do not plant rotational crops until 30
(myclobutanil) Leaf spot days after last application
Leaf blight
Ridomil Gold EC 4 1 pt/trtd acre 1 Vi qt/trtd acre 0 Phytophthora diseases See label for use in drip irrigation
Ridomil Gold SL
Rovral 4 2 2 pt 2 pt N/A Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 1
(iprodione) Stem end rot appl./season. Do not apply after
Phomopsis soft rot bloom initiation
Leaf spot
Scala SC 9 18 fl. oz 54 f. oz 1 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2
(pyrimethanil) consecutive applications. Do not use
more than 2 of 6 appl. in any one
Serenade Max Biological 3 lb 0 Powdery mildew Should to be used in combination
(Bacillus subtilis) Botrytis fruit rot with other fungicides
Sonata Biological 4 qts 0 Powdery mildew Use in a tank mix or rotational
(Bacillus pumilus) (suppression) program with other registered

Sonoma 40 WSP 3 5 oz 30 oz 0 Powdery mildew Do not plant rotational crops until 30
(myclobutanil) Leaf spot days after last application
Leaf blight
(sulfur) many brands M1 or M9 varies varies 1 Powdery mildew Do not use during hot weather

Switch 62.5 WG 9+12 14oz 56 oz 0 Botrytis fruit rot Do not make more than 2
(cyprodinil + fludioxonil) Anthracnose consecutive appl. Do not plant crops
not on the label for 30 days after last
application. See special label for
instructions on dipping transplants.

Thiram 65 WSB M2 5 lb 25 lb 3 Botrytis fruit rot Do not rotate treated crops with other
(thiram) crops for which Thiram is not
Thiophanate-methyl 85 1 0.8 lb 3.2 lb 1 Botrytis fruit rot Fungicides from different chemical
WDG Leaf scorch groups should be used in spray
(thiophanate-methyl) Leaf blight program for disease resistance
T-Methyl 70 W WSB 1 1 lb 4 lb 1 Botrytis fruit rot Fungicides from different chemical
(thiophanate-methyl) Powdery mildew groups should be used in spray
Leaf scorch program for disease resistance
Leaf blight management
Topsin 4.5 FL 1 20 fl. oz 80 fl. oz 1 Botrytis fruit rot Fungicides from different chemical
(thiophanate-methyl) Colletotrichum crown rot groups should be used in spray
Leaf scorch program for disease resistance
Leaf blight management
Powdery mildew

Topsin M 70 WP
Topsin M WSB

Botrytis fruit rot
Colletotrichum crown rot
Leaf scorch
Leaf blight
Powdery mildew

Fungicides from different chemical
groups should be used in spray
program for disease resistance

1 e.g. Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5LF, Kocide 101, Kocide DF, Champion Wettable Powder, Champ DP Dry Pril, Champ Formula 2 Flowable,
Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss, Copper Count-N, Nu Cop 50 WP, Nu Cop 3L, Nu Cop 50 DF, Nu Cop HB, Badge SC, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, COC DF,
Nordox 75WG, Stretch, Tenn-Cop 5E, Top Cop with sulfur
2 e.g. Kaligreen, Armicarb 100, Milstop
Se.g. Fosphite, Helena Prophyt, Fungi-Phite, Phostrol, Topaz
4 e.g. Micro Sulf, Sulfur 90W, Super-Six, Microthiol Disperss, Wettable Sulfur, Kumulus DF, Dusting Sulfur-lAP, Thioperse 80%, Yellow Jacket Dusting
Sulfur, Yellow Jacket Wettable sulfur

Berry/Vegetable Times

El salario minimo en Florida es $7.21 la hora, con un salario mini-
mo de, por lo menos, $4.19 para los empleados que reciben propi-
nas, ademas de estas, desde el 1 de Enero de 2009 hasta el 23 de Ju-
lio de 2009. En el 24 de Julio de 2009 el nuevo salario minimo Fe-
deral de $7.25 reemplazari el salario minimo de Florida.
La tasa del salario minimo se calcula de nuevo cada afio el 30 de septiembre,
basandose en el Indice de Precios al Consumo. Todos los afios, el dia 1 de enero
entra en vigor el nuevo salario minimo en Florida.

Un empleador no puede tomar represalias contra un empleado por el hecho de
ejercer su derecho a recibir el salario minimo. Los derechos que protege la Consti-
tuci6n del Estado incluyen el derecho a:

1. Presentar una queja por el incumplimiento, por parte de un emplea-
dor, de los requisitos legales de salario minimo.
2. Informar a cualquier persona acerca del incumplimiento, por part
de un empleador, de los requisitos legales de salario minimo.
3. Informar a cualquier persona de sus posibles derechos conforme a la
Secci6n 24, Articulo X de la Constituci6n del Estado, y ayudarle a hacer
valer tales derechos.

Un empleado que no ha recibido el total del salario minimo legal despu6s de noti-
ficar a su empleador y de haberle dado al empleador 15 dias para resolver cual-
quier queja por salaries no pagados, puede entablar una acci6n civil en un tribunal
contra un empleador con el fin de recuperar los salaries atrasados mas dafios y
perjuicios y honorarios de abogado.

Un empleador que sea declarado culpable de violar intencionalmente los requisi-
tos de salario minimo, esta sujeto a pagar una multa de $1,000 por cada infrac-
ci6n, pagadera al estado.

El Procurador General u otro funcionario designado por la Legislatura puede enta-
blar una acci6n civil para hacer cumplir el salario minimo.

Para detalles, ver la Secci6n 24, Articulo X de la Constituci6n del Estado, y la
Secci6n 448.110 de los Estatutos de Florida.

December 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times


The Florida minimum wage is $7.21 per hour, with a minimum
wage of at least $4.19 per hour for tipped employees, in addition to
tips. Florida's new minimum wage is in effect as of January 1, 2009
until July 23, 2009. On July 24, 2009 the new Federal minimum
wage of $7.25 will replace Florida's minimum wage.

The rate of the minimum wage is recalculated yearly on September 30, based on
the Consumer Price Index. Every year on January 1, the new Florida minimum
wage takes effect.

An employer may not retaliate against an employee for exercising his or her right
to receive the minimum wage. Rights protected by the State Constitution include
the right to:

1. File a complaint about an employer's alleged noncompliance with
lawful minimum wage requirements.
2. Inform any person about an employer's alleged noncompliance
with lawful minimum wage requirements.
3. Inform any person of his or her potential rights under Section 24,
Article X of the State Constitution and to assist him or her in assert-
ing such rights.

An employee who has not received the lawful minimum wage after notifying his
or her employer and giving the employer 15 days to resolve any claims for unpaid
wages may bring a civil action in a court of law against an employer to recover
back wages plus damages and attorney's fees.

An employer found liable for intentionally violating minimum wage requirements
is subject to a fine of $1,000 per violation, payable to the state.

The Attorney General or other official designated by the Legislature may bring a
civil action to enforce the minimum wage.

For details, see Section 24, Article X of the State Constitution and Section
448.110, Florida Statutes.

December 2008

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