Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. August 2008.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. August 2008.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: August 2008
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Volume ID: VID00057
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Berry/Vegetable Times

1 August 2008

Calendar of Events
Aug. 12 & Sept. 9 Pesticide
License Testing. Hillsborough
County Extension Office, Seffner.
9 am. For more information call
Mary Beth Henry, 813-744-5519,
ext 103.

Aug. 26-27 FSGA Agritech
Educational Session & Trade Show.
Trinkle Building, Hillsborough
Community College, Plant City.
For registration and more
information contact FSGA. 813-

Sept. 3 2008 Tomato Institute, Ritz
-Carlton Hotel, Naples, Fl. For
more information contact the
Florida Tomato Committee, 407-
660-1949 or

FLokIDA Agq ExpO
Wednesday, November 5th
Call (813) 634-0000 or visit for
details. Check out the
highlights for this years event-
Page 7.
A University of Florida/IFAS and Florida
Cooperative Extension Service newsletter
Hillsborough County, 5339 CR 579,
Seffner, FL 33584
(813) 744-5519 SC 541-5772
Joe Pergola, County Extension Director
Alicia Whidden, Editor
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
14625 County Road 672,
Wimauma, FL 33598
(813) 634-0000 SC514-6890
Christine Cooley, Layout and Design
Craig K Chandler, Co-Editor
Jack Rechcigl, GCREC Center Director
http //gcrec ifas ufl edu

From Your Agent
Start of a New Season

Here we are at the beginning of a new strawberry
season again- time is flying by! Before you have employees
working there are a few things to take care of to get your
season off on the right foot. Remember that all new
employees need to have Worker Protection Standards (WPS)
training before the end of the fifth day of work and before
they have been exposed to pesticides (which includes
fumigants). Also check your central posting site and make
sure all posters are not faded and can be easily read. Make
sure the nearest emergency medical facility name and address
is clearly written on the WPS poster. Also make sure that any
employees who will be handling pesticides receive the extra
training that is required for handlers. Remember not just
anyone in your organization can give WPS training to
workers and handlers; the trainer must have a restricted use
pesticide license or have attended a WPS Train-the-trainer
Workshop and have received a trainer certificate. I will be
holding a Workshop in the near future so if you have someone

Control of Colletotrichum Diseases in the
Strawberry Nursery
Steven MacKenzie

Although most transplants for the Florida production
season are imported from high latitude or altitude nurseries
outside the state, disease control in the nursery can
dramatically impact disease incidences later on when
transplants are established in fields for the winter production
season. For this reason, it is critical that growers understand
disease control procedures in the nursery. Fungal diseases in
which early nursery control is very important include
anthracnose fruit rot and Colletotrichum crown rot
anthracnosee crown rot). Anthracnose fruit rot and
(Continued on page 2)

IFAS is an Equal Employment OpportunityAffirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational formation and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin U S Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Flonda, IFAS, Florida A & M
University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of the County Commissioners Cooperating

August 2008

BerryNegetable Times

Berry/Vegetable Times

(Continued from page 1)
Colletotrichum crown rot are caused by
distinct fungi and their control in nurseries is
not the same.
Colletotrichum acutatum, the cause
of anthracnose fruit rot, could potentially be
imported on transplants from nurseries
located anywhere. It does not appear to
oversummer in Florida on residual debris
from past seasons or on hosts other than
strawberry. Thus, if it is not present on
transplants, it is a good bet that the disease
will not appear during the harvest season
unless it is imported from an infected field
by pickers or on equipment. The foundation
stock used by nurseries to produce
transplants is likely to be free of C.
acutatum. In temperate regions, studies
suggest that C. acutatum may persist in the
soil. However, in nurseries where the soil is
fumigated inoculum from soil is not likely to
be a source for infections. Some strawberry
plants may survive between seasons and it is
likely that the fungus survives on these
plants. Therefore, effective elimination of all
strawberry plants in the nursery between
seasons is a good step to guarantee that
transplants sent to Florida will be free of
disease. C. acutatum infects leaves and roots
of strawberry in addition to fruit and it is
dispersed by rain drops, movement on dew
or by sprinkler irrigation. The heaviest
source of inoculum comes from lesions on
fruit, and thus, if flowers are removed from
plants, the probability of a disease epidemic
developing in the nursery is greatly reduced.
Also, nursery stock that has been drip
irrigated as opposed to sprinkler irrigated
will be less likely to have infections.
Regular applications of Captan will inhibit
the introduction of C. acutatum into a
nursery, but once introduced it will not
erradicate the disease.
Colletotrichum crown rot is caused
by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides or
Colletotrichum fragariae. Symptoms

include plant wilt and lesions on runners.
These two fungi do not grow well at cooler
temperatures and as a result Colletotrichum
crown rot does not appear to be much of a
problem in nurseries in the northern United
States and Canada. It sporadically is a
problem at high elevation nurseries in the
Southeastern United States. C.
gloeosporioides and potentially C. fragariae
are common on noncultivated plants in this
region and spores from these hosts can initiate
epidemics on strawberry. In Florida, weekly
applications of Captan during the growing
season greatly reduces the spread of this
disease from already infected strawberry
plants. However, it is not clear if it effectively
inhibits infections from noncultivated hosts.
This is because it is not clear how much
inoculum is coming from these hosts and,
unlike in a strawberry field, the source of the
inoculum is not being treated with the
fungicide. In essence, at locations where C.
gloeosporoides might be widespread on
numerous hosts, controlling crown rot in the
nursery is not straight forward. Therefore, it is
important that if a grower chooses to purchase
plants from the southeast, that nurseries are
located in areas that are not subjected to high
temperatures common at lower altitudes. It is
also important that foundation stock be clean
and that it has been excluded from areas where
C. gloeosporioides might be present. C.
gloeosporioides and C. fragariae are also
spread by splashing water and drip irrigated
plants would be less likely to have disease. It
is also important to note that cultivars display
different levels of resistance to Colletotrichum
crown rot. Resistant cultivars show delayed
symptoms, but eventually succumb to the
disease. Cultivars such as 'Strawberry
Festival' and 'Camarosa' will develop
symptoms sooner than a cultivar such as
'Treasure'. It is important that growers know
if any cultivars at a nursery have crown rot
symptoms, not just the ones they are
purchasing, because it is possible that they

August 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

might have a more resistant cultivar that will
eventually succumb to disease after

(Continued from page 1)
in your organization who needs to attend
give me a call at the number below to get on
the contact list for notification of the
meeting. Don't think your farm will not be
inspected- it will! It will be much easier
when you are inspected if you start your
season out with your workers trained and
your paperwork and central posting all in
This spring and summer we have
watched the food safety scare involving
tomatoes and hot peppers unfold across the
nation. We have seen how devastating this
was to the Florida tomato industry. Safety of
our food supply is of paramount importance.
When you are giving WPS training to your
workers emphasize proper hand washing and
the importance of good personal hygiene to
your workers. Document what you teach.
Remember it only takes one mistake for the
whole industry to be put in jeopardy. Every
farm and packinghouse needs to enforce
good sanitary practices in their operation!
Update on the MiniFarms Cost Share
Program (which is back in action again).
The program is for Hillsborough, Hernando,
Citrus, and Pinellas County growers. It is
provided by FDCAS and is facilitated
through the Hillsborough Soil & Water
Conservation District (HSWCD). The
program has $40,000 and applications are
taken on a first come basis. Contact Jessica
McCoy at 813-985-7481 ext. 2125 for an
application. Growers must have been in
production for at least 2 years and have 100
irrigated acres or less. Growers must first
sign up with FDCAS BMP program to be
eligible for cost share money. To sign up for
the BMP program contact Jemy Hinton,
BMP Implementation Team, at 813-478-

6630. The HSWCD has the Mobile Irrigation
Lab that at no charge can determine the
efficiency of your irrigation system and
improvements can be made with cost share
money from the MiniFarms program.
Reimbursement has been 85% up to a
maximum of $8,000. This reimbursement rate
can be lowered by the HSWCD's Board but
currently it has been 85%. Some items that
qualify for the program are soil moisture
probes, weather stations, conversion from
overhead to low volume irrigation and any
projects that improve water conservation and
water quality of off-site discharge. Thank you
to Jessica McCoy for providing this
Where can you go to learn all the
latest on food safety, labor issues, the newest
fumigant information from Washington, what
is going on in the world of research on
strawberries and also get pesticide license
CEUS, including the hard to get but oh so
necessary CORE, and visit a great Trade Show
with lots of vendors and get served great food?
The answer, if you had not guessed, is the
2008 Strawberry Agritech on Aug. 26 and 27.
It will be held at the Trinkle Building on the
HCC campus in Plant City. Come get the latest
information at the meeting! See the calendar
of events for contact information.
A note about restricted use pesticide
licenses: Bureau of Compliance Monitoring
has announced that license fees will be
increasing starting Sept. 1, 2008. The cost for
a Private Applicator license will go from $60
to $100. Public license will increase from $60
to $100. Commercial licenses will go from
$160 to $250.

From your agent,

813-744-5519 ext.134

August 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

Prepare for Initial Insect and Mite
Management as Transplants
James F. Price and Curtis Nagle

Transplants will begin arriving soon
and characteristics of new strawberry fields
will be determined by the quality of those
transplants. As the transplants arrive,
growers have a chance to discover
problems, alter characteristics in their
favor, and avoid some serious pest
problems on down the road.
Spider mites, aphids, and, more
rarely, cyclamen mites easily can
accompany transplants from nurseries and
establish as problems for the early season
or much longer. But early inspections and
corrective measures by growers can
unnecessary trouble.
As transplants arrive growers
should select one transplant from as many
crates and bundles as practical from each
homogeneous planting unit. A
homogeneous planting unit is composed of
the transplants that most likely share pest-
related characteristics and normally is the
area planted during 1 week of transplanting
of one cultivar from one nursery location.
Both surfaces of fully expanded leaves of
each selected transplant should be
examined with a 5X hand lens for spider
mites and aphids and the still-folded leaves
and the surfaces of tissues within the crown
should be examined with a 14X hand lens
for cyclamen mites.
If insects or mites are found, then
plans should be developed to treat the
plants early with pesticides or to watch the
pests especially close for quick reaction
once thresholds are reached. Since at
transplanting, little of the plant mass is
present that would be present at time of
release of any predatory mites and since at
transplanting, few beneficial are
established in the field and there are fewer

problems associated with applying pyrethroids as
well as other harsh pesticides at that time. This
opens opportunities for a wider array of
pesticides to "clean up" infested transplants and
get the season off to a good start.

Hires New Executive Director
Dover, FL- Press Release from FSGA

Following a nationwide search, the
Florida Strawberry Growers Association has
named Ted Campbell as its new executive
director. Ted's deep experience in the produce
industry includes retail and wholesale from both
a procurement and sales prospective. He
is the former Director of Produce for
SUPERVALU INC. in Minneapolis, MN, and
was previously V.P. of Sales and Marketing for
Kerry's Nursery headquartered in Homestead,
Ted has a strong history of industry
service and is a past chairman of both the
Produce Marketing Association and the Produce
for Better Health Foundation (5-A-Day). He
commented, "I am honored to be selected for this
position and excited to be working with such a
dynamic group of growers and handlers. The
people in the produce business make it
wonderfully unique, as we enter an era of
escalating challenges I look forward to helping
our membership succeed and prosper."
Formed in 1982, the Florida Strawberry
Growers Association (FSGA) is based in Dover,
FL and also oversees the Florida Strawberry
Patent Service Corp. (FSPS) and the Florida
Strawberry Research and Education Foundation

August 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

'Festival' Strawberry Report
Christine Cooley

I recently received some wonderful
photos of organic 'Festival' strawberries
growing in Guatemala from Bill and
Giannina Thorton of Mayan Gourmet. As
you can see, the 'Festival' variety is doing
well in this mountainous county.

promise as an expanding industry in
Guatemala, particularly because it can be
produced in raw form or processed within the
country prior to export, augmenting its value.
Bananas remain one of Guatemala's top
agricultural exports, grabbing US$190.4
million in revenue in 1998.

Guatemala is a country in Central
America bordered by Mexico to the north
and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest,
Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the
northeast, and Honduras and El Salvador to
the southeast. Guatemala is mountainous,
except for the south coastal area and a vast
rolling limestone plateau (Peten). Two
mountain chains enter Guatemala from west
to east, dividing the country into three major
regions: the highlands, where the mountains
are located; the Pacific coast, south of the
mountains; and the Peten region, north of the
mountains. Although Guatemala is trying to
expand its manufacturing activities to reduce
economic dependence on agriculture, the
agricultural sector is a crucial component of
Guatemala's export and domestic economies,
accounting for 23 percent of GDP (US$11
billion) in 1999 and employing 50 percent of
the labor force (1.7 million workers). Coffee
production, one of Guatemala's original
commercial developments in the 19th
century, is still of vital importance to the
national economy. In 1998, coffee exports
brought in US$586.3 million, almost double
the amount of sugar, the next most profitable
agricultural export. Sugar has also shown

Photos compliments ofBill and Giannina Thorton of
Mayan Gourmet.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty of the products names and does
not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of
others of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely.
Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.

August 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

The Times They are a Changing
Joe Noling1 and Alicia Whidden2
'Professor, University of Florida IFAS Citrus REC
E \tcIInslon Agent II, Hillsborough County Extension

For 2 years we have been discussing
EPA's reassessment of the soil fumigants
and the likely impact that fumigant relabel-
ing would have on Florida strawberry grow-
ers. These have included among other issues,
buffer zone and new personal protective
equipment requirements for field workers.
Well, it has finally arrived. EPA fumigant
reassessments were finally published the first
week of July 2008. The purpose of this news-
letter document is not to comprehensively
distill the contents of those documents but to
provide a brief overview of important new
requirements and potential ramifications to
the industry. Growers are also strongly en-
couraged to read and review the documents
at the follow web site address:
soil_fumigants/index.htm#more .
Based on release of a preliminary re-
port in November 2006, we have been very
concerned about new requirements for exten-
sive fumigant buffer zones surrounding fumi-
gant treated fields. It would appear that EPA,
in its latest reevaluation, has backed off sig-
nificantly in its initial lengthy requirements.
Based on newly released reassessments for
chloropicrin, buffer zone distances from
treated field to occupied structure will be in
the neighborhood of 100 to 300 feet depend-
ing on treated acre rates of application, the
number of acres treated per day, shank appli-
cation, and whether high barrier, gas imper-
meable (VIF) plastic mulch films will be
used. As predicted, buffer zone distances are
minimized for use of any soil fumigant when
applications are made through the drip irriga-
tion system. For example, a maximum buffer
zone of 25 feet is required when chloropicrin
is drip applied at typical rates of application.
This drip maximum is not particularly af-

fected by increasing broadcast equivalent appli-
cation rates up to 300 pounds per treated acre,
while treating less than 20 acres per day. It also
does not even demand use of high barrier/ VIF
mulch. Clearly, EPA analysis shows lowest soil
emissions, and hence lowest buffer zone re-
quirement, when fumigants are applied under
plastic through the drip system. For strawberry
growers farming land bounded by residential
occupied structure, the future appears to point
towards drip fumigation rather than shank appli-
cation for fumigant use. This will involve a new
order of thinking and application to insure uni-
form distribution and dosage throughout the
raised bed and field.
With regard to PPE, EPA does not ap-
pear to have changed preexisting label require-
ments for use and need for respirators for fumi-
gants like Telone or Methyl iodide (Midas). As
for new label requirements for chloropicrin, it
has not mandated respirator use for field work-
ers. As a new provision however, EPA will re-
quire in addition to formulating a Fumigant
Management Plan (FMP), grower monitoring
and recording of fumigant gas concentrations
within the field during application but also
around the perimeter of the field buffer zone. If
measured chloropicrin concentration exceeds a
specified level, growers will then be obligated
to remove workers from the field or to enforce
the use of respirators provided to each worker in
the field. New label language will also indicate
that before field workers can be permitted to
wear the respirator, they must be safety trained
by OSHA approved standard, fit tested, and
medically certified to be able to wear and use a
respirator. Unless drip applications are used
where fewer workers are involved, these new
requirements are expected to add significant
cost to overall soil fumigation costs when shank
applications are made with many people in the
field. Purchase of the gas monitoring devises
must also be considered.
As mentioned previously, another major
change to standard operating procedure will in-
volve the development and submission of a for-

August 2008

Berry/Vegetable Times

mal field site specific Fumigant Management
Plan. A future newsletter article will describe
the new requirement in much more detail. In
general, it is a detailed, site-specific plan de-
veloped for each application block which
includes site information, a map of the
treated field, authorized personnel, applica-
tion rates and procedures, posting plans, and
emergency procedures. This will represent a
new order of business and record keeping.
After review of all of the reassessment docu-
ments that EPA has just published, I think it
is impossible not to conclude that the times
they are a changing for Florida strawberry
growers and their use of soil fumigants.

Chemically Speaking
Pesticide Registrations and
Based on a request by IR-4, the EPA has
approved tolerances for the insecticide
bifenthrin (Discipline). Tolerances of
importance in Florida include blueberry
(bushberry subgroup 13B) and leafy petiole
(subgroup 4B). (Federal Register, 6/11/08).

Pesticide Potpourri
* The 2008 Peanut Field Day will be held
on August 21 at the North Florida Re-
search and Education Center near
Marianna, FL. Registration is at 8 AM
and tours start at 9 AM. Topics include
pest control, new varieties, and pesticide
safety. CEUs will be available and a
complimentary lunch will be served at
noon. For more information contact Dr.
Barry Tillman at 850-482-9904.
* In June, a spokesman for the European
Commission, Johannes Laitenberger,
expressed regret that many EU nations
are still refusing to allow bent and
deformed fruit and vegetables onto the
market as food prices continue to rise.
The EC has maintained that 26 market
standards are not helpful and could be

removed. This would allow misshapen
fruit to be sold in supermarkets, with
special labeling, for use in cooking. He
said that the EC's Agricultural
Commissioner Mariann Fischer Boel is
determined that this should go forward
and is surprised by the resistance to such
a practical example of simplification.
(EUBusiness, 6/16/08).


2008 Highlights

* Food Safety Update: Salmonella
and Tomatoes: Lessons Learned
and Lessons We Need to Learn
* Alternatives to Methyl Bromide
* Vegetable Session
* Strawberry Session
* Blueberry Session
* Field Tours
* Vendor Displays
* Complimentary Breakfast and

Wednesday, November 5th
Bring your entire team to the
Florida Ag Expo!

August 2008

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