Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. June 2003.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. June 2003.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: June 2003
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087388
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
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9. FLORIDA Berry/Vegetable Times

EXTENSION IP~ June-July 2003 4
]nti ute ot F aod and Agracultural SNWnCems t 0 6 "

In this issue

CaliforniaAdvocates Renew Page 3
Fight to Limit Hand Weed-
HeatRelatedEmergencies Page 3

'.' i /r. *... n "Red Flag" Page 7
Insecticides/Miticides in

Production in Page 8

Ag Fact Book Available

July 8 and] Aug. 12i Pararti

Call(813 744-551 fr del

SEU', api for.

SeptembIerIIII I-g Pestici dIl
Ilection Da,20 .Oin

Evaluation of
conventional and
reduced-risk insecticides
for control of flower
thrips in blueberries-Dr.
Oscar Liburd and Erin Finn,
Entomology and Nematology
Department, University of Florida

During the 2003 blueberry
Page 9 growing season, researchers from
the University of Florida Fruit and
Vegetable IPM Laboratory in
Gainesville conducted field trials to
evaluate various conventional and
reduced-risk insecticides for control
of flower thrips, Frankliniella spp.,
S in commercial blueberry plantings.
Trials were conducted at two sites: a
1 high-density southern highbush
planting in central Florida, and a
S rabbiteye planting in South Georgia.
d All insecticides were applied at the
recommended rates. In Florida, the
following insecticides were
evaluated: 1) Imidan 70W, 2)
Provado 1.6F, 3) SpinTor 2SC, 4)
d, Ecozin 3% EC, 5) Garlic Extract,
and 6) Surround WP. In Georgia,
six insecticides were evaluated: 1)
Diazinon AG500, 2) Malathion 5
**I EC, 3) Actara 25 WG, 4) SpinTor
2SC, 5) Ecozin 3% EC, and 6)
Surround WP. Insecticides were
applied every 10 14 days at each
site. Insecticide effectiveness for
suppressing thrips was evaluated
using white sticky traps and by
collecting 40 blueberry flower

clusters from treated areas (per
insecticide). In Florida, Surround
was the only insecticide that
significantly reduced flower thrips
population (Fig. 1). It is uncertain
how Surround reduced thrips
populations, but one possibility is
that it restricted thrips accessibility
to blueberry flowers. In Georgia,
Malathion and Ecozin were the
most promising compounds for
suppressing flower thrips
population (Fig. 2). Unfortunately,
the structure of the blueberry flower
allows thrips to feed in a protected
environment, and many insecticides
only reach the external surface of
the flower. It is possible that some
of the newer neonicotinoid
insecticides (Provado and Actara)
with systemic or trans-laminar
mode of action may demonstrate
more effectiveness against thrips in
future studies. The quick movement
of thrips within blueberry plantings
and from adjacent hosts may hinder
the potential to evaluate the

(Continued on page 2)

The Institute ut Food and Agricultural Sciences (II "'* in Equal t.inpl..-r.env Ipportuniy AfHirmative Action Employe r authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.

Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

effectiveness of selected
insecticides. Future studies will 200
include laboratory studies to
provide additional information 160
regarding thrips behavior as it
relates to various classes of l

Defining Blueberries

Rabbiteye blueberries,
Vaccinium ashei, are native to the
southeastern United States and
were named for their pinkish
immature fruits which suggest an
albino rabbit's eye. They have
soft, blue-green leaves in the
summer, followed by orange and
crimson foliage in the fall. They
have been commercially cultivated
for over 100 years. The berries are
firmer than highbush, with thicker
skin. The seeds tend to be slightly
more pronounced than highbush.
In the south, growers machine
harvest rabbiteyes for both the
fresh and process markets.

Highbush blueberries,
Vaccinium corymbosum, so named
because of their height (six feet
tall and up.) Most commercial
blueberries are grown on highbush
variety plants. The highbush
blueberry is a deciduous shrub and
is cultivated for its flowers, sweet
fruit, and bright red autumn
foliage. This plant grows well in
moist, well-drained, acidic, sandy
or peaty soils. Southern highbush
blueberries are hybrids derived
from crosses between northern
highbush blueberries with native
southern species, mainly Darrow's
evergreen blueberry. Southern
highbush cultivars, in addition to
lower chilling requirements, also
have greater tolerance to high
summer temperatures, somewhat
greater drought tolerance, and
develop superior fruit quality
under southern growing

Fig. 1. Effect of selected insecticides on populations of flower thrips in southern
highbush blueberries Florida (2003)


0 1200

t 1000





Malathion Diazinon Actara SpinTor Ecozin Surround Untreated

Fig. 2. Effect of selected insecticides on populations of flower thrips in Rabbiteye
blueberries, Georgia (2003)

Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 6 Berry/Vegetable Times

California Advocates
Renew Fight to Limit
Hand Weeding
Chemically Speaking, May 2003

Hand weeding would be
banned if farm work advocates are
successful in their campaign to
convince the California Division
of Occupational Safety and Health
that it's so harmful for workers'
backs that it should be eliminated
from most fields. California
would be the first state in the
nation to restrict hand weeding of
crops. Growers, including many
organic farmers, argue there are
no reasonable alternatives to hand
weeding because long-handled
tools are too imprecise and would
damage the crop. They say hand
weeding reduces the use of often-
criticized herbicides. Vanessa
Bogenholm, chairwoman of the
board of California Organic
Farmers and owner of V.B. Farms
in Watsonville, was quoted as
saying, "This isn't something we
are doing to circumvent the law.
It is something we have to do to
harvest a marketable crop."

Hand weeding is widely
used on several major crops, such
as strawberry, lettuce, nursery
plants, and broccoli. Nearly all
the state's 228,000 acres of
lettuce, for example, are hand
weeded at some point each
growing season, as are the state's

26,000 acres of strawberries.
After failed attempts to persuade
the legislature to restrict hand
weeding in 1995 and 2002, farm
worker advocates are pressing the
safety board to impose stiff
restrictions. Growers say they
also fear that hand weeding
restrictions are a Trojan horse for
a ban on hand harvesting, which
requires stooped labor similar to
hand weeding. "One of the things
that is really disturbing about this
whole (proposed rule) is they are
banning something that is
essentially the same task as hand
harvest," said one organic farmer.
"If what you are really trying to do
is say that this form of motion is
damaging to the human body, it
seems like a slippery slope." The
Farm Bureau and others are
pushing hard to prevent the loss of
hand weeding as growers prepare
for the end of the widely used
fumigant methyl bromide, one of
the most effective chemical tools
against weeds in strawberry and
lettuce. (Knight-Ridder Tribune,

Source: The American Safety and
Health Institute

Summer's here, school's
out, and the weather is getting
hotter and hotter. When the
weather is like this, there is always
the danger of heat related
emergencies. The following are
signs and symptoms and first aid
response to the three heat related

Heat Stroke-call EMS
immediately, this is a life -
threatening condition.
Signs and Symptoms:
* Skin is hot, red, dry.
* Pupils are constricted.

* Confusion or
* Little or no sweating.
* Full rapid pulse.
First Aid:
* Move the victim to a cool
* Wrap the victim in wet sheets
and place in air conditioned
* Remove any excess clothing
and do not give anything by

Heat Exhaustion-call EMS
immediately, this will progress to
heat stroke if left untreated.
Signs and Symptoms:
* Skin is cool, pale, moist.
* Pupils are dilated.
* Heavy sweating.
* Weak pulse, shallow
breathing, weakness, and
* Nausea and dizziness, or
vomiting and headache.
First Aid:
* Move the victim to a cool
* Lay the victim on his/her
back and elevate fee 10-12
* Cool the victim by fanning or
applying cold packs, wet
sheets, or towels.
* If the victim is conscious,
give water.
* Monitor.

Heat Cramps -common during
outdoor games, a minor heat
Signs and Symptoms:
* Abdominal cramps or muscle
* Moist, cool skin and heavy
First Aid:
* Move to a cool place.
* Give water.
* Massage muscle.


Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 6 Berry/Vegetable Times

Phytotoxicity "Red
Flag" Insecticides/
Miticides in Straw-
berry Jim Price, Curtis Nagle
and Elzie McCord

Strawberry growers
should see red flags in their minds
any time they plan to apply the
seven "red flag" insecticides/
miticides registered on their crop
in Florida. Those insecticides/
miticides are:

Carbaryl (Sevin )
Dicofol (Dicofol 4E,
Kelthane )
Naled (Dibrom )
Propargite (Omite for

Labels for each of these pesticides
provide precautions that must be
observed to minimize chances of
plant damage from their use.
These label precautions are sum-
marized below.

* Carbaryl (Sevin). Labels
for most formulations of car-
baryl carry precautions for
phytotoxicity to "Early
Dawn" and "Sunrise" straw-
berry cultivars. These culti-
vars are not widely used in
Florida, but new cultivars are
introduced to production
regularly and their sensitivity
to carbaryl may not be
known. Therefore, precau-
tions should be taken when
carbaryl is used on cultivars
that experience has not indi-
cated it safe.
* Dicofol (Dicofol 4E,
Kelthane ). The Dicofol 4E
label cautions users not to

apply if temperatures exceed
* Naled (Dibrom ). Do not
apply when temperature is
over 900F
* Oils. Labels for various oils
express precautions at various
degrees of conditions. The
most conservative conditions
are provided here. DO NOT
BARYL (Sevin ), or
Do not use with any product
whose label recommends the
use of no oils. Do not use in
combination with NPK foliar
fertilizer applications. Do not
spray when foliage is wet,
freezing temperatures are ex-
pected within 48 hours of ap-
plication, or when tempera-
tures 750F or higher are ex-
pected for several days after
application. Do not apply
when plants are under heat or
moisture stress.
* Propargite (Omite "). Propar-
gite can be used only on
plants that will not bear fruit
for 1 year after application.
That largely restricts its use to
the strawberry nursery. There
are several precautions for
propargite: "Leaf damage has
been observed when: 1) Ap-
plied with other chemicals or
spray adjuvants, 2) Tempera-
tures on application date
reach 750F, or within a few
days thereafter, 3) rain falls
on the application date or

within a few days thereafter".
* Soaps. Avoid application
when leaf temperature ex-
ceeds 850F. Potential for in-
jury increases on plants
stressed by heat, humidity,
drought, or insect, mite, or
disease pressure. Application
of excessive water volumes
will increase potential for
fruit injury by causing collec-
tion of spray at bottom of
fruit. Do not use on new
transplants or plants stressed
by drought.
* Sulfurs. During periods of
high temperatures sulfur may
burn foliage and fruit. Do not
use during periods of exces-
sively high temperatures. Do
not use with oil or within 4
weeks of an oil application.
Do not use on sulfur sensitive

Some of the perilous con-
ditions named above occur fre-
quently in Florida, therefore high-
est attention should be given to the
affected insecticides/miticides
when the conditions of interest
exist. For instance:

1. Captan and sulfurs are fre-
quently used as fungicides in
Florida's strawberry produc-
tion, therefore precautions
should be exercised when
considering any use of oils.
2. Fall and late winter tempera-
tures can be high, therefore
precautions should be exe r-
cised when considering the
use of naled (Dibrom ), dico-
fol (Dicofol 4E Kelthane ),
propargite (Omite ), soaps,
oils or sulfurs.
3. A chance of freezing tempera-
tures exists in winter, there-
fore precautions should be
exercised again when consid-
ering any use of oils.

(Continued on page 5)

Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 6 Berry/Vegetable Times

Each of these precautions
is stated on pesticide labels and
they underscore the importance of
reading and understanding the en-
tire label before applying any pes-
ticide. Devoting attention to the
dangers of "red flag" insecticides/
miticides during the course of pro-
duction can reduce chances of
phytotoxic damage and can enable
a profitable crop.

Strawberry Production
in Japan Takashi Nishizawa
Professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Yamagata University
Tsuruoka Japan

History of Strawberry Produc-
Strawberry was intro-
duced into Japan in the late 19th
century from Holland and called
'Holland strawberry'. Production
did not spread widely before
World War II. After the war,
however, the area planted in
strawberry increased almost line-
arly, along with the utilization of
plastic films, peaking at approxi-
mately 35,000 acres in 1972.
Now, total strawberry production
in Japan is approximately 200,000
metric tons per year making it the
third largest producer in the world
(Fujishige, 1994).

Cultivars and Picking Season
Leading cultivars in the
1980s were 'Donner' and
'Hokowase'. In the 90s, 'Nyoho'
and 'Toyonoka' were widely
grown. However, many new cult i-
vars have recently been bred, and
'Tochiotome', 'Akihime',
'Sachinoka', 'Nyoho' and
'Toyonoka' are predominant now.

All the leading cultivars are short-
day types, and ever-bearing and
day-neutral cultivars have not
been used for winter production.
In Japan, summer is often too hot
and humid for strawberry produc-
tion. Therefore, the picking season
is usually concentrated from late
autumn to spring.

Special Techniques for Straw-
berry Production during Winter
Farmers use some special
techniques to produce strawberry
fruit during the winter. Virus-free
stock plants are grown at regional
experimental stations or nurseries.
This material is used to produce
runner plants that are delivered to
growers. Farmers usually pot the
runner plants in June and grow
them in greenhouses. In July and
August, nitrogen fertilizer is often
withheld from these plants to
stimulate induction of flower
buds. In August, potted plants are
often transported to a high eleva-
tion location (above 3,000 ft) and
grown until the primary inflores-
cence is differentiated. Cooling
facilities are also often used for
the induction of flower buds. In
this system, greenhouses with an
air-conditioner are used. Day
length is artificially shortened to
8-12 hours by covering the houses
with reflective silver plastic (Fig.
1). The houses are cooled to 57-
590 F during the night. This treat-
ment is called 'short-day and cool-
ing treatment' and repeated for 2-3
weeks until the primary inflore s-
cence differentiates on the apical
stem. The plants are then set in
fruiting greenhouses in late Au-
gust or early September. The
plants will continue to flower
through the winter if the night
temperatures in the greenhouses
are maintained between 59 and
680F. Thus, fruit can be harvested
continuously for 6 months, from
November to April. This cultiva-

tion method is now used through-
out Japan.

Yield and Cost
Strawberry production in
Japan is very costly. In northern
Japan, for example, growers have
to cover the plants with a double
or triple layer of plastic film to
maintain high temperatures during
mid-winter (Fig. 2). They also
have to use special equipment,
such as CO2 generators (Fig. 3) to
increase photosynthesis, kerosene
heaters (Fig. 4), and supplemental
lighting systems for increasing
leaf and fruit growth (Fig. 5).
However, fruit yields for strawber-
ries in Japan are not high com-
pared with those of other coun-
tries. Matusda (2000) noted that
U.S. farmers plant 16,000-20,000
plants per acre in outdoor, annual
hill production systems and these
plants can yield an average of 1.9
lb of fruit per plant. On the other
hand, Japanese growers plant ap-
proximately 32,000 plants per acre
but only obtain an average of 0.7
lb per plant. This low productivity
is mainly due to higher plant den-
sity, lower temperatures, and less
sunlight during winter. The fruit
from Japanese cultivars are gener-
ally sweeter but smaller than those
from the U.S. (Fig. 6).
The high costs associated
with winter strawberry production
inevitably leads to high market
prices. In general, 0.66 lb of fruit
are packed in a plastic case and
sold in Japanese markets at the
price of U.S.$ 3-6 (U.S.$ 4.5-9/

Leading cultivars in Ja-
pan produce fruit that have good
quality and sweetness but these
cultivars are not suitable for late
spring and summer production
because of fruit softness and low
tolerance to diseases. Therefore, a
lot of strawberries are imported

(Continued on page 6)

Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 6 Berry/Vegetable Times

during this period, mainly from
the U.S. Recently, summer pro-
duction of strawberries has been
tried, especially in northern Japan.
Ever-bearing cultivars such as
'Petica', 'Summer-berry', and
'Sweet Charmy', have been used
for this production but their fruit
quality has not yet reached the
level obtained with winter produc-
The demand for Califor-
nia and European strawberries has
been low because Japanese con-
sumers dislike the sourness and
hardness of fruit from these areas.
Korea, however, grows mostly
Japanese cultivars and some of the
Korean-grown fruit is now being
exported to Japan. The style and
season of strawberry production in
Korea is similar to that of Japan,
and therefore Korea is likely to
become a serious competitor of
the Japanese grower in the near

Literature Cited
Fujishige N. 1994. Strawberry. p. 78-81. In
Konishi K., S. Iwahori, H. Kita-
gawa and T. Yakuwa eds. Horti-
culture in Japan. Asakura. Tokyo.
Matsuda T. 2000. Strawberry. p.125-128.
Zenkoku Nougyou Kairyou Hukyu Kyo-
kai. Tokyo.


Fig. 2. Triple layer of plastic films
for mid-winter production.

'VZ 1
Y. 3. System to add supplemen-
tal carbon dioxide to the

Fig. 6. 'Akihime' strawberry in a
hydroponic system. These
systems are now very com-
mon in Japan.

Ag Fact Book Available

The 2001-2002 Agricultural
Fact Book is now available.
The book includes general
information and statistical data about
American food consumption, the agri-
cultural sector and rural America. The
book also describes USDA's pro-
The book can be accessed at Hard copies
of the publication are available for
sale by the Government Printing Of-
fice for $26 and can be ordered by
calling 202-720-9035.



Fig. 1. A facility for 'Short-day
and cooling treatment' (for
flower bud induction).
Roof of greenhouse is
opened for 8-12 hours dur-
ing the day and then plants
are cooled under com-
pletely dark condition.

Fig. 5. Incandescent lights used
for-long-day treatment.

Extnson Sece

(813)744-5519 SC541-5772
Edta Ahoa Wldden, Di-rect May Chmesy
Gulf Coast Resear and Educaton Center-Dove
13138 LeIs Gallaghe Road, Dovr, L 33527
http //srawbery fas ufl edu
(813)744-6630 SC12-1160


Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

Volume III Issue 6 Berry/Vegetable Times



This agriculture pesticide collection program is a safe way to dispose of cancelled,
suspended, and unusable pesticides at no cost to the farmer.

Friday, September 5, 2003
8:00 a.m. 2:00 p.m.
Location: U. S. Liquids
2002 N. Orient Road, Tampa, Florida

Partners and Sponsors

Hillsborough County:
Agriculture Industry Development
Economic Development Department
Solid Waste Management Department Environmental Protection Commission
and U. S. Liquids of Florida
For more information contact:
Stephen Gran, Manager
Agriculture Industry Development
Economic Development Department
(813) 272-5506

f County Commissioners
Economic Development Department

Volume III Issue 6

Berry/Vegetable Times

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