Group Title: Berry/vegetable times.
Title: Berry/vegetable times. April 2003.
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Title: Berry/vegetable times. April 2003.
Uniform Title: Berry/vegetable times.
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Creator: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Publication Date: April 2003
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Volume ID: VID00016
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April 2003

Volume III Issue 4


Inside this issue:
Double cropping experiment 2

Spotlight on diagnosis 2

Crop destruction andAnthran- 2
cose control

Performance of strawberry culti- 3
vars in 2002-03 row trial

Thoughts on biological control of 4
insects for strawberry

Proliferation ability of nutsedges 5

Pesticide: What the terminology 6
tells you

Florida) Agicltra Conm o:[] -'

Welcome to Spring!
The temperatures are
rising and with all the rain we
have been having it creates an
ideal climate for disease. Be
diligent with your scouting
for diseases and insects and
stay up with your sprays for
I want to thank all
who attended the first grower
meeting on March 20th.
Thank you to Donna Strick-
land of Monsanto for the deli-
cious barbeque and to Donna
and the Dubois of Alley Cat
Farms for our program on the
Supplemental label for
Roundup Ultra Max and the
new equipment for wipe-on
There will be another
grower meeting on Monday,
May 5 at 6:00 p.m. This
meeting is sponsored by Mike
Herrington of AMVAC and
will be on Vapam and K-Pam.
Dinner will be served.
CEU's and CCA's will be
given. Please see the flyer
included in your newsletter
for more details. Please
RSVP by Friday, May 2.
Call Alicia at 813-744-5519,
ext. 134.

Bees and Cucurbits:
The following is taken from
the EDIS publication, Insect
Managementfor Cucurbits
(Cucumber, Squash, Canta-
loupe, and Watermelon), by
S. E. Webb.
Bees are essential
for cucurbit production. It
has been estimated that eight
or more visits per blossom
are necessary for optimum
fruit set and normal fruit de-
velopment in watermelon.
The morning hours are most

I want to thank those
that have sent in their bird
survey. I ask the rest of the
strawberry growers to please
do so. If you need another
copy of the survey call and I
will send you another form.
It is hard to find any-
thing good to say about the
2002-03 season except to
hope spring vegetables bring
a good return. It was a tough
one to say the least below
average temperatures with
frequent freezes and a major
advective freeze, robins stop-
ping for a prolonged time to
feed on the berries, the con-
stant battle with diseases -
especially Anthracnose fruit
rot, and to top it off California
having unusually warm
weather and coming in very
early which closed us out of
the market sooner than nor-
mal. I know everyone hopes
next year will be a much,
much better strawberry sea-
Blueberry bushes are
loaded with fruit and picking
will be starting very soon. A
problem that is being seen this
spring is Stem Blight, caused
by Botryosphaeria dothidea.

critical for pollination, but
bees will continue to forage
into the afternoon, so during
bloom, application of insecti-
cides harmful to bees should
be done in the evening. Bio-
logical and cultural controls
should be used as much as
possible to preserve not only
bees, but also other beneficial
For more imforma-
tion regarding beneficial in-
sects visit the EDIS website at

The pathogen enters mainly
through wounds. Limbs of the
plant will dieback and the
dead leaves will stay attached
for quite some time. The af-
fected stem will be right next
to healthy stems on the plant.
Also the wood of the diseased
stem when cut will have a
brown dis coloration and may
be only on one side of the
stem. There is no chemical
control but it is very impor-
tant that diseased stems be
pruned down below any dis-
coloration in the wood so the
disease does not continue to
spread. Following pruning, it
may be beneficial to spray
with a fungicide. Captan or a
strobilurin fungicide, such as
Cabrio or Abound, can be
used even though they have
not been shown to control
stem blight. Each material
will help with a wide range of
fungal pathogens to help
maintain the overall health of
the plant.
I can be reached at
the Extension Office in Seff-
ner at 813-744-5519, ext.134.

from your Extension
Agent..Alicia Whidden

Bees are essentialfor
cucurbit production.

Page 2 Volume III Issue 4

Double cropping experiment-John R. Duval

Recently the question
was raised, by a Risk Manage-
ment Team, does the inter-
planting of alternate crops
with strawberries near the end
of the season affect the yields
of strawberry? An experiment
was designed to answer just
that question and on February
28th a replicated study was ini-
tiated to examine the effect of
interplanting squash, cucum-
ber, cantaloupe (from seed and
transplant) and bell pepper on
strawberry yields. Alternate
crops will be planted among
strawberries every week for 5

weeks to determine if there is
an effect of how long the
crops are together in the field.
Fertigation has been in-
creased by 10% to support all
crops being grown in the
field. In addition, the yield
of pepper (an insurable crop
as well) is being monitored to
see if double cropping re-
duces pepper yields.
To date no differ-
ences have been detected be-
tween strawberry alone or
interplanted with any crop
listed above. The trial on
strawberry is slated to con-

tinue until April 15. This co-
incides with the length of cur-
rent insurance contracts. It is
expected that only in the ex-
treme case of squash in the
ground with strawberry for 6
weeks, will there possibly be
a reduction in the yields of
strawberry. With respect to
pepper production, it is also
expected that in the extreme
case of pepper being grown
with strawberry for 4-6
weeks a difference may be
It is hoped that this
experimentation will help risk
management professionals
gain a greater understanding

of what occurs in a comme r-
cial farming operation that is
trying to maximize the use of
materials and spread costs out
over more than one crop.

Intercropping trial at

Spotlight on diagnostics -Teresa Seijo and Jim Mertely

The Strawberry Diag-
nostic Lab finished up its busi-
est season ever with a record
month. Eighty samples were
received during the first three
weeks in March. For the sea-
son, over 230 samples were
diagnosed. Among the March
samples, there were 72 cases
of anthracnose fruit rot
(Colletotrichum acutatum), six
cases of leak disease
(Rhizopus spp.), and one case
Alternaria fruit rot (Alternaria
spp.) Twenty samples were
also infected (or co-infected)
by Botrytis cinerea, the Botry-
tis fruit rot or "gray mold"

C. acutatum was
also an early season problem.
During the October/
November period, we diag-
nosed 21 cases of young
plants infected with C. acu-
tatum. Infected transplants
were slow to establish due to
a root necrosis disease caused
by the pathogen. Characteris-
tic petiole lesions were found
on a few transplants, and oc-
casionally on runner plants
coming straight from the box.
An ideal "infection
event" for C. acutatum began
with a 1.9 inch downpour on

February 28. The first three
days of March were charac-
terized by persistent cloudy
conditions and occasional
light showers. When favor-
able weather conditions such
as these combined with the
infected transplant problem,
many growers lost control of
anthracnose fruit rot disease
by the second week in March.
Epidemics developed in sus-
ceptible cultivars such as
Camarosa and Treasure, and
also in Strawberry Festival,
which is less susceptible to
this disease. These three cul-
tivars account for 35, 24, and

Crop destruction and Anthracnose control-Jim Mertely

This was a tough sea-
son for Florida strawberry
growers. Early production
was poor and as the season
progressed, the deal continued
to deteriorate. By March,
prices were low due to high
production in California, qual-
ity was mediocre due to abnor-
mally high temperatures, and
yields were reduced by an epi-
demic of anthracnose fruit rot.

I would like to share a few
thoughts concerning that epi-
demic and how crop destruc-
tion can help to avoid future
In March, over 80
samples were submitted to
the Strawberry Diagnostic
Lab. Seventy-two of these
samples were diagnosed with
anthracnose fruit rot caused
by the fungus Colletotrichum

acutatum. Most of our
widely-grown cultivars are
moderately to highly suscep-
tible to this pathogen. Thus
Camarosa, Festival, and
Treasure accounted for most
of the samples received.
As we approach the
summer season, many of our
fields are thoroughly colo-
nized by C. acutatum. Given
this pathogen's preference for

28% of the anthracnose fruit
rot samples received in
March, and for an estimated
23, 19, and 31% of our total
acreage this seas on.

The use of trade names in this publica-
tlon is solely for the purpose of prove d-
ing specific information. It isnota
guarantee or warranty of the products
named and does not signify that they are
approved to the exclusion of others of
suitable composition. Use pesticides
safely. Read andfollow directions on the
manufacturer's label.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences is an equal opportunity/
affirmative action employer authorized
to provide research, educational info r-
mation and other services only to indi-
viduals and institutions that function
without regard to race, sex, age, handi-
cap, or national origin

mild (but not hot) weather,
disease inoculum will decrease
over time. Prompt destruction
of old strawberry plants can
accelerate this natural decline
in inoculum levels. When lin-
gering strawberry plants are
destroyed, a potential source
of inoculum for the next straw-
berry crop is eliminated.
Working here at GCREC-
Dover, Dr. Alvaro Urefia dem-

Page 2

Volume III Issue 4

Volume III Issue 4

onstrated that Colletotrichum
spp. survived less than 90 days
on buried strawberry crowns
soilpaperJune 2.htm). This
finding suggests that old
strawberry plants should be
destroyed and incorporated
into the soil by July 1. A June
1 target would provide a
higher margin of safety, but
may not be practical in double
cropping situations.
Have you ever ob-
served strawberry plants
quickly collapsing and dying
after the end of the growing
season? Much of this mortal-
ity is caused by C. gloeo-
sporioides, the Colletotrichum
crown rot pathogen. Prelimi-

nary research suggests that the
initial inoculum for strawberry
crown rot epidemics comes
from oaks, wild grapes, and
other non-strawberry hosts in
and around the production
field. This hypothesis is con-
sistent with the fact that C.
gloeosporioides has not been
found on runner plants from
Canadian nurseries. While our
hot summers tend to inhibit C.
acutatum, they promote the
growth and spread of C. gloeo-
sporioides. In the summer, hot
wet weather and the absence
of fungicide applications give
this pathogen free reign. Sus-
ceptible cultivars are readily
killed under these conditions.
Some inoculum produced on

these dying plants may
spread to non-strawberry
hosts. Therefore, timely crop
destruction should be carried
out to prevent the multiplic a-
tion of C. gloeosporioides
over the summer, and to
minimize possible spread to
alternative hosts.
Crop destruction is
recommended for the sup-
pression of Colletotrichum
species, and is useful in the
battle against other patho-
gens, insects, nematodes, and
weeds as well. In these days
of dwindling supplies of
methyl bromide and increas-
ing restrictions on fumigants,
this "broad spectrum" oppor-
tunity should not be missed.

Evidence of crown rot.

Timely crop destruction
prevents future problems.

Performance of strawberry cultivars in the 2002-03 row trial -Craig Chandler
and Jim Sumler

Eleven entries, repre-
senting eight cultivars, were
planted in the 2002-03 row
trial. Seven of the entries were
plants from Ontario nurseries,
two were plants from Quebec
nurseries, and two were plants
from a Colorado nursery.
Most of the plants were
planted on October 10th, ex-
cept those of Aromas, which
were planted on October 14th,
and Camarosa from Ontario,
Gaviota, and Treasure, which
were planted on October 18th.
Each row contained 390 plants
(which is equivalent to 17,860

plants per acre).
Camarosa and Festi-
val plants from Colorado pro-
duced the highest December
yield (Table 1), followed by
Carmine from Quebec and
Earlibrite. The Colorado
plants were not typical fruit-
ing field stock, but were first
generation plants i!. 11. i
micropropagation). Average
December yield (across culti-
vars) in this trial was over
70% below that in the 2001-
02 row trial (489 vs. 141 flats
per acre). (See March 2002
newsletter for 2001-02 data.)

Low December yields, such
as those obtained in 2002-03,
can be devastating to west
central Florida growers, be-
cause December is the month
in which they, historically,
receive their highest returns.
For January, Festival
from Ontario and Earlibrite
were the highest yielding en-
tries, producing around 700
flats on a per acre basis. Car-
mine from Ontario came in
third with 664 flats per acre.
These are higher yields than
those obtained by these culti-
vars in 2001-02.

Carmine also did
well in February, compared
to the other cultivars. Car-
mine from Ontario produced
670 flats per acre, while Car-
mine from Quebec produced
595 flats per acre. These
yields are similar to the yield
obtained by Carmine (FL 95-
256) in 2001-02.
Two cultivars, Festi-
val and Carmine, produced
over 1000 flats per acre dur-
ing the first 13 days in
March. And Sweet Charlie
came close to that mark,
yielding 931 flats per acre.

Table 1. Fruit yield* from eight strawberry cultivars grown at GCREC-Dover during the 2002-03 season.

Aromas (Ont.)
Camarosa (Ont.)
Camarosa (CO)
Carmine (Ont.)
Carmine (Q)
Earlibrite (Ont.)
Festival (Ont.)
Festival (CO)
Gaviota (Ont.)
Sweet Charlie (Ont.)
Treasure (Q)


January February
448 377
471 392
516 348
664 670
496 595
693 352
701 582
356 514
204 173
400 525
341 522

March (1-13)


* Flats per acre. These yields
were calculated using the fol-
lowing equivalency: 8 quarts =
1 flat (instead of the more stan-
dard 6 quarts = 1 flat). This
was done to take into account
the small and misshapen fruit
that were likely placed into the
quart containers by the volun-
teer pickers.


- -- --

Page 3

Thoughts on biological control of insects for strawberry-
Silvia I. Rondon and Daniel J. Cantliffe,
University of Florida, Horticultural Science Department
James F. Price, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center-Bradenton

Since the early
1900's, biological control has
been known to be an effective
way to control pest problems.
However, it is only during the
past two decades that a world-
wide use of beneficial organ-
isms has taken place. This has
been due to the commercial
availability of predators and
parasitoids since the develop-
ment of artificial diets that
make mass rearing of natural
enemies relatively easy and
economical (Figure 1). Consid-
ering the effectiveness and
availability of beneficial organ-
isms, the use of biological con-
trol in Integrated Pest Manage-
ment (IPM) programs is now a
desirable option in many crop
production systems.
Why should biologi-
cal control be implemented?
For beneficial organisms, tem-
perature and humidity are criti-
cal. In a greenhouse the envi-
ronment can be manipulated to
make conditions suitable for
biological agents introduction
and establishment. This is
sometimes much more difficult
under field conditions, but not
impossible. Biological control
tactics can be complemented
with the use of pest-resistant
plants, and cultural and me-
chanical tactics. The overall
objective is to maintain pests
below an injury level that re-
sults in minimal economic
losses. If pests cannot be con-
trolled with biological, cultural
and mechanical tactics, chemi-
cal control should be consid-
ered. Chemicals compatible
with biological control are cur-
rently available, Iii i ,1 ,. , 10.html).
Is biological control a
suitable alternative? Biologi-
cal control is an effective way
to use beneficial organisms to
reduce pest populations. The
control agent might be a paras i-
toid, predator or microbial dis-

ease organism. Beneficials in-
clude tiny wasps, lacewings,
lady beetles, predatory mites,
and others, which are useful for
pest control in a wide variety of
crops, including the strawberry
crop. If natural enemies are
absent, or in small numbers,
augmentative releases of reared
natural enemies can be made.
Success requires appropriate
timing and the release of the
correct number of beneficial
per unit area. This rate will
vary according to crop type,
density of the pest on the crop,
time of the year, and indirectly,
the performance of the benefi-
cial organism.
Advantages of using
biological control. Biological
control organisms are not
harmful to the environment, in
the long term beneficial may
be less expensive than pesti-
cides if used correctly, and
beneficial are generally effec-
tive if applied early in the sea-
son. Pests exposed to benefi-
cials rarely develop resistance
against these beneficial. De-
spite all these benefits, some
negative aspects to consider are
that beneficial do not always
completely eliminate pests, and
some level of the pest is neces-
sary in order to sustain the
beneficial population, which
can result in some damage to
the crop. To address this con-
cern, the banker plant system
or open rearing units are being
re-studied. The idea behind this
system is to provide beneficial
with food when pests are not
available on the crop or to pro-
vide food to the beneficial af-
ter the pests have been con-
trolled. During the 2001-2002
strawberry growing season, at
the Protected Agriculture
Greenhouse Project in Gaines-
ville, FL .ilip h -,. ... ui
htm), the banker system was
used with relatively good suc-

cess. Sorghum plants infested
with grain mites were intro-
duced in the greenhouse, and
predatory mites with them.
Grain mites will not infest the
strawberry crop. The presence
of grain mites will allow preda-
tory mites to stay longer in the
crop and efficiently control the
real pest, the twospotted spider
mite. Another system used was
the introduction of strawberry
plants infested with tiny wasps
that control aphids (Figure 2).
High levels of parasitism were
obtained by using this system
(Figure 3).
Sometimes biological
control can be more costly than
the pesticidal option if not ap-
plied correctly, and a general
knowledge of the behavior of
the pest and the beneficial is
needed hlil. i. i., .hos.ufl.
Strawberry_IPM.htm). Results
from biological control imple-
mentation are not as rapid as
with conventional pesticides
especially if applied late.
Scouting and monitoring are
key tools to be considered
(Figure 4), and the information
obtained from these techniques
will determine the appropriate
time of release and the quantity
of beneficial that need to be
In a complete
biological control program,
tactics range from the use of
chemicals that are the least
detrimental to beneficial to the
release of beneficial as
"biological insecticides". All
these methods, as part of an
IPM program, will require
biological and ecological
information to be successful.
Results from the latest research
should encourage greenhouse
growers and the private sector
to consider
biological control as an
alternative pest management

Figure 1. Adult and immature
instars of the "big eyed bug",
Geocors punctipes, predator of a
wide variety of pests.

Figure 2. Strawberry plant in-
fested with tiny wasps. Pot at-
tached to the trough suspended in
the air. Wasps are species-

Figure 3. Strawberry leaflet
showing high levels of parasitism.
Brownish aphids are called
"mummies", which are aphids that
have been parasitized. Tiny wasps
are expected to emerge.

Figure 4. Scouting the crop will
determine presence or absence of
pests and beneficial organisms for
control decision making. Look
carefully at randomly selected
leaflets thorough your crop.

Volume III Issue 4

Proliferation ability of nutsedges-Bill Stall, University of Florida adapted from an article that was
first published in the Vegetarian Newsletter 03-02

I was asked by Mike
Aerts, FFVA, to come up
with some literature that
documents the proliferation
of nutsedges. This review
was for a branch of EPA, in
their review of the Methyl
bromide petitions. Thank
goodness for graduate stu-
dents' literature reviews
which I quickly pulled and
The results of re-
view clearly indicate the need
for growers to clean their
equipment well when going
from an area infested with
nutsedge into a nutsedge-free
area. Also, for fields with
high nutsedge populations, it
supports the practice offal-
lowing the field during the
off-season (summer) and
treating emerging nutsedge
with herbicides. I thought
many of you would be inter-
ested in some of the informa-
tion in the review.

Purple Nutsedge- Purple
nutsedge develops a pro-
nounced rhizome system and
perenniates by asexual propa-
gation through tuber produc-
tion. Purple nutsedge tubers
contain at least six buds,
which normally sprout be-
tween 50 to 1040F. Rhizomes
can grow nearly 12 inches
horizontally. When rhizomes

have produced 6-8 nodes, their
tips thicken and differentiate
into new shoots or new tubers.
Shoots and tubers generate
more rhizomes, the process
being repeated creating a sys-
tem of rhizome -tuber-shoot
chains. Hauser (1962b) re-
ported that tuber formation
started 6 weeks after emer-
gence and several tuber chains
were visible 10 weeks after
emergence of the first shoot.
He determined that six weeks
after sprouting, underground
biomass comprised more than
50% of the total dry weight of
purple nutsedge plants, and
that 20 weeks after shoot
emergence, 2.4 to 4.9 tons of
subterranean biomass per acre
were produced. In a separate
study, Hauser (1962a) reported
that purple nutsedge tubers
planted 35 inches apart,
yielded 4.5 million tubers and
basal bulbs and 3.1 million
shoots per acre in one season.
In Israel, a single tuber planted
in the field infested the soil to
a radius of 35 inches in 90
days and continued invading
the field at a rate of 30 ft2 per
month, producing 4 million
tubers per acre in 2 seasons
(Horowitz, 1972).
Studies conducted in
Florida showed that one tuber
can produce 6 to 10 new tu-
bers in 40 days. (Morales-

Rayon et al, 1995). Studies in
mulched tomato production
showed that with an initial vi-
able tuber density of 2.3/ft2, a
nutsedge infestation of 37.2/ft2
was found 13 weeks later at
final harvest (Morales-Payan,

Yellow Nutsedge -Yellow
nutsedge reproduces sexually
and asexually. Although the
significance of seed produc-
tion is questioned, Hill et al
(1963) showed that one yellow
nutsedge seedling developed
into a stand that produced over
90,000 seeds with an average
germination of 46%. The vigor
of seedlings has been reported
to be less than that of tuber
sprouts (Bell, et al., 1962).
Asexual reproduction appears
to be predominant, and the
production of tubers is prolific.
Yellow nutsedge tubers are
produced at the end of rhi-
zomes. The rhizomes of yel-
low nutsedge may grow 24
inches horizontally and pro-
duce 30 internodes before the
apex differentiates, developing
either a basal bulb or a tuber.
As in purple nutsedge, a com-
plex network of subterranean
structures (rhizomes, roots and
tubers) is formed by yellow
nutsedges. However, yellow
nutsedge tubers develop only
at the end of rhizomes, without

forming rhizome-tuber
chains such as those formed
in purple nutsedge.
One yellow nut-
sedge plant is able to pro-
duce several thousand tubers
in one season. One tuber
planted in a field in Minne-
sota produced 36 plants and
332 tubers in 16 weeks
(Tumbleson and Kommen-
dahl, 1961), while in Geor-
gia, one tuber gave origin to
622 tubers in 17 weeks
(Hauser, 1968). In one year
a single tuber planted in a
field produced, 1,900 plants
and 7,000 tubers
(Tumbleson and Kommen-
dahl, 1962). In studies of
yellow nutsedge infesting
mulched tomato production
in Florida, 139 nutsedge
plants/ft2 were found 12
weeks after an initial nut-
sedge count of 4.7 plants/ft2
(Morales-Payan, 1999). For
information regarding litera-
ture cited in this article,
please see the website ver-
sion of this newsletter
edu. Photos EDISpub SP37
by David Hall and Vernon
V Vandiver, University of

Common Name: Yellow Nutsedge
Scientific Name: Cyperus esculentus L.
Family: Cyperaceae, Sedge Family

Common Name: Purple Nutsedge
Scientific Name: Cyperus rotundus L.
Family: Cyperaceae, Sedge Family

The genus name Cyperus is from Cypeirus which
was the ancient Greek name for the genus. The
Latin name esculentus means edible and refers to
the tubers.

Page 5

Page 6 Volume III Issue 4

Label Update
DuPont has obtained
a supplemental label [2(EE)]
for use of Sinbar (terbacil)
herbicide for weed control in
annual strawberry production
systems under plastic mulch.
The label only allows alfalfa,
apple, blueberry, mint, peach,
or strawberry to be planted
within the 12 months after the
application, and there is a
110-day PHI. (CDMS labels).
NOTE: The 110-day PHI
may limit its usefulness for
west central Florida strawber-
ries. Check with your chemi-
cal representative for clarifi-

Bacterial Update
Ralstonia solana-
cearum race 3, biovar 2 on
geraniums has been con-
firmed in the U.S. This is a
bacterial pathogen that causes
southern bacterial wilt of so-
lanaceous crops, including
potato, tomato, pepper, and
tobacco. This pathogen is on
the bioterrorism list because
of its threat to food crops.
The infected cuttings were
shipped from Kenya by a
supplier to companies in
Michigan and New Hamp -
shire. Once rooted, these cut-
tings were shipped again.

There are currently no con-
firmed detections in Florida.
(UF/IFAS Pest Alert, 2/24/03).

Pesticides: What the te r-
minology tells you
Source: Janice Ontario,
Vegetable Crop Specialist, HortMat-
ters, November 27, 2002
Are systemic pesti-
cides better than contact pesti-
cides? What does it mean
when a fungicide is translami-
nar? Should I use an eradicant
or a protectant? A good under-
standing of the properties of a
pesticide is essential for mak-
ing good pest management
decisions, but pesticide termi-
nology can be confusing.
Here's a primer.
Systemic: 1. The pesticide is
absorbed by the plant. It
moves around in the plant to
protect areas of the plant not
contacted by the original ap-
plication. Fungicides and in-
secticides may have this type
of systemic activity. Systemics
are not subject to washing off
or ~ ..Ici ii., andmay pro-
vide longer residual activity
than contacts. However, sys-
temics tend to act on specific
biochemical sites in the pest,
and are often more subject to
the development of pest resis-

2. The pesticide is
absorbed by the pest, and
moves around within the pest
to reach parts of the pest not
contacted by the original ap-
plication. Herbicides may
have this type of systemic
activity. Systemic pesticides
may not move through the
entire plant (symplastic or
basipetal translocation), but
may only be absorbed in the
local area of application
(locally systemic), or may
only move upward in the
plant (apoplastic or acropetal

Contact: The pesticide kills
only the pest, or part of the
pest, to which it is applied.
Insects which are hit by or eat
or walk on or breathe a con-
tact insecticide could be af-
fected. The part of the plant
which is hit by the contact
herbicide is affected.

Preventative: See protectant.

Protectant: A "contact" fun-
gicide that adheres to the sur-
face of the plant and acts as a
chemical barrier to fungal
infection. Protectants should
be applied before infection
has occurred. These fungi-
cides often have broad-
spectrum activity, and usually

require higher rates than cura-
tives or eradicants.

Eradicant: A fungicide that is
applied after disease symp-
toms are present. It is used to
prevent the spread of the dis-
ease. These fungicides have
systemic activity and most
have preventative activity as
well. Pest resistance tends to
develop more easily than for

Curative: A fungicide that is
applied to the plant after infec-
tion has occurred, but before
symptoms are visible. These
fungicides have systemic ac-
tivity and most have preventa-
tive activity as well. Pest resis-
tance tends to develop more
easily than for protectants.

Kick-back or Reach-back:
Curative or eradicant fungi-
cidal activity.

Translaminar: A pesticide
that can move through the leaf,
but does not otherwise move
around in the plant.

Locally systemic: The pesti-
cide is absorbed into the im-
mediate area of application. It
can move from cell to cell in
the plant, but is not capable of
long distance transport.

Balm Update-Christine Cooley
Plans continue for the ground-breaking ceremony at the new research center site in Balm. Recently, Dr. Craig Stanley from GCREC-Bradenton, provided
staff and faculty members an update on both the Balm site and the plans for the new high school being constructed on Bradenton's property. Construction for the
new high school begins this month; therefore, the Bradenton researchers are anxious to transition their field programs to the new site. It is estimated that by the fall
of 2004, fields in Balm will be ready for use and full occupation of the research facility is slated for late 2005. As plans materialize for this stateof-the-art facility
there is a sense of anticipation and excitement among the faculty and staff at Dover and Bradenton. We will keep you updated with information as it is provided to us.

Take a look at the April 28th issue of People Magazine.
It will feature an ad by the California Strawberry Commission, titled "Red Edge". The commission is hoping the ad will make a
strong impression on consumers just in time for the peak of the season.
The issue will hit newstands April 18th.

A monthly newsletter of the University of Flonda Institute of Food and Agncultural Sciences, Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center, and Flonda Cooperative Extension Service
Hillsborough County Cooperative Extension Service
5339 S CR 579, Seffner, FL 33584 (813) 744-5519 SC541-5772
Editor Alicia Whidden, Director Mary Chemesky
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center-Dover
13138 Lewis Gallagher Road, Dover, FL 33527 (813) 7446630 SC512-1160
http //strawberry ifas ufl edu
Design and Layout Chnistine Cooley (cecooley@mail ifas ufl edu), Director Jack Rechcigl

Nematode Study

As reported at the GCREC Field Day, Dr. Joe Noling is working
on a nematode study and would like area growers to submit samples.
Nematode damage has been a frequent diagnosis at the Dover lab this
past season. You can stop by GCREC-Dover to pick up a soil sampler
or call Christine Cooley at the center for details
(813) 744-6630 X60.

Page 6

Volume III Issue 4

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