Citation
Wood's Natural history for children

Material Information

Title:
Wood's Natural history for children
Alternate title:
Natural history for children
Creator:
Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
Dawson, Douglas ( Editor )
W.B. Conkey Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Chicago
Publisher:
W.B. Conkey Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
432 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Baldwin Library copy lack title page.
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.G. Wood ; adapted for juveniles by Douglas Dawson ; with new illustrations by eminent artists.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026666976 ( ALEPH )
ALG5546 ( NOTIS )
29349681 ( OCLC )

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Full Text








awit, able ct: ;
eT RE



ree Si ooe \ 2:
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DRT TATA SE ee







Sy la FERS RKO xe oe,















The Baldwin Library







Lene one Ts

eat ps
aon

J
Copyright by
Nature Study Pab..Co., 1898, Chicago,





PREFACE.

The fame of “ Wood’s Natural History” is world wide, and it does not

2 need any commendation beyond the name of the originator ci so great a stand-
ard work. © This edition has been carefully adapted to meet an ever grow-
ing demand for a natural history to place in the hands of boys and girls.
The chief aim has been. to avoid technicalities and anatomical expressions
‘that confuse the juvenile mind and prevent an enjoyment of the elementary

studies, so conducive to a correct estimate of the marvels of creation, and the
profound wisdom of an Almighty Creator. In the compilation of this work
the fact has been borne in mind that the most- beneficial instruction is enter-
taining; and it is firmly believed that every intelligent boy and girl will not

> only receive valuable lessons from a perusal of this book, but will be fasci-

nated by the wonders of Nature and become wiser and happier from the
knowledge thus’ gained. Practical wisdom does not demand a wearisome

trudge through columns of Greek and Latin names. In this volume a sincere

effort has been made to present authentic information in plain English.

’








wie
ad












. Bd Te Bs
SW MLE C0 :

og



LIST OF CONTENTS

WITH

Ad Cec ARR UtE ey an ee ectae yer eer ee era ee pete
African Antelopes, Group of

ILLUSTRATIONS



Er tere ao ees I
ANeoroamn JByuill WMO. baacsnescooeseonbedd sée ee
African Crocodile at Home.................. 12
PNUD geh bore Sy erent meee eee ach rc perme ncy Gretetter ai L72
ANMMGgeisoNe INE ooo osaveospacoeadansracne 385
AMYOEKOE: ABNOOEY 5 po poccgaHesudpocsuanodesedcse 369
PATI e hi CATIEg IS! 2 C kag C2 gene aen ray ae en ae 222
Nineteen JMS OS. scccondeoseanedbuacscunen 359
ANGE INOS Jon son anced co eoedooohsougasnce 78
ANETCRIN WIOWROVS .cccecorvosccodscaatadse 1g
PASTE Tet CATAG 1c C Ranta ane ae ne ae 265
ANGay NUS RIIOE, SOO 5505 eoccustussdcagoeuas 180

BEAT ACOT CU Opener gra oats meee eS ene un aye n ete 17
PXiicre agg ccl tame yin Oa beeen eer ra ie eres er ane 245
PNG Ge asi S Teg aeesine sean sree yee tep seen eres as 16
PAG SCAR ee re en Sree ty ee eae eh eae 249
Ast, Singagin, Since Wavtled..oosecnaceooudecs 280

“, AMES OPIS, SAG. .csveccsagessaasawovaenenss 185
Antelopes, Group of African ................ 313
ApS, IBEMOEIAY. ccandocopansdsaenovconenennes 342
EASE CLIC AED O NAG rrate pret sneer ree geen ea ey 421
Ate leaGaze lle prin oie iene er ee 230
Asim cl GAL @ areca ite ean ee ae een te ee Oye een 198
SAIS Se Peer ac Pe ne (oer IS EN ee Sa eR ae 36.4
AAS RAN aia) IDMOCITHON.. sg naaovadacusdeaned ove 378
EACISRDC EL Mer Me rtenyet tantra arate pane ene nC 358
Azunen Cacrebasca yore oe herrea nen rans 306
Azure Throated Bee Eater .................. 231
Je¥ulororornis\, GAROWHO) Ole onandcoanacannennoroanose 51
uoadtahn, Cayo pocs4cg0enucoscdavcasdaadnaa 360
Balk G ro weer errr r henner meaner ea era ee 283
Beuld, lelgelecl Wag 55. snccaanocvenancesesos 131
Ieilerhaene OMNONGS, oc ooncoscdsoscoussuavonseee 365
Beurorest, Wiotie IBMCSd) ...6so5n00ccsesconcges 266
BarnbanyeeApeay cme ees eae ne a 342
Bae) wile acre pavers, Wie oa meerae cere rr petayseen weeds gl
BASTAS Ca raion Gernmen re ret rnin wean nent eas 311
IBASST eae esp aitch cinta te ary ramen emake erent Aces 255
IBEKG, Whoa OES ooouauounsdsanancbaecossooasue 48
Beads snake mimaanmeinsi Yoweri tts ccs 135
Ree, Avmenieain IBC. 5. 500ccc0snssge000008 222)
BearaeArm tyrone ee inne ay eco Se eet ie Deans 249
Bear BLO ws ees hese ae ieee hence rs eects ateiee 408
Jeeeie, Cinbaby.goousee puoeedsudeqeosucueHede 201
BeareRolarnic sev sean cancer eerie ciny ieee: x0
Bear eoam ciety cise amine memos creer eee ners 182
IB CaTam S11 cae ee tees 209
IBCeNENEU EEL ACROVHON. a ag aaanannssvosoaneavosdon 110
D3 CAV. CER coms ceaiceh aieecher cen ere een tegen re eee 289
Beechwiviaintenuu ey yar mer ern et eeeer I4o
Bee Eater, Azure Throated................ 231
SL JEL: nce vocoagedusndvacceononooapoods co BOY
Belted@Elorsemanven eer eee ers ee 315
Beltedskanefishe ran eee rer re nr riiern ve «65
Eso KorReral AHS IMME? 5s vacsacdauoesouaonnoo . 116
Bird Cedarmeeerrerciacte rere etn +. EI2
Is EREL, HE oo gdancos0oage ee eee eae tek SA

Bird of Paradise, Incomparable ............. 153
indkotelaracdisewlNc damm nrnararir ener arn 333
Mie! os? Jemabis, SEED. os o000e0000000000 nae
1BhMES Crt eeTECISS . snqogoonncapuneasnoednodns 344
BIS OT te ee eRe A Ts 320
Black and Yellow Grosbeak................. 368)
UP Ter SVE Can eye et wt ek ai ele eats ae Unt aate eeenee yee 58
HES TC cause cise WIT @ 1 C CUT need Bae)
FS Tal eat a Cae ope eee eee oy Pe omer 42u
Blawik GOK. pccgucvcvsavensncseonsoaovesene 155
Jeiievelte WAVE wacnon cucoabnoanebtanedoance ooo 3844
IBlennies a aeons ween See tee yr nse van nears QD)
Blindwonm wemerrmerk rs as here ence ees 157
31 Oo Glin ctl een ay perenne ane erst aera ae 22
Blue and Yellow Macaw.................... 252
Blues Birdeyew reat taser ere ree eer rede 20)
Blue [easy AVES. cocoponnsaocg es osoeuden 359
IB kos) ITMMOWSS, po osocacovaddaosvgouscossouee Ball
13 Opel OC Cena ey rrr ee eer as ee enone go
Oar aWAl Geeta ere tee ere eee ree 235
BO DOlinIKA wees ater etten See emenata aretha ea yr aaae 234
ibYorabeehal, (Conse. os oseu duct ouog su sobonoMded us 381
IBowier Jehbxel, Sjoerd. pcneaounaansoocnosoons BZ
IBrone “boii gedo Gusuocadeasmannonohannes be 47
HES Teel urn e es CU ee aaa ne Pa 330
IByesia lian WWAVedO..occnocdsacnooasusosooesccnse 2B
NFS reel UTS reo 188
ral anPLOnCUpil Cherri rer tear e asia es 97
NS REV rae Gr Tl anne nee arenas tn ia rar ome wees 178
lehebollerel Guetiil pcoonccasonsanneveseousannbee 95
British Shrews, Group of................0.. 179
British Wagtails, Group of.................. 133
British Warblers, Group of. .............-00-- 373
ISRO WATHISC aie eetesn ns ee emen cre ree pent ara nre ONNp arg 4os
IB TOWATEOWa se cpr eee eer sneie oe cea ore 106
Brown WAYwye IW on oonsosoundegncooabecane 343
Ipybuneaiko}, (CHUB, cogaauesnnbagoogcodsnnosoo bese 410
A135 21 3 Te Fao 330
TB LD OC een gem rns ice cony spelt y trate: erst are 187
IB ULGLO Su ree Panne ence acer rere era 355
Sal BE RO Came Aci Tal C2 hl tae ee se ae ener I4qt
BB Ulleada keen pect enero nore ema eae mera 413
Isxeibl, Sinores ISIOUN, poo cceacccosangensucvougce 309
Ikan Sines, WitegOr'S. .acsonnedesansvbannesso 117
Buzzard ayn rrehe cara one Neri eae ne 13
Buzzard, Honey ........ eae ets espn eee 120
Were), ANGRY . opocacooosogdsecaaeoadaoun 136
@acrebawAzurenene cee ene ee 306
(Ga oy ee ees hres ean cre ere tees Rene en eae 398
Cannel, IBAOUBNN 5 ocacccsescesouascosngsseaud 360
Canadar@ wilt ere nasser canis ere ee 204
Wanlaigyie ees er eae terrae Cot nes 356
5 Chine IESUTRMO) wooo onnntboocvoodsonpdoaseeouns 410
Capesharentol awn eet terete ee ees 396
CHypeetey p osoacocanacasuousdussooccnadoddos 407
CardinaliGrosbealcanee rere ret 312
SATIDOMS Nar ee Eee 406
CarolinagearrO buen rrr eRe etree od.)



Cart Horse, Clydesdale ...................., 60 Dog, Newfoundland ........... SOEs COE 150

SC HIU ctna reteree s O ath att aio A ees are eter ees ae BS, DOS ERENT nc onsoacandssadobeesuecsnbouede 81
CHVPIBIENGL cidcto pe eh AG ana dead ncn sea ne ea nae 18 Dog, St. Bernard’s........... eee tr 89
VER Wa LER care ony fr nen ee iy ca ene ee 287 ee) OUT eepeeewre rere eg tn eee a Ree rine, ae Sree 279
Cedarabird eye aerate errs cen nue nen UN DISH ANOWES , onooucovvsvonesusbcs boanendoneuan 287
Chaetodon, Long Spined.................... date ID aevexern, INK AbOE,, sn oagcndokoandeosnooROsAcas 34
CHEEMOUNTS, choccosonssudsevaneoneeceoakonns iu ID Sy NBIL, SONS pascaucoen vavdacsabnnasen 52
Chain cht ae nron er vaste neta i my mannan s 247 Hagle, Bald Headed ..............-.0:-0e00s 131
Chameleon wren eet E errr pyr mara meme mig) DEVAS), JEIREWAUDE NL, oc oooeon anaes auacaesese sas 225
(AT O1S Mepis ce ne ecoe ae ne ee mre 252 Eagle, Imperial.......... SorrecRedsvere See ken ies 69
Chat, Yellow Breasted...................00. U5) IBEle, NEGA, oso condovanooananeonananasoan 304.
ChimaeraseNonthcrn see ees ee en Ho IAA ENGL INGE. wa peoeesonseogneduqudeeoose 99
Chimpanzee ene en ray ee een one Bie) IBeAyoypienn (CiRereoVelNlS.o awopnsnenanqagnansnoceos 390
Cites. ccnancosenatpscodasoanuasvocanece 7 SER AVE NV ONBUIRS, cv omolaaasyncsdsonbneeooonn 37
Climibinog Perch veers aera an mre ues 12 5a MOLE PHaTitiepeten ee een tt eee np ae parents eee 346
Cikvolosdails (Catt IBIS, sy canece cua wouacone Go. ape) SUIS, cacoonanedepaectasbesesoouces 36
Convela WViorho Siaaiiees . 5 sabe aneagoannncuganuce 54 Epimachus, Twelve Thread................. 105
Coloiellese ING, sacnasoekeeeebapecdouuunwe aon dhe} — IBopeubane yeh IDO. sho aachencnansaneccannasen 299
(Colonie, ISOC. tanesaesononnowesdumenodes 12 OUT @ Mea TVET cep aree eee aa a teeny rene er 202
(COs Ori WAS INCI. scan cond einubvondsecu an 4 ise Iohyctcl IVAN icin vase aoa nacqnvencuoenovdne Wey
Clore aries, (Catowulp) lls ow caausuasaawoneanescens Agi IOS Chawendanaeseuosasnosennoune 414
Cockatoo, Leadbeater’s..................... 7 PLL v.e Claw O yn CCl OMe yer nan ey Raps anna nen 258
Coelar Syeenuielkst os. ne denedin mesa swe eonnsoass BS4eehalconsmbauchin opm ee yaaa nr enon 268
(COCETLIS Tepe ey Bhi emotes ne in na OR 42. Halconseswallow, dlailediee eye ren anne 248
Columbians Dhornbille a pasate eae eee UM SAMOS, (CMON). Cissy ansadanevodgenavccorssa 284
Wom mlOneliro cape pee face mos bee maar iatet 20 ae LCT Cle 2711 COM ra eee ee ee 394
Common Land Tortoise..................0.. 257 Fiery Topaz Humming Bird................ 374
Commons Miousee sav oo nen enn 267 ‘Fifteen Spined Stickleback.................. 303
Conlin ongS kates eee ine eee ee gor IE aKSlaVesh LCS r ONE) OE Sngunapadaanoadnansuosoaes 317
(Coroavoavenar Swobatlke,, a wean on ate ee kes oak wwe OO Mea CORES leuk: c Cay eens ee ee 57
Womunongs tanlii commer ee say pene aie SOO mmulycatchermRaradischer sry =e ra waren en eenenn ee 154
(Crosaayonvenny Westistiol ce cee ake aamieteee su casa and 2y Teme LOL vit) gle) Tal 2. Teer eg ea ee ae eee 34
ComimonwlrceiCrcepetaer ie ene 416 ee LN 1:10 Ls Oe ee 244
(COTTcl Omer tte oe rte ee an ow nn TUES) = Lobe, FNROGO,. Savacndwacdaoo Ad beccnbeesuumaa as 421
Congo Snake ..... Re Ne en eA cited he OO 3 0 Om LO XA ANTE 131 Ce 1 ae ee 78
Wogtietiems pam clecivay. 6 een ven imene neues 5 Om era: ]ayi1'01 Saperecom n E 244
(COTABSE Sie chia lee te reen ap nena mn Rn he 27 3 Games LO X:11 0 UT) CL ee 194
C ORAS 1. Copymen se yer hee Otani on ne iy seen BAS, JES ICL Uosomoakesunbowennye'eodcasaooubss 124
COwmRiOopialmeey ays a ee ey ee ie ck Seat PH) of abikeyel Wat. weno denunaeedsos bs bwhuuabe mas 339
(COV OLE pamigen nr at ty one Sp Remenmis ent ne tye 75 Fringed Tree Gecko ................ccceeuee 400
Crab Eating Opossum...................... ayy. Wideyez, Awbctoehn WD, oot chis do nape noenvadeaas 141
Cringe, CHuonyoal+, ohwaced dee anncatemeone sue 87 Frog, Bicolored Tree....................... 116
CreepereCominon gh necme ase in neni ANP den nOyed: ENED Nera SAS Gees hg ane Ao oe shan saw owes 355
Creepers Cunycd=billedmen) een ee Oxy Aieoyen. (Cloyatenloye . gvcsnnvshoesadcoancdasessont 291
Cirevspnreies, ANU o's fog 4 w vrscagints dics oa Ye Fo adh eae Bi Soya JSUT ooh dasg Woon stews aunshe canon 73
(Cinewstasel OMICS, : shee he aniowd overs unashueas 363 Frog, Savannah Cricket..................... 38
Crestedmtitr a scanner ae meen nS onnt 25 Aas TOO Sere CC tay yee etc tee cee an peng 192
Crocodile WeNhici Career pee an ert nea 127 Fur Country Pouched Rat .................. 329
Cirssochils, IBRABBE |... se hcuyedchahomwseaan BOO “(Crabaaloyteyel Iola s) on awahagemounodsee na beneede 417
Crocodile Gancicticoeee see ta eeue alemnns Som GanceticuCrocodil aay. een epee) anne 316
CODON G etysteeean eet aM eees at ts eas EN 3700 iGarrnloustEloneyab ater er een yee an 122
Cio, BRVGL, sé voeoaa neous monde aéamennon com 283. Garrulous Roller.............. ee ea chet sn Ne 108
Citonsy, Conerhe Neva leat ep ned an ee oka avne Garni, AGES. was ngacadadnasnoasbeswocuaws 230
(Crowes 2 nil p11 Os aee ene arent ane mn ee 264 Gecko, Fringed Tree.....................2.. 400
(Crow nede Craiiies a een ann gyn een aan mai! Sime Gilanite re vey sen ean wee a keene an ene 178
(Crowne des Crallc C here ere en Ca Pio AGREE INSHO Nu A oenschoapaddousauackaes rete 293
Cironaned! IPUKCOMm. nd aadanokaw ees oat. avaws, 324 Gigantic Salamander ....................... 53
Cironraical Wevorieapssta so ouaauendes dagen 3.0 Side TALL (Sereno en thes Sonn ar nc) tao ode: «ean a 76
Curved-Billed CECE) SL oe ee ek oie pe Gilets Shia... pqocuasasdceteauuussdupaucan as 1610
Cisne Oe. + ..sannugosnaascanscancusses Sie. (hlestiy) Itsy So womunindonobon bende suaneedied 39
HL T1171 WR19) Ceara neon a Ct DEES pie Craibh, Dee AON. wartcs sad aGonAslodianawaawen 95
IDs” ASSIS 4 db oA Rao os aundeuunonusevin doe BHO GOAL ite er cere ass hoe ea Di ER 270
De Lalande’s Plover Crest.................. 15 Goat Sucker, Great Eared................... 40
DIONE Sd caine hacuaatpninancasaaisdedan cease 176 Goat Sucker, Long Winged................. 100
112i O72 Cees, cl ap ee ae Sn DSRS 164 Goat Sucker, Lyre Tailed................... 84
DicaeummeAT Str alia mes yee ee sete iaienans 378 Goat Sucker, Virginian ..................... 213
PLD DEL ect a eae prea eae Lay OGIO ey (Erollaleyal Oras aon audoshuvanéenencacenotoas 216
Divers Greate Nonthic nie pyre eemen nine 33mm GoldenwnhreerSnalc wis tyne un nnnnnsnnnes 204
0 Seyi ll eer eevee Peay teeta ec tee RI 187 Golden Winged Manakin.................... 138
Dog, Danish Dating: Ferns Ie ae ST RT ee RT arect oh ee, (Gro ypSaNSae Y NOWOITS.. 4 riigy n canesaanee soanan enone 380
SID OCT Titanet paterwa tt inn gue Mii PC OCR at TOO reaps Cron] ea tee, Seer rater co ieee Ger tag ae ere RR 41
Deis MEMS cnoanndiooaunoodoosnanoee Hien tore MACE 5 oe coo aom mon oacuatonntmucnoe Lee



Gould’s Neomorpha ............. ee eeeeee eee 134

Galle, GrorwieCl oo nscoonacnouanndponacacnet 219
GreateBilled@ocdviiry aks tern eerrrtsrcetcle 30
GreatwbilleduCrowawereericenerrr erect 341

Great Eared Goat Sucker

Rs ane Cee ee oO
Great Northern Diver............. cece ences -
GreataWieavierliSlimre prececrtieeea a ners 322
GreennuCchynereper ye eer enc ce. 302
Greenland Whale...............-.se cece cree 336
(Greenwleizar dinette ee tree tracert rae erore 137
Ghiteyerny 4 Moreh?’ 5 cnopomaecoouanoods vononnonovods 67
Greene huntlomermer rrr eters cee 163
Grey houndtneisy eerie rircrrirr ei cits 32
Grizzlyabeatiana metres err a 201
Grosbeak, Black and Yellow ................ 368
Grosbeak, Cardinal ............. eee eens 312
Ghaoiel IHW. .unagonadcoonsugooansdsoo ona 125
GroundySqtiicne lee repent tacit racr rt: 70
GUCheZ a mer marie teri pen err h yer encrars 314
Guinecasbicter prem r eee crate k 223
are eet errr ey eee atte ir heperem cee 348
arcietam Abies mmrerty ter rrtr eerie 20
Rlantebeestyae crim mera werr rita tte etrcr 55
Hawke SPaTrOws on ss ieieciniei ere sreieieneys cies cer 56

eElawkobilliedsuintlemnremers waneie rise citar 158
Ile dg eh 0 Genet te teesaver rected ners seekers 250
Hedge Sparrow. ... 0... cece eee eee een ees 79
Helmet Crest, Linden’s...............-2.-5. 168
Memigaleermcrrrtescrrtr nities be
Highland Sheep...............-. eee e eee ee 224
Hippopotamus. .... 06... eee eee eee ees 193
EOD Dyan tee reer eT (era
Hog Nose Snake. ........ 00. e eee eee eee 384
Honey Buzzard........... 0c ee eee eee ene ees 120
Honey Eater, Garrulous .........-....-..55- 122
Hooded Copravgacecnen seein eine ees 129
TOO POC ee ane ee see ais eo cebare oleate nets 209
Hornbill, Rhinoceros...........6.02 eee eee 326
Hornbill, White Crested ..............--245. 290
ocnbilise Group Otwempenery mc eer 377
Horned Frog .. 0.0.2.0. es scence eee eee 73
Horse, Clydesdale Cart ...........+.-.-.--55 60
HousesMiantenmrens ee eerie ee 160
Humming Bird, Cora’s Shear Tail.......... 278
Humming Bird, Fiery Topaz..............-. 374
Humming Bird, Ruby Throated............ 28
Humming Bird, Salle’s Hermit ............. 151
Humming Bird, Snow Cap............-+-.-- 50
Humming Bird, Sun Gem................--- 278
Humming Birds, Group of...............+-- 115
Humming Birds, Ruby and Topaz.......... 415
Hunting Cissa.......... ee eee eee ene 274
Hyena, Striped. ........ 0s cece eee eee eee 305
exer eer eee errs Daten Tos 263
Ibis, Glossy.........- sce e eee cect ee 39
Hbisse sacred seer ne eerie asta Leese 39
Tgtiana 0.0... een es 31
Imperial Eagle ...........- eee cece eee ees 69
Incomparable Bird of Paradise.............. 153
Indian Rhinoceros........... eee eee eee eee 218
Jacamar...... cece eee eet eee eens 186
Jackal... 0... eee eee e ee t eee enc ne es 372
Jackdaw 0.0... cece eect e eee eee eee ees 383
Jackass, Laughing........-......s seer sees 375
Jaguar... ee eee cece eee nner eens 347
Japanese Singlethorn.............+.-se-eee: 211
Jardines Harrier......... 0... e cece eee eee 20
Jay, American Blue.............+.es eee e eee 359
John Dory........ cee cece eee ete ene eens 420
Kangaroo 2... . cee c eee eee teen tee ee etenes 403
King Bird... .... cece cee eect en eee tenes 181
Kingfisher. ..... cece cece reece ener eter e ees 21

Kingfisher, Belted. ..........-. cece renee eee 65
Kingfisher, Ternate ..........-. essere eens 143
Kingfishers, Group of. ........ 5.0. sees eens 119
King Tody ....... 0. cece ee eee cette eens 132
King Vulture....... 0.22 eee e eee renee ees 175
Kite, Brazilian ..............-- cS EME er 188
Land Tortoise, Common.........-...eee eee 257
Langaha .....6.... see cece eet eens 204.
Laughing Falcon.............+.+eseeeese eee 268
Laughing Jackass ..........5 6... esse eee ees 375
Leadbeater’s Cockato0.......... secre eee eee 174
Leopard, With Other Animals ............-. Ir
Leopard... 0... cece eect ete ees 241
Leopard, Sea.. 1... ecient ee ee ene 86
Linden’s Helmet Crest...........--e eee eeee 168
Tenner e re manrein three aecmest a: 302
TEL OT ee eh ere ite entity ricoceneiets ais: 83
Lion and Lioness........... esse ee ee eee ees Il
Lion, Gambian. ........... 0. eee ee eee eee 417
Ife Seeiocpacsucenosopeneensscodeqeoueouac 345
Lizard, Eyed ......... cece eee eee nes 137
Lizard, Frilled ........... 0.000 eee eee eee 339
Lizard, Green ..... 6. eee eee 137
Lizard, Sand..........0--0 0s eee eee e ee ee es g2
Lizard, Scaly..... 00.00... cece eee eee 2

Lizard, Scorpion. ...........0. 0s ee ee etree 148
Liama Alpaca ........ 00. eee tee eee nes 309
Long Eared Squirrel.........-..- 60.00 e eee 371
Long Spined Chaetodon..........-.-.++++5: 416
Long Tailed Titmouse..........-.++-.+ sees 243
Long Winged Goat Sucker........-..+-+++-5 100
Lynx, European. ..........-. +202 seer steers 202
Lyre Bird........-22 ose e etree 403
Lyre Tailed Goat ‘Sucker.........+++++eee es 84
Macaw, Blue and Yellow.........-.-.+.-555: 252
Weyl jon ednncsonaaumop go ternsoascaneny 382
Macropidae ......... 002. e vere eee ees 404
Magpie. ........ cere cee erent teens 331
Malachite Sun Bird..............2..- see eee 126
Malayan Tapir.........-0..- 0s sere e eens 281
Maltese Dog......... cise tees 107
Manakin, Golden Winged.......-.....+.-555 138
Vicari Cctv eet een 220
Marine Oreocephale............0++ 000+ sees 310
Marten, Beech. .......... 0. eee eee ees 140
Marten, House ..........- 2c e eee eee e eee 160
Martial Eagle...........0. seers 304
Matamata’.... 0... - eee tenet ees 14
Meadow Pipit.........-.0. 20sec terete ees 273)
Menopome .........-e reese eee eres 393
Merian’s Opossum.......6. 60.0 s ee eee eee ees 205
Vita coe eee er eer er cucee ket taecitunooen ne 27
MEMO IDC atc caesar re 308
Missel Thrush, .......26...- 00. ce eu ee cee e eas 165
Mississippi Kite.............--22 seer eres Tel
Mocking Bird. ......-..6 0.500 teers 173
NG lee ene rarer rere eet pt bseenere 327
Mole Rat, Slepez.........e sere e eee e eee 144
INEOLOG Hitec rote crn sen rner ease 379
Monitor, Nilotic.........-.- see eee eee eee 123
Monkeys, American..........++.-++sses ee: 19
IMI@ONSa,connonanodsasiooscesobnsonanaenastes 197
IMOGINNE oo moscavnoucuenadesunmnguoces snemOnS 26
Mouse, Common........ eee eee ee ree trees 207
Mouse, Opossum... ..... sees sree eee e ese 130
Mud TDOrtoiSes o.cncsccsne cue oo creineis ensienetons sloth orien 17
Miisk Ox fo igre noises sete erernere ie reteset 288
IVs ea Raa eereneeenepeterateiareisinte en evekeien uecetonern mnonsione 242
Mustang ..........ceee sees sees terre settee: 323
Natal Rock Snake ....... eee eee eee reece eee 64
Neomorpha, Gould’s.....-..eesseeee ees 134

Newfoundland Dog........ seers reese eee 150



Nichtingal ener yess errr eee immer: 203
INDOtICeVioni tol eee rer ret rte eer eeer 123
INoTtherns Chima erasers serie eye trea 208
INTE Cra CK ere as crrny a erte atte oy ise te cee Sener E27
TING VL Am eat te arcu -e Pte este ter enn er etn AA ease 139
OPOSSUM emery sia es senescent Perea eee 272
Opossum, Crab Hating...................05. 297
@possumPp Vera nl Same ey erie ee rete or 205
Opossum MouScher ener Eeren errant reer 130
COypaiiver (ONbgesbolers wooo apopnecanananndensenenoee 350
@rchardsOriolemnrn eer ree ee ener 261
Oreocephale, Marine.....................05- 310
@TrecOSOMae new ney are eee ey yee vie 429
Oriole, Baltimore............ Page tens ees eae 365
OniolewCrestedeey eerr seria erie en ie 363
@riolenGoldente. ww iereeee ree SE eee 216
COmiole, Oia! -pacsnskeoouncesnscensvennos 261
OORT cedcdadsu donbud casngboschdegs cone coc 214
Otters nrc asta tak oan a deleisnn meee 142
Qun Cena Matias canter: eee reer ears 238
Owl AB ROW ce cee Ae ene: Cree 106
Owl Canadatennmacciass cin Gare nEran ire 294
Ohl, Salone ononaasoganesedenoondnacedsobne 24
@ wl RAV cot ce) cu7 CCL nee ear en eer eee 352
OxMEMUSK eae cacerie ie rtan eterna arane nies 288
Raradisem i by.catchetprrn yer aire 154
IpAaTralKe © bali oC Cen nn eR en ape rarer 401
iPenocole, (Celio apapeomddonageen ‘ecossooan SO)
JHSOREIAY yoodeadcnbeeedemboovomnAadcougbocous 285
RCE CHEN phrnc tron ee yee Cee toe tite. ieee ame tes 29
Rerchhe Giantonecasccuyeen rans cee ie iern neers 293
RhilippineiCrowreerrinertirccrniae inci cr ns 264
IPG, Waiaeebee, Sona ucadaodnenboHnoouuaonoed 42
IPiexel (Cirongy Sov, coop cuawoepuedooupesbeugac 361
Pierson, (OOM. cosnnedacencmeassunsaqaous 324
AP os GOUT CUR reeee eae ae eR eee ee TS Se I25
Rice Meena © Tel C outa eae eaten pee ee eae eee et 263
RilotePish a .eanrec re tater mater mw ere 428
itd Gaal C peepee ee Freee ero en rare tees 210
Ripines Crowns lnilenrp merase rare eee 147
Pipi elVleacl O Waseem terse re ener e aes 273
Ripie ree eta vars eee ary wate era hee Toe 251
Plover Crest, De Lalande’s................. 15
irre 3 tee S 119 er Doerr eae wea 196
IPOUIECTS Pag reper ees tee tre ane a ae eee ge eae 232
RolareBeanrcray were tite et mien arrest IOI
Ietopsoyesdahabiehal IDYelee, se caudAaunGonadpacadouoon 260
Rony shetlan clear eerie eter aera 102
(POTCUpING eee ere ere ee een LS eee 276
Porcupine, Brazilian...... ee maT Vee roa eye 97
IRORDOISCis wae enn tee ae ea itt ae eae nee 325
Pouched Rat, Fur Country.................. 329
PLATS) OCIA wraten mente nua er Vite ne tein Stee ees: 81
Pte Ad de raner cn acecmer meson cen citer hee ees 82
UT Ae ee RVR eS PA art eA TL oe pe cere ys tate ria cea 128
Quadrumana.......... Meee oe eter etree 85
QuaG Caetano mitteraensn aa seiiach sisi uae aieestets 362
FRACCOO Nie mae ene me nein ey eee eee 338
RACE BELOESE merci Stein dsiantie este eaiiseern rete 357
Rate Blacks pe ncene cette sa ctccnae erers Raerety agian 426
Rat, Fur Country Pouched.................. 329
FRAP MUS gay ra eee reas te Mian atte eae 242
at Sle pez lO Cremer tte wae eter re eerie 144
RMN (cl CG Ty eee ere eee Pa Can a ee gseee ee Ve 103
Rattlesnaker pers steer cat erent eeen as 217
FRAVED terrors Ree teen ake ner are Nokona lene 104
Redebindiotebaradise see tmrey erent 333
Red breastevaacsccc ci nernmecs aie ne 226
Rael Mots IM os usuieundaboseudnoosnoaadds 57
RediScorpion Wishiien casera ici a 367
Redwing ..........66- Mae la nerin eee ie 195

eimdecer sane nie rat a ey een ep re eeneee 423°
Resplendent Trogon........... Ree ees 98:
Repvevoreerdos Iekoynulowls oonosocouoununscouadoo 326-
Reino cerosmelndianwenn eer ee eres 218
Ringed Ook wmrert ehaciet cre ne tie eee 2. 90
RinecdBRanakee tee eer et Pera nett ee ne 401
IRYofelie hil idey, INGWEM oon ods osconsoodguaanouna’ 64
Rodent Animals, Group of.................. III
Roller Garrulousmepe teeter rh ene 108
ROOK EAI ah ese rann ee oerem eyrrea ya 337
Rose; Coloreds Pas tone eee reer ier eee re 300
Ruby Throated Humming Bird........ yee. 28
Sa DIC Ree praca e ern eeae ea ae terete ag et eecerer cc 118
Sa blemAn tel oper rer nee en re arn 185
Sacred Ibis....... Mae erere sh Seca aay Cea tes ese 39
ShilepangwGler oo oecapcecdausudwascouacsogoouous 80
Salamander, Gigantic................03.000- 53
Salle’s Hermit Humming Bird .............. 151
Saltwater Merrap immanent erect aes 71
DANI CEB CAT Aer ttey sar ewan re ste Pa A Nese te 182
wanda izarcde weer tern iemas ot ener: oo OF
SapphosC ome trae seer ren ena rr 239
Savannah Cricket Frog................0000- 38
SAwHlS ee oh ia Wee Onn ee cee ome Me Is 207
SOmhy IWAN. ae ono de oadreddoodacaoeuasobon 25
CATE HE ORE PaATll Sap rereas eerie ener eer ere 52
Seaidla, Ware eee. ocogoocrossacscogeoadR 66008 306
SOEs, WMO sw snagunoaupadcesnesauated 1g0
CORP OMENS HNC clay marine nn ar ero 367
SWorrjertoinl IVER so onanaoenangcsoocdaan son 148
SCARS IEC O12. ae epee ae etree eae eee ees 86
SO age 1 OTe eer ee en Minne es aye ety 345
SEE SUSAN oacconasctoee@eceranae gaan ears 427
DCA WO Lie rare ev nee er eee we en cee eu yee RN Ne ree 422
SORAEIAY leiiddl, Cn opeagodaee sddbacrocdoenaaas 353
Seaese, IMAM. .oosoaceegceeaavaaaddoonaoee 36
Shaft Tailed Whidah Bird.................. 286
Sinewdic, VMAS, scam ec oancoadeacauaencaoveanacs 49
SHED eae ar tas nner et ne eae eN ena ema PSS)
SUIS, TGMBING! on oeywcudeavasooucnnacune 224
Shepherdesis)) Goce rere ere rrr e ree: 246
Sieienavel TO, no aveosaspasesdneowencdan cus 102
Savors JSkoyon ISL. Ao u Pee aw cunuovunecensuead 309
ShorteRailedwAntedbirushiwe ere 280
SINE IVI. sony obayoccoubauassegasnoessoud 199
Shrews, Group of British.................... 179
Slinikem i cde Crows eerie eee Terr rene 361
Shrikemripincs Choweersre Peer ee er 147
lobe ge Wik SIS, noncaganagcnosusananoe 117
Shomikes, WCC ooosasccupounaedn denounced 166
ShrikesGroipio tee rere neo ern rae 307
Singlethorn aa panesenme meme eer ernie 211
Sines, ANIONS. wc aaaoeoannensoodaeuguace 301
Sleaiys, (Consol ¢ goaueckoossuovsnoounnecan 301
Siataile; (Copano » soonanenneogasoveasouapacen 169
Skunkeye sacri generar reas EO eras » 43
Sky cevhernenyrn ease tre ceassei cet s » 146
SlepezeMolesha taser rrr irri eer riven sarye » 144
Sipiles, IKEA. cn oacanesocorodessamanens mega, 135
Swe, NAO. vsngendendeosubannancane a LSS
Siaeilige,, (Cooevelal Wilobho), oo oo nacoarepeanoannandse 54
Sia ies, Cosvexo..5 ccsocoodcdouronsnendiouawony , 386
Seis, (Coit), consosossdsavcoagnsacouon wuss 376
SnakeiiGlassayeccn ce Mery herr ere 161
Snake, Golden Tree................ Scere: 204
SNAKe we OCsNOSCH Uy ee eee ere 384
Snake wNatalRockny ser ase acer 64
STA CRIT ote Cline tee map tere tep eer era eters tore artery 66
Snake shin d Creeper eee epee rte errs 376
Snappinogkuntlemaeeem meyer aree ats »e» 167
SHOWs Bird tnt eure er or en nec eee 292



Snow Cap Humming Bird................. . §0
Sworn; Owls cosrsasansostaovvecaveosoreoouss 24
Sociable Weaver Bird...............-. eee eee 296
Sooty Amphisbaena ........... 00. see ceeeues 180
Spangled Coquette............... eects eee eee 50
Shrike, Syrstngers covoansanaasasoudunsasaaa 340
SpanielsaCOcken emerge ae aE Uae eas 340
SWOHIIOW BBE anoosgooccguesdestmonnatanonn 56
Gyeaimtony, locke, spancususncosdatavdvocosnoy 79
Spemmacetiqainale terre: rete eee cere 227
‘SpoonbillUStunec one reer treater ier 199
Spotted Bower Bird........ Rar gate ne 262
Sjoowtacl IG .suspossoocsaodonescane nes oseves 25
Spotted Ground Thrush..................... 236
SJOMUNEHIROS: yaa boscocdooomseganacoedaouans 233
SprinGers pamiel Siren rrr rete cet tere 340
Soles, specaegaoshesnocacysesconwaubRbesen 152
Squirrel, Ground............:.. ++: seen ee 70
Squirrel, Long Eared..................--5-- 371
Sikelbtayse, (Commi. svavcgnasesesuoscapgaros 399
Sey aNeinomie, AVN oo doceutnainesuduecoess 245
‘S GpBennandesm) Opp pe irre rir racrt rir 89
Sticklebacks.....- aon eee Oe nae: 253
Stickleback, Fifteen Spined................. 303
StOat en ey CE RR en ee tyes 387
SHOT e CH Lae ere nani ee or rei eee ees 94
MGI atta geodaannoecdemobtundossonoamagods 391
Sthipedily.cn aseere a) tte ey ee ererr tee 305
GHARIREREOM . po pe uasaediacceooabaacubaonueowaus 63
Sturgeon mopoomloil len ener ra. cts tee 199
Sciam ING, neacvonstcoacacapoansssonso0s 418
Sion Wine), Weibel, osasoesoasdeoreosanvn 126
Stine Genie ee DR Ainge ea ae etn ey eg 278
Superb Bird of Paradise.................... 332
Superbeblumen Bind heer ere ene i: 156
Sg tc rae Oe epee eee eae 319
CriPulWON. oo gucvccaoacevadonuodssdecbuneasesk 200
Sealllon: Abaya! OCC ccecccyocssanseanuse 248
Swallow, White Breasted................... 388
Sia love Valse ay licUll C Clas anae en Ea yates eee 162
Sal OAV © Clr te neee one ncaaers 156
Sword Fish........ Ree Se, 4ir
Syacleviy BG alt eeagereerae peel ate teeter 269
al OTe ERC ere ee ny re a eet eer tee 335
Tapayaxin, Crowned .........-.-...5.25-05- 395
PRD eee ee eee eee 275
Tapir, Malayan. ............0. 02s eee 281
ETeySrraantid Tile |b) eval eae eee nr eee eye rar nora renee 495
Teguexin. 0.0... 6.6 eee ete 389
[Renate eKanoci Sh Cherri rsart ret ee ree ee 143
Terrapin, Alligator............... 02s serene 385
Terrapin, Salt Water.................--+55- 71
(Wer inleiy Sigs go acuscnuuosdaucssso5suacocsnE 146
ANS MOBISkS SUMMED, = 6 oot nondbouadcooeugaceoes 301
Thornbill, Columbian.............-..5+.60.. 149
ANoinnla, MUS, 2 occ soancnwosadGuiscuasss cee 165
Thrush, Short Tailed Ant...........-.-.-55. 280
Thrush, Spotted Ground...........-....+5-- 230
“Thunder Snake........... 002500 e eee eee 376
SThio.c ene TiC renee Ci yee 12
Tiger, Tortoiseshell...........-+ +220 eee e es 328
EINiote ae WViNI CC Pare eet Net eek cea Ara)
AUTGTNOMINS., cpus cpacacasvsupagestus Huda on oom 2
Titmouse, Blue........... 000. 221
Titmouse, Crested. .........5..020 22 re eee 254
Titmouse, Long Tailed.........0..--+-+5+++ 243
OAC eee ete Cao ete eee tec ad
Toad, Surinam......... 6.6 eee ees 319
Moac ne emmnn rts ee ere Metter eee oe 192
Tody, Great Billed..........--..2+-+250- 0+ 30
Pody, Green... 1.0... 622 eee teens 67
Tody, King....... Moe GE ener "132

e

SROREOISC BOX Menon e ene ter ene Crane erent cor 47
Tortoise, Common Land.................... 257
ANOS, GOONS. sasedocsononanscconodbgans 380
EROTLOISe MEU Gianemnn yar, eet rr sree ts. seer oe 171
“ANereidontsresvayel ll MPCs cones oouoohuanuoDeouds 328
ASG cutieee CO NET) © Lol eeeen ra femre tek ete ersreesnste nena arte 271
URE CeLLO CeaneeEiett e eke ee eee 192
TRS Wires, WSO, sock bsoasbusooadeopnone 116
MreeiGeckowlrin ge direst rerer ie er 400
“BASS IMME, ceo shdoccosucods Gounpsccangheas 251
“bige Sina, GOlGkan oo coaacesosuevsvosegause 204
reewhOlCeene ere ree Tr errr re 192
AMeeeOins SAND ou coc sesodooudoonascan over 110
‘Auropxoyal, Jeeyplkem@lesoie, sGoonopnaveoandseoy sor 98
OIRO Ul treme eienine center renee ic asee ea er cree tre eee 321
UIT Hy Sere eae eer ae ecane re 318
Mae vari V1 zz cl ee eee eee eee eer or eee 136
BINT TeE | Coe Gee Tiree yea em Ce ene ecaeg eer 163
Aruba, IG. so gosonuenneomsscsooeoas 158
Aired, Siaveyosboees wan cenceosvedonddarageneys 167
Twelve Thread Epimachus.............5.5-- 105
WWhamomekes 1b, .wacoaotoconsocesoeucnnesnaos LUO
AViaimp ies a lapenner nacre near ten tree eee ee ee 48
Wises IGN SUNG. oon daccastoansecasdacs 117
NApCEE eee eee eye ee ed NY nace eee 354
Wihoere, IIROK 5 osacbynsusognunadicaes tsuose 384
WADCTAV ALC Irene eerie rat rene trae cee ere 88
Watresbiney Jnana OWwileoessqsqesecsdonsssassne 352
Witreramena: Gyo SONS, aan cnccteernconea ses 213
Vaca Grits Osea) a0, UL CUT earner ree eee acre 37
Willie, [GHG g podacenouodatearaussen dogo 175
Wallies, Carol Oso cconcseagosags aecogn nem 66
Wiel .concsespsdadqgncedcedtcngbaneo cote 203
Wagtails, Group of British.................. 135
Miva (Ciweeipeies op oon oe edsewouenonsauonne cong 32
Veal etn ogi S liege een eee ce ceraecnenen: 409
SV Feu TGS Opa ean gt Yee er eee ere 189
aWicuni cl Cia guia Cane enna ciel fark eee 42
UV ZE a et ree ee 251
VATE tiswe oo ee ee Unt On chon rivets ii Meee ee eves 256
Warblers, Group of British...............-. 373
AV VAEUC Tram 0020 une aa ae er ee en 103
VA FEUEC Gm VAL |G ate eer ee eee ee 88
AVVien bl eam Saiiecl Meal 1501 (Olena sree ese nr erent eae ease 343
WERISOL. cAncucucdconecgonsesaeuacudocepesous 114
WACanie relStt Cam SOCial ly Chm muerte ie enter isc: ee 296
Vie etsy, blab S halen (cla C2) beers cee eee ee ee at B22)
Nina, (Chrecillavndl, oc accdacusoyasaanbchoddos 336
\Wiltaletn S peuiacetinern seer reset tact 22

BVA adc leo age i Gol lepe To cts tal Te ate ee wens 286
AV ahi Chi ch tee enews rene er yee eae 94
White Booted Racket Tail.................. 392
White Breasted Swallow...............-.5.. 388
Wihites@nested! ELoTiip ills eamer see 290
Wiimote Pineal BUNS soo cecheeocembadnvndooed 266
AV Val nite atc lacie] ear a eee rene ar es emeestete eee ett 49
AV Vai(he MAIN cre Toerenemee ersten tree nae eee ee ats ers 177
VV Glnl3 © cl eee ne eee ae ese cel 235
SV 7ciil Clie cr ee ae area geen rete 237
Wists, aD auilexst Sharan; 5 oan csocenecueocuodsos 162
SV) fareeten seer: conor Perey ene ee avers tees 205
ANOINVES:, cece angecabsoousdeougo con csuannasa ss IL
WiOTD Atecee eat eee PROC e teehee ea ce. 184
Wiiorovlelnals “Sloe, o5acsesccosaseuadeuons ane 10d
NV Oana eo eee ah ark een ya ane 156
SV LCLe tye es Aa eae ne Sense Nees 1gt
RV ca eee eee ee eT et ot ir ne eee mera 419
BY/FeaTali © | leo AGN) Ul tects ana rea Sri erie ses rere 239
WElonme IBM CMU, oa co ween noo dee caonegne 170
WMORT SOA, on codons sbdnocebseanbudoen 1go
WN Leg bncei onde een coponucnreou non amand 93
Cl eee en ese ete Ce eee rere er 282





















WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY

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LION, LIONESS AND HER YOUNG, ALSO LEOPARD AND WOLVES.

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TIGER.

This beautiful creature lives in many parts of Asia. Some places are
infested by the fierce animal and the appearance of a ‘Man-eater’’ as the
Tiger is called, always fills the natives with terror. There is no animal that
can hide itself better than the Tiger. It is very clever in finding spots where
it can watch the approach of its prey, itself being couched under the shade of
foliage or behind some friendly rock. It lies in wait by the side of roads,
choosing spots where the shade is deepest and where water may be found
to quench the thirst that it always feels when it is eating its prey. When
the prey is near, the Tiger gives one terrible leap, and the victim nearly
always feels the Tiger on him before he sees it. It is very seldom that a Tiger
makes more than one spring at its prey. The creature is so cunning that it
takes up its post on the side of the road which is opposite its lair, so that
it does not have to turn and drag its prey across the road, but walks straight
to its den. Should the Tiger miss his leap, he generally is so bewildered and
ashamed of himself, that instead of trying again, he sneaks off humiliated.



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The chief weapons of the Tiger are his engrmous feet, with their sharp sickle-
like talons, which cut like so many knives when the animal strikes a blow
with his powerful limbs. The simple stroke of a Tiger’s sledge-hammer paw
is strong enough to knock down an ox. In the districts where these terrible
animals live, the natives often meet tigers unexpectedly. They get so care-
less and the Tigers become so daring, that at some of the crossings where the
water-courses run, a man or a bullock may be carried off daily, and yet the
natives will not do anything to stop the danger, except carry a few charms
or amulets which they think will frighten away the dread beast. Sportsmen,
when out hog spearing, often come across a Tiger lazily resting in the heavy
grass. At such times the native horses are so terror-stricken that
they plunge and kick in their attempt to escape from the fearful enemy,

12



BUZZARD.

‘The Buzzard is a large bird, but not a handsome one, although it is
interesting, especially when it has been tamed. Then it has many queer tricks.
A story is told about a tame Buzzard which could not bear strangers, and had
a habit of flying at them and knocking their hats over their ears. Another
trick of this bird was to fly on its master’s feet and untie his shoe-strings.
The Buzzard is an affection-
ate bird and takes good care
of its young; when in captiv-
ity it has been known, also, to
sit upon hen’s eggs and rear
the chickens. with as much
tenderness as though they
were young Buzzards, al-
though it would not adopt the .
chickens after they had been==
hatched by the hen herself,
looking upon them then as
prey. When a tame Buzzard
wishes to build her nest she
scratches holes in the ground
and breaks and tears every-
thing she can get hold of, much
as a canary will do on asmall- ; «=
er scale. A tame Buzzard —

which had hatched a brood of
chickens, tried to feed them
upon meat, and it seemed to
worry her because her charges
did not like it as well as seeds
and grain. Buzzards have a
taste for mice and other small
creatures, but they also eat
worms and grubs, as well as insects of various kinds. The Buzzard in its
wild state builds its nest in a tree or upon the rocks, using grass and other
vegetable material, weaving in long soft roots and lining it with wool, leaves,
and matter of that kind. The Buzzard has been known to drive crows from
their nest and move into it, relining it with the fur of hares and rabbits.
The eggs of the Buzzard are from two to five in number. They are grayish
white in color, with a few spots of pale brown. At times this bird is very
lazy, perching upon a branch as though it had no object in life but to rest,
pouncing down now and then to seize its prey if anything which it fancies
is unlucky enough to come near, and then returning again to its dreams.
But sometimes, too, it rises high in the air and flies with great power and
grace. It then seems like a different bird. The Honey Buzzard is from
twenty-two to twenty-four inches long, the female being always the larger,
and it has a general brownish black color, with the top of the head yellowish.

13





MATAMATA.

The Tortoises are not any of them pretty or graceful creatures, but the Ma-
tamata is the ugliest of them all in looks. It has a broad, flat head, a neck nearly
as broad and also flat, webbed feet, so that it can move through the water
quickly, anda rounded shell, broader toward the head than the tail. It is a large
and ugly creature, reaching a length of three feet when fully grown. Its head is
very odd in shape, and has queer little tufts or knobs on it, while the snout

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is very long and forms a kind of tube. On the top of the head the skin is
lengthened out to look like ears, and the chin has two fringed membranes,
or skin-like pieces, hanging from it, while the throat has four, and on the
upper surface of the neck are two rows of small tufts with deep fringes, much
like those on the chin and throat except in size. The tail is short and the
limbs are very strong. The feet have claws with lobes between them. The
shell is formed into rows of raised shields, the shape of which can be seen
from the picture. They are sharp at their tips, and there are three in each
row. ‘The Matamata is a water animal. It eats only animal food and that
only while in the water. When it swims the whole of the shell is kept under
the surface. The Matamata is one of the oddest-looking animals in the
world. Its home is in South America. It used tobe found in great num-
bers, but its flesh is so well liked for food that it has been killed off so that
the ranks have been thinned. It lives near lakes and’ rivers, and is a good |
swimmer. Its food consists of fish, reptiles’ and other creatures, which it,
catches in its sharp beak with a sudden snap. It does not often chase its
prey, but hidés among the plants along the bank of the river or lake, and as
its victim passes, stretches out its long neck with 4 quick movement and
snatches it from its path. Sometimes, however, it comes out with a rush,
darts through the water and seizes a fish, reptile or water-fowl, which it
takes back to its former hiding-place. The Matamata has a great appetite
and is a good hunter. He Jhas a queer habit of bending back his neck when at
rest, under the side of the carapace, or back covering. He has what is.
called a contractile neck; that is, he can make it longer or shorter as he
wishes, drawing it back or stretching it out to quite a considerable length.

4



DE LALANDE’S PLOVER-CREST.

This bird has one of the most striking forms seen among humming-birds.
Its plume is high and ends in a single feather, which is unlike the crests of
most birds which have them at all, as they are usually double at the end.
This crest is bright green in color, except the long single feather, which is
jet black. The top of the head is also bright green. The upper surface is

green tinged with bronze, and the lower
portion is a deep shining violet. ‘There is
a small white streak behind the eye, ‘The
female has no crest. The home of this
bird is in the southern part of Brazil. It
builds a very pretty nest, which it care-
fuily and skilfully weaves into a tuft of
leaves or twigs at the end of some very
slender branch, so that the whole droops
downward. The nest is long in form, and
made of dainty bits of moss, roots, and
spiders’ webs. Not so striking as the

Plover-crest, but: still very lovely, is the

little Sparkling-tail homming-bird of Mex-
ico. It is a very tame little creature, and
visits the homes of man with great trust,
flying about the gardens where there are
- blooming flowers, and seeming to have no
fear at all. This bird builds a tiny nest,
rounded and woven from different delicate
fibers, cottony down, and spiders’ webs,
and covered with lichens. Its eggs are
‘hardly larger than’ peas, and are two in
number; they are pearly white in color,
and look like the eggs of the common
snail. The nest is always placed upon a
leaf, or some slight twig, and fastened to






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it with spider’s webs. In coloring and form the male and female are quite
different. The male is bronze green above, except the bold white feathers
on the lower part of his back. The throat is rich, metal-like blue, turning
to velvety black in some lights, because each feather is black at the base and
blue at the tip. The wings are rich, dark purple brown. There is a broad
snow white band around the neck, and the whole under surface of the body
is bronze green, except a little band of white near the tail. The tail is very
odd and has many tints. The two central feathers are shining green; the
next are green marked with bronze; the next dark brown, with white spots
on them; the other two are dark brown for half their length, then there is a
broad band of rusty red, afterwards a broad white band, then a brown band,
and the tip is white. The tail is about four inches long. The female is of
a rich bronze green on the upper surface of the body, with marks of buff below.

15



ANGEL FISH.

Although on some parts of the British coasts it is known as the Kingston,
this dark-skinned, wide-mouthed, leather-tinned, and fawn-backed fish which
is shown in the illustration, is properly known throughout many parts of Eng-
land, France and Italy by the name of the Angel Fish. Asa matter of fact, this
is as hideous a fish as can be found in the waters, and from all accounts it is
as unprepossessing to the inhabitants of the sea as to those of the land, as it
is particularly greedy, and reaches a very great size that causes it to bea









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most undesirable foe to the many fishes on which it feeds. Occasionally it
is known by the name of Monk Fish, in consequence of its round head, which
is thought to bear some resemblance to the shaven crown of a monk. In
other places again, it is called the Shark-ray, because it seems to be one of
the connecting links between the sharks and the rays, having many of the
characteristics of both. It has many of the habits of the flat fishes, keeping
near the bottom, and even wriggling its way into the muddy sand of the sea
bed, so as to conceal its entire body. As in the course of these movements
it disturbs many soles, plaice, flounders, and other flat fishes that inhabit the
same localities, it sweeps them up as they endeavor to escape, and devours
great quantities of them, so that it is really a destructive fish upon a coast.
It is most common upon the southern shores, and many of very considerable
size have been captured, some attaining a weight of a hundred pounds. In
earlier days, its flesh was eaten, and consequently was of some value, but
in the present time, it is thought to be too coarse for the table, so that the
creature is useless to the fisherman, who do not desire to catch it, but
revenges himself by killing the creature whenever he can. The skin, how-
ever, is of some value, as it is very rough and can be used by some manu-
facturers. Another queer creature inhabiting British waters is the Picked
Dog-fish. It is very destructive to the fish trade, not only on account of
its large appetite and the number of fish it consumes, but because it
cuts the hooks away from the lines with its sharp teeth. It is very
plentiful, some twenty thousand having been captured at one haul,
if



ANACONDA



















. Thecolor of the Anaconda is a rich brown. Two rows of large, round,
black spots run along the back, and each side is decorated with a series of
light golden yellow rings, edged with deep black. Compression is the only
method employed by the Anaconda in killing its prey. It is not venomous, nor
isit known to injure man, but the natives of the country it inhabits stand in great
fear of this reptile, never bathing in waters where it is known to exist. Its
common haunt, or rather domicile, is always near lakes, swamps and rivers,
likewise close to water ravines produced by inundations of the periodical rains;
hence, from its aquatic habits, it is sometimes known as the Water Serpent.
Fish, and those animals which go there to drink, are the objects of its prey.
The creature hovers watchfully under cover of the water, and while
the unsuspecting animal is drinking, suddenly makes a dart at its nose.

: 17



CAT-BIRD.

The Cat-bird is a most courageous little creature, and in defence of its
young is as bold as the mocking-bird. Snakes especially are the aversion of
the Cat-bird, which will generally contrive to drive away any snake that may
approach the beloved spot. The voice of this bird is mellow and rich, and is
a compound of many of the gentle trills and sweet undulations of our various
woodland choristers, delivered with apparent caution and with all the attention
and softness necessary to enable the performer to please the ear of its mate.
Each cadence passes on without faltering, and if you are acquainted with the
songs of the birds he so sweetly imitates, you are sure to recognize the man-
ner of the different species. It is a most lively and withal petulant bird ina
wild state, performing the most grotesque manceuvers, and being so filled
with curiosity that it follows any strange being through the woods as if irre-
sistibly attracted by some magnetic charm. In its disposition the Cat-bird
appears to be one of the most sensitively affectionate birds on the face of the
earth, as will appear from the following interesting account of a pet Cat-bird,



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called General Bem: Well, General Bem went home with us at once,
and was immediately given his liberty, which he made use of by peer:
ing into every closet, dragging everything from its proper place,
which he could manage, pecking, and squalling, dashing hither and
thither, until at night he quietly went into his cage as if he was nearly or
quite positive that he must commence a new career on the morrow; it was
evident that he had to begin the world over again. Bem looked wise, but
said nothing. The next morning we gave him water for a bath which he
immediately used, and then sprang upon my head, very much to my surprise;
then he darted to the window, then back to my head, screaming all the time
most vociferously, until finally I went to the window for peace’ sake, and stood
in the sunshine, while Bem composedly dressed his feathers, standing on my
head first on one foot, then on the other, evidently using my scalp as a sort of
foot-stone, and my head as a movable pedestal for his impudent generalship
to perch on. In a word, he had determined to turn tyrant; if I had had the
purpose of using him as a mere toy, he had at least the coolness to use me.

18



AMERICAN MONKEYS.

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It is curious to observe how the same idea of animal life is repeated in
various lands and various climates, even though seas separate countries in
which they dwell. The lion and the tiger of the eastern continent are repro-
duced in the western world in the shape of the jaguar and puma. The dogs
are spread over nearly the whole world, taking many kinds of form, color and
size, but still being dogs. So with Monkeys. The four handlike paws and
other peculiarities point out their position in the animal kingdom, while many
differences of form show that the animals are intended to pass their life under
conditions which would not suit the Monkeys of another part of the world.
The group of Monkeys shown in the illustration are purely of the American kind.
As we see the Monkeys in a menagerie, so they frolic in their native haunts.

19



JARDINES HARRIER.

The Jardines Harrier is one of countless numbers. of birds inhabiting that
land of wonders, Australia. It is mostly found in plains and frequents the
wide and luxuriant grass flats that are found between mountain ranges. Like
all birds of this kind, it is never seen to soar, but sweeps over the surface of
the ground seeking mice, reptiles, birds, and other creatures on which it feeds.
It is very fond of small snakes and frogs, and in order to obtain them, may be
seen hovering over the marshes or beating the wet ground. Itis seldom
known to perch on trees, preferring to take its stand on some large stone or

= elevated hillock from which it may

see the surrounding land. The nest
of this bird is built on the ground
in the shadow of some bush or
tuft of grass and placed upon the
top of one of thenumerous “scrub”
hills. The color of the Jardines
Harrier is very remarkable, and
cannot fail to attract considerable
attention. The head and cheeks
are dark streaked chestnut, the
streaky appearance being given by
a deep black line down the center
of each feather. A gray collar or
f= band passes around the neck at
the back of the head. The tail is
marked with dark brown and gray
stripes. The back is dark gray,
sprinkled with a number of little
white spots, and the entire under
surface is a bright ruddy chestnut,
covered profusely with nearly cir-
cular white spots of considerable







iy

wie size. The legs are yellow, and

wit the bill is dark slaty blue, becom-
TAN oz ing black at the extreme end, An-

‘ es other very handsome bird is the
\WotesZ eI

Marsh Harrier, a native of Eng-
fand. It is not a very uncommon bird, being very plentiful upon marshy
ground where it can obtain a large supply of food. It generally preys on
water-birds, mice, water-rats, reptiles, frogs, and fish. It is rather fond of
young game, and is apt to be a dangerous neighbor to a preserve, snatching
the young partridges and pheasants from their parents. It is sometimes so
bold that it will enter a farm and carry away a young chicken or a duckling.
Rabbits also, both old and young, fall victims to this greedy bird, which
sweeps on noiseless wing over the fields, carefully choosing the morning and
evening when the rabbits are almost sure to be out of their burrows. The
Marsh Harrier never takes up its abode in dry places, but always prefers the
marshy district, no matter whether it be the coast or distant inland places.

20



KINGFISHER.

The nest of the Kingfisher is always made in some convenient bank at the
end of a hole which has been occupied by the water-rat or some animal of a
similar character. ‘The Kingfisher makes the hole larger to suit itself. Some-
times the nest of this bird has been found in the deserted hole of a rabbit-
warren. Sometimes the nest is placed in the natural cavities formed in the
roots of trees growing on the water’s edge. In many cases it is easily dis-
covered, as the birds are very careless about the concealment of their nest
even before the eggs are hatched, and after the young have made their ap-
pearance in the world, the noise they make when crying for food is so great
that they can be heard: at a considerable distance. This bird is very gor-
geously decorated. The straight glancing flight of the Kingfisher as it shoots
along the river bank, its azure back gleaming in the sunlight, is a sight
familiar to all those who have been accustomed to wander by the side of rivers,
whether for the purpose of angling, or merely to study the beauties of nature.
So swift is the flight of this bird, and with such wonderful rapidity does it
move its short wings, that as it passes through the air, it seems little more































than a blue streak of light. The food of this bird consists mainly of fish.
Seated upon a bough or rail that overhangs the stream where the smaller fish
_ love to pass, the Kingfisher waits very patiently until he sees an unsuspecting
minnow or stickleback pass below his perch, and then with a rapid movement
drops into the water like a stone and secures his prey. Should it be a small
fish, he swallows it at once, but if it should be a rather large one, he carries
it to a stone or stump, beats it two or three times against the hard substance,
and then swallows it without any trouble. Sometimes the bird has been
known to fall a victim to its hunger. One day a man saw floating on the river
a Kingfisher, from whose mouth protruded the tail and part of the body of a
fish. The struggles of the choking bird became more and more faint and had
well-nigh ceased, when a great pike protruded his broad nose from the water,
seized both Kingfisher and fish, and disappeared into the regions below.

21



BLOODHOUND.

The magnificent animal whichis known as the Bloodhound, on account of
its peculiar ability for tracking a wounded animal through all the mazes of
its devious course, is very valuable. In times gone by, this hound was used
for the purpose of capturing robbers, who in those days made the country
unsafe and practiced blackmail. Sheep stealers, who were much more com-
mon when the offence was visited with capital punishment, were oftentimes
detected by the delicate nose of the Bloodhound. Water holds no scent, and
if the hunted man is able to take a long leap into the water, and to get out
again in some similar fashion, he may set at defiance the Bloodhound. When
the Hounds suspect that the quarry has taken to the water, they swim back-
ward and forward, testing every inch of the bank on both sides, and applying
their noses to every leaf, stick, or even frothy scum that comes floating by.
The Bloodhound is generally bad tempered, and therefore it is rather a dan-



gerous animal to meddle with. So fierce is its desire for blood, and so utterly
is it excited when it reaches its prey, that it will often keep its master at bay
when he approaches, and he will not venture to come near until his dog has
satisfied its appetite on the carcass of the animal which it has brought to the
ground. It is used very often for hunting the deer, and when on the track of
this animal, the Bloodhound utters a peculiar, long, loud, and deep bay, which,
if once heard, will never be forgotten. The color of the good Bloodhound
ought to be nearly uniform, no white being permitted except on the tip of the
stern. The tints are a blackish tan or adeep fawn. The tail of this dog is
long and sweeping, and by certain expressive wavings and flourishings of that
member, the animal indicates its success or failure. When a Blood-
hound is used in deer shooting, it is sent after a deer that has been
shot, but not sufficiently to prevent its escape. As soon as the deer
dashes away, the hound is let loose, and guided by the blood drops,
keeps the trail, and is sure to come up with the wounded animal.

22



CURVED-BILLED CREEPER.

This peculiar-looking bird is about the size of an English blackbird, and
its home is in the forests of Brazil. Its name is taken from its bill, which is
very long in proportion to the size of the bird and is curved like a scythe.
Although so long, the bill is quite strong, and its purpose is to serve in draw-
ing the insects on which the bird feeds from the crevices of the bark in which
they dwell. The tail feathers are stiff and sharply pointed, and upon them
the weight of the body is rested when the bird supports itself in an upright
position upon the trunks of trees, its long, curved claws hooked into the uneven
bark. It wanders over thetree trunks
in its search for food, using these
curved claws to hang on by. The
color of the Curved-billed Creeper is
brown, but it has a wash of cinnamon
upon the greater part of the surface.
The head and neck are of a grayer
brown and spotted with white. There
are many kinds of Creepers of very dif-
ferent forms. They aresmall, excepting
the lyre-bird of Australia. The beaks
of these birds are always long and inal-
most every case slender, with more or
less of acurve. They are sharp at the
end, and the nostrils are placed in a
little groove at the base. ‘The feet
are very strong and have sharp, round
claws, with which the birds cling to
the tree trunks where their prey is in
hiding. The Oven-birdsalso belong to
the family of Creepers and take their
name from the form in which they
build their nests. This large house

a BA \\ |: would not be expected of so small a
ZG: Py Ay builder, and it is very interesting. It
ae is in the shape of a dome with an en-

trance onone side, looking much like an ordinary oven. The walls are fully
an inch in thickness and are made of clay, grass, and different kinds of veg-
etable materials, woven and plastered together in a wonderful way, and the
nest is hard and firm when the sun has dried it. The Oven-bird knows the
strength of its home, and takes no pains to hide it, but builds upon some open
spot, like the large, leafless branch of a tree, the top of palings, or even the
inside of houses or barns. The Oven-bird adds to the safety of its dwelling
by separating it into two parts, building a partition which reaches nearly to
the roof, the eggs being placed in the inner chamber. The number of the
eggs is generally about four. The Oven-bird is a bold little creature, fearless
of man and as fearless of other birds, attacking them fiercely if they approach
too closely to its abode, and screeching defiantly all the time. It is very active
tripping over the ground in search of its prey, accompanied by its mate.

23

















’

SNOWY OWL.

The Snowy Owl is one of the handsomest of the owls on account of its
beautiful white mantle and its large orange eyeballs that shine like jewels set
in the snowy feathers. This bird is a native of the north of Europe and
America, but it is sometimes found in other regions. Like the hawk owl, it
is a day-flying bird, and is a terrible foe to some of the smaller animals and to
a number of birds. It has been known to swallow young rabbits whole and
also young birds, plumage and all, although it usually tears a bird to pieces
while it swallows a mouse whole. The Snowy Owl isa great hunter. It has
even been known to chase the hare and to carry off wounded grouse before
the sportsman could pick up his prey. The owl is also a good fisherman,
taking up its position at some point overhanging the water and grasping the
unlucky fish with strong claws as it passes beneath. Sometimes, too, it sails
over the surface of the stream and snatches the fish as they rise for food, but
usually it watches from the bank as described before. It isa great lover of
lemmings. Thelarge round eyes of this bird are very beautiful: Even by
daylight they shine like gems; but in the evening they are still more brilliant,
and look then like balls of fire. Sometimes ships have been visited by as
many as sixty of these birds which were so tired that they could not fly away
and so were captured by the crew. The color of an old Snowy Owl is pure
white without any markings at all, but when it is younger its plumage is

ny (i) ’ 3 4 y
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ihaty,

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covered with dark brown spots and bars, for each feather has a dark tip. Upon
the under side these markings form short curves, but on the upper surface
they are nearly straight. The beak and claws are black. The length of the
male Snowy Owl is about twenty-two inches, and that of the female twenty-
six or twenty-seven. There is a funny little long-legged owl in America
which is found in the home of the prairie dog and lives with this animal in a
very friendly fashion, although really the owl is too lazy to make its own
nest and so forces itself upon its busy companion. It feeds upon insects.

24



SPOTTED KFT.

This creature is a native of North America, and is found in some num-
bers in Pennsylvania. Its eggs are not deposited singly, and in the water,
but are laid in small packets and placed beneath damp stones. The head of













































the Spotted Eft is thick, convex, and with the muzzle rounded. Its color
is deep violet black above, and purple black below, with a row of singular or
yellow spots along the sides. The genus to which this Lizard belongs is
rather large, containing about eleven species. One of them, which is known
as the Mole-like Ambystome, derives its name from its habit of burrowing
in the ground after the fashion of the mole. It lives in South Carolina, and is
found in thesea-islands. The fore limbs are short and stout, and the body thick.

SCALY LIZARD.

The color of this little Lizard is very variable, and in general the upper
parts are olive brown, with a dark brown line along the middle of the back,
this line being often broken here and there. Along each side runs a broader
; band, and between these bands are

sundry black spots and _ splashes.
The upper parts are orange spotted
/ywith black in the male, and olive
gray in the female. The total
length of the Scaly Lizard is about
six inches. This is one of the rep-
tiles that produces living young,
the eggs being hatched just before
the young ones are born. With
reptiles, the general plan is to place
the eggs in some spot where they
are exposed to the heat of the sun-
beams; but this Lizard, together
with the viper, is in the habit of ly-
ing on a sunny bank before her young ones are born, for the purpose of
gaining sufficient heat to hatch the eggs which are covered by a membrane.

25





MOTMOT.

The Motmots are named from their cry which sounds like the syllables
“‘mot-mot,’’ called over and over again. The home of these birds is in tropical
Tram America and parts of the world

near to it. There are many kinds
of these beautiful birds, but their
habits and formsare all very much
alike. They have large bills and
a bearded tongue andare some like
the toucans. But their feet are
different in form, and instead of
flocking together as the toucans do,
they live alone inthe deep forests.
The Motmots have wedge-shaped
tails and sometimes the two central
feathers have a naked space just
above the end. The Brazilian
Motmot, like all the rest, is fond
sit, of its own company, and it is sel-
dom seen except in the midst of
some tropical forest. It likes to
~ sit quietly upon some branch where
it can look out across an open
space or path leading through the
woods, and there it perches as
though it were made of stone, until
some insect flies within easy reach.
It then dashes for its prey, seizes it
in its bill and returns to its perch
again, where it sits as silent and
motionless asever. ‘The wings of
/ the Motmot are short and rounded
so it is not formed for very long or rapid flight. Its plumage, too, is loosely
set. Some writers say that the Motmots steal young birds out of their
nests and also eat the eggs. They are all about the size of the common
magpie and are very handsome birds, their plumage being green, blue, scarlet
and other brilliant colors. The Brazilian Motmot is bright green on the
upper parts of the body, except a spot of black on the head edged with green
behind. ‘The chief feathers are blue, and the under portions are green marked
with crimson, while there is a black spot on the breast. The bird is beautiful
and interesting, but it keeps too much by itself to be an easy subject for study.
It is very hard to tell just where the Motmots should be placed in the
bird world. As has been said, they are like the toucans in some ways,
but added to the points of difference given before, their cry is not the
same. The toucans have very hoarse and unpleasant voices, and also
a habit of sitting together in flocks on the branches of trees, placing
a guard to warn them of danger, while they chatter and clatter and gossip.

26













t A)
SA Pe
TAS



\







MINK.

This creature is known by some people as the Musk Otter, sometimes as
the Water Polecat, while in a few places it is called the Smaller Otter. It is
found in the most northern parts of Europe and also in North America. Its
fur is generally brown with some white about the jaws. Some specimens
are of a much paler brown than others; in some, the fur is nearly black about
the head while the white patch that is found on the chin differs very
greatly insize. It likes the banks of ponds, rivers and marshes, seeking the
stillest waters in autumn and the rapidly flowing currents in spring. Its food
consists almost wholly of fish, frogs, crawfish, water insects and other
creatures that are found either in the water or near by. The body of this
creature is shaped in such a manner that it partly resembles the ferret and




eran

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7 Wg is
i) Wl ep é



PU”
"WE Ban |
Lip?

the otter. The teeth, however, are nearer those of the polecat than the
otter; and its tail, although not so hairy as the polecat, is not quite so muscu-
lar and tapering as the otter’s. The feet are very useful for swimming on
account of a slight webbing between the toes. The fur of this animal is
excellent in quality and is by many persons valued very highly. The furriers
pass it under the name of ‘“ Moenk,” and it is known by two other names,
““Putucuri” and “ Noers.” The fur is very like that of the sable, and manu-
facturers oftentimes sell it for that article. This is really unfortunate as the fur
is excellent, handsome in appearance, and very warm. A very plucky
mother rat was one day guarding a litter of young ones when a ferret came
along. The rat did not try to escape, but every time the ferret drew near
she flew at him and knocked him over, inflicting a fresh bite on every attack.
At last two of the baby rats were so frightened that they clung to their
mother, and the ferret seized her. The ferret’s master who had seen the
plucky fight made the ferret let go, when the mother rat again flew at him.
The man then held the ferret by its tail and was carrying it away when the
rat ran up the man’s leg and body, along his outstretched arms, and bit the
ferret once more before she could be driven away. An excellent Ferret was
once so cowed by the ill-result of a defeat in single combat with a rat, that
it would never afterwards even face one of these animals. The training of a
Ferret is a work of difficulty and a good animal can be spoiled very easily.

at



RUBY-THROATED HUMMING-BIRD.

The Ruby-throated Humming-bird is named for the glowing, ruby-like
feathers upon its throat, which gleam in the sunshine as though they were on
fire. This exquisite little creature is found in North America and is one of
those birds which change their home to suit the season of the year. In sum-
mer it sometimes goes as far north as the lands of the Hudson Bay region.
It passes over a very wide range of country. The general color of this lovely
creature is light shining green tinted with gold. The under parts of the body
are grayish white mixed with green, and the throat is ruby color, as has been
said. It is thought that they
make their journeys during the
night as in the day time they are
always seen feeding as though
they had plenty of time. They
fly very fast; but can be seen
only for a short distance, they
are so small. ‘hey rise and fall
during their flight, in a sort of
curve and have great power of
wing. On account of this
power, the Ruby-throat is not
afraid of hawk, or owl or eagle,
and although it is only about
three inches long, it will boldly
attack any bird of prey that
happens to come too near its
home. This tiny creature is a
great tyrant and guards its own
territory very closely, not per-
mitting any other bird to come
into it. It has even been known
to attack the eagle, perching
upon its head and pulling out the
feathers in such a stream that
the great bird was frightened
and dashed through the air with
screams of terror, unable to get
rid of its little foe. The Ruby-
throat can be tamed without
much trouble, and is a loving little thing. It seems, too, to remember its
friends even after a winter south, and will return to the people who have
tamed and fed it, to again prove its love and trust. The nectar which these
birds have been fed upon when tamed is made of two parts fine loaf-sugar to
one part of fine honey and ten of water. This they sip eagerly. The birds
have a queer habit about seeking their nests.- They rise suddenly straight
into the air until they are out of sight, then at last they fall just as swiftly
straight down upon the spot where the nest is placed. The nest is very dainty.

28





PERCH.

The common perch is one of the handsomest river fish, and on account
of its boldness, and the greedy manner in which it takes the bait, and the
active strength with which it struggles against its captor, it is a great favorite
with many anglers. It is a very hardy fish, living a long time when removed
from the water. It will endure being transported for a considerable distance,
if it be only watered occasionally. In some countries, where fish is a common
article of food, these fish are kept in ponds, caught in nets, put into baskets
in grass, which is always kept wet, and taken to the markets, where they re-
main through the day, and, if not sold, carried back to their pond in the
evening and replaced. The Perch is a truly greedy fish, feeding upon all
kinds of aquatic worms, insects and fishes, preferring fish as it becomes older
and larger. The smaller fish, such as minnows, young roach, dace, and
gudgeons are terribly persecuted by the Perch, and a bait formed of any of these
fishes, will generally tempt the finest Perch tothe hook. Although generally
living in mid or deep water, it will sometimes come to the surface to snap up a
casual fly that has fallen intothe water. The flesh of a Perch is white, firm, well-
flavored, andthought to be both delicate and nutritious. The Perch is not a large
fish, from two to three pounds being considered rather a heavy weight. The



color of the Perch is rich greenish brown above, passing gradually into golden
white below. Practical fishermen say that the Perch is the only fish which
the pike does not venture to attack, and that if a pike should make one of its
rushing onslaughts on the Perch, the intended prey boldly faces the enemy,
erects its back fin with its array of formidable spines, and thus beats the ever-
hungry pike. The Perch is not often seen in the middle of a stream, as it
prefers to haunt the banks, and from under their shadow to watch the little
fish, and other creatures on which it feeds. This habit is common to many river
fish, the pike and trout being also bank lovers, and having special retreats
whither they betake themselves, and which they will not suffer any other
fish to approach. Deep holes by the bank are favorite resorts of the Perch,
and on a fine day when the water is clear, it is often possible to see them in
their home swimming gently to and fro, and never stirring from its limits.

29



GREAT-BILLED TODY.

This bird is rather thick built and has a stout, heavy-looking body with a
great boat-shaped beak. This beak is very wide, thick and strong, rounded
up on the upper side and hooked at the point. The two parts of the beak
are of about the same length, and the color is blue. The home of the bird
is the Indian Archipelago, and it is found in the greatest numbers in the
inland portions of Sumatra, where it haunts the banks of rivers in search of
its food. It lives mostly upon insects, worms and creatures which it finds in
the water. Its nest is built of slender twigs, woven into the form of a globe,
or very nearly so, and this nest is fastened to the end of some branch which
hangs over the water, so that the young and eggs are safe from their enemies.
The eggs are from two to four in number and are pale blue in tint. The
Great-billed Tody has rather handsome plumage. ‘The general tint of the
upper part of the body is a dead black and that of the lower parts a dark red.
A broad belt of feathers of a stiff wiry kind and red in color run around the
throat, probably to defend the eyes, as they
point upward on each side. At each side of
the bill, also, there are several stiff, bristly
hairs pointing upward. The top of the wing
. 18 a pure white, which looks very pretty
“lying against the black of the other parts of
the back. This portion is also very sharp,
\ which makes it stand out in even greater
contrast. At the upper end of each wing
there is an orange line with a white spot on
the inside. The tail is shaped like a wedge
and is black; the thigh is a blackish brown,
and the legs are brown. The color of the
eyes is blue, which changes to green soon
after the death of the bird, and then fades
into dullness. All the birds of this family are
handsome and they have many different

names. One of them, for example, with a
very long name, the Great Eurylafmus, has a very wide beak, hooked in
form and of a bright rosy hue, and it has a great gape when it opens its
mouth. The plumage is colored in a striking manner. It is mostly black,
but has a large white mark on the middle of the wing and another at the end
of the tail, with a small scarlet patch of long feathers in the center of the
back. Most of the birds which are nearly related to the one just mentioned
have the same colors, although there is one with a bright plumage of blue,
green and yellow, much like that of the paroquets. Indeed this bird might
almost be taken for a paroquet if its bill had the same shape, its coloring is
so nearly like that of the bird mentioned, and its long blue tail-feathers are so
much like his. As it is the little creature is very handsome and has a place
of its own among birds so that it has no need to claim relationship to any ex-
cept its own family. But it is interesting to compare birds or animals which
look alike, even if they are not to be classed together or studied together.

30





IGUANA.

ay y : s

SA

~N ‘ a
AD

1h TINE
a wy

AS



A family of lizards is known under the general title of Iguana. These
reptiles can mostly be distinguished from the rest of their tribe by the forma-
tion of their teeth, which are rounded at the roots, swollen, and rather com-
pressed at the tip, and notched on the edge. The Common Iguana, in spite
of a very peculiar shape, is really a handsome lizard. It is a native of Brazil,
Cayenne, The Bahamas, and neighboring localities, and was at one time very
common in Jamaica. In consequence of the fineness of the flesh and eggs, the
Iguana is greatly persecuted by mankind, and its numbers considerably
thinned. The creature is very bold, having but little idea of running away, and
in general is so confident of its power to frighten away its enemy by looking
ferocious, that the poor creature is captured before it discovers its mistake.

31



GREYHOUND.

It is hardly possible to think of an animal which is more entirely formed
for speed and endurance than a well-bred Greyhound. Its long slender legs,
with their whip-cord-like muscles, denote extreme length of stride and rapid-
ity of movement; its deep, broad chest, affording plenty of space for the play
of large lungs, shows that it is capable of long continued exertion; while its
sharply pointed nose, snake-like neck and slender, tapering tail, are so formed
as to afford the least possible resistance to the air, through which the creature
passes with such exceeding speed. The chief use of the Greyhound is in
coursing the hare, and exhibiting in this chase its marvelous swiftness, and
its endurance of fatigue. In actual speed the Greyhound far surpasses the
hare, so that, if the frightened chase were to run in a straight line, she would
be soon snapped up by the swifter hounds. But the hare is a much smaller
and lighter animal than her pursuer, and, being furnished with very short
forelegs, is enabled to turn at an angle to her course without a check, while



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the heavier and longer limbed Greyhounds are carried far beyond their prey
by their own impetus before they can alter their course, and again make after
the hare. On this principle, the whole of coursing depends, the hare making
short quick turns, and the Greyhounds making a large circuit every time
that the hare changes her line. Two Greyhounds are sent after each hare,
and matched against each other, for the purpose of trying their comparative
strength and speed. Some hares are so crafty and so agile, that they baffle
the best hounds, and get away fairly into cover, from whence the Greyhound,
working only by sight is unable to drive them, no matter how fine the hounds.

32



GREAT NORTHERN DIVER.

The Great Northern Diver is cormmon on the northern coasts of the
British Islands, where it may be seen pursuing its way through and over the
water, sometimes dashing through the air, but very seldom coming to the
shore. Perhaps there is no bird so clever as this creature in its powers
beneath the surface of the water. Its broad webbed feet are set so very far
back that the bird cannot walk properly, but tumbles and scrambles along
much after the fashion of a seal, pushing itself with its feet and scraping its
breast on the ground. In the water, however, it is quite at its ease, and, like
the seal, no sooner reaches the familiar element, than it dives away at full
speec, twisting and turning under the surface of the water in the most
_ delighted manner. So swiftly can it glide through the water, that it can
chase and capture the speedy fish in their own element. Like many other
diving birds, it is able to sink itself in the water, the head disappearing after

Sw ON at
wom SA
Wh calli :














|























































































the body and neck. The eggs of the Northern Diver are generally two in
number, and of a dark olive brown, spotted sparingly with brown of another
shade. They are laid upon the bare ground or a rude nest of flattened
herbage near the water, and the mother bird does not sit but lies flat on the
eggs. If disturbed, she scrambles into the water and dives away, taking care
to keep herself out of range of gunshot, and waiting until all danger is past.
Should she be driven to fight, her long bill is a dangerous weapon, and is
darted at the foe with great force and rapidity. The head of the full grown
Northern Diver is black, glossed with green and purple, and the cheeks and
the back of the neck are black without the green gloss. The back is black,
ornamented with short white streaks lengthening towards the breast, and the
neck and upper part of the breast are white, spotted with black, and marked
witn two collars of deep black. The length of the bird is not quite three feet.

33



FLYING DRAGON.

Perhaps the most curious of all the reptiles is the little Lizard which is
well known under the title of the Flying Dragon. This singular reptile is a
native of Java, Borneo, the Philippines and neighboring islands and is tolerably
common. ‘The most conspicuous characterstic of this reptile is the singularly
developed membranous lobes on either side, which are strengthened by
certain slender processes from the first six false ribs, and serve to support the
animal during its bold leaps from branch to branch. Many of the previously
mentioned Lizards are admirable leapers, but they are all outdone by the
Dragon, which is able, by means of the membranous parachute with which
it is furnished, to sweep through distances of thirty paces, the so-called flight



being almost identical with that of the flying squirrels and flying fish. When
the Dragon is at rest, or even when traversing the branches of trees, the
parachute lies in folds along the sides, but when it prepares to leap from one.
bough to another, it spreads its winged sides, launches boldly into the air,
and sails easily, with a slight fluttering of the wings, towards the point on
which it had fixed, looking almost like a stray leaf blown by the breeze.
As if in order to make itself still more buoyant, it inflates the three mem-
branous sacs that depend from its throat, suffering them to collapse again
when it has settled upon the branch. It is a perfectly harmless creature, and
can be handled with impunity. The food of the flying Dragon consists of
insects. The color of this reptile is variable, but is usually as follows: the
upper surface is gray with a tinge of olive, and daubed or mottled with
brown. Several stripes of grayish white are sometimes seen upon the wings,
which are also ornamented with an angular network of dark blackish brown.

34



WALL CREEPER.

The Wall Creeper is a native of central and soutnern Europe, and is found
plentifully in all suitable localities. It is called the Wall Creeper because it
frequents walls and perpendicular rocks in preference to tree trunks. In its
movements it does not resemble the common Creeper; for, instead of run-
ning over the walls with a quick and even step, it flies from point to point
with little jerking movements of the wing, and when it has explored the
spot on which it has alighted, takes Hight for another. The food of this bird
‘s similar to that of the common Creeper, but it is especially fond of spiders
and their eggs, finding them plentiful in the localities which it fre-
quents. Old ruined castles are favorite places
of resort for this bird, as are also the precip-
itous faces of rngged rocks. he nest of the
Wall Creeper is made in the cleft of some lofty
rock or in one of the many hotes which are so
plentifully found in the old -ruined edifices
which it so loves. In color the Wall Creeper
is a very pretty bird, the general color of the
plumage being light gray, relieved by a patch
of bright crimson upon the shou'ders, the
larger wing-coverts, and the inner webs of the
secondaries. The remainder of the quill-
feathers of the wing are black and the tail is
UZ. ae ONG ‘| black tipped with white. It is a much larger

‘i AA \ i bird than the Creeper of England, measuring
iy aN H about six inches in total length. ‘There is a

, curious genus of the Creeping-bird, known by

the name of Climacteris. It will sometimes
| feed upon the seeds of different plants, espe-
* cially preferring those which it picks out of the
fir-cones. Beechmast alsoseems grateful to its
palate. They are generally found upon the tall
% oum-trees, traversing their rugged bark with
great rapidity, and probing the crevices in
search of insects, after the manner of the com-
mon English Creeper. They do not confine
themselves to the bark, but may often be seen running into the “spouts,” or hol-
low branches, which are so often found in the gum-trees, and hunting out the
‘various nocturnal insects which take refuge in these dark recesses during the
hours of daylight. The Nuthatches form another group, and are represented
in England by the common Nuthatch of our woods. They are all remarkable
for their peculiarly stout and sturdy build, their strong, pointed cylindrical
beaks, and their very short tails. The Nuthatch, although by no means a
rare bird, is seldom seen except by those who are acquainted with its haunts,
6n account of its shy and retiring habits. As it feeds mostly on nuts, it is
seldom seen except in woods or their immediate vicinity, although it will some-
times become rather bold, and frequent gardens and orchards where nuts are
grown. The bird also feeds upon insects, which it procures from under the bark.

35















ENGLISH SETTER.

As the Pointer dogs get their name from the habit of standing still and
pointing at any game they may discover, so the Setter dogs have earned their
title from the habit of “setting” or crouching when they perceive their game.
There are several breeds of these animals, among them being the English
Setter (as in the picture), the Russian Setter, and the Irish Setter. Each of |
these dogs has some particular qualities which are carefully cultivated by
hunters. The Russian Setter isa curious animal in appearance, the fur being
so long and woolly, and so thoroughly matted together that it is difficult to
see the form of the dog. It is a very uncommon animal, but it is a very
clever worker, seldom starting game without first marking them, and its
power of scent is wonderfully delicate. The muzzle of this animal is bearded
almost as much as that of the deer-hound and the Scotch terrier, and the over-
hanging hair about the eyes gives it a look of intelligence that reminds one of





the bright expression on the face of a Skye terrier. ‘The soles of the feet are
well covered with hair, so that the dog is able to bear plenty of hard work
among heather or other rough substances. The Irish Setter is very similar
to the English animal, but has larger legs in proportion to the size of the body.
It is easily distinguished from the English Setter by a certain Irish air, that
is not easy to describe, but is very remarkable. The Setter, as well as the |
fox-hound, is guided to its game by the odor that comes from the bird or
beast which it is following, but the scent reaches its nostrils ina different
manner. The Fox-hound, together with the beagle, follows up the odors
which are left on the earth by the imprint of the hunted animal’s feet, or the
accidental contact of the under side of its body with the grass. But the
pointer, Setter, spaniel, and other dogs that are employed in finding victims
for the gun, are attracted at some distance by the scent that comes from the
body of its game, and are therefore said to hunt by the aid of “ body scent.”

36

.



‘EGYPTIAN VULTURE.

_ The Alpine, or Egyptian Vulture, is, as its name imports, an inhabitant of
Egypt and Southern Europe. It is also found in many parts of Asia, and as
it has once been captured in England, has been placed among the list of
British birds. As is the case with the Vultures in general, the Egyptian
Vulture is protected from injury by the strictest laws, a heavy penalty being
laid upon any one who should wilfully destroy one of these useful birds.
Secure under its human protection, the bird walks fearlessly about the streets
of its native land, perches upon the houses, and, in common with the pariah
dogs, soon clears away any refuse substances that are thrown into the open













EON S Y

















































streets in those evil-smelling and undrained localities. ‘This bird will eat
-almost anything which is not too hard for its beak, and renders great service
to the husbandman by devouring myriads of lizards, rats, and mice, which
would render all cultivation useless were not their numbers kept within limits
by exertion of this useful Vulture. It has been also seen to feed on the nara,
a rough, water-bearing melon, in common with cats, leopards, mice, ostriches,
and many other creatures. ‘The eggs of the ostrich are said to be a favorite
food with the Egyptian Vulture, who is unable to break their strong shells
with his beak, but attains his object by carrying a great pebble into the air,
and letting it drop upon the eggs. The wings of this species are extremely
long in proportion to the size of the bird, and the flight is very graceful,

37



SAVANNAH CRICKET FROG.

The Savannah Cricket Frog of America is a good example of the Frogs
known as Tree Frogs, so called from their habit of climbing trees and attach-
ing themselves to the branches or leaves by means of certain disks in the toes.
This creature is very common in its own country, and is found throughout a
very large range of territories inthe northern and southern states of America.
It is a light, merry little animal, uttering its cricket-like chirp incessantly,
even while in captivity. Should it become silent, an event that is sometimes
greatly to be wished, it can at any time be roused to utterance by sprinkling
it with water. It is easily tamed, learns to know its owner, and will take
flies from his hand. It likes to frequent the borders of stagnant pools, and is
oftentimes found in the leaves of aquatic plants and of shrubs that overhang
the water. It isvery active, asmay be readily supposed from the very slender
body and the long hind legs, and when frightened, can take considerable leaps
for the purpose of escaping the object of its terror. The color of this little
creature is greenish brown above, ornamented with several large oblong spots,
edged with white, and a streak of green, or sometimes chestnut, which runs
along the spine and divides at the back of the head, sending off a branch to
each eye. Thelegs are banded with
dark brown, and the under surface
is yellowish gray, with a slight tinge
of pink. Its length is only an inch
and a half. The Green Toad is
a very handsome creature, and is
found plentifully in the south of
< France. It derives its popular name
from the deep green with which its
cS My PP surface is adorned. It is avery
Ne be “277, remarkable toad in consequence of
ZZ its power to change its color in light
and shade, sleeping and wakefulness.
But a queer looking creature is the
warty toad of Fernando Po. It is
remarkable for a number of hard growths on its back. Each growth has a
horny spine in the center. Above each eyelid is a group of horny tubercles,
which make the creature very remarkable in appearance. Its length is about
three inches. Still another queer reptile is the large Agua Toad of America.
This queer creature digs holes in the ground and resides therein. It is one
of the noisiest of its tribe, uttering a loud snoring kind of bellow by night,
and sometimes by day, and being so fond of its own voice, that even if taken
captive, it begins its croak as soonas it is placed on the ground. It is very
greedy, but, as it is thought to devour rats, it has been imported in large
aumbers in order to keep down the swarms of rats that infest the plantations
in some of the West Indies. When these creatures were first set loose in
their new home, they beganto croak with such good-will, that they frightened
the inhabitants dreadfully, and caused many anxious householders to sit up all
night. This Toad grows toa good size, often reaching a length of seven inches,

38









——

SS



oS








SACRED IBIS AND GLOSSY IBIS.

The Sacred Ibis is one of a rather curious group of birds. With one ex-
ception they are not possessed of brilliant coloring, the feathers being mostly
white and deep purplish black. The Scarlet Ibis, however, is a most magniti-
cent, though not very large bird, its plumage being of a glowing scarlet,
relieved by a few patches of black. The Sacred Ibis is so called because it
figures Jargely in an evidently sacred character on the hieroglyphs of ancient
Egypt. It isa migratory bird, arriving in Egypt as soon as the waters of the
Nile begin to rise, and remaining in that land until the waters have subsided,
and therefore deprived it of its daily supplies of food. Its food consists mostly



















































































of molluscs, both terrestrial and aquatic, but it will eat worms, insects, and
probably the smaller reptiles. The color of the adult bird is mostly pure
silvery white, the feathers being glossy and closely set, with the exception of
some of the secondaries, which are elongated and hang gracefully over the
wings and tail. These, together with the tips of the primaries, are deep
glossy black, and the head and neck are also black, but being devoid of
feathers have a slight brownish tinge, like that of an ill-blacked boot, or an
old crumpled black kid glove. While young, the head and neck are clothed
with a blackish down, but when the bird reaches maturity, even this slender
covering is shed, and the whole skin is left bare. The body is little larger
than that of a common fowl. The Glossy Ibis (the smaller of the two birds
pictured) is also an inhabitant of Northern Africa. It is sometimes found in
different parts of America, rarely in the northern States, but of frequent occur-
rence in the south. The habits and food of the Glossy Ibis are very similar.

39



GREAT EARED GOAT-SUCKER.

The name Goat-sucker comes from a Greek name which means frog-
mouthed, and a glance at the picture will show why the birds are given such
aname. ‘Their mouths surely look very much like those of frogs. These
- birds all live in warm climates, their home being the Indian Archipelago.
The Great-eared Goat-sucker has some queer long feathers on its head which
are something like those of the horned owl. It has a very wide mouth, soft
plumage, and great round eyes, and altogether it is very much like an owl
indeed. Its color is a mixture of black, gray, buff and brown, put together in
a queer manner which it would be hard to describé. It is a night bird and
very shy. The Grand Goat-sucker is one of the largest of this family, and is
somewhat different from the Great-eared, while the New Holland Goat-
sucker is a very beautiful bird, with a plumage of mixed black and brown for
the upper surface, while below it is rusty gray, mixed with buff. The tail

















Vpn

has dark bars. This bird is owl-like in its habits, and has been called the
Owlet Nightjar for that reason. When it is angry, it utters a sharp, angry
hiss like that of some owls, and it also has the same habit of twisting its head
so that its beak is brought back on its spine. The New Holland Goat-
sucker lives in the hollow branches of some kinds of trees in its riative land,
and when the sportsman wishes to know whether the bird is inside one of
these hollow places, or ‘‘spouts” as they are called, he gives a sharp tap to
the branch with a stick or axe. If the bird is inside it runs quickly to the en-
trance, pops out its head, looks a moment at its visitor, then goes back again.
It does this several times, but at last it gets out of patience and takes to flight,

40



GORILLA.

The Gorilla is found in the thickest jungles of the Gaboon, far from the
homes and haunts of men. It is very cunning and ferocious. If it sees a man
it attacks him at once, even without provocation. The strength of this creat-
ure is very great. The teeth are heavy and powerful and the tusks project
more than an inch from the jaw. The tusks of the male Gorilla are nearly
double the size of those of the female. The natives of the Gaboon country
hold the Gorilla in great dread. They fear it even more than the lion. The



Gorilla will hide itself amiong the thick branches of the forest trees and watch
for some one to approach. Sometimes a happy negro will pass along without
‘any fear of danger. Immediately he begins to pass under the tree on which
the Gorilla is watching, the great animal will let down one of its terrible hind
feet, grasp the negro round the throat, lift him from the earth and drop him
on the ground dead. The creature does not care to eat man’s flesh, but finds
a fiendish delight in the act of killing. It is mere sport for the Gorilla. Once
or twice young Gorillas have been captured, after a furious fight with their
parents, but they have never been known to live long after being taken
prisoners. The natives of Africa believe that these large apes are really men
who pretend to be stupid and dumb in order to escape being made slaves.
The Gorilla’s face is very brutal. Its hair is nearly black. One that was five
feet six inches high measured nearly three feet across the shoulders.

41



y
i

WANDERING PIE.





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oa j . / Ky Le
Lp P//: ‘
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ee . X UO
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Wy) Gi ye?
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eee
pee
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sird, the aspect is a deceptive one,
‘aches in length, the remainder of tl

This bird is a native of the Hima-
‘layas, and is found in some numbers
spread over a large part of India. It is
called the Wandering Pie on account of
its habit of wandering over a very large
extent of country, traveling from place to
place and finding its food as it best may,
after the fashion of a mendicant friar.
This custom is quite opposed to the
general habits of the Pies, who are re-
markable for their attachment to definite
localities, and can generally be found
whereyer the observer has discovered
the particular spot which they have se-
lected for their home. Its wandering
habit may be occasioned by the necessity
for obtaining subsistence, the Wander-
ing Pie feeding more exclusively on
fruits and other vegetable nutriment than
is generally the case with the Crow
tribe, and being therefore forced to
range over a large extent of land in
search of its food. Indeed, the short
legs and very long tail of this species
would quite unfit it for seeking its living
on the ground, and clearly point out its
arboreal habits. The shape of this
species is very remarkable on account
of the greatly elongated and elegantly
shaped tail, which is colored in a manner
equally bold with itsform. The general
color of this bird is blackish gray upon
the upper parts, warming into cinna-
mon upon the back. The quill-feathers of
the wings are jetty black, the wings
themselves gray, and the tail feathers
gray, with a large bold bar of black at
their extremities. The under surface
of the bird is light grayish fawn. The
two central feathers of the tail are ex-
tremely long, and others are graduated
in a manner which is well exemplified
in the accompanying illustration. Al-
though it appears to be a rather largé
on account of the long tail, which is ten
1e head and body being only six inches.

42



SKUNK.

All weasels are notable for a certain odor which comes from them, but
the Skunk is worse in this respect than any other animal ever known. By
means of this odor, it can defend itself most successfully, as no enemy will
dare to attack a creature that has the power of overpowering its foes with so
offensive an odor that they are unable to shake off the polution for many
hours. Dogs are trained to hunt this creature, but until they have learned
the right mode of attacking the game, they are liable to be driven off in
consternation. Dogs that have learned the proper mode of attacking the
Skunk, do so by leaping suddenly upon the creature, and killing it before it
can throw off any of the offensive secretion. The odor comes from a liquid
secretion which is formed in some glands near the insertion of the tail.
When the Skunk is alarmed, it raises its bushy tail into an upright attitude,
turns its back on its enemy, and emits the offensive liquid. Should a single
drop of this horrid secretion fall on the dress or the skin, it is hardly possible
to cleanse the tainted object. The odor of this substance is so penetrating,
‘that it taints everything that may be near the spot on which it has fallen,
and renders it quite useless. Provisions rapidly become uneatable, and



clothes are so saturated with the vapor, that they will retain the smell for
several weeks, even though they are repeatedly washed and dried. On one
occasion a coach full of passengers was passing along the road when a Skunk
came across the path and tried to push its way through a fence. Being
unable to get through, it seemed to think that the coach was the cause of its
failure, and, ceasing its attempt to escape, deliberately sent a shower of its
vile liquid among the passengers. This animal is so confident of its power
to drive away enemies, that it always appears remarkably quiet and gentle,
and many times entices unwary individuals to approach it and attempt to be
playful with so attractive an animal, but it is needless to say that they always
retire in consternation. There is nothing in nature that is wholly evil, and
even this offensive liquid has some medicinal virtues, and is sometimes used for
the purpose of giving relief to asthmatic people. The chicf drawback to the
medicinal use of this substance is that after it has been used for some time, the
patient becomes so saturated with the vile odor, that he is not only unpleasant
to his neighbors, but almost unbearable to himself. The fur of the Skunk is
of a brown tint, washed with black, and having white streaks along its back.

43



TOAD.

The Toad is a most useful animal, devouring all kinds of insects, vermin,
and making its rounds by night, when the slugs, caterpillars, earwigs and
other creatures are abroad on their destructive mission. Many of the mar-
ket gardeners are so well aware of the Toad’s services that they purchase
Toads at a certain sum per dozen, and let them out in their grounds. The
Toad will never catch an insect or any other kind of prey so long as it is still, but
on the slightest movement, the wonderful tongue of the Toad is flung forward,
picking up the fly on the tip, and returning to the throat, placing the morsel
just in the spot where it can be seized by the muscles of the neck and passed
into the stomach. So rapidly is this done, that the sides of the Toad can be
seen to twitch convulsively from the struggles of a beetle just swallowed and
kicking vigorously in the stomach. The Toad will also eat worms, and in
swallowing them, it finds its fore-feet of great use; the worm is seized in the
middle and writhes itself into such contortions, that the Toad would not be

Ni
ENN
INES

SS



able to swallow it but by the aid of its fore feet, which it uses as if they were
hands. Sitting quietly down with the worm in its mouth, the Toad pushes it
further between the jaws, first with one paw and then with another, until it
succeeds in forcing the worm far down its throat. Although it is considered
unfit for food, the Toad is eaten by the people of some nations. ‘The Chinese,
however, are in the habit of eating a species of Toad for the purpose of in-
creasing their bodily powers, thinking that the flesh of this creature has the
property of strengthening bone and sinew. This creature is said to possess
the power of remaining alive for an unlimited period if shut up ina complete-
ly air-tight cell. Many stories have been told of Toads which have been
discovered in blocks of stone when split open, and it is supposed that they
were enclosed in the stone while it was still in a liquid state some hundreds
of thousands of years ago, and had remained without food ‘or air until the
stroke of a pick brought them once more to the welcome light of day.

44



COMMON TREE CREEPER.

This little bird is one of the prettiest and most interesting of the feathered
tribe. It is very small, hardly as large as a sparrow, and slender in shape.
Its food consists chiefly of insects, although it sometimes changes its diet, eat-
ing seeds and such things. The insects on which it feeds live usually under
the bark of rough-skinned trees, and when it is in pursuit of its food it runs
up the trunk around and around, probing every crevice with great eagerness,
its little black eyes glancing with delight. While on the side of the tree
nearest to the spectator its dark brown back and quick, tripping movements,
make it look like a mouse, and as it comes into sight from the opposite side
of the trunk, its white breast gleams suddenly in contrast with the bark. Its
eyes are very keen, and it will discover insects so small that the human eye
can scarcely see them, while it seems even to have the power of finding its
prey beneath moss or lichens, and will bore through the substance in which
they are hidden, never failing to get them
at last. The Creeper is a timid bird. If
_ it is alarmed at the sight of a human being
Y it will fly off to a distant tree, or will
a quietly slip round the trunk of the tree on

which it is running, and keep itself care-
fully out of sight. Gaining confidence,
however, if it is not harmed, the little head
and white breast will soon be seen, peering
‘ anxiously around the trunk, and ina few
minutes the bird will resume its journey
up the tree, uttering its faint, trilling song.
Its flights are short, as it is usually content
with flitting from tree to tree. Although
so timid, the Creeper soon becomes
familiar with those whom it is accustomed
to see, and will even take food from their
hands. It has sometimes been supposed
that in climbing the Creeper uses its beak,
after the manner of parrots and other climbing birds, but this is not the case.
The beak is used only for the purpose of digging into the bark, the long,
curved and sharply pointed claws alone serving to take the little creature
along the tree trunk. But these claws retain their hold so firmly that
Creepers have been found hanging by them long after being shot, so tight a
grasp had they taken. The Creeper is a very nervous bird and may be
stunned for a time by a sharp blow upon the tree or branch where it is run-
ning. A little patch of gum was once found on the trunk of a tree at a
spot where a number of branches came together, and this was supposed to
have been placed there by the Creepers, as they were constantly visiting
the. place. Their human friends brought crumbs of bread, seeds and little
pieces of meat, placing them in the cup or hollow which had been formed
from the gum, and the birds liked this food very well, coming often to gather
it up. Altogether the Creeper is one of the most interesting of birds.

45







HOBBY.

This bird appears to favor inland and well-wooded lands rather than the
seashore or the barren rocks; thus presenting a strong contrast to the Pere-
grine Falcon. We may find an obvious reason for this preference in the fact
that a considerable proportion of its food is composed of the larger insects,
especially of the fat-bodied beetles, which it seizes on the wing. Chaffers of
various kinds are a favorite prey with the Hobby, and in several cases the
stomachs of Hobbies that had been shot were found to contain nothing but
the shelly portions of the
larger dung-chaffer. As there-
fore the common cock-chaffer
is a leaf-eating insect and fre-
quents forest lands for the
purpose of obtaining its food,
the Hobby will constantly be
found in the same locality for
the object of feeding on the
cock-chaffer. And as the
dung-chaffer swarms wherever
cattle are most abundantly .
nourished, the Hobby is attract-
ed to the same spot for the
sake of the plentiful supply of
food which it can obtain.
Larks, finches, and various
small birds, fall victims to the
swift wings.and sharp claws of
the Hobby; but its predilec-
tions for insect-hunting are so
‘great, that even when trained
for the purpose of falconry and
flown at small birds, it is too
apt to neglect the quarry to
which its attention was direct-
ed, and to turn aside after a
passing beetle or grasshopper.
Although it is by no means a powerful bird, and seldom of its own free will
attacks any prey larger than a lark, it has been successfully trained to fly at
pigeons, and has even been known to strike down so comparatively large a
quarry as the partridge. The nest of the Hobby is almost invariably built
among the branches of a lofty tree, and is never placed upon a rocky ledge
except under very peculiar circumstances. The eggs are from two to five in
number, these being the usual orange, and some of a grayish white tint,
irregularly speckled over their whole surface with spots of reddish-brown.
When in a state of domestication, the Hobby’s food consists chiefly of tie
smaller birds, and it may also be fed upon beef cut into small pieces and very
fresh. Its temper is gentle, and its disposition mild and docile. It is easily tamed.

46





BOX TORTOISE.

The Box Tortoise belongs to America and is found all over the Northern
States. It is seen in large numbers in those places which it chooses, and al-
though it is a small creature, it is so formed that it can protect itself against
almost any foe, being able to draw its limbs, head and tail into the shell and
close the opening, so that it is impossible to get at it. Many of the Tortoises
can draw back into their shells, but if the openings for the head, limbs, and tail
are left open, the animal can be killed, or hooked out by a foe. The jaguar is
able to get his paw within the shell and scoop out the creature within by
means of its sharp claws. But if the opening is closed, the shell must be














FH Pir \
\ 6G
ARN Road gets
AON ©

broken, which no animal can do, except, perhaps, an elephant. Several kinds
of Tortoises can thus close their houses from the enemy, but the Box Tortoise
does it the most perfectly of all, and has no cause to fear any foe excepting
man and the boa constrictor. He is cruelly roasted by the former, and
the latter swallows him shell and all. There are certain other animals which
have little houses growing on their backs, or rather a kind of armor such as
soldiers used to wear in ancient times, only in the case of the soldiers it could
be removed at will. The hedgehog like the Tortoise is able to shut himself
up in his armor, but a sharp-pointed instrument can enter between the spines,
so heis not so safe after all, for the skin is soft. ‘Thereare other animals also
guarded by scales which form a covering when the body is rolled up within
them, but these scales when curled up leave a passage for the arrow or spear
between them, so they are not a sure protection, and the Box Tortoise after
all stands at the head of animals which have armors. The colors of his shell,
too, vary so much that they make him very interesting, and in this respect
there are few Tortoises which are so remarkable. The Chicken Tortoise also
lives in North America, and is common in ponds, lakes, or marshy ground,
where the creature may be seen resting on logs, stones, or branches of
fallen trees. They are very shy, and as soon as danger comes near,
the first one that sees it falls into the water with a great splash that
frightens all the others, and they go tumbling and_= splashing on
all sides until not a Tortoise is left in sight. They: are seldom
over ten inches long. The flesh resembles that of a young chicken.
47



VAMPIRE BAT.

This creature is a native of southern America. It 1s not a very large
animal, the length of its body and tail being only abou six inches. The
color of the fur is a mouse tint, with a shade of brown. Many tales have
been told of the Vampire Bat and its fearful attacks upon.sleeping men. It
will boldly creep into houses and seek the uncovered foot of any sleeping
inhabitant. Poising above the foot of its prey, the Vampire Bat will fan the
sleeper with its spread wings, cooling the air and soothing the slumberer into
still deeper repose. It will then insert its needle-pointed teeth into the upturned
foot with such great skill, that no pain is caused by the tiny wound. ‘The
lips of the bat are then brought to the wound and the blood is sucked until
the creature is satisfied. It will then throw out the food it has taken and
begin afresh, continuing to suck the blood and disgorge it until the victim
perishes from loss of blood. Although the Vampire Bat is so fond of human
blood and the blood of animals, it does not depend upon blood as a means of
food. It lives chiefly on insects, which are caught while flying through the



air. It has always been remarkable that *'‘ts can find their way among the
boughs of trees with an ease that is almost beyond the power of sight. Even
utter darkness does not seem to interfere with the flight of these strange ani-
mals; and when they are shut up in a darkened place, with strings stretched
in all directions, the bats continue their flight without any difficulty. A bat
that had been robbed of its eyes, was found to escape all obstacles in its flight
with as much ease as it did when it had its sight. This very remarkable
power has been found to arise from the wonderfully formed wings, which are
so finely constructed that they naturally avoid all obstacles. All bats have a
great dislike of the ground, and, unless compelled, never place themselves on
a level surface. They climb with great ease and rapidity and can ascend a
perpendicular wall without any trouble. In doing this, they crawl backwards.

48



WHITE SHARK.

The dreadful White Shark, the finny pirate of the ocean, is never a wel-
come visitor to the shores of any country. It is one of the large species of
creatures which range the ocean, and in some seas they are so numerous that
they become the terror of sailors and natives. One Shark will sometimes
measure over thirty feet in length, and the strength of this creature can be
readily imagined when it is remembered that it can bite off a man’s leg
through flesh and bone as easily as if it were a carrot, and can sever the body
of a boy or woman ata single bite. Many portions of this fish are used in
commerce. The sailors are fond of cleaning and preparing the skull, which
is sure of a ready sale, either for a public museum or to private individuals
who are struck with its strange form and terrible appearance. The spine,
too, is frequently taken from this fish, and when dried, it is placed in the
hands of walking-stick makers, who polish it neatly, fit it with a gold handle,
and sell it at a very high price. One of these sticks will sometimes cost
nearly as much as fifty dollars, There is also a large amount of oil in the
Shark, which is rather valuable, so that in Ceylon and other places a regular
trade in this commodity is carried on. The fins are very rich in gelatine, and























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































in China are employed largely in the manufacturing of that gelatine soup in
which the soul of a Chinese epicure delights. The flesh is eaten by the
natives of many Pacific islands, and in some places the liver is looked upon
as a royal luxury, being hung on boards in the sun until all the oil has been
drained away, when it is carefully wrapped up in leaves and reserved as a
delicacy. These islanders have a very quaint method of catching the Shark.
They cut a large log into the rude resemblance of a canoe, tie a rope around
the middle, form the end of the rope into a noose, and then set it afloat, leav-
ing the noose to dangle in the water, until a Shark becomes entangled.

49









SNOW-CAP HUMMING-BIRD AND SPANGLED COQUETTE.

The two little birds which are represented in the accompanying illustra-
tion are remarkable for the manner in which their heads are decorated. One
of them is seen to be a dark little creature, with the exception of a snowy
white crown to its head, and a bold streak of white upon its tail. This is the
Snow-cap Humming-bird, one of the most curious and most rare of all the
Trochilidee. The colors of this little bird are so dark, that it appears to be uni-
formally brown until it is examined more closely, when it is seen to be of
a coppery hue, on which a purple reflection is visible in extreme lights, the
copper hue taking a warmer tint towards the tail. The crown of the head is
dazzling white, and the tips of all the tail-feathers, and the bases of all except
the two central, are also white. On the same drawing may be seen another
remarkable little bird, possessed of a most beautiful and graceful crest. This



is the Spangled Coquette, an excellent example of the very remarkable genus
to which it belongs. All the Coquettes possess a well-defined crest upon the
head, and a series of projecting feathers from the neck, some being especially not-
able for the one ornament, and some for the other. -The Spangled Coquette
is a native of several parts of Columbia, and was first taken to England in
1847. The singular crest is capable of being raised or depressed at the will
of the bird, and produces a great effect in changing the whole expression
of the creature. When raised to its fullest extent, it spreads itself like the
tail of the peacock, and much resembles the crest of the king tody, a bird
which will be described on another page. When depressed, it lies flat upon
the bird, and is so large that it projects on either side, barcly allowing the
little black eyes to gleam from under its shade. The crown of the head and
the crest are light ruddy chestnut, each feather having a ball-like spot of dark
bronze green at the tip. The throat and face are shining metallic green, be-
low which is a small tuft of pointed white feathers that have a very curious
effect as they protrude from beneath the gorget. The upper parts are bronze
green as far as the lower part of the back, where a band crosses from side: >
side, and the rest of the plumage is dark ruddy chestnut as far as the tail.
The tail is also chestnut brown, with a slight wash of metallic green. The
female has no crest nor green gorget. It is not as beautiful as the male.

50



GROUP OF BABOONS.





Although this group of animals is popularly known by the name of Bab-
oons, they are sometimes spoken of as dog-headed monkeys, on account of
the shape of the head and jaws, which resemble those of the dog tribe. So
odiously disgusting are the habits in which many of these animals continually
indulge, that, as a general rule, their presence is offensive in the extreme,
and, excepting for purposes of scientific investigation, it is better to shun the
cage that holds any specimens of these creatures. The general color of these
animals is a brown tint of varying shades. The Baboons mostly walk on all
fours, and when at liberty in their native haunts, they are almost always seen
either to walk like a dog or sit on their haunches in the usual monkey fashion.

dL



SCARLET DREPANIS.

The Scarlet Drepanis is a very interesting bird for many reasons. Its
position in natural history is one of great value, and other birds which are
nearly related to it are also given a high rank, not only by naturalists, but by
the natives of the countries in which they are found. The plumage of this .
beautiful bird is mostly scarlet, but the wings and tail are black, forming a
striking contrast in color The home of the bird is the Sandwich Islands,
where the natives use its plumage for the wonderful feather mantles and
helmets which show so much skill and patience on the part of the people who
make them, and which are also very artistic. Some fine specimens of these
mantles are in the British Museum. They are made with great care, none of
the feathers being wasted, because they are so precious, and they are
arranged in such a manner that they cannot be shaken from their positions so
as to show the groundwork on which they are woven. Their colors are



, . Ey ‘

‘h

ye






arranged, also, in the prettiest manner, and the effect is brilliant without
being gaudy. ‘The helmets are made in like manner from the plumage of
these beautiful birds, and they are even more wonderful than the mantles,
being very graceful and striking in form, and Grecian in artistic effect.
These mantles flow in such beautiful folds and are so light and so brilliant in
color that they need only to be introduced into the world of fashion to meet
with great favor at once. The feather head dress, too, would have just as
pleasant a reception, as nothing could be more lovely than its soft and brilliant
colors and graceful form. The birds of this genus are fond of flocking to-
gether in large numbers to search for their food among the flowering plants
where they find sweet juices and little insects just suited to their taste. They
have very long bills and tongues which they thrust deep into the heart of the
blossom, as bees do in sucking the honey from the flowers which they like
best. The natives, knowing their habits, set snares for them among the
flowers which are their favorites, and so catch them in considerable numbers.
The Scarlet Drepanis is a small bird, and neither the tail nor wing is em-
ployed to make the mantles or helmets which have been described, so it will
be seen that a very great number of the little creatures must be killed.
52 ;



GIGANTIC SALAMANDER.

The Gigantic Salamander is without doubt one of the least attractive
animals in existence. It is dull in its habits, somber in colcr, with a sort of
half-finished look about it, and not possessing even that savage ugliness which
makes many a hideous creature attractive in spite of its repulsiveness. It is
a native of Japan, and even in that country seems to be rare, a large sum be-
ing asked for it by the seller. It lives in the lakes and pools that exist in the
basaltic mountain ranges of Japan. Its length is about a yard. Many years
ago the first living specimen was taken to Europe and placed in atank, where
it passed a period of many years’ captivity. Two specimens were taken over
at the same time, being of different sexes, but on the passage the male un-
fortunately killed and ate his intended bride, leaving himself to pass the re-
mainder of his life in single blessedness. It fed chiefly on fish, but would eat

















































other animal substance. A very fine specimen living in the English Zoolog-
ical Gardens has attracted much notice in spite of its ugliness and almost total
want of attractive habits. It is very sluggish and retiring, hating the light,
and always squeezing itself into the darkest corner of its tank, where it so
closely resembles in color the rock work near where it shelters itself, that
many persons look at the tank without even discovering its presence. The
head of this creature is large, flattened, and very toad-like in general appear-
ance, except that it is not furnished with the beautiful eyes which make up
for the otherwise repulsive expression of the toad. The head is about four
inches wide at the broadest part, and is covered with many warty growths.
The eyes are very small, placed on the fore part of the head, and without any
kind of expression. They look very much more like glass beads than eyes.

53



COACH-WHIP SNAKE.

The well-known Coach-whip Snake of North America is a remarkable
reptile which has not earned its popular name without good reason, for the
resemblance between one of these Serpents and a leather whip-thong is
almost incredibly close. The creature is very long in proportion te its
width, the neck and head are very small, the body gradually swells towards
the middle and then as gradually diminishes to the tail, which ends in a small
point. The large smooth scales are arranged in such a manner that they
just resemble the plaited leather of a whip, and the polished brown black of
the surface is exactly like that of a well-worn thong. The movements of
this Snake are wonderfully quick, and when chasing its prey, it seems to fly
over the ground. The mode of attack is very remarkable. Seizing the
doomed creature in its mouth, it leaps forward, flings itself over the victim,
envelops it with coil upon coil of its little body, so as to entangle the limbs

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and bind them to the body, and, in fact, makes itself into a living lasso.
One of these Snakes was seen engaged in a battle with a hawk, and would
apparently have conquered in the seemingly uneven combat had not the foes
been separated. It had grasped the hawk by one wing, and dragged it to
the ground, and had succeeded in disabling the terrible claws from striking,
when the sudden approach of the narrator alarmed the Snake, which released
its hold, darted into the bushes, and permitted the rescued hawk to fly away
in peace. The color of this Serpent is rather variable. Generally it is
shining black above and lighter beneath, with splashes of purple brown.
Sometimes, however, it is cream or clay colored, and occasionally has been
seen almost white. The length of this Snake is about five or six feet.

54

te ey Wt

¢ ty



HARTEBEEST.

This handsome animal is easily known by the peculiar shape of the horns.
{ts general color is a grayish brown, ornamented with a white spot on the
haunches and a black streak on the face, another along the back, and a black
‘brown, patch on the outer side of the limbs. It is a large animal, being about
five feet high at the shoulders. It is found in little herds of ten or twelve in
number, each herd being headed by an old male who has driven away all
full-grown members of his own sex. It is not very swift in its speed, and its
movements are more clumsy than is generally the case with antelopes. It

can run, however, for considerable distances, and, if attacked, becomes a very

dangerous foe, dropping on its knees and charging forward with lightning
_rapidity. The Hartebeest is found in a very large range of country, extend-










SA
“
a

ANY

ing from the hilly to the flat and wooded district between the Cape and the
Tropic of Capricorn. ‘The Sassaby is another animal closely resembling the
Hartebeest. Its color is a reddish brown, the outer side of the limbs being
dark, and a blackish brown stripe passing down the middle of the face.
Sometimes the body is covered with a bluish gray tint. This animal roams
in small herds of six or ten, in the flat districts near the Tropic of Capricorn,
and is a welcome sight to the wearied hunter perishing from thirst. There
are many antelopes which live almost without water, quenching their thirst
by means of the moist roots and bulbs upon which they feed. But the
Sassaby is a thirsty animal, and it needs drink daily, so that whenever a
hunter sees one of these creatures, he knows that water is not a great dis-
tance away. ‘The Sassaby is rather persecuted by hunters, as its flesh is
greatly liked, but as it soon becomes shy and wary, it is not easily killed.
This much-sought animal is sometimes called the Bastard Hartebeest.

55



SPARROW HAWK.

The extreme audacity of the Sparrow Hawk when urged by hunger is
very remarkable. One of these birds actually snatched up a little white pea-.
chick, selecting it from the rest of the brood, while a lady was engaged in
feeding it. A similar circumstance occurred to a gamekeeper who was
feeding young pheasants, a Sparrow Hawk suddenly sweeping down upon
them and carrying off one of their number. Next day it repeated the
attempt, but as the keeper had taken the precaution to bring his gun, the
Hawk fell a victim to his
own temerity. Again, as
some persons were shooting
dunlins from a boat, in Bel-
fast Bay, a Sparrow Hawk
suddenly shot through the
smoke of the discharged
gun, and poising itself for an
instant, swept a wounded
dunlin from the surface of
the water with such marvel-
ous dexterity, that it did not
wet a feather of its wings.
In consequence of the head-
long courage possessed by
this handsome little Hawk,
it is very valuable to the
falconer if properly trained,
for it will dash at any quarry
which may be pointed out to
it. Unfortunately, however,
the Sparrow Hawk is one of
the most difficult and refrac-
tory of pupils, being shy to
a singular degree, slow at
receiving a lesson and quick
at forgetting it. Besides, its
temper is of a very crabbed
and uncertain nature, and it
is so quarrelsome, that if several of these birds should be fastened to the
same perch, or placed in the same cage, they will certainly fight each other,
and, in all probability, the conqueror will eat his vanquished foe. Such an
event has actually occurred, the victrix—for it was a female—killing and
devouring her intended spouse. Few birds are so easily startled as the
Sparrow Hawk, for even when it is comparatively tame, the presence of a
stranger, or even the shadow of a passing bird in the air, will throw it into a
paroxysm of excitement, during which it seems to lose all consciousness of
external objects. The Sparrow Hawk’s legs are, during these fits of fright
and passion, in a temporary paralysis. But the temper is of short duration.

56







RED FIRE-FISH.

The Red Fire-Fish is an extraordinary creature inhabiting the greater
part of the tropical seas from Eastern Africa, through the Indian seas, right
away to far Australia. It is remarkable for the strange growth of the fins
on its back and sides. The side fins are so very large in proportion to the
size of this odd creature that people used to think at one time that they were
wings like those of the flying fish, and that it could raise itself out of the water
and flyintheair. But this was found to be a mistake, as the bones connected
with the fins are far too weak to allow the fish to fly. No one has yet discov-
ered the true natural use of these big fins. The Red Fire-Fish is plentiful off
the coast of Ceylon, and it is said to be rather valuable as an article of food.



The flesh is very white, firm and nutritious. Native fishermen, however,
have a great dread of this creature as they think it can inflict fatal wounds
with the sharp points that project from the fins in every direction. But,
although they may prick the hand deeply and make the wound very painful,
there is no real danger, as the pricks cannot do serious injury, nor are they
poisonous. ‘The color of the Red Fire-Fish’s body is mostly a pinky brown,
with darker brown stripes, while the head is always redder than the body.
The huge fins on the back and sides are reddish brown crossed with bold
black stripes; the fins on the lower part or belly of the fish are of a black color
dotted with white spots, and the rest of the fins, including the tail fin, are
light brown spotted with black. There are nine or ten different kinds of this
fish. and none of them is known to be more than seven or eight inches long.

57



BLACKBIRD.

Among the best known and best loved of British songsters, the Blackbird
is one of the most conspicuous. This well-known bird derives its popular
name from the uniformly black hue of its plumage, which is only relieved by
the bright orange-colored bill of the male bird. The song of this creature is
remarkable for its full mellowness of note, and is ever a welcome sound to
the lover of nature, and her vocal and visual harmonies. Often the poor bird
suffers for its voice; and being kept within the bars of a cage, is forced to
sing its wild native notes “in a strange land.” In captivity it is sometimes
subjected to training, and has been taught to whistle tunes with great spirit
and precision. Generally the bird sings in the daytime, but there are times
when it encroaches upon the acknowledged province of the nightingale, and
makes the night echoes ring with its rich ringing tones. It is rather curious
that even in its native state the Blackbird is something of a mimic, and will
‘imitate the voices of other-birds with remarkable skill, even teaching itself to
crow like a cock and cackle like a hen. The Blackbird feeds usually on insects,



but it also possesses a great love of fruit, and in the autumn ravages the gardens
and orchards in a most destructive manner, picking out all the best and ripest
fruit, and wisely leaving the still immatured produce to ripen on the branches.
Perhaps it may be partly carnivorous, as one of these birds was seen to
attack and kill a shrew mouse. As it is so common a bird, and constantly
haunts the hedgerows, it is greatly persecuted by juvenile gunners, whom it
contrives to draw away from its nest by flitting in and out of the hedge,
always taking care to keep out of shot range, and having a curious habit of
slipping through the hedge, and flying quietly back to its nest, almost touch-
ing the surface of the ground in its rapid progress. It is not a sociable bird,
being seldom seen in company with others of its own species, and not often
even together with its mate. The Blackbird is very courageous in defense of
its nest, and will attack almost any animal that threatens the security of its
home. On one occasion a cat was forced to retreat ignominiously from the
united assaults of two Blackbirds near whose domicile she had ventured.

58







SHEEP.

In all times the Sheep has been subject to mankind, and has provided him
with meat and clothing, as well as with many articles of domestic use. The
whole carcass of the Sheep is as useful as that of the ox, and there is not a
single portion of its body that cannot be put to some good use. The Sheep,
as we now know it, is never found in a state of absolute wildness. In many
of its habits, especially in its ability to climb rocks, it bears a strong
resemblance to the goats. Whenever a flock of Sheep is in the neighborhood
of high ground, they may always be seen perched upon the highest spots,
and seem to take a curious pleasure in exposing themselves to the danger of
being dashed to pieces. Some of the Sheep will boldly descend the steepest
cliff in search of herbage until they reach the sea level, and are in no way
afraid of the prospect of re-ascending the terrible cliffs down which they
have come. Although the Sheep is thought to be a timid animal, it is truly









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a bold animal, and oftentimes gives many proofs of its courage. If, for
example, a traveler comes unexpectedly upon a flock of little Sheep that
range the Welsh mountains, they will not flee from his presence, but draw
together into a compact body, and watch him with stern and unyielding
gaze. Should he attempt to advance, he would be instantly attacked by the
rams, which form the first line in such cases, and there is little doubt that he
would fare very badly in the encounter. If a dog should accompany him,
the Sheep would at once charge him and drive him from the spot. Even a
single ram is no mean enemy when he is thoroughly irritated, and his attack
is really dangerous. Sheep differ from goats in their manner of fighting;
the goats rear themselves on their hind legs and then plunge sideways upon
their enemy, while the Sheep hurl themselves forward and strike their
enemies with the whole weight, as well as the full force of the body. So
terrible is the shock of a ram’s charge, that it will knock over an ox.

59



CLYDESDALE CART HORSE.

The Clydesdale Cart Horse is one of the best horses for ordinary heavy
work. It is named after the place, Clydesdale, where it was first bred, and is
.a mixture between the Lanark horse and the famous Flemish horse. It has
a very gentle temper and is possessed of great strength and powers of endur-
ance. ‘The pure Clydesdale Horse is large and heavy, and is remarkable for



its very long strides. Another large and powerful horse is known as the
Dray Horse. This is a very slow animal, whose pace cannot be quickened
for any length of time even if the load is light. This enormous horse isa
mixture between the Flemish Horse and Black Draught Horse. It is well
known by people in London, England, as it is seen every day drawing heavy
drays on which beer is taken from the breweries to the purchaser. Its
breast is very broad and its shoulders thick and upright, body large and
round, the legs short, and feet extremely large. The ordinary pace of the
heavy Draught Horse is under three miles an hour, but when the horse is
half Flemish, the pace is nearly doubled, the endurance is increased, while
the size is very little changed.. The great size of the Dray Horse is not
needed so much for the pulling which it has to perform, but because it
requires a large and heavy animal in the shafts of the dray to bear the jolting
that takes place as the dray is dragged over the rough stones of the London
streets. The genuine Dray Horse is a noble beast, and it is very pleasant to
see the kindly feelings that exist between these horses and their drivers. The
long whip which the drayman carries is more for ornament than for the pur-
pose of punishing the horses, and whenever it is used it is laid very gently
upon the horse’s back, while kind words are spoken, which the horse under-
stands. These horses are some of the most famous, intelligent and beautiful
animals in the world. The draymen take great pride in their appearance.

60





HEMIGALE.

The color of this animal’s fur is a grayish brown. There are six or seven
large, bold stripes across the back. On the top of the head there is a narrow
black line, and on each side of the face a black line runs from the ear to the
nose, and aruund the eyes. ‘The name Hemigale is from the Greek language
and means “Semi-weasel.” This animal is one of many similar kinds of
creatures which the naturalists class under the name of the “ Viverrine group.”
With the exception of one or two species, the animals in the Viverrine group
are so little known that their habits in a wild state cannot be fully described.



The habits of these agile and graceful animals when in captivity, are so enter-
taining that it may be readily supposed that when in their natural haunts
their habits must be far more instructive. Many discoverers when they come
across a new animal, are so anxious to secure it that they do not give them-
selves time to observe the habits of the animal but shoot or capture it to
bring home as a rare specimen. The Cryptoprocta is another of the
Viverrine group of animals. It is of a light-brown color, tinged with red.
It appears to be a very gentle and quiet animal, but it is one of the fiercest
little creatures known. The legs are small but very powerful, and its appe-
tite for blood is as strong as the tiger’s. It is very active and becomes a
terrible foe to any animals it may attack. The hind quarters of this little
creature suddenly taper down and merge themselves in the tail. Because of
these peculiarities it receives the full name of ‘‘Cryptoprocta Ferox.” The
first word means “hind quarters,” while ferox means “fierce.” It is believed
that the creatures in the Viverrine group can be domesticated or trained to
human uses as easily as the animals of cat or dog natures. The true study of
animals is of more importance than many people think. It is impossible to
understand the grandeur of human nature until God’s animal creation is studied.

61



GROUP OF VULTURES.

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These Vultures are natives of Southern Europe and Western Asia, and often
reach a very great size, their length being sometimes nearly four feet, and the
expanse of the wings as much as ten feet. Vultures are distinguished from
other birds of prey by the shape of the beak, which is of moderate size, nearly
straight above, curved suddenly, and rounded at the tip. The middle toe is
larger than the others, and the outer toes are connected with them at their
base by asmall membrane. As a general rule, the Vultures feed on dead
carrion, and are therefore most beneficial to the countries which they inhabit.
When pressed by hunger, however, they will make inroads among the flocks
and herds, and will not hesitate to satisfy their wants with rats, mice, small
birds, or insects. Varieties of this bird are found in many parts of Africa.

62







STURGEON. .-

In this remarkable fish, the mouth is placed well under the head, and in

fact, seems to be seated almost in the throat, the long snout appearing to be
-an almost unnecessary ornament. ‘The mouth projects downwards like a
- ‘ short and wide tube much wider than long, and on looking into this tube, no

ee i

























teeth are to be seen. Between the mouth and the end of the snout, is a row
of fleshy finger-like appendages, four in number. These dre organs of touch.
One or two species of Sturgeon are important in commerce as two valuable
articles, isinglass and cavaire, are made from them. The Common Sturgeon
is sometimes, but not very often, found in rivers. It is frequently taken
‘near the shores. The flesh of the Sturgeon is thought a great deal of, and
in the olden English days, it was always saved for the table of the King.
The body of the Sturgeon is very long, and slightly five-sided from the head
to the tail. Along the body run five rows of flattened bony plates, each
plate being marked with slight grooves, and having a pointed and partly con-
ical line on each plate, the points being directed towards the tail. ‘The plates
along the summit of the back are the largest. To make isinglass, the air
blubber is removed from the fish, washed carefully in fresh water, and then
hung up in the air for a day or two, so as tostiffen. The outer coat or
membrane is then peeled off, and the remainder is cut up into strips of great-
er or lesser length called’ straps, the long straps being the most valuable.
This substance affords so large a quantity of gelatinous matter, that one part
of isinglass dissolved in a hundred parts of boiling water, will form a stiff
Jelly when cold. Cavaire is made from the roe of this fish, and nearly
three million of eggs have been taken from a single fish, a fine specimen, truly.

oy 63





NATAL ROCK SNAKE.

The handsome Natal Rock Snake, or Port Natal Python, as it is some-
times called, now comes under our notice. It is a fine, handsome species,
sometimes attaining a great length, and being most beautifully colored.
During life and when in full health and in the enjoyment of liberty, this, in
common with many other Snakes, has a beautiful rich bloom upon its scales,
not unlike the purple bloom of a plum or grape. Should, however, the Snake
be in ill-health, this bloom fades away, and in consequence, we seldom if ever
see it on the scales of the Serpents which have been taken to Europe, and
are kept in glass-fronted cases in lieu of the wide desert, and only a blanket
to creep into instead of the rocky crevices of their native country. The
dimensions of this reptile are often very great. They have been seen to
measure twenty-five feet in length. Flat skins of this creature are, however,
very deceptive, and cannot be relied upon, as they stretch almost as readily
as India-rubber, and during the process of drying are often extended several



feet beyond the length which they occupied while surrounding the body of
their quondam owner. ‘The teeth of this serpent are tolerably large, but not
venomous, and although of no insignificant size, are really of small dimensions
when compared with the size and weight of their owner. Few persons have
any idea of the exceeding heaviness of a large Snake, and unless the reptile
has been fairly lifted and carried about, its easy gliding movements have the
effect of making it appear as if it were as light as it is graceful. Both jaws
are thickly studded with these teeth, and their use is to seize the prey and
hold it while the huge folds of the body are flung round the victim, and its
life crushed out of its frame by the contracting coils of the great reptile,

o4





BELTED KINGFISHER.

The sight. of the Belted Kingfisher is very keen, and even when passing
swiftly over the country, it will suddenly check itself in mid career, hovering
over the spot for a short time, watching the finny inhabitants of the brook as
they swim to and fro, and then with a curious spiral kind of plunge, will dart
into the water, driving up the spray in every direction, and after a brief
struggle, Ne emerge with a small fish in its mouth, which it carries to some
resting plack, and after beating it with a few hearty thumps against a stump
or a stone; swallows it, and returns for another victim. Waterfalls and
rapids are the favorite haunts of the Belted Kingfisher, whose piercing eye is



oy
Boe

able to see the fish even through the turmoil of the dirty water. In spite of
their active fins and slippery scale-covered bodies, it is very seldom that a
fish escapes this bird. Rapid streams with high banks are favorite places of
resort for the Belted Kingfisher, not only because in such places the small
fish are easily seen, but because the steep and dry banks are the chosen places
for this bird’s nest. On these banks the Belted Kingfisher digs a tunnel,
which is sometimes four or five feet in length. The nest is a very simple
structure, being made of a few small twigs and feathers, on which are laid
the four or five pearly white eggs. The birds seem to be very fond of their
homes, and one pair ot Kingfishers will frequent the same hole for
Many successive years and rear many broods of young ones in them.

65



“RINGED SNAKE.

The Ringed Snake is fond of water, and is a good swimmer, sometimes
diving with great.ease and remaining below the surface for a considerable
length of time,and sometimes swimming boldly for a distance that seems very
“great fora terrestrial creature to undertake. This reptile will even take to
-the’sea, and has been noticed swimming between Wales and Anglesea, The
“motions of the Snake while in the water are peculiarly graceful, alad the rapid
progress is achieved by a beautifully serpentine movement of the body and
tail. This Snake is susceptible of kindness, and if properly treated, soon
learns to know its owner, and to suffer him to handle it without displaying any
mark of irritation. ‘Though harmless and incapable of doing any hurt by its
bite, the Snake is not without other means of defence, its surest weapon being
a most abominable and penetrating odor, which it is capable of discharging
when irritated, and which, like that of the skunk, adheres so closely to the
skin or the clothes, that it can hardly be removed even by repeated washings.
Moreover, it is of so penetrating a nature, that it cannot be hidden under
artificial essences, being obtrusively perceptible through the most powerful
perfumes, and rather increasing than diminishing in offensiveness by the
mixture. The reptile will, however, soon learn to distinguish those who



behave kindly to it, and will suffer itself to be handled without ejecting this
horrible odor. The young of the Ringed Snake are hatched from eggs,
which are laid in strings in some warm spot and left to be hatched by the
heat of the weather or other natural means. Dunghills are favorite localities
for these eggs, as the heat evolved from the decaying vegetable matter is
most useful in aiding their development, and it often happens that a female
Snake obtains access into a hothouse and there deposits her eggs. Some
persons say that the mother is sometimes known to remain near the eggs, and
to coil herself round them like that remarkable animal the boa. The eggs
are soft, as if made of parchment, and whitish. They are found in chains
containing fifteen or twenty, and are cemented together by a kind of glutinous
substance. During the winter the Snake retires to some sheltered spot,
where it remains until the warm days of spring call it again to action. The
localities which it chooses for its winter quarters are always in some well
sheltered spot, and generally under the gnarled roots of’ ancient trees.

66 a



GREEN TODY.

; The queer little birds called Todies are somewhat like the kingfishers,
but they have flattened bills, and so there is no danger of mistaking the one
for the other. They have a very wide mouth, and wings and tail are short
~ and rounded, and the outer toes are connected as far as the last joint. The
Todies live in tropical America, and have a very important place among the
beautiful birds of that part of the world. The Green Tody is but little larger
than the wren, but it is very brilliant. The whole upper surface of its body
is a bright green, while the flanks are rose colored, shading to scarlet on the
throat and fading to pale yellow on the under portions of the body. The
under surface of the wings is bare. The Green Tody is a lazy creature, and
may be approached quite closely so that its colors can be studied without
trouble. It sits with its head sunk beneath its shoulders and its bill sticking
out stiffly as though it had no life at all. It always flies near the ground and
never tries a long journey through the air, indecd its wings are not strong
enough for that. It is known as the
Ground Parrot also, from its habit of stay-
ing near the.earth. The Green Tody
lives mostly upon insects, which it catches
es as they crawl about in the muddy banks
: of ponds or rivers. It also searches in the
grass and plants for them and catches
them with much skill. The .nest of this
bird is placed on the ground, usually in
some hole on the river bank, and is built
of dried grasses, moss, cotton, feathers and
similar substances. The eggs are four or
s3, five in number, of a bluish gray, with
mS bright yellow spots. The length of the
bird is: hardly four inches. The Green

= US “Tody has quite a good many relatives
(Za VE X which are more or less like him in form

and habits, although they are all different
from him in some ways. The Javan Tody is one of these and is an in-
teresting bird’ with a very queer form. Its beak is shorter than its
head and has a base wider than the part of the head to which it is fastened.
The center toes are joined together as far as the second joint. The bird‘is a
native of Java and Sumatra. It feeds mostly on water insects, worms, and
such creatures, which it finds on the banks of the rivers near which it lives.
It builds a hanging nest from the slender bough of some tree that grows near
_the water. The Javan Tody is not a very uncommon bird, but it is seldom
seen because it stays mostly in the deep woodlands of its native country near
the swampy grounds that are often found within great forests. It is a strik-
ing bird in its looks, its back being a deep, velvet purple mixed with bright
golden yellow. It does not keep so closely to the earth as the Green Tody,
but it never makes long flights. Birds which are natives of tropical countties,
as the Todies are, almost always have very brilliant and striking plumage.

67








NY, yr —Z2555









DIPPER.

The Ant Thrushes find an English representative in the well-known Dipper
or Water-Ousel. Devoid of brilliant plumage or graceful shape, it is yet one
of the most interesting of British birds when watched in its favorite haunts.
It always frequents rapid streams and channels, and being a very shy and re-
tiring bird, invariably prefers those spots where the banks overhang the water,
and are clothed with thick brushwood. Should the bed of the stream be
broken up with rocks or large stones, and the fall be sufficiently sharp to
wear away an occasional pool, the Dipper is all the better pleased with its
home, and in such a locality may generally be found by a patient observer.
All the movements of this little bird are quick, jerking and wren-like, a simil-
itude which is enhanced by its habit of continually flirting its apology for a
tail. Caring nothing for the frost of winter, so long as the water remains free
from ice, the Dipper. may be seen throughout the winter months, flitting from
stone to stone with the most animated gestures, occasionally stopping to pick
up some morsel of food, and ever and anon taking to the water, where it









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sometimes dives entirely out of sight, and at others merely walks into the shal-
lows, and there flaps about with great rapidity. While employed at the bottom
of the stream, the bird keeps itself below the surface by beating rapidly upwards
with its wings, just as a human diver beats the water with his hands and feet,
while seeking forsome object under the water. To an observer at the surface,
the bird appears to tumble and scramble about at random in a very comical
manner, but in truth the little creature is perfectly capable of directing its
course, and picking up any article of food that may meet its eye. It walks
and runs about on the ground at the bottom of the water, scratching with: its
feet among the small stones, and pecking at all the insects and animalcule
which it can dislodge. Sometimes the bird has been observed moving about
in the water with its head only above the surface. The food of the Dipper
seems to be exclusively of an animal character, and, in the various specimens
which have been examined, consists of insects in their different stages, small
crustacez, and the spawn and fry of various fishes. Its fish-eating propensities
have been questioned by some writers, but the matter has been entirely set at
rest by the discovery of fish-bones and half-digested fish in the stomach,

68

“2






IMPERIAL EAGLE,

~The Imperial Eagle is an inhabitant of Asia and Southern Europe, and
bears a rather close resemblance to the golden Eagle, from which bird, how-
ever, it may be readily distinguished by several notable peculiarities. The
“head and neck of this species are covered with lancet-shaped feathers of a
deep fawn color, each feather being edged with brown. ‘The back and the
whole of the upper parts are black brown, deeper on the back, and warming
towards a chestnut tint on the shoulders. Several of the scapularies are pure
white, and the tail is ash-colored, bordered and tipped with black. The ccre
and legs are yellow. The surest mark by which the Imperial may be distin-



. guished from the golden Eagle, is the white patch on the scapularies. This
is most distinct in the adult bird, for in the plumage of the young, the scapu-
lary feathers are only tipped with white, instead of being wholly of that hue.
The Imperial Eagle is seldom seen sweeping over the plains, as it is a forest-
loving bird, preferring the densest woods to the open country. As far as is
known, it never builds its nest on the rocks, but always chooses a spreading
and lofty tree for that purpose. In habits it resembles the preceding species,
and in disposition is fierce and destructive. No specimen of this bird has yet
been taken in England, although it is not at all uncommon in the warmer
parts of Europe. So splendid a bird as the Eagle could not escape the notice
of any human inhabitant of the same land, and we find that in all nations of the
present day, an almost superstitious regard has attached itself to this bird,

69



‘GROUND SQUIRREL.

The Ground Squirrel, or Hackee, as it is sometimes termed, is one of the
most familiar of North American quadrupeds, and is found in great numbers
in almost every locality. It is a truly beautiful little creature, and deserving
of notice both on account of the dainty elegance of its form, and the pleasing
tints with which its coat is decked. The general color of the Hackee is a
brownish gray on the back, warming into orange brown on the forehead and
the hinder quarters. Upon the back and sides are drawn five longitudinal
black stripes and two streaks of yellowish white, so that it is a most conspic-
uous little creature, and by those peculiar stripes may easily be distinguished
from any other animal. ‘The abdomen and throat are white. It is slightly
variable in color according to the locality in which it exists, and has been
known to be so capricious of hue as to furnish specimens of pure white and jet
“black. As a fur it is extremely elegant, and if it were not quite so common
would long since have taken nearly as high a rank as the sable or ermine.
The length of the Hackee is about eleven inches, the tail being about four
inches and a half in length. It is, however, slightly variable in dimensions is

ee ree es i
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well as in color. The Hackee is one of the livliest and briskest of quadru-
peds, and by reason of its quick and rapid movements, has been compared to
the wren. It is chiefly seen among brushwood and small timber; and as it
whisks about the branches, or shoots through their interstices with its pecu-
liar, quick, jerking movements, and its odd, quaint, little clucking cry, like
the chip-chipping of newly hatched chickens, the analogy between itself and
the bird is very apparent.. As it is found in such plenty, and is a bold little
creature, it is much persecuted by small boys, who, although they are not big
or wise enough to be entrusted with guns, wherewith to work the destruction
of larger game, arm themselves with long sticks, and by dexterous manage-
ment knock down many a Hackee as it tries to escape from its pursuers by
running along the rail fences. Among boys the popular name of the Hackee
is the “Chipmunk.” It is a burrowing animal, making its little tunnels in
various retired spots, but generally preferring an old tree, or the earth which
is sheltered by a wall, a fence, or a bank. The burrows are complicated,
and as they run to some length, the task of digging out the animal is not easy.

70












SALT-WATER TERRAPIN.

The Salt-water Terrapin is also called the Soft Terrapin because its head
"is covered with a soft, spongy skin. The head is large for the body of the
animal and is flattened above. This Terrapin lives in the salt water marshes
ere it is found in large numbers, and it never travels away to any great
istance. During the warm months of the year it is lively and is busy at
unting for its prey, but when the cold weather comes, it burrows in a hole in
the muddy banks of the marsh and crawls into it, lying buried until spring
‘comes and the warm sun wakes it from its long sleep, when it finally crawls
orth again and begins its work. It is more active than most of its relatives,
the Tortoises, and can swim very fast, and walk at a good rate of speed. It
is very shy and knows pretty quickly when danger is near. In this respect it
is different from nearly all of the shelled reptiles, for they are usually dull
_.and sluggish. The color of this Salt-water Terrapin is generally dark

















greenish brown on the upper surface and yellow on the plates which surround
the edge of the shell. Below it is yellow, and in many it is marked with
“spots of dark gray. These spots, however, are not always of the same shape.
The lower jaw has a hook, and the sides of the head are dusty white
sprinkled with small black spots. This animal is much sought after for its

_ flesh, and is most easily taken in the spring and early summer. It is then
_ brought to market in large numbers, but it increases so rapidly that the
tanks do not become thin. The flesh is good at all times, but in the northern
Cities it is thought to be the best when the animal has been dug out of the
mud during its winter’s sleep. The males are smaller than the females, and

_ have the circular lines on the shell more deeply sunken in. Large numbers
of these animals are found in the salt marshes around Charleston. They are
very awkward looking creatures, as every one knows, forthey area good deal

_ like the common mud-turtle. In some countries hunting the Tortoise is a
_ great industry, and this is not strange, for their flesh is really good. The
__ idea of turtle soup, whatever the kind of turtle, is unpleasant to many people,
_ €ven though they can get used to it; but like frogs’ legs and eels, the turtle
_ forms a delicious article of diet. After all there is nothing bad about it ex-
_ €ept that-the looks of the creature set one against the thought of the dainty.

UL





TITMOUSE.

The Yellow-cheeked Titmouse inhabits several parts of Asia, and is
mostly found among the north-western Himalayas, where it is rather abund. —
ant. In its habits it resembles the ordinary Titmouse of Europe. The nest
of this species is constructed of moss, hair,.and fibers, and is lined softly with
feathers. The position in which it is placed is usually a cavity at the bottom
of some hollow stump, generally a decaying oak, and it contains four or five
eggs of a delicate white blotched with brownish spots. The coloring
of this bird is rather peculiar and decidedly
bold. The top of the head, the crest, a
streak below the eye, and a broad band reach-
ing from the chin to the extremity of the
abdomen, are deep jetty black. The cheeks
are light yellow, as is the whole of the under
surface of the body, with the exception of
the flanks, which take a greener hue. ‘The
wings are gray, mottled with black and
white, and the tail is black with a slight
edging of olivegreen. The Rufous-beilied
‘Titmouse inhabits Southern India and Nepal,
and cannot be considered as a rare bird. In
this pretty creature the head, the crest, and
the throat are jet black, contrasting boldly
with the pure white of the ear coverts and
the back of the neck. The back, wings, and
tail are ashen gray, washed with a perceptible
tinge of blue, and the abdomen is reddish
gray, as are the edges of the primary and
secondary quill-feathers of the wing. The
Long-tailed Titmouse is familiarly known
throughout England, and is designated under
different titles, according to the locality in
which it resides, some of its popular names
being derived from its shape, and others from
itscrest. In some parts of the country it is called ‘(Long Tom,” while in others it
goes by the name of ‘‘Bottlecrested Tit,” or ‘“‘Poke-Pudding,” the latter word
being a provincial rendering of the useful culinary apparatus termed a pudding-
bag. During the day the Long-tailed Titmice are always on the move,
flitting restlessly from spot to spot, and bidding total defiance to fatigue. At
night the whole troop perches on the same spot, and the birds gather them-
selves into a compact mass, like that which is formed by the wrens under
similar circumstances. ‘They seem to be careful of their comfort, for each
bird strives to get nearest to the middle, and on a cold evening they fight
vigorously until their positions are settled. When sleeping, they form a
shapeless mass of soft puffy feathers, in which hardly a tail or a wing can be
distinguished. The wings of this species are rather short, but powerful.

72

KN

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weet





HORNED FROG.

The Horned Frog is one of the queerest creatures among the frog tribe
There are several species of these Frogs, all inhabiting Southern America, and
all very remarkable for the singular growth on the upper eyelids which are
lengthened into hard horn-like points. The back of the Horned Frog is fur-
nished with a bony shield, and the growth over the eyes is remarkably bold
and distinct. The body is short, stout, and squat, the skin covered with
tubercles and folds, and the opening of the mouth enormous. It is a large
and very greedy creature, one specimen, when opened, being found to have
swallowed a full-grown land frog. The toes are long, powerful, and with
hardly any web, except just at the base. The little Ornate Land Frog is a
very striking contrast to the Horned Frog on account of its small size, the
activity of its movements, and the beauty of its coloring. It is found in



Georgia and South Carolina, and is always seen on land and dry spots, its
thirsty frame being amply supplied by the dews and casual rains without
needing to go inthe water. Indeed, this little Frog is so unused to the water,
that if thrown into a pond, it makes no attempt to swim, but lies helplessly
sprawling on the surface. On land, however, it displays wonderful activity,
being of a very lively nature, and making long and bold leaps in rapid succes-
sion, so that it is not to be captured without considerable difficulty. The
color of this species is rather variable, but is generally of a soft dove tint, on
which are placed several oblong marks of deep, rich brown, edged with golden
yellow. Below it is silvery white, ornamented with gray. It is a very little
creature, measuring only one inch and a quarter when full-grown. Another
species of this Frog is the Senegal Land Frog, which inhabits Southern Amer-
ica. It lives in burrows-in the ground, and is rather quiet, except before rain.

73



CHINCHILLA.

The Chinchilla is covered with very soft and delicate fur and is remark:
able for the length of its hind legs and its long hairy tail. The animal is
-very small, measuring only fourteen or fifteen inches in total length, includ-
ing the oa which is bouncy nent long. There is a very great demennd
for the skins of the Chinchilla, which are used in the Ponnt ents of articles
of dress. he little creature has not very much intelligence and oftentimes
fails even to recognize the hand that feeds it. It lives in Southern America
among the higher mountainous districts where its thick, silky fur is of great

value in keeping out the cold. The Chinchilla makes its home beneath the
surface of the ground, digging subterranean tunnels in the valleys of the
hilly country in which it lives. In many localities these creatures band them-
selves together in great numbers. Their food consists of vegetables, and they
are very ‘fond of roots and bulbs which they easily dig up with their powerful
paws. While feeding they sit upon their hind feet and pass the food to their
mouths with the fore feet. The Chinchilla is a very clean animal. It is very
remarkable that whenever an animal has beautiful furor is marked by rich
and dainty colors, it is alway very careful in keeping its coat perfectly clean.



The fur of a Chinchilla is of a dark color, gray on the back, softening into
a grayish white on the under part. Besides being dressed and employed as a
fur, the hair of this animal is so long and soft that it is used for the loom and
is manufactured into many fabrics where warmth and lightness are required.
A queer animal inhabiting the crevices of rocky parts of Peru, is the
Lagotis, which would be re sadily mistaken for a hare or a rabbit if it were
not for its havi ing a long tail. The limbs are like a rabbit’s, the coat is like
a hare’s, and the ears are long. It is very active, but never attempts to
escape by se should it chance to be alarmed. When startled or wounded,
it always seeks the shelter of the nearest cranny, and unless this creature is
killed outright by the hunter he can never hope to recover the body. The
flesh is very delicate and tender and it is hunted for its value as an article of
food. This animal has four toes oa the fore feet, while the Chinchilla has five.

74



COYOTE.

The Coyote is a well-known American Wolf. Its habits are very similar
to those of other wolves. Like many other wild animals, this creature will
feign death when its has fallen into the hands of its pursuers and finds that
escape is impossible. It oftentimes does this so cleverly that experienced
hunters have been deceived, and as soon as their eyes have been turned the
animal has made its escape. Many people believe that it is impossible to
tame a wolf, but there are few creatures that like kindness and affection
more than the wolf if it is captured when young and treated rightly. It will
follow its master like a dog, obey his orders, remember. him after being
separated a long time, and generally conduct himself in a better manner than
many dogs. ‘The nest in which the little ones are reared is softly and warmly
lined with dry moss and with fur which the mother wolf pulls from her own
body. ‘The young wolves begin to eat meat when they are four or five weeks
old and they are soon taught by their parents to join in the chase. Some
time ago a gentleman captured two young wolves and kept them until they
were full-grown. One of them became so tame that she would play with her
master, lick his hands, and often go with him riding in the sledge in
winter. One day when he was absent the wolf got loose from the chain she



SONS
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was bound with and was away for three days. When the master returned
home and missed the animal he went out on a hill and called, ‘‘ Where is my
Tussa?”’ as the animal was named. No sooner had he called out than the
wolf hearing the voice, came running towards him and fondled with him,
licking his hands just as a dog would when pleased to see its master. This
animal could not bear other people, but its companion wolf was fond of every-
body that came in contact with him excepting his master. The reason for this
was that he had once stolen a hen and received a whipping, which he never
forgot. European people would shudder at the thought of cating the flesh of
wolves, but those who have been driven to eat the flesh when hunery say
that the wolf when properly dressed makes a really excellent dinner. In all
parts of the world wherever the wolf is found it is very badly abused tor
being a cruel and cowardly creature. A wolves’ nest sometimes contains as
man as nine oung ones, and Mr. Wolf is always very loyal to his wife.

jo







GIRAFFE.

‘The Giraffe erects its stately head far above any other animal that walks
the face of the earth. It inhabits various parts of Africa. The height of i full-
grown male Giraffe is from eighteen to twenty feet, the female being some-
what smaller. The great height of this animal is necessary, as it feeds

“upon the leaves of trees, being able to pick out the very choicest ones by
means of its wonderful tongue, which it can stretch to a considerable length.



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It can make the point of its tongue so small that it will pass into the pipe of
an ordinary pocket key. The Giraffe never attempts to graze upon level
ground, unless it is driven by hunger. The animal is very dainty in its
appetite, plucking only the freshest and greenest leaves. Hay, carrots,
onions, and other vegetables form its diet while it is kept in captivity. It is
a gentle and playful animal, full of curiosity, and observing everything new
with the utmost interest. It has a very mild and kind expression, and many
a hunter is overcome when he sees the tender look on the face of.a poor
wounded animal as it lies silently on the ground, watching its enemy, the
hunter. The Giraffe is a silent creature and has never been heard to utter a
sound even when strugeline in the agonies of death. Although it is so
gentle, it can defend itself against ordinary foes. It does not bring its head
within reach of the enemy, but delivers a shower of kicks with such lightness
and swiftness, that even lions have been known to give up the fivht. But
when a lion can steal upon a Giraffe without being seen, it is easily able to
bring down the poor animal, by dint of bodily strength and sharpness of teeth.

76



MISSISSIPPI KITE.

America furnishes us with the genus Ictinia, a member of which is very
familiar to ornithologists under the name of Mississippi Kite. This fine bird
is a native of various parts of America, where it may be seen at a vast
elevation in the air, sailing about in strange companionship with the turkey
buzzard, and equalling those birds in the power, grace, and readiness of its
flight. Why two such dissimilar birds should thus inhabit the same region
of air, and delight in each other’s society, is a very perplexing question, and
requires a much clearer knowledge of the species and its habits before it can
be satisfactorily settled. The Mississippi Kite cares not for carrion, and is
not absolutely known to make prey of anything bigger than a locust. Yet
st ig observed that the powerful hooked beak and sharp claws seem as
if they were intended by nature for the capture of prey much more formidable
than grasshoppers, locusts, and butterflies. In its flight, the Mississippi Kite

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necds not to flap its wings, but sails on its airy course with the same easy grace
and apparent absence of exertion that is so characteristic of the flight of the
vultures. The very great proportionate length of its wings may account for
this habit; the entire length of the body and tail being only fourteen inches,
while the expanse of wing equals three feet. Being possessed of such power
of flight, it emulates the swallow-tailed Falcon in many of its evolutions, and
‘12 similar manner is fond of sweeping rapidly past a branch, and snatching
from the leaves a choice locust or beetle without checking its progress. Like
that bird it also feeds while on the wing, holding its prey in its claws and
transferring it to its mouth without needing to settle. In character it seems
to be a most fierce and courageous bird. The colors with which this bird is
decorated are, though simple in themselves, exceedingly pleasing in their
general effect. ‘The head, neck, and part of the secondaries are a grayish-
white, and the whole of the lower parts are whitish-ash. The back and
upper portions of the body are ashy-black, and the pinions are deep black.

TT



AMERICAN FOX.

The American Fox is sometimes found with pale yellow fur, some with
fur of a blackish color, others of a reddish fawn, while many are remarkable
for the manner in which the blick, the white, the yellow, and the fawn colors
are scattered over the body and limbs. In almost every case there is a dark-
ish cross stripe over the shoulders which causes the animal to be sometimes
known as the Cross Fox. The American Fox has a very large share of
cunning. One of them, on whose track the hounds had often followed, was
always able to baffle them at one particular point on the crest of a rather
stecp hill. Up to this spot the scent was very good, but there it vanished
and so the fox was lost. One of the hunters was so disappointed that one
day he hid himself near the spot and carefully watched the hunted animal.

GS






As soon as the fox was driven from his cover, he led the hounds a long chase
through woods, ponds and thickets and at last came at full speed toward the
crest of the hill. As soon as he reached the spot, he laid himself down and
pressed his body as closely as possible to the ground. Presently the hounds
cine along in full cry, following a strong scent. They darted by in hot pur-
su t,never sopping until they reached the bottom of the hill. Assoon as the
last hound had passed, the fox crept quietly away over the brow of the hill,
and returned to his covert at leisure. Another of these animals always led
his pursuers to a large cliff that rose perpendicularly for several hundred
feet. ‘The desperate hunters had often examined the spot, but without suc-
cess, for it seemed to them that no animal without wings could venture to take
such a fearful leap. The secret was, however, at last discovered by some one
watching from a concealed position. Some feet below the edge there was'a
break in the cliff, forming a kind of step about a foot wide. By means of his
claws the fox let himself down upon the step and then disappeared in the hol-
low, which could not be seen from above. A man was lowered by ropes to the
spot, and found that there was a wide opening in the rock, to whith the
step formed an entrance. Searching the cavern it was found to have another
outict opening upon the level ground above. The fox, however, never used
this entrance when the hounds were on his trail, but cut off the scent by
scrambling over the cliff and coming out at the other side without any fear
of discovery. ‘There is no finer sport than hunting these cunning creatures.

%8



HEDGE SPARROW.

The song of the Hedge Sparrow is sweet, but not varied nor powerful,
and has a peculiar‘plaintive air about it. The bird is a persevering songster,
continuing to sing throughout a large portion of the year, and only ceasing
during the time of the ordinary moult. Like many other warbling birds, it
possesses considerable powers of imitation, and can mock with some success
the greater number of British song-birds. This bird is nearly as bold as the
sparrow, and will sometimes take up its residence in cities, where it soon
gains the precociously impertinent airs that characterize all town birds, speedily
loses the bright rich brown and gray of its plumage, and assumes as dingy a
garb as that of the regular city sparrow. The color of the Hedge Sparrow is
bluish gray, covered with small brown streaks upon the head, and the back
and sides of the neck.: The back and wings are brown streaked with a
deeper tint of the same hue, and the quill-feathers of the wings and tail are of
a rather darker brown, and not quite so glossy. The chin, the throat, and
upper part of the breast are gray, and the lower part of the breast and the

















abdomen are white with a wash of pale buff. The legs and toes are brown
with a decided orange tinge, and the beak is dark brown. ‘The total length
of the bird is nearly six inches. ‘The Alpine Accentor is another interesting
bird. Several specimens of this bird have been killed in England, but it is an
extremely rare visitant to that country, and is hardly entitled to take rank as
‘a true British bird. .The countries where it is usually found are Italy,
France, Germany, and several other parts of Europe. It is a mountain-loving
bird, seldom descending to the level of the plains except during the stormy
months of winter. It can readily be distinguished from the ordinary
Accentor by the throat, which is white spotted with black, and by the
chestnut black and white streaks upon the wing-coverts. The Alpine
Accentor is larger than its British relative, being six inches and a half in
total length, and its blue green eggs are larger than those of that bird. The
nest is generally placed at a very low elevation, seldom more than two or three
feet from the ground, and it is rather large in proportion to the size of the bird.

79



SALAMANDER.

The celebrated Salamander, the subject of so many strange fables, is a
species found in many parts of the continent of Europe. This creature was
formerly thought to be able to withstand the action of fire, and to quench
even the most glowing furnace with its icy body. It is singular how such
ideas should have been so long promulgated, for although Aristotle repeated
the tale on hearsay, Pliny tried the experiment, by putting a Salamander into
the fire, and remarks with evident surprise, that it was burned to a powder.
A piece of cloth dipped in the blood of a Salamander was said to be unhurt
by fire, and certain persons had in their possession a fire-proof fabric made, as
they stated, of Salamander’s wool, but which proved to be asbestos. The



notion of the poisonous character of the Salamander is of very old date, as
the reader may see by referring to any ancient work on Natural History.
One of the old writers advises any one who is bitten by a Salamander to be-
take himself to the coffin and winding-sheet, and remarks that a sufferer from
the bite of this animal needs as many physicians as the Salamander has spots.
If the Salamander crawled upon the stem of an apple-tree, all the crop of fruit
was supposed to be withered by its deadly presence, and if the heel of a man
should come in contact with the liquid that exudes from the skin, all the hair
of his head and face would fall off. There is certainly an infinitesimally
minute atom of truth in all this mass of absurdities, for the Salamander does
secrete a liquid from certain pores in its surface, which, for the moment, would
enable it to pass through a moderate fire, and this secretion is sufficiently
acrid to affect the eyes painfully, and to injure small animals if taken into
the mouth. The Salamander is a terrestrial species, only frequenting the
water for the purpose of depositing its young, which leave the egg before they
enter into independent existence. It isa slow and timid animal, generally
hiding itself in some convenient crevice during the day, and seldom venturing
out except at night or in rainy weather. It feeds on slugs, insects, and sim-
ilar creatures. During the cold months it retires into winter quarters, gen-
erally the hollow of some decaying tree, or beneath some mossy stones.

ane 80



PRAIRIE DOG.

The Prairie Dog is a burrowing animal, and as it is very gregarious in its
habits, the spot on which it congregates is literally honeycombed with its
tunnels. There is, however, a kind of order observed in the “TDog-towns,” as
these warrens are popularly called, for the animals always leave certain roads
or streets in which no burrows are made. The affairs of the community seem
to be regulated by a single leader, called the Big Dog, who sits before the en-
trance of his burrow and issues his orders from thence to the community. In
front of every burrow a small heap of earth is raised, which is made from the



excavated soil, and which is generally employed as a seat for the. occupant of
the burrow. As long as no danger is apprehended, the little animals are all
in lively motion, sitting upon their mounds, or hurrying from one tunnel to
another as eagerly as if they were transacting the most important business.
Suddenly a sharp yelp is heard, and the peaceful scene is in a moment trans-
formed into a whirl of indistinguishable confusion. Quick barks resound on
every side, the air is filled with a dust-cloud, in the midst of which is indis-
‘tinctly seen an intermingled mass of flourishing legs and whisking tails, and
in a moment the populous “town” is deserted. Not a “dog” is visible, and
the whole spot is apparently untenanted. But in a few minutes a pair of dark
eyes are seen gleaming at the entrance of some burrow, a set of glistening
teeth next shine through the dusky recess, and in a few minutes first one and
another Prairie Dog issues from his retreat, until the whole community is
again in lively action. The title of Prairie Dog has been given to this animal
on account of the sharp yelping sound which it is in the habit of uttering, and
which has some resemblance to the barkingof a very small and very peevish
lapdog. Every time that it yelps it gives its tail a smart jerk. This peculiar
sound is evidently employed as acry of alarm; for as soonas it is uttered,
all the Prairie Dogs dive into their burrows, and do not emerge again until
they hear the shrill whistle which tells them that the danger is past. Pretty
as it is, and graceful as are its movements, it is not a desirable pet.

8l



PUFF ADDER.

The terrible Puff Adder is a native of Southern Africa, and is one of the
cammonest, as well as one of the most deadly, of poisonous Snakes. It is slow
and apparently torpid in all its movements, except when it is going to strike,
and the colonists say that it is able to leap backwards so as to bite a person
who is standing by its tail, This formidable looking reptile is more dreaded
than any other of the numerous poisonous Snakes in Africa, a fact which
mainly results from an indolent nature. Whilst other and more active Snakes
will move rapidly away upon the approach of man, the Puff Adder will fre-
quently lie still, either too lazy to move, or dozing beneath the warm sun of
the south. This reptile attains a length of four feet, or four feet six inches,
and some specimens may be found even longer; its circumference is as much
as that of a man’sarm. Its whole appearance is decidedly indicative of venom.
-Its broad ace-of-clubs-shaped head, its thick body, and suddenly tapered tail,
and its chequered back, are all evidences of its poisonous nature. It derives
its popular name from its practice of puffing out or swelling the body when
irritated. There is certainly in nature no more fearful an object than a full-
grown Puff Adder. The creature grovels on the sand, winding its body so
as to bury itself almost wholly in the tawny soil, and just leavingits flat, cruel-

oO
looking headlying onthe ground and free from sand. ‘Vhe steady, malignant,



stony glare of those cyes is absolutely freezing as the creature lies motionless,
confident in its deadly powers, and when roused by the approach of a passen-
ger, merely exhibiting its annoyance by raising its head an inch or two, and
uttering a sharp angry hiss. Evenhorses have been bitten by this reptile, and
died within a few hours after the injury was inflicted. The peculiar attitude
which is exhibited inthe illustration is taken from life, one of the Puff Adders
in the collection.of the Zoological Society having been purposely irritated. It
is rather curious that the juice of tobacco is an instant poison to these creatures,
even more suddenly deadly to them than their poison to the human beings
who can absorb the tobacco juice with impunity. The Hottentots will often
kill the Puff Adder by spitting in its face the juice of chewed tobacco.

82



LION.

The color of the Lion is a tawny yellow, light on the under parts of the
body, and darker above. The ears are blackish, and at the tip of the tail
there is a tuft of black hair. The male Lion, when full-grown, has a thick
and shaggy mane of very long hair, which falls from the neck, shoulders, and
part of the throat and chin. The Lioness has no mane, and the male Lion’s
mane is not perfect until the animal is three years of age. When full-grown,
the male Lion measures four feet in height at the shoulder, and about eleven
feet in length. But when these noble animals are kept in captivity they do
not grow so large. ‘The Lioness is smaller than her mate, but she is quite as
terrible in combat; and, indeed, the Lioness is ofttimes a foe much more to
be dreaded than the Lion. When she has a little family to look after,
Leaena is a truly fearful enemy to those who cross her path. Hunger is the
great cause of a Lion’s boldness, and when this animal has plenty to eat it
does not trouble itself to attack man or beast. The Lion does not come








Fionn
SESS
SSS
A
5

SS

ASS

boldly out on the plain and give chase to his prey, for he is not swift of foot,
and will not run into danger without good cause. He can make tremendous
leaps, and with a single blow from his terrible paw can crush any of the
smaller animals. If the Lion has been prowling about during the evening, and
has found no prey, he places his mouth close to the earth, and utters a terrific
roar, which rolls along the ground en all sides, and frightens every animal
which may chance to be crouching near. He very soon has one for supper.

83



LYRE-TAILED GOAT-SUCKER.
























\ cf RA iw

‘ii

















SN Bs
WN SNRs

AY i RSS s
Fp



Cy










The common Goat-Sucker was called
Aigothéles or Goat-sucker by Aristotle
in the days of old and has been re-
ligiously supposed to have sucked
goatsever afterwards. The Latin werd
caprimulgus bears the same signification.
It was even supposed that after the bird
had succeeded in sucking some unfort-
unate goat, the fount of nature was im-
mediately dried up, and the poor beast
also lost its sight. Starting from this
report all kinds of strange rumors flew
about the world, andthe poor Goat-
sucker, or Nightjar, as it ought more
rightly to be called, has been invariably
hated as a bird of ill omen to man and
beast. A very remarkable form of
plumage is seen in the Lyrc-tailed
Goat-sucker. This beautiful bird is a
native of Columbia, and is notable for
the extraordinary development of the
outer tail feathers. Although the bird
itself is by no means large, very little
exceeding the common English Nightjar

* in dimensions, the total length of an adult

male Lyre-tailed Goat-sucker is nearly
three feet. Indeed, the general contour
of the body and plumage remind the

observer strongly of the resplendent
‘Trogon, which is remarkable for its

beauty. The general color of this
species is the mottled dark and light
brown which is universal among the Goat-
suckers, but is diversified by a band
round the neck of rich chestnut. The
primaries are nearly black, with an
exception of a few chestnut spots scat-
tered irregularly upon their necks.
The extremely elongated tail-feathers
are deep brown black, edged with a
warm band of pale brown upon the
inner web. ‘The outer web is hardly
a quarter of an inch wide, while the
inner is almost an inch and a_ half
in width. Several feathers of the tail
project for some distance, and lie upon
the base ef the elongated feathers.

84



QUADRUMANA.

7B
~

a) a :

ey

HARES
DY

GVH

} a ar
\

\ NS
WO LASS

iis



The Quadrumanous, or four-handed animals, are better known by the titles
of Apes, Baboons, and Monkeys. We are all familiar with the small mon-
keys that are led about the streets in company with a barrel organ, or seated
in equestrian fashion upon a bear or dog. ‘These poor little creatures have
been trained to stand upon their hind feet and to shufHle along at a slow and
awkward pace, but if they are startled, and so forget for a moment their ac-
quired art, or if they wish to hurry their pace, they drop down on all fours
and scamper off with an air of easy comfort that is very unlike their former
effort to walk on two legs. The dithicuity seems to increase with the size of
the animal, and the largest apes, such as the orang-outang, are forced to bal-
ance themselves with outstretched arms no matter how carefully educated.

85



’ SEA LEOPARD.

The Sea Leopard is distinguished from other seals by means of its slender
neck and the wider gape of its mouth, which opens further backward than
is generally the case among these animals. The body is rather curiously
formed, being slender at the neck, and largest towards the middle, whence it
tapers rapidly to the short tail. The fore-paws are not connected by any
membrane, and are largest at the thumb joint, getting gradually smaller to
the last joint. The claws are sharp and curved and rather deeply grooved,
their color is black. ‘There are no claws on the hind feet, which bear some
resemblance to the tail fin ofa fish.. The color of this seal is generally a pale
gray on the bare portions of the body, with a number of pale grayish white
spots, which have caused this animal to be known as the Sea Leopard. It is
not a very iarge animal, the largest ones being scarcely ten feet in length.
Around the thickest part of the body, the measurement is nearly six and a
half feet, around the root of the tail about three feet two inches, and around
the neck barely two feet. These animals are mostly found in the Southern
Hemisphere. Another curious animal is the Crested Seal. ‘The head of this

Yigg 4G d Seta
a —- GSU a



creature is broad, and the muzzle is very short in comparison with that of
the Leopard. The teeth are also very remarkable. The reason it is known
as the Crested Seal, is because the fullgrown male have a crest, which rises
sharply over the head to the height of six or seven inches, and is keel-shaped
in the middle. The onset of an enraged Crested Seal is much to be dreaded,
for the creature is terribly fierce when its anger is roused, and its strength is
very great. The teeth are extremely powerful, and can inflict very danger-
ous wounds. When fighting, these animals use their claws as well as their —
teeth. The male Crested Seals are very vicious, and during the season when
they choose their wives, are in the habit of fighting desparately with each
other for the possession of some attractive lady seal; and in these combats,
they inflict terrible punishment upon each other. During the fight, they
emit a torrent of loud passionate screams, which can be heard at a very great
distance. These males have to fight each other very often, as they are not
satisfied with one mate, each one ruling over a small herd of wives. The fur of
this animal is of some value, and great numbers of the skins are imported into
Europe and put to various uses. The Seal is much valued by the Greenlander.

86



CROWNED CRANES AND DEMOISELLE CRANE.

The Crowned Crane is very striking, its coronet of golden plumes and
the scarlet cheeks making it a very conspicuous bird. This species is a native
of Northern and Western Africa, where it is usually found in swampy and
marshy localities, which it frequents for the purpose of feeding on the insects,
molluscs, reptiles, and fishes, which are to be caught abundantly in such places.
The Crowned Crane occasionally indulges in fantastic gambols, and on account
of the conspicuous crest and general aspect of the bird, they have an effect
even more ludicrous. In captivity the Crowned Crane thrives. well, and its



























































habits can be readily watched. At the Zoological Gardens there are some
fine specimens of these birds, and anhour may be pleasantly spent in watching
their proceeding. Sometimes they rest still and stately, one leg tucked under
them quite out of sight, and the body balanced onthe other. Sometimes they
like to sit on their bent legs, their feet projecting far in front of them, and
their knees, or rather their ankles, sustaining the weight of the body. At
another time they will walk majestically about their inclosure, or begin their
absurd dances, while a very favorite amusement is to run races at opposite
sides of the wire fence, and then come to a halt, each bird trying which can
yell the loudest. The voice is very loud, and has something of a trumpet in
its hollow ringing resonance. The forehead is black, the feathers being short
and velvety. From the top of the head rises a tuft of long straight plumes, of
a golden hue, fringed with very delicate black barbules. The skin of the
cheek is bare, and part of it is bright scarlet, the upper part being white, andrun-
ning into a small wattle on the throat. Theheight of this bird is about four feet.
. 87



WATER VIPER.

The name of Water Viper is appropriately given to the creature now
before us, in consequence of its water-loving habits. It is a native of many
parts of America, and is never seen at any great distance from water, being
found plentifully in the neighborhood of rivers, marshes, and in swampy
lands. It is a good climber of trees, and may be seen entwined in great
numbers on the branches that overhang the water. On the least alarm, the
reptile glides from the branch, drops into the water and wriggles its way
into a place of safety. The object of climbing the trees seems to be that the
creature delights to bask in the sun, and takes that method of gratifying
its inclination where the whole of the soil is wet and marshy. But in those
localities where it can find dry banks and rising grounds, the Water Viper
contents itself with ascending them and lying upon the dry surface enjoy ing



















































































































































































the genial warmth. It is a most poisonous reptile, and is even more dreaded
by the negroes than the rattlesnake, as like the fer-de-lance, it will make the
first attack, erecting itself boldly, opening its mouth for a second or two, and
then darting forward with a rapid spring. At all times it seems to be of an
aggressive character, and has been known to chase and bite other Snakes
put into the same cage, the poor creatures fleeing before it and endeavoring
to escape by clinging to the sides of the cage. But when several other
individuals of the same species were admitted, the very Snake that had
before been so ferocious became quite calm, and a box containing four or
five specimens has been sent on a journey of many miles without any quarrels
ensuing among the inmates. The food of the Water Viper consists of fishes,
which it can procure by its great rapidity of movement and excellent swimming.

88



ST. BERNARD'S DOG.

These splendid Dogs are among the largest of the canine race. The good
work which is done by these Dogs is so well known that it is only necessary
to give a passing reference. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and
accustomed from its birth to the deep snows which everlastingly cover the
mountain-top, the St. Bernard’s Dog is a most useful animal in discovering
any unfortunate traveler who has been overtaken by a sudden storm and
lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out by fatigue
and hardship, and fallen into the death-sleep which is the result of severe cold.



Whenever a snow storm occurs, the monks belonging to the monastery of St.
Bernard send forth their Dogs on their errand of mercy. Taught by the
wonderful instinct with which they are endowed, they traverse the dangerous
paths, and seldom fail to discover the frozen sufferer, even though he be
buried under a deep snowdrift. When the Dog has made such a discovery,
it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the
sufferer, and endeavors to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form.
The monks, hearing the voice of the Dog, immediately set off to the aid of
the perishing traveler, and in many cases have thus preserved lives that must
have perished without their timely assistance. In order tc afford every
possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits is generally ticd to the
Dog’s neck. But of all domesticated Dogs, the Poodle seems to be, take him
all in all, the most obedient and the most intellectual. Accomplishments the
most difficult are mastered by this clever animal, which displays an ease and
intelligence in its performances that appear to be far beyond the ordinary
canine capabilities. It is a cleanly little creature and very affectionate.

29



RINGED BOA.

The splendid Ringed Boa of America, sometimes called the Aboma, has
been celebrated for its destructive powers, and in ancient times was wor-
shiped by the Mexicans and propitiated with human sacrifices. Naturally
the people of the country would feel disposed to awe in the presence of the
mighty Snake whose prowess was so well known by many fatal experiences,
and this disposition was fostered by the priests of the Serpent deity, who had
succeeded in taming several of these giant Snakes, and teaching them to
glide over and around them, as if extending their protection to men endowed
with such supernatural powers. This Serpent destroys its prey after the
fashion of its family, merely by squeezing it to death between its folds. While
thus engaged, the reptile does not coil itself spirally round the victim, but
wraps fold over fold, to increase its power, just as we aid the grasping strength
of one hand by placing the other over it. It is said that the Snake can be re-



\e Sax.
\. ~ S&S \ ‘ S

1a
ty



moved from its prey by seizing it by the tail, and thus unwinding it. More-
over, a heavy blow on the tail, or cutting off a few feet of the extremity, is
the best way of disabling the monster for the time. This creature is rather
variable in its coloring, the locality having probably some influence in this re-
spect. Generally it is rich chocolate brown, with five dark streaks on the top
and sides of the head, a series of large and rather narrow dark rings along the
back, and two rows of dark spots on the sides. Sometimes a number of large
spots are seen on the back, and white streaks on the sides. In all the members
fo this genus, the hinder limbs or ‘‘spurs” of the male are larger and
stronger than inthe female. Another American species, the Dog-headed Boa,
or Bojobi, is notable for the formidable armament of teeth which line the mouth.

90



BARN OWL.

i €

This species 1s generally considered to be the typical example of the Ow]
tribe, as it exhibits in great perfection the different characteristics of the
Owls, namely, the thick coat of downy plumage, the peculiar disk round the
eye, the large eyeballs, and the heavily feathered legs and toes. The
feathers are so thickly set upon this bird, that it appears to be of much
greater dimensions than is really the case. When standing on its feet, or
while flying over the fields like a huge bunch of thistle-down blown violently
by the night breeze, the Barn Owl appears to be rather a large bird; but
when the creature is lying on the bird-stuffer’s cable, after its skin and
feathers have been removed, the transformation is really astonishing. ‘The
great round head shrinks into the shape and size of that of a small hawk, the
body is hardly larger than that of a pigeon, and but for the evident power of
the firm muscles and their glistening tendinous sheaths, the bird would
appear absolutely insignificant. Although so small it is a terrible bird to
fight, and when it flings itself defiantly on its back, ire glancing from its eyes,







At \
Zann




a SP
> Se TE
ae Wa

and its sharp claws drawn up to its breast ready to strike as soon as its
antagonist shall come within their range,,it is really a formidable foe, and
will test the nerves of a man to some'extent before he can secure the fierce
little bird. So fiercely does this bird strike, that there is record of an
instance where a dog was blinded by the stroke of a Barn Owl’s claws. The
Owl was a tame one, and the,dog—a stranger—went up to inspect the bird.
As the dog approached the Owl, the bird rolled quietly over on its back, and
when the dog put its head to the prostrate bird, it struck so sharply with its
claws that it destroyed both the eyes of the poor animal, which had to be
killed on account of the injury. While its young are helpless, the White Owl
watches over their safety with great vigilance, and if any living thing, such
as a man or a dog, should approach too closely to the domicile, the Owl will
dash fiercely at them, regardless of the consequences to itself. The nest ot
this species is placed either in a hollow tree, or in a crevice of some old
building, where it deposits its white, rough-surfaced eggs upon a soft layer of
dried “castings.” These nests have a most ill-conditioned and penetrating
odor, which taints the hand when it is introduced, and cannot be removed.

91







SAND LIZARD.

This reptile is extremely variable in size and coloring, so variable, indeed,
that it has often been separated into several species. Two varieties seem to
be tolerably permanent, the brown and the green; the former, as it is believed,
being found upon sandy heaths where the brown hues of the ground assim.
ilate with those of the reptile, and the green variety on grass and more ver-
dant situations, where the colors of the vegetation agree with those of the
body. Though quick and lively in its movements, it is not so dashingly active
as the scaly Lizard, having a touch of deliberation as it runs from one spot to
another, while. the scaly i.izard seems almost to be acted upon by hiddin
springs. It does not bear confinement
well, and in spite of its diminutive
size and feeble powers, will attempt
to bite the hand which disturbs it in
a place whence it cannot escape.
When it finds itself hopelessly im-
prisoned, it loses all appetite for its
food, hides itself in the darkest cor-
ner ofits strange domicile, and before
many days have passed, is generally
found ‘lying dead on the ground.
Unlike the scaly Lizard, this species
lays its eggs in a convenient spot
: and then leaves them to be hatched

= we by the warm sunbeams. Sand
banks with a southern aspect are the favored resorts of this reptile, which
scoops out certain shallow pits in the sand, deposits her eggs, covers them up,
and then leaves them to their fate. The eggs are probably laid for a consid-
erable period before the young are hatched from them. A's has been already
remarked, the coloring of the creature is exceedingly vari: ble in different in-
dividuals. Generally it is sandy brown above, with some faint bands of a
darker brown with rows of black spots, which sometimes have a whitish dot
in their center The sides have a tinge of green more or less distinct, and
the under surface is white. In some individuals the green is very distinct.
The average length of the Sand Lizard is about seven inches or ‘a little more.
A very curious animal is the Cape Spine-foot. . All the Spine-foot Lizards are
inhabitants of Africa, and most of them are found towards the northern por-
tion of that continent. This Lizard is found on the sandy districts of Great
Namaqua-land. The color of this Lizard is a very peculiar brown above,
changing from yellow brown to a much warmer hue, partaking of ithe orange.
The top of the head is mottled with dark brown, and the back’ is freckled
with the same hue. From the eyes run two whitish bands on each side, the
lower terminating at the hind leg and the upper reaching some distiince along
the tail. Between and about these bands are bold brown mottlings in the
male, and an orange wash in the female. The upper part of the lees is also
mottled with dark brown. The toes are very long, especially those of the
hind foot and are edged with a fringe composed of sharply pointed scales.

92.






AWE
We %
TEND






, ZEBRA,

The Boers, who call themselves, by the title of “baptized men,” think
they would be derogating from their dignity to partake of the flesh of the
Zebra, and generously leave the animal to be consumed by their Hottentot
servants. When wounded, the Zebra gives a kind of groan, which is said to
resemble that of a dying man. In disposition the Zebra is fierce, obstinate,
and nearly untameable. The efforts used in reducing to obedience the Zebra
of the Zoological Gardens are now matter of history. The little brindled
animal gave more trouble than the huge animals, and it overset calculations
by the fact that it was able to kick as fiercely from three legs as a horse from









four. Inits habits the Zebra resembles the dziggetai more than the dauw,
as it is always found in hilly districts, and inhabits the high craggy mountain
ranges in preference to the plains. It is a mild and very timid animal. fleeing
instinctively to its mountain home as soon as it is alarmed by the sight of a
strange object. Between the zebras and the domestic ass several curious
Mules have been produced, and may be seen in the collection of the British
Museum. It is worthy of notice, that wherever a cross breed has taken place,
the influence of the male parent secms to be permanently impressed on the
mother, who in her subsequent offspring imprints upon them some character:
istic of the interloper. The genuine, or Mountain Zebra. will be be found to
be nearly white, while the bands which cover the whole of the body and legs
are seldom anything but a glossy black. At the tip of the tail of this animal.
there is a peculiar tuft of black hair. Its home is mostly in the mountains
of Africa, its choice being the central or southern parts. Few animals
are more noted for their wildness, wariness, and wonderful swiftness.

93



STONECHAT AND WHINCHAT.

The Stonechat is one of the birds that remain in England thrdughout
the year, being seen during the winter months among the furze-covered com-
mons, which are now rapidly becoming extinct. ‘The name of Chat is earned
by the bird in consequence of its extreme volubility, for it is one of the nois-
iest birds in existence. Its song is low and sweet, and may be heard to great
advantage, asthe bird is not at all shy, and, trusting to its powers of conceal-
ment, sings merrily until the spectator has approached within a short distance,
and then, dropping among the furze, glides quickly through the prickly maze,
and rises at some distance, ready to renew its little song. It is a lively bird,
ever on the move, flitting from place to place with restless activity, and ever
and anon uttering its sweet strains. Even in the winter months the Stone-
chat will make itself audible as it flutters about the furze-grown spots in
which it loves to live. It is in these localities that it finds its supply of winter
food, for the thick furze-bushes afford shelter to various worms and insects,
and the little Chat is able to procure a plentiful meal by digging in the damp
ground. The nest of the Stonechat is made of mosses, grass of different
kinds, and is lined with fine fibres, hairs and feathers. The number of eggs
is from four to six, and their color is very pale blue, diversified with numerous








EEN




So \\
Lae on ey Le
awa PBA NU






Ue UNAM SS UNS S Wh
\\) wy MY li A

iy I
Kk (| i SEY RO AL XS aes *

EY AB EM AE SM RC RRR WY

hy PAIN lle, SSeS SS f DUK

minute spots of reddish brown upon the large end of the shell. The colors
of the Stonechat are rather pretty. The head, the neck, the chin, throat,
back and tail, are deep sooty-black, contrasting boldly with the pure white
of the tertial wing-coverts, the upper tail-coverts, and the sides of the neck. |
The remaining wing-coverts are deep brown, and the quill-feathers of the
wings are also brown. The breast is chestnut, and the abdomen yellowish
white. The total length of the bird is rather more than five inches. ‘The
bird which occupies the left-hand of the illustration is called the Whinchat,
on account of its fondness for the furze or whin. ‘The Stonechat has, how-
ever, quite as much right to the title, as it frequents the furze as constantly
as the Whinchat. This species may be easily distinguished from the preced-
ing, by the long and bold white streak which passes across the sides of the head.

94






BRINDLED GNU.

The faculty of curiosity is largely developed in the Gnu, which can never
resist the temptation of inspecting any strange object, although at the risk of
its life. When a Gnu first catches sight of any unknown being, he sets off
at full speed, as if desirous of getting to the farthest possible distance from
the terrifying object. Soon, however, the feeling of curiosity vanquishes the
passion of fear, and the animal halts to reconnoiter. He then gallops in a
circle round the cause of his dread, halting occasionally, and ever drawing
nearer. By taking advantage of this disposition, a hunter has been enabled
to attract, towards himself a herd of Gnus which were feeding out of gun-
shot, merely by tying a red handkerchief to the muzzle of his gun. The
inquisitive animals were so fascinated with the fluttering lure, that they



actually approached so near as to charge at the handkerchief, and forced the
hunter to consult his own safety by lowering his flag. The same ruse is fre-
quently employed on the prairies of America, when the hunters desire to get
a shot at a herd of prong-buck Antelopes. Several experiments have been
made in order to ascertain whether the Gnu is capable of domestication. As
far as the practicability of such a scheme was concerned, the experiments
were perfectly successful, but there is a great drawback in the shape of a
dangerous and infectious disease to which the Gnu is very liable, and which
would render it a very undesirable member of the cattle-yard. Ordinary
cattle have no love for the Gnu, and on one occasion, when a young Gnu of
only four months old was placed in the yard, the cattle surrounded it and
nearly killed it with their horns and hoofs. The color of the ordinary Gnu
is brownish black, sometimes with a blue gray wash. The mane is black.

95



ANOLIS.

All lizards of this kind are very active, inhabiting trees and jumping about
from branch to branch with wonderful skill, and clinging even to the hanging
leaves by means of their curiously formed feet. The Anolis is a native of
America, and is a bold and daring animal, haunting out-houses and garden
fences, and in new settlements, it even enters the houses, walking over tables
and other articles of furniture in search of fles. It feeds on insects, and
destroys great numbers; seizing them suddenly and devouring them rapidly.
Towards the spring these creatures become so quarrelsome that the adult




IW

y NI ys

\iy
Vy

males will hardly ever meet without a fight, the vanquished usually coming
out of the fray with the loss of his tail. This misfortune, however, often
happens to both combatants. The color of the Green Carolina Anolis is very
variable, altering in the same individual, according to the season, the temper,
the health, or even the present state of the creature's temper. Generally the
whole upper surface is beautiful golden green, and the abdomen white with
a tinge of green. The throat pouch is white with a few little spots, and five
bars of red, which color, when the pouch is inflated, spreads over its whole
surface. The total length of the Green Carolina Anolis is nearly seven
inches. The Red-throated Anolis is perhaps a little too fond of fighting, and
terribly apt to quarrel with others of its own kind. Those who have wit-
nessed a fight between two of these lizards say that it is remarkable for
ferocity, courage and endurance. They face each other with swollen throats
and glaring eyes, their skin changing its lustrous coloring, and their whole
being instinct with fury. As during each combat, one or two females are
spectators of the fight, it is probable they may be the cause of the war, and
that the victim may reccive his reward from one of the female witnesses of
his prowess. So fiercedo they become, that the conqueror sometimes devours
the vanquished, who escapes if he can, even with the loss of his tail, whicl: is
left writhing in the victor’s mouth, and soon swallowed. Those who have
thus lost their tails seem to be greatly affected at the mutilation, and are
timid and languishing everafterwards. The color of the Anolis is greenish blue,

96



BRAZILIAN PORCUPINE.

In Southern America is to be found this very interesting Porcupine, which
is sometimes known as the Coendoo, and which is not only very remarkable
for its array of quills, but also for the very grasping power of its long tail.
The extraordinary power which it has of seizing hold of a branch by its tail,
and also the peculiar way in which its claws are armed, enable it to live in
trees, which are its native haunts, and where it finds its food among the lofty
branches. On level ground, this animal is slow and awkward, but among
the boughs of trees it climbs with great ease, drawing itself from branch to
branch by means of its hooked claws, but seldom using its tail except as an
aid in descent. The food of this animal consists of leaves, flowers, fruit,
bark, and the soft woolly substance of young and tender branches, which it



slices easily with its chisel-edged teeth. During the summer months, the
Brazilian Porcupine becomes extremely fat, and its flesh is then in great
request, being both delicate in flavor and tender in quality. The young of
this animal are born in the month of September and October. The totai
length of the Brazilian Porcupine is about three feet six inches, of which the
tail occupies one foot six inches. Its nose is thick and blunt like that of the
common Porcupine, and the face is furnished with very long whisker hairs of
a deep black. ‘The numerous prickly hairs which cover the body are black
in the center and white at the end. The length of these spines is rather
more than two inches on the back, and an inch and a half on the forelegs.

y 97



RESPLENDENT TROGON.

Of all the birds of the air, there is
hardly any which excites so much
admiration as the Resplendent Trogon.
Many, such as the humming bird, are
gifted with greater brilliancy of color,
but for the gorgeousness of hue, beauti-
ful tints, elegance of shape, and flowing
grace of plumage, there is no bird to
equal this in all the feathered tribe.
This magnificent bird is a native of
Central America, and was in former
days greatly honored by the ancient

exican monarchs. None but members
of the royal family were permitted to
decorate themselves with the flowing
feathers of this beautiful bird. The
Resplendent Trogons are fond of in-
-habiting the most dense forests of
Southern Mexico, and generally haunt
the topmost branches of the loftiest
trees, where they cling to the boughs
like parrots. The color of the adult
male bird is generally of a rich golden
green on the upper parts of the body,
including the graceful rounded chest,
the head, neck, throat and long lancet
shaped plumes of the shoulders. The
breast and under parts are brilliant
scarlet. The central feathers of the
tail are black and the others white with
black bars. The wonderful plumes
which hang over the tail are generally
about three feet in length, and in very
fine specimens, have been known to
reach three feet four inches, so that the
entire length of the bird can be said to
be four feet. The bill is of a light
yellow color. As is often the case with
birds where the male is remarkable for
the beauty of his plumage, the female is
altogether an ordinary and rather insig-
nificant bird, at least to human eyes,
although beautiful enough in the eyes
of her mate. In all Trogons the skin
is very delicate, and the feathers are so
loosely attached that they easily fall out.

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Copyright by
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PREFACE.

The fame of “ Wood’s Natural History” is world wide, and it does not

2 need any commendation beyond the name of the originator ci so great a stand-
ard work. © This edition has been carefully adapted to meet an ever grow-
ing demand for a natural history to place in the hands of boys and girls.
The chief aim has been. to avoid technicalities and anatomical expressions
‘that confuse the juvenile mind and prevent an enjoyment of the elementary

studies, so conducive to a correct estimate of the marvels of creation, and the
profound wisdom of an Almighty Creator. In the compilation of this work
the fact has been borne in mind that the most- beneficial instruction is enter-
taining; and it is firmly believed that every intelligent boy and girl will not

> only receive valuable lessons from a perusal of this book, but will be fasci-

nated by the wonders of Nature and become wiser and happier from the
knowledge thus’ gained. Practical wisdom does not demand a wearisome

trudge through columns of Greek and Latin names. In this volume a sincere

effort has been made to present authentic information in plain English.

’





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ad












. Bd Te Bs
SW MLE C0 :

og
LIST OF CONTENTS

WITH

Ad Cec ARR UtE ey an ee ectae yer eer ee era ee pete
African Antelopes, Group of

ILLUSTRATIONS



Er tere ao ees I
ANeoroamn JByuill WMO. baacsnescooeseonbedd sée ee
African Crocodile at Home.................. 12
PNUD geh bore Sy erent meee eee ach rc perme ncy Gretetter ai L72
ANMMGgeisoNe INE ooo osaveospacoeadansracne 385
AMYOEKOE: ABNOOEY 5 po poccgaHesudpocsuanodesedcse 369
PATI e hi CATIEg IS! 2 C kag C2 gene aen ray ae en ae 222
Nineteen JMS OS. scccondeoseanedbuacscunen 359
ANGE INOS Jon son anced co eoedooohsougasnce 78
ANETCRIN WIOWROVS .cccecorvosccodscaatadse 1g
PASTE Tet CATAG 1c C Ranta ane ae ne ae 265
ANGay NUS RIIOE, SOO 5505 eoccustussdcagoeuas 180

BEAT ACOT CU Opener gra oats meee eS ene un aye n ete 17
PXiicre agg ccl tame yin Oa beeen eer ra ie eres er ane 245
PNG Ge asi S Teg aeesine sean sree yee tep seen eres as 16
PAG SCAR ee re en Sree ty ee eae eh eae 249
Ast, Singagin, Since Wavtled..oosecnaceooudecs 280

“, AMES OPIS, SAG. .csveccsagessaasawovaenenss 185
Antelopes, Group of African ................ 313
ApS, IBEMOEIAY. ccandocopansdsaenovconenennes 342
EASE CLIC AED O NAG rrate pret sneer ree geen ea ey 421
Ate leaGaze lle prin oie iene er ee 230
Asim cl GAL @ areca ite ean ee ae een te ee Oye een 198
SAIS Se Peer ac Pe ne (oer IS EN ee Sa eR ae 36.4
AAS RAN aia) IDMOCITHON.. sg naaovadacusdeaned ove 378
EACISRDC EL Mer Me rtenyet tantra arate pane ene nC 358
Azunen Cacrebasca yore oe herrea nen rans 306
Azure Throated Bee Eater .................. 231
Je¥ulororornis\, GAROWHO) Ole onandcoanacannennoroanose 51
uoadtahn, Cayo pocs4cg0enucoscdavcasdaadnaa 360
Balk G ro weer errr r henner meaner ea era ee 283
Beuld, lelgelecl Wag 55. snccaanocvenancesesos 131
Ieilerhaene OMNONGS, oc ooncoscdsoscoussuavonseee 365
Beurorest, Wiotie IBMCSd) ...6so5n00ccsesconcges 266
BarnbanyeeApeay cme ees eae ne a 342
Bae) wile acre pavers, Wie oa meerae cere rr petayseen weeds gl
BASTAS Ca raion Gernmen re ret rnin wean nent eas 311
IBASST eae esp aitch cinta te ary ramen emake erent Aces 255
IBEKG, Whoa OES ooouauounsdsanancbaecossooasue 48
Beads snake mimaanmeinsi Yoweri tts ccs 135
Ree, Avmenieain IBC. 5. 500ccc0snssge000008 222)
BearaeArm tyrone ee inne ay eco Se eet ie Deans 249
Bear BLO ws ees hese ae ieee hence rs eects ateiee 408
Jeeeie, Cinbaby.goousee puoeedsudeqeosucueHede 201
BeareRolarnic sev sean cancer eerie ciny ieee: x0
Bear eoam ciety cise amine memos creer eee ners 182
IB CaTam S11 cae ee tees 209
IBCeNENEU EEL ACROVHON. a ag aaanannssvosoaneavosdon 110
D3 CAV. CER coms ceaiceh aieecher cen ere een tegen re eee 289
Beechwiviaintenuu ey yar mer ern et eeeer I4o
Bee Eater, Azure Throated................ 231
SL JEL: nce vocoagedusndvacceononooapoods co BOY
Belted@Elorsemanven eer eee ers ee 315
Beltedskanefishe ran eee rer re nr riiern ve «65
Eso KorReral AHS IMME? 5s vacsacdauoesouaonnoo . 116
Bird Cedarmeeerrerciacte rere etn +. EI2
Is EREL, HE oo gdancos0oage ee eee eae tek SA

Bird of Paradise, Incomparable ............. 153
indkotelaracdisewlNc damm nrnararir ener arn 333
Mie! os? Jemabis, SEED. os o000e0000000000 nae
1BhMES Crt eeTECISS . snqogoonncapuneasnoednodns 344
BIS OT te ee eRe A Ts 320
Black and Yellow Grosbeak................. 368)
UP Ter SVE Can eye et wt ek ai ele eats ae Unt aate eeenee yee 58
HES TC cause cise WIT @ 1 C CUT need Bae)
FS Tal eat a Cae ope eee eee oy Pe omer 42u
Blawik GOK. pccgucvcvsavensncseonsoaovesene 155
Jeiievelte WAVE wacnon cucoabnoanebtanedoance ooo 3844
IBlennies a aeons ween See tee yr nse van nears QD)
Blindwonm wemerrmerk rs as here ence ees 157
31 Oo Glin ctl een ay perenne ane erst aera ae 22
Blue and Yellow Macaw.................... 252
Blues Birdeyew reat taser ere ree eer rede 20)
Blue [easy AVES. cocoponnsaocg es osoeuden 359
IB kos) ITMMOWSS, po osocacovaddaosvgouscossouee Ball
13 Opel OC Cena ey rrr ee eer as ee enone go
Oar aWAl Geeta ere tee ere eee ree 235
BO DOlinIKA wees ater etten See emenata aretha ea yr aaae 234
ibYorabeehal, (Conse. os oseu duct ouog su sobonoMded us 381
IBowier Jehbxel, Sjoerd. pcneaounaansoocnosoons BZ
IBrone “boii gedo Gusuocadeasmannonohannes be 47
HES Teel urn e es CU ee aaa ne Pa 330
IByesia lian WWAVedO..occnocdsacnooasusosooesccnse 2B
NFS reel UTS reo 188
ral anPLOnCUpil Cherri rer tear e asia es 97
NS REV rae Gr Tl anne nee arenas tn ia rar ome wees 178
lehebollerel Guetiil pcoonccasonsanneveseousannbee 95
British Shrews, Group of................0.. 179
British Wagtails, Group of.................. 133
British Warblers, Group of. .............-00-- 373
ISRO WATHISC aie eetesn ns ee emen cre ree pent ara nre ONNp arg 4os
IB TOWATEOWa se cpr eee eer sneie oe cea ore 106
Brown WAYwye IW on oonsosoundegncooabecane 343
Ipybuneaiko}, (CHUB, cogaauesnnbagoogcodsnnosoo bese 410
A135 21 3 Te Fao 330
TB LD OC een gem rns ice cony spelt y trate: erst are 187
IB ULGLO Su ree Panne ence acer rere era 355
Sal BE RO Came Aci Tal C2 hl tae ee se ae ener I4qt
BB Ulleada keen pect enero nore ema eae mera 413
Isxeibl, Sinores ISIOUN, poo cceacccosangensucvougce 309
Ikan Sines, WitegOr'S. .acsonnedesansvbannesso 117
Buzzard ayn rrehe cara one Neri eae ne 13
Buzzard, Honey ........ eae ets espn eee 120
Were), ANGRY . opocacooosogdsecaaeoadaoun 136
@acrebawAzurenene cee ene ee 306
(Ga oy ee ees hres ean cre ere tees Rene en eae 398
Cannel, IBAOUBNN 5 ocacccsescesouascosngsseaud 360
Canadar@ wilt ere nasser canis ere ee 204
Wanlaigyie ees er eae terrae Cot nes 356
5 Chine IESUTRMO) wooo onnntboocvoodsonpdoaseeouns 410
Capesharentol awn eet terete ee ees 396
CHypeetey p osoacocanacasuousdussooccnadoddos 407
CardinaliGrosbealcanee rere ret 312
SATIDOMS Nar ee Eee 406
CarolinagearrO buen rrr eRe etree od.)
Cart Horse, Clydesdale ...................., 60 Dog, Newfoundland ........... SOEs COE 150

SC HIU ctna reteree s O ath att aio A ees are eter ees ae BS, DOS ERENT nc onsoacandssadobeesuecsnbouede 81
CHVPIBIENGL cidcto pe eh AG ana dead ncn sea ne ea nae 18 Dog, St. Bernard’s........... eee tr 89
VER Wa LER care ony fr nen ee iy ca ene ee 287 ee) OUT eepeeewre rere eg tn eee a Ree rine, ae Sree 279
Cedarabird eye aerate errs cen nue nen UN DISH ANOWES , onooucovvsvonesusbcs boanendoneuan 287
Chaetodon, Long Spined.................... date ID aevexern, INK AbOE,, sn oagcndokoandeosnooROsAcas 34
CHEEMOUNTS, choccosonssudsevaneoneeceoakonns iu ID Sy NBIL, SONS pascaucoen vavdacsabnnasen 52
Chain cht ae nron er vaste neta i my mannan s 247 Hagle, Bald Headed ..............-.0:-0e00s 131
Chameleon wren eet E errr pyr mara meme mig) DEVAS), JEIREWAUDE NL, oc oooeon anaes auacaesese sas 225
(AT O1S Mepis ce ne ecoe ae ne ee mre 252 Eagle, Imperial.......... SorrecRedsvere See ken ies 69
Chat, Yellow Breasted...................00. U5) IBEle, NEGA, oso condovanooananeonananasoan 304.
ChimaeraseNonthcrn see ees ee en Ho IAA ENGL INGE. wa peoeesonseogneduqudeeoose 99
Chimpanzee ene en ray ee een one Bie) IBeAyoypienn (CiRereoVelNlS.o awopnsnenanqagnansnoceos 390
Cites. ccnancosenatpscodasoanuasvocanece 7 SER AVE NV ONBUIRS, cv omolaaasyncsdsonbneeooonn 37
Climibinog Perch veers aera an mre ues 12 5a MOLE PHaTitiepeten ee een tt eee np ae parents eee 346
Cikvolosdails (Catt IBIS, sy canece cua wouacone Go. ape) SUIS, cacoonanedepaectasbesesoouces 36
Convela WViorho Siaaiiees . 5 sabe aneagoannncuganuce 54 Epimachus, Twelve Thread................. 105
Coloiellese ING, sacnasoekeeeebapecdouuunwe aon dhe} — IBopeubane yeh IDO. sho aachencnansaneccannasen 299
(Colonie, ISOC. tanesaesononnowesdumenodes 12 OUT @ Mea TVET cep aree eee aa a teeny rene er 202
(COs Ori WAS INCI. scan cond einubvondsecu an 4 ise Iohyctcl IVAN icin vase aoa nacqnvencuoenovdne Wey
Clore aries, (Catowulp) lls ow caausuasaawoneanescens Agi IOS Chawendanaeseuosasnosennoune 414
Cockatoo, Leadbeater’s..................... 7 PLL v.e Claw O yn CCl OMe yer nan ey Raps anna nen 258
Coelar Syeenuielkst os. ne denedin mesa swe eonnsoass BS4eehalconsmbauchin opm ee yaaa nr enon 268
(COCETLIS Tepe ey Bhi emotes ne in na OR 42. Halconseswallow, dlailediee eye ren anne 248
Columbians Dhornbille a pasate eae eee UM SAMOS, (CMON). Cissy ansadanevodgenavccorssa 284
Wom mlOneliro cape pee face mos bee maar iatet 20 ae LCT Cle 2711 COM ra eee ee ee 394
Common Land Tortoise..................0.. 257 Fiery Topaz Humming Bird................ 374
Commons Miousee sav oo nen enn 267 ‘Fifteen Spined Stickleback.................. 303
Conlin ongS kates eee ine eee ee gor IE aKSlaVesh LCS r ONE) OE Sngunapadaanoadnansuosoaes 317
(Coroavoavenar Swobatlke,, a wean on ate ee kes oak wwe OO Mea CORES leuk: c Cay eens ee ee 57
Womunongs tanlii commer ee say pene aie SOO mmulycatchermRaradischer sry =e ra waren en eenenn ee 154
(Crosaayonvenny Westistiol ce cee ake aamieteee su casa and 2y Teme LOL vit) gle) Tal 2. Teer eg ea ee ae eee 34
ComimonwlrceiCrcepetaer ie ene 416 ee LN 1:10 Ls Oe ee 244
(COTTcl Omer tte oe rte ee an ow nn TUES) = Lobe, FNROGO,. Savacndwacdaoo Ad beccnbeesuumaa as 421
Congo Snake ..... Re Ne en eA cited he OO 3 0 Om LO XA ANTE 131 Ce 1 ae ee 78
Wogtietiems pam clecivay. 6 een ven imene neues 5 Om era: ]ayi1'01 Saperecom n E 244
(COTABSE Sie chia lee te reen ap nena mn Rn he 27 3 Games LO X:11 0 UT) CL ee 194
C ORAS 1. Copymen se yer hee Otani on ne iy seen BAS, JES ICL Uosomoakesunbowennye'eodcasaooubss 124
COwmRiOopialmeey ays a ee ey ee ie ck Seat PH) of abikeyel Wat. weno denunaeedsos bs bwhuuabe mas 339
(COV OLE pamigen nr at ty one Sp Remenmis ent ne tye 75 Fringed Tree Gecko ................ccceeuee 400
Crab Eating Opossum...................... ayy. Wideyez, Awbctoehn WD, oot chis do nape noenvadeaas 141
Cringe, CHuonyoal+, ohwaced dee anncatemeone sue 87 Frog, Bicolored Tree....................... 116
CreepereCominon gh necme ase in neni ANP den nOyed: ENED Nera SAS Gees hg ane Ao oe shan saw owes 355
Creepers Cunycd=billedmen) een ee Oxy Aieoyen. (Cloyatenloye . gvcsnnvshoesadcoancdasessont 291
Cirevspnreies, ANU o's fog 4 w vrscagints dics oa Ye Fo adh eae Bi Soya JSUT ooh dasg Woon stews aunshe canon 73
(Cinewstasel OMICS, : shee he aniowd overs unashueas 363 Frog, Savannah Cricket..................... 38
Crestedmtitr a scanner ae meen nS onnt 25 Aas TOO Sere CC tay yee etc tee cee an peng 192
Crocodile WeNhici Career pee an ert nea 127 Fur Country Pouched Rat .................. 329
Cirssochils, IBRABBE |... se hcuyedchahomwseaan BOO “(Crabaaloyteyel Iola s) on awahagemounodsee na beneede 417
Crocodile Gancicticoeee see ta eeue alemnns Som GanceticuCrocodil aay. een epee) anne 316
CODON G etysteeean eet aM eees at ts eas EN 3700 iGarrnloustEloneyab ater er een yee an 122
Cio, BRVGL, sé voeoaa neous monde aéamennon com 283. Garrulous Roller.............. ee ea chet sn Ne 108
Citonsy, Conerhe Neva leat ep ned an ee oka avne Garni, AGES. was ngacadadnasnoasbeswocuaws 230
(Crowes 2 nil p11 Os aee ene arent ane mn ee 264 Gecko, Fringed Tree.....................2.. 400
(Crow nede Craiiies a een ann gyn een aan mai! Sime Gilanite re vey sen ean wee a keene an ene 178
(Crowne des Crallc C here ere en Ca Pio AGREE INSHO Nu A oenschoapaddousauackaes rete 293
Cironaned! IPUKCOMm. nd aadanokaw ees oat. avaws, 324 Gigantic Salamander ....................... 53
Cironraical Wevorieapssta so ouaauendes dagen 3.0 Side TALL (Sereno en thes Sonn ar nc) tao ode: «ean a 76
Curved-Billed CECE) SL oe ee ek oie pe Gilets Shia... pqocuasasdceteauuussdupaucan as 1610
Cisne Oe. + ..sannugosnaascanscancusses Sie. (hlestiy) Itsy So womunindonobon bende suaneedied 39
HL T1171 WR19) Ceara neon a Ct DEES pie Craibh, Dee AON. wartcs sad aGonAslodianawaawen 95
IDs” ASSIS 4 db oA Rao os aundeuunonusevin doe BHO GOAL ite er cere ass hoe ea Di ER 270
De Lalande’s Plover Crest.................. 15 Goat Sucker, Great Eared................... 40
DIONE Sd caine hacuaatpninancasaaisdedan cease 176 Goat Sucker, Long Winged................. 100
112i O72 Cees, cl ap ee ae Sn DSRS 164 Goat Sucker, Lyre Tailed................... 84
DicaeummeAT Str alia mes yee ee sete iaienans 378 Goat Sucker, Virginian ..................... 213
PLD DEL ect a eae prea eae Lay OGIO ey (Erollaleyal Oras aon audoshuvanéenencacenotoas 216
Divers Greate Nonthic nie pyre eemen nine 33mm GoldenwnhreerSnalc wis tyne un nnnnnsnnnes 204
0 Seyi ll eer eevee Peay teeta ec tee RI 187 Golden Winged Manakin.................... 138
Dog, Danish Dating: Ferns Ie ae ST RT ee RT arect oh ee, (Gro ypSaNSae Y NOWOITS.. 4 riigy n canesaanee soanan enone 380
SID OCT Titanet paterwa tt inn gue Mii PC OCR at TOO reaps Cron] ea tee, Seer rater co ieee Ger tag ae ere RR 41
Deis MEMS cnoanndiooaunoodoosnanoee Hien tore MACE 5 oe coo aom mon oacuatonntmucnoe Lee
Gould’s Neomorpha ............. ee eeeeee eee 134

Galle, GrorwieCl oo nscoonacnouanndponacacnet 219
GreateBilled@ocdviiry aks tern eerrrtsrcetcle 30
GreatwbilleduCrowawereericenerrr erect 341

Great Eared Goat Sucker

Rs ane Cee ee oO
Great Northern Diver............. cece ences -
GreataWieavierliSlimre prececrtieeea a ners 322
GreennuCchynereper ye eer enc ce. 302
Greenland Whale...............-.se cece cree 336
(Greenwleizar dinette ee tree tracert rae erore 137
Ghiteyerny 4 Moreh?’ 5 cnopomaecoouanoods vononnonovods 67
Greene huntlomermer rrr eters cee 163
Grey houndtneisy eerie rircrrirr ei cits 32
Grizzlyabeatiana metres err a 201
Grosbeak, Black and Yellow ................ 368
Grosbeak, Cardinal ............. eee eens 312
Ghaoiel IHW. .unagonadcoonsugooansdsoo ona 125
GroundySqtiicne lee repent tacit racr rt: 70
GUCheZ a mer marie teri pen err h yer encrars 314
Guinecasbicter prem r eee crate k 223
are eet errr ey eee atte ir heperem cee 348
arcietam Abies mmrerty ter rrtr eerie 20
Rlantebeestyae crim mera werr rita tte etrcr 55
Hawke SPaTrOws on ss ieieciniei ere sreieieneys cies cer 56

eElawkobilliedsuintlemnremers waneie rise citar 158
Ile dg eh 0 Genet te teesaver rected ners seekers 250
Hedge Sparrow. ... 0... cece eee eee een ees 79
Helmet Crest, Linden’s...............-2.-5. 168
Memigaleermcrrrtescrrtr nities be
Highland Sheep...............-. eee e eee ee 224
Hippopotamus. .... 06... eee eee eee ees 193
EOD Dyan tee reer eT (era
Hog Nose Snake. ........ 00. e eee eee eee 384
Honey Buzzard........... 0c ee eee eee ene ees 120
Honey Eater, Garrulous .........-....-..55- 122
Hooded Copravgacecnen seein eine ees 129
TOO POC ee ane ee see ais eo cebare oleate nets 209
Hornbill, Rhinoceros...........6.02 eee eee 326
Hornbill, White Crested ..............--245. 290
ocnbilise Group Otwempenery mc eer 377
Horned Frog .. 0.0.2.0. es scence eee eee 73
Horse, Clydesdale Cart ...........+.-.-.--55 60
HousesMiantenmrens ee eerie ee 160
Humming Bird, Cora’s Shear Tail.......... 278
Humming Bird, Fiery Topaz..............-. 374
Humming Bird, Ruby Throated............ 28
Humming Bird, Salle’s Hermit ............. 151
Humming Bird, Snow Cap............-+-.-- 50
Humming Bird, Sun Gem................--- 278
Humming Birds, Group of...............+-- 115
Humming Birds, Ruby and Topaz.......... 415
Hunting Cissa.......... ee eee eee ene 274
Hyena, Striped. ........ 0s cece eee eee eee 305
exer eer eee errs Daten Tos 263
Ibis, Glossy.........- sce e eee cect ee 39
Hbisse sacred seer ne eerie asta Leese 39
Tgtiana 0.0... een es 31
Imperial Eagle ...........- eee cece eee ees 69
Incomparable Bird of Paradise.............. 153
Indian Rhinoceros........... eee eee eee eee 218
Jacamar...... cece eee eet eee eens 186
Jackal... 0... eee eee e ee t eee enc ne es 372
Jackdaw 0.0... cece eect e eee eee eee ees 383
Jackass, Laughing........-......s seer sees 375
Jaguar... ee eee cece eee nner eens 347
Japanese Singlethorn.............+.-se-eee: 211
Jardines Harrier......... 0... e cece eee eee 20
Jay, American Blue.............+.es eee e eee 359
John Dory........ cee cece eee ete ene eens 420
Kangaroo 2... . cee c eee eee teen tee ee etenes 403
King Bird... .... cece cee eect en eee tenes 181
Kingfisher. ..... cece cece reece ener eter e ees 21

Kingfisher, Belted. ..........-. cece renee eee 65
Kingfisher, Ternate ..........-. essere eens 143
Kingfishers, Group of. ........ 5.0. sees eens 119
King Tody ....... 0. cece ee eee cette eens 132
King Vulture....... 0.22 eee e eee renee ees 175
Kite, Brazilian ..............-- cS EME er 188
Land Tortoise, Common.........-...eee eee 257
Langaha .....6.... see cece eet eens 204.
Laughing Falcon.............+.+eseeeese eee 268
Laughing Jackass ..........5 6... esse eee ees 375
Leadbeater’s Cockato0.......... secre eee eee 174
Leopard, With Other Animals ............-. Ir
Leopard... 0... cece eect ete ees 241
Leopard, Sea.. 1... ecient ee ee ene 86
Linden’s Helmet Crest...........--e eee eeee 168
Tenner e re manrein three aecmest a: 302
TEL OT ee eh ere ite entity ricoceneiets ais: 83
Lion and Lioness........... esse ee ee eee ees Il
Lion, Gambian. ........... 0. eee ee eee eee 417
Ife Seeiocpacsucenosopeneensscodeqeoueouac 345
Lizard, Eyed ......... cece eee eee nes 137
Lizard, Frilled ........... 0.000 eee eee eee 339
Lizard, Green ..... 6. eee eee 137
Lizard, Sand..........0--0 0s eee eee e ee ee es g2
Lizard, Scaly..... 00.00... cece eee eee 2

Lizard, Scorpion. ...........0. 0s ee ee etree 148
Liama Alpaca ........ 00. eee tee eee nes 309
Long Eared Squirrel.........-..- 60.00 e eee 371
Long Spined Chaetodon..........-.-.++++5: 416
Long Tailed Titmouse..........-.++-.+ sees 243
Long Winged Goat Sucker........-..+-+++-5 100
Lynx, European. ..........-. +202 seer steers 202
Lyre Bird........-22 ose e etree 403
Lyre Tailed Goat ‘Sucker.........+++++eee es 84
Macaw, Blue and Yellow.........-.-.+.-555: 252
Weyl jon ednncsonaaumop go ternsoascaneny 382
Macropidae ......... 002. e vere eee ees 404
Magpie. ........ cere cee erent teens 331
Malachite Sun Bird..............2..- see eee 126
Malayan Tapir.........-0..- 0s sere e eens 281
Maltese Dog......... cise tees 107
Manakin, Golden Winged.......-.....+.-555 138
Vicari Cctv eet een 220
Marine Oreocephale............0++ 000+ sees 310
Marten, Beech. .......... 0. eee eee ees 140
Marten, House ..........- 2c e eee eee e eee 160
Martial Eagle...........0. seers 304
Matamata’.... 0... - eee tenet ees 14
Meadow Pipit.........-.0. 20sec terete ees 273)
Menopome .........-e reese eee eres 393
Merian’s Opossum.......6. 60.0 s ee eee eee ees 205
Vita coe eee er eer er cucee ket taecitunooen ne 27
MEMO IDC atc caesar re 308
Missel Thrush, .......26...- 00. ce eu ee cee e eas 165
Mississippi Kite.............--22 seer eres Tel
Mocking Bird. ......-..6 0.500 teers 173
NG lee ene rarer rere eet pt bseenere 327
Mole Rat, Slepez.........e sere e eee e eee 144
INEOLOG Hitec rote crn sen rner ease 379
Monitor, Nilotic.........-.- see eee eee eee 123
Monkeys, American..........++.-++sses ee: 19
IMI@ONSa,connonanodsasiooscesobnsonanaenastes 197
IMOGINNE oo moscavnoucuenadesunmnguoces snemOnS 26
Mouse, Common........ eee eee ee ree trees 207
Mouse, Opossum... ..... sees sree eee e ese 130
Mud TDOrtoiSes o.cncsccsne cue oo creineis ensienetons sloth orien 17
Miisk Ox fo igre noises sete erernere ie reteset 288
IVs ea Raa eereneeenepeterateiareisinte en evekeien uecetonern mnonsione 242
Mustang ..........ceee sees sees terre settee: 323
Natal Rock Snake ....... eee eee eee reece eee 64
Neomorpha, Gould’s.....-..eesseeee ees 134

Newfoundland Dog........ seers reese eee 150
Nichtingal ener yess errr eee immer: 203
INDOtICeVioni tol eee rer ret rte eer eeer 123
INoTtherns Chima erasers serie eye trea 208
INTE Cra CK ere as crrny a erte atte oy ise te cee Sener E27
TING VL Am eat te arcu -e Pte este ter enn er etn AA ease 139
OPOSSUM emery sia es senescent Perea eee 272
Opossum, Crab Hating...................05. 297
@possumPp Vera nl Same ey erie ee rete or 205
Opossum MouScher ener Eeren errant reer 130
COypaiiver (ONbgesbolers wooo apopnecanananndensenenoee 350
@rchardsOriolemnrn eer ree ee ener 261
Oreocephale, Marine.....................05- 310
@TrecOSOMae new ney are eee ey yee vie 429
Oriole, Baltimore............ Page tens ees eae 365
OniolewCrestedeey eerr seria erie en ie 363
@riolenGoldente. ww iereeee ree SE eee 216
COmiole, Oia! -pacsnskeoouncesnscensvennos 261
OORT cedcdadsu donbud casngboschdegs cone coc 214
Otters nrc asta tak oan a deleisnn meee 142
Qun Cena Matias canter: eee reer ears 238
Owl AB ROW ce cee Ae ene: Cree 106
Owl Canadatennmacciass cin Gare nEran ire 294
Ohl, Salone ononaasoganesedenoondnacedsobne 24
@ wl RAV cot ce) cu7 CCL nee ear en eer eee 352
OxMEMUSK eae cacerie ie rtan eterna arane nies 288
Raradisem i by.catchetprrn yer aire 154
IpAaTralKe © bali oC Cen nn eR en ape rarer 401
iPenocole, (Celio apapeomddonageen ‘ecossooan SO)
JHSOREIAY yoodeadcnbeeedemboovomnAadcougbocous 285
RCE CHEN phrnc tron ee yee Cee toe tite. ieee ame tes 29
Rerchhe Giantonecasccuyeen rans cee ie iern neers 293
RhilippineiCrowreerrinertirccrniae inci cr ns 264
IPG, Waiaeebee, Sona ucadaodnenboHnoouuaonoed 42
IPiexel (Cirongy Sov, coop cuawoepuedooupesbeugac 361
Pierson, (OOM. cosnnedacencmeassunsaqaous 324
AP os GOUT CUR reeee eae ae eR eee ee TS Se I25
Rice Meena © Tel C outa eae eaten pee ee eae eee et 263
RilotePish a .eanrec re tater mater mw ere 428
itd Gaal C peepee ee Freee ero en rare tees 210
Ripines Crowns lnilenrp merase rare eee 147
Pipi elVleacl O Waseem terse re ener e aes 273
Ripie ree eta vars eee ary wate era hee Toe 251
Plover Crest, De Lalande’s................. 15
irre 3 tee S 119 er Doerr eae wea 196
IPOUIECTS Pag reper ees tee tre ane a ae eee ge eae 232
RolareBeanrcray were tite et mien arrest IOI
Ietopsoyesdahabiehal IDYelee, se caudAaunGonadpacadouoon 260
Rony shetlan clear eerie eter aera 102
(POTCUpING eee ere ere ee een LS eee 276
Porcupine, Brazilian...... ee maT Vee roa eye 97
IRORDOISCis wae enn tee ae ea itt ae eae nee 325
Pouched Rat, Fur Country.................. 329
PLATS) OCIA wraten mente nua er Vite ne tein Stee ees: 81
Pte Ad de raner cn acecmer meson cen citer hee ees 82
UT Ae ee RVR eS PA art eA TL oe pe cere ys tate ria cea 128
Quadrumana.......... Meee oe eter etree 85
QuaG Caetano mitteraensn aa seiiach sisi uae aieestets 362
FRACCOO Nie mae ene me nein ey eee eee 338
RACE BELOESE merci Stein dsiantie este eaiiseern rete 357
Rate Blacks pe ncene cette sa ctccnae erers Raerety agian 426
Rat, Fur Country Pouched.................. 329
FRAP MUS gay ra eee reas te Mian atte eae 242
at Sle pez lO Cremer tte wae eter re eerie 144
RMN (cl CG Ty eee ere eee Pa Can a ee gseee ee Ve 103
Rattlesnaker pers steer cat erent eeen as 217
FRAVED terrors Ree teen ake ner are Nokona lene 104
Redebindiotebaradise see tmrey erent 333
Red breastevaacsccc ci nernmecs aie ne 226
Rael Mots IM os usuieundaboseudnoosnoaadds 57
RediScorpion Wishiien casera ici a 367
Redwing ..........66- Mae la nerin eee ie 195

eimdecer sane nie rat a ey een ep re eeneee 423°
Resplendent Trogon........... Ree ees 98:
Repvevoreerdos Iekoynulowls oonosocouoununscouadoo 326-
Reino cerosmelndianwenn eer ee eres 218
Ringed Ook wmrert ehaciet cre ne tie eee 2. 90
RinecdBRanakee tee eer et Pera nett ee ne 401
IRYofelie hil idey, INGWEM oon ods osconsoodguaanouna’ 64
Rodent Animals, Group of.................. III
Roller Garrulousmepe teeter rh ene 108
ROOK EAI ah ese rann ee oerem eyrrea ya 337
Rose; Coloreds Pas tone eee reer ier eee re 300
Ruby Throated Humming Bird........ yee. 28
Sa DIC Ree praca e ern eeae ea ae terete ag et eecerer cc 118
Sa blemAn tel oper rer nee en re arn 185
Sacred Ibis....... Mae erere sh Seca aay Cea tes ese 39
ShilepangwGler oo oecapcecdausudwascouacsogoouous 80
Salamander, Gigantic................03.000- 53
Salle’s Hermit Humming Bird .............. 151
Saltwater Merrap immanent erect aes 71
DANI CEB CAT Aer ttey sar ewan re ste Pa A Nese te 182
wanda izarcde weer tern iemas ot ener: oo OF
SapphosC ome trae seer ren ena rr 239
Savannah Cricket Frog................0000- 38
SAwHlS ee oh ia Wee Onn ee cee ome Me Is 207
SOmhy IWAN. ae ono de oadreddoodacaoeuasobon 25
CATE HE ORE PaATll Sap rereas eerie ener eer ere 52
Seaidla, Ware eee. ocogoocrossacscogeoadR 66008 306
SOEs, WMO sw snagunoaupadcesnesauated 1g0
CORP OMENS HNC clay marine nn ar ero 367
SWorrjertoinl IVER so onanaoenangcsoocdaan son 148
SCARS IEC O12. ae epee ae etree eae eee ees 86
SO age 1 OTe eer ee en Minne es aye ety 345
SEE SUSAN oacconasctoee@eceranae gaan ears 427
DCA WO Lie rare ev nee er eee we en cee eu yee RN Ne ree 422
SORAEIAY leiiddl, Cn opeagodaee sddbacrocdoenaaas 353
Seaese, IMAM. .oosoaceegceeaavaaaddoonaoee 36
Shaft Tailed Whidah Bird.................. 286
Sinewdic, VMAS, scam ec oancoadeacauaencaoveanacs 49
SHED eae ar tas nner et ne eae eN ena ema PSS)
SUIS, TGMBING! on oeywcudeavasooucnnacune 224
Shepherdesis)) Goce rere ere rrr e ree: 246
Sieienavel TO, no aveosaspasesdneowencdan cus 102
Savors JSkoyon ISL. Ao u Pee aw cunuovunecensuead 309
ShorteRailedwAntedbirushiwe ere 280
SINE IVI. sony obayoccoubauassegasnoessoud 199
Shrews, Group of British.................... 179
Slinikem i cde Crows eerie eee Terr rene 361
Shrikemripincs Choweersre Peer ee er 147
lobe ge Wik SIS, noncaganagcnosusananoe 117
Shomikes, WCC ooosasccupounaedn denounced 166
ShrikesGroipio tee rere neo ern rae 307
Singlethorn aa panesenme meme eer ernie 211
Sines, ANIONS. wc aaaoeoannensoodaeuguace 301
Sleaiys, (Consol ¢ goaueckoossuovsnoounnecan 301
Siataile; (Copano » soonanenneogasoveasouapacen 169
Skunkeye sacri generar reas EO eras » 43
Sky cevhernenyrn ease tre ceassei cet s » 146
SlepezeMolesha taser rrr irri eer riven sarye » 144
Sipiles, IKEA. cn oacanesocorodessamanens mega, 135
Swe, NAO. vsngendendeosubannancane a LSS
Siaeilige,, (Cooevelal Wilobho), oo oo nacoarepeanoannandse 54
Sia ies, Cosvexo..5 ccsocoodcdouronsnendiouawony , 386
Seis, (Coit), consosossdsavcoagnsacouon wuss 376
SnakeiiGlassayeccn ce Mery herr ere 161
Snake, Golden Tree................ Scere: 204
SNAKe we OCsNOSCH Uy ee eee ere 384
Snake wNatalRockny ser ase acer 64
STA CRIT ote Cline tee map tere tep eer era eters tore artery 66
Snake shin d Creeper eee epee rte errs 376
Snappinogkuntlemaeeem meyer aree ats »e» 167
SHOWs Bird tnt eure er or en nec eee 292
Snow Cap Humming Bird................. . §0
Sworn; Owls cosrsasansostaovvecaveosoreoouss 24
Sociable Weaver Bird...............-. eee eee 296
Sooty Amphisbaena ........... 00. see ceeeues 180
Spangled Coquette............... eects eee eee 50
Shrike, Syrstngers covoansanaasasoudunsasaaa 340
SpanielsaCOcken emerge ae aE Uae eas 340
SWOHIIOW BBE anoosgooccguesdestmonnatanonn 56
Gyeaimtony, locke, spancususncosdatavdvocosnoy 79
Spemmacetiqainale terre: rete eee cere 227
‘SpoonbillUStunec one reer treater ier 199
Spotted Bower Bird........ Rar gate ne 262
Sjoowtacl IG .suspossoocsaodonescane nes oseves 25
Spotted Ground Thrush..................... 236
SJOMUNEHIROS: yaa boscocdooomseganacoedaouans 233
SprinGers pamiel Siren rrr rete cet tere 340
Soles, specaegaoshesnocacysesconwaubRbesen 152
Squirrel, Ground............:.. ++: seen ee 70
Squirrel, Long Eared..................--5-- 371
Sikelbtayse, (Commi. svavcgnasesesuoscapgaros 399
Sey aNeinomie, AVN oo doceutnainesuduecoess 245
‘S GpBennandesm) Opp pe irre rir racrt rir 89
Sticklebacks.....- aon eee Oe nae: 253
Stickleback, Fifteen Spined................. 303
StOat en ey CE RR en ee tyes 387
SHOT e CH Lae ere nani ee or rei eee ees 94
MGI atta geodaannoecdemobtundossonoamagods 391
Sthipedily.cn aseere a) tte ey ee ererr tee 305
GHARIREREOM . po pe uasaediacceooabaacubaonueowaus 63
Sturgeon mopoomloil len ener ra. cts tee 199
Sciam ING, neacvonstcoacacapoansssonso0s 418
Sion Wine), Weibel, osasoesoasdeoreosanvn 126
Stine Genie ee DR Ainge ea ae etn ey eg 278
Superb Bird of Paradise.................... 332
Superbeblumen Bind heer ere ene i: 156
Sg tc rae Oe epee eee eae 319
CriPulWON. oo gucvccaoacevadonuodssdecbuneasesk 200
Sealllon: Abaya! OCC ccecccyocssanseanuse 248
Swallow, White Breasted................... 388
Sia love Valse ay licUll C Clas anae en Ea yates eee 162
Sal OAV © Clr te neee one ncaaers 156
Sword Fish........ Ree Se, 4ir
Syacleviy BG alt eeagereerae peel ate teeter 269
al OTe ERC ere ee ny re a eet eer tee 335
Tapayaxin, Crowned .........-.-...5.25-05- 395
PRD eee ee eee eee 275
Tapir, Malayan. ............0. 02s eee 281
ETeySrraantid Tile |b) eval eae eee nr eee eye rar nora renee 495
Teguexin. 0.0... 6.6 eee ete 389
[Renate eKanoci Sh Cherri rsart ret ee ree ee 143
Terrapin, Alligator............... 02s serene 385
Terrapin, Salt Water.................--+55- 71
(Wer inleiy Sigs go acuscnuuosdaucssso5suacocsnE 146
ANS MOBISkS SUMMED, = 6 oot nondbouadcooeugaceoes 301
Thornbill, Columbian.............-..5+.60.. 149
ANoinnla, MUS, 2 occ soancnwosadGuiscuasss cee 165
Thrush, Short Tailed Ant...........-.-.-55. 280
Thrush, Spotted Ground...........-....+5-- 230
“Thunder Snake........... 002500 e eee eee 376
SThio.c ene TiC renee Ci yee 12
Tiger, Tortoiseshell...........-+ +220 eee e es 328
EINiote ae WViNI CC Pare eet Net eek cea Ara)
AUTGTNOMINS., cpus cpacacasvsupagestus Huda on oom 2
Titmouse, Blue........... 000. 221
Titmouse, Crested. .........5..020 22 re eee 254
Titmouse, Long Tailed.........0..--+-+5+++ 243
OAC eee ete Cao ete eee tec ad
Toad, Surinam......... 6.6 eee ees 319
Moac ne emmnn rts ee ere Metter eee oe 192
Tody, Great Billed..........--..2+-+250- 0+ 30
Pody, Green... 1.0... 622 eee teens 67
Tody, King....... Moe GE ener "132

e

SROREOISC BOX Menon e ene ter ene Crane erent cor 47
Tortoise, Common Land.................... 257
ANOS, GOONS. sasedocsononanscconodbgans 380
EROTLOISe MEU Gianemnn yar, eet rr sree ts. seer oe 171
“ANereidontsresvayel ll MPCs cones oouoohuanuoDeouds 328
ASG cutieee CO NET) © Lol eeeen ra femre tek ete ersreesnste nena arte 271
URE CeLLO CeaneeEiett e eke ee eee 192
TRS Wires, WSO, sock bsoasbusooadeopnone 116
MreeiGeckowlrin ge direst rerer ie er 400
“BASS IMME, ceo shdoccosucods Gounpsccangheas 251
“bige Sina, GOlGkan oo coaacesosuevsvosegause 204
reewhOlCeene ere ree Tr errr re 192
AMeeeOins SAND ou coc sesodooudoonascan over 110
‘Auropxoyal, Jeeyplkem@lesoie, sGoonopnaveoandseoy sor 98
OIRO Ul treme eienine center renee ic asee ea er cree tre eee 321
UIT Hy Sere eae eer ae ecane re 318
Mae vari V1 zz cl ee eee eee eee eer or eee 136
BINT TeE | Coe Gee Tiree yea em Ce ene ecaeg eer 163
Aruba, IG. so gosonuenneomsscsooeoas 158
Aired, Siaveyosboees wan cenceosvedonddarageneys 167
Twelve Thread Epimachus.............5.5-- 105
WWhamomekes 1b, .wacoaotoconsocesoeucnnesnaos LUO
AViaimp ies a lapenner nacre near ten tree eee ee ee 48
Wises IGN SUNG. oon daccastoansecasdacs 117
NApCEE eee eee eye ee ed NY nace eee 354
Wihoere, IIROK 5 osacbynsusognunadicaes tsuose 384
WADCTAV ALC Irene eerie rat rene trae cee ere 88
Watresbiney Jnana OWwileoessqsqesecsdonsssassne 352
Witreramena: Gyo SONS, aan cnccteernconea ses 213
Vaca Grits Osea) a0, UL CUT earner ree eee acre 37
Willie, [GHG g podacenouodatearaussen dogo 175
Wallies, Carol Oso cconcseagosags aecogn nem 66
Wiel .concsespsdadqgncedcedtcngbaneo cote 203
Wagtails, Group of British.................. 135
Miva (Ciweeipeies op oon oe edsewouenonsauonne cong 32
Veal etn ogi S liege een eee ce ceraecnenen: 409
SV Feu TGS Opa ean gt Yee er eee ere 189
aWicuni cl Cia guia Cane enna ciel fark eee 42
UV ZE a et ree ee 251
VATE tiswe oo ee ee Unt On chon rivets ii Meee ee eves 256
Warblers, Group of British...............-. 373
AV VAEUC Tram 0020 une aa ae er ee en 103
VA FEUEC Gm VAL |G ate eer ee eee ee 88
AVVien bl eam Saiiecl Meal 1501 (Olena sree ese nr erent eae ease 343
WERISOL. cAncucucdconecgonsesaeuacudocepesous 114
WACanie relStt Cam SOCial ly Chm muerte ie enter isc: ee 296
Vie etsy, blab S halen (cla C2) beers cee eee ee ee at B22)
Nina, (Chrecillavndl, oc accdacusoyasaanbchoddos 336
\Wiltaletn S peuiacetinern seer reset tact 22

BVA adc leo age i Gol lepe To cts tal Te ate ee wens 286
AV ahi Chi ch tee enews rene er yee eae 94
White Booted Racket Tail.................. 392
White Breasted Swallow...............-.5.. 388
Wihites@nested! ELoTiip ills eamer see 290
Wiimote Pineal BUNS soo cecheeocembadnvndooed 266
AV Val nite atc lacie] ear a eee rene ar es emeestete eee ett 49
AV Vai(he MAIN cre Toerenemee ersten tree nae eee ee ats ers 177
VV Glnl3 © cl eee ne eee ae ese cel 235
SV 7ciil Clie cr ee ae area geen rete 237
Wists, aD auilexst Sharan; 5 oan csocenecueocuodsos 162
SV) fareeten seer: conor Perey ene ee avers tees 205
ANOINVES:, cece angecabsoousdeougo con csuannasa ss IL
WiOTD Atecee eat eee PROC e teehee ea ce. 184
Wiiorovlelnals “Sloe, o5acsesccosaseuadeuons ane 10d
NV Oana eo eee ah ark een ya ane 156
SV LCLe tye es Aa eae ne Sense Nees 1gt
RV ca eee eee ee eT et ot ir ne eee mera 419
BY/FeaTali © | leo AGN) Ul tects ana rea Sri erie ses rere 239
WElonme IBM CMU, oa co ween noo dee caonegne 170
WMORT SOA, on codons sbdnocebseanbudoen 1go
WN Leg bncei onde een coponucnreou non amand 93
Cl eee en ese ete Ce eee rere er 282















WOOD'S NATURAL HISTORY

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LION, LIONESS AND HER YOUNG, ALSO LEOPARD AND WOLVES.

%
TIGER.

This beautiful creature lives in many parts of Asia. Some places are
infested by the fierce animal and the appearance of a ‘Man-eater’’ as the
Tiger is called, always fills the natives with terror. There is no animal that
can hide itself better than the Tiger. It is very clever in finding spots where
it can watch the approach of its prey, itself being couched under the shade of
foliage or behind some friendly rock. It lies in wait by the side of roads,
choosing spots where the shade is deepest and where water may be found
to quench the thirst that it always feels when it is eating its prey. When
the prey is near, the Tiger gives one terrible leap, and the victim nearly
always feels the Tiger on him before he sees it. It is very seldom that a Tiger
makes more than one spring at its prey. The creature is so cunning that it
takes up its post on the side of the road which is opposite its lair, so that
it does not have to turn and drag its prey across the road, but walks straight
to its den. Should the Tiger miss his leap, he generally is so bewildered and
ashamed of himself, that instead of trying again, he sneaks off humiliated.



N W
The chief weapons of the Tiger are his engrmous feet, with their sharp sickle-
like talons, which cut like so many knives when the animal strikes a blow
with his powerful limbs. The simple stroke of a Tiger’s sledge-hammer paw
is strong enough to knock down an ox. In the districts where these terrible
animals live, the natives often meet tigers unexpectedly. They get so care-
less and the Tigers become so daring, that at some of the crossings where the
water-courses run, a man or a bullock may be carried off daily, and yet the
natives will not do anything to stop the danger, except carry a few charms
or amulets which they think will frighten away the dread beast. Sportsmen,
when out hog spearing, often come across a Tiger lazily resting in the heavy
grass. At such times the native horses are so terror-stricken that
they plunge and kick in their attempt to escape from the fearful enemy,

12
BUZZARD.

‘The Buzzard is a large bird, but not a handsome one, although it is
interesting, especially when it has been tamed. Then it has many queer tricks.
A story is told about a tame Buzzard which could not bear strangers, and had
a habit of flying at them and knocking their hats over their ears. Another
trick of this bird was to fly on its master’s feet and untie his shoe-strings.
The Buzzard is an affection-
ate bird and takes good care
of its young; when in captiv-
ity it has been known, also, to
sit upon hen’s eggs and rear
the chickens. with as much
tenderness as though they
were young Buzzards, al-
though it would not adopt the .
chickens after they had been==
hatched by the hen herself,
looking upon them then as
prey. When a tame Buzzard
wishes to build her nest she
scratches holes in the ground
and breaks and tears every-
thing she can get hold of, much
as a canary will do on asmall- ; «=
er scale. A tame Buzzard —

which had hatched a brood of
chickens, tried to feed them
upon meat, and it seemed to
worry her because her charges
did not like it as well as seeds
and grain. Buzzards have a
taste for mice and other small
creatures, but they also eat
worms and grubs, as well as insects of various kinds. The Buzzard in its
wild state builds its nest in a tree or upon the rocks, using grass and other
vegetable material, weaving in long soft roots and lining it with wool, leaves,
and matter of that kind. The Buzzard has been known to drive crows from
their nest and move into it, relining it with the fur of hares and rabbits.
The eggs of the Buzzard are from two to five in number. They are grayish
white in color, with a few spots of pale brown. At times this bird is very
lazy, perching upon a branch as though it had no object in life but to rest,
pouncing down now and then to seize its prey if anything which it fancies
is unlucky enough to come near, and then returning again to its dreams.
But sometimes, too, it rises high in the air and flies with great power and
grace. It then seems like a different bird. The Honey Buzzard is from
twenty-two to twenty-four inches long, the female being always the larger,
and it has a general brownish black color, with the top of the head yellowish.

13


MATAMATA.

The Tortoises are not any of them pretty or graceful creatures, but the Ma-
tamata is the ugliest of them all in looks. It has a broad, flat head, a neck nearly
as broad and also flat, webbed feet, so that it can move through the water
quickly, anda rounded shell, broader toward the head than the tail. It is a large
and ugly creature, reaching a length of three feet when fully grown. Its head is
very odd in shape, and has queer little tufts or knobs on it, while the snout

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is very long and forms a kind of tube. On the top of the head the skin is
lengthened out to look like ears, and the chin has two fringed membranes,
or skin-like pieces, hanging from it, while the throat has four, and on the
upper surface of the neck are two rows of small tufts with deep fringes, much
like those on the chin and throat except in size. The tail is short and the
limbs are very strong. The feet have claws with lobes between them. The
shell is formed into rows of raised shields, the shape of which can be seen
from the picture. They are sharp at their tips, and there are three in each
row. ‘The Matamata is a water animal. It eats only animal food and that
only while in the water. When it swims the whole of the shell is kept under
the surface. The Matamata is one of the oddest-looking animals in the
world. Its home is in South America. It used tobe found in great num-
bers, but its flesh is so well liked for food that it has been killed off so that
the ranks have been thinned. It lives near lakes and’ rivers, and is a good |
swimmer. Its food consists of fish, reptiles’ and other creatures, which it,
catches in its sharp beak with a sudden snap. It does not often chase its
prey, but hidés among the plants along the bank of the river or lake, and as
its victim passes, stretches out its long neck with 4 quick movement and
snatches it from its path. Sometimes, however, it comes out with a rush,
darts through the water and seizes a fish, reptile or water-fowl, which it
takes back to its former hiding-place. The Matamata has a great appetite
and is a good hunter. He Jhas a queer habit of bending back his neck when at
rest, under the side of the carapace, or back covering. He has what is.
called a contractile neck; that is, he can make it longer or shorter as he
wishes, drawing it back or stretching it out to quite a considerable length.

4
DE LALANDE’S PLOVER-CREST.

This bird has one of the most striking forms seen among humming-birds.
Its plume is high and ends in a single feather, which is unlike the crests of
most birds which have them at all, as they are usually double at the end.
This crest is bright green in color, except the long single feather, which is
jet black. The top of the head is also bright green. The upper surface is

green tinged with bronze, and the lower
portion is a deep shining violet. ‘There is
a small white streak behind the eye, ‘The
female has no crest. The home of this
bird is in the southern part of Brazil. It
builds a very pretty nest, which it care-
fuily and skilfully weaves into a tuft of
leaves or twigs at the end of some very
slender branch, so that the whole droops
downward. The nest is long in form, and
made of dainty bits of moss, roots, and
spiders’ webs. Not so striking as the

Plover-crest, but: still very lovely, is the

little Sparkling-tail homming-bird of Mex-
ico. It is a very tame little creature, and
visits the homes of man with great trust,
flying about the gardens where there are
- blooming flowers, and seeming to have no
fear at all. This bird builds a tiny nest,
rounded and woven from different delicate
fibers, cottony down, and spiders’ webs,
and covered with lichens. Its eggs are
‘hardly larger than’ peas, and are two in
number; they are pearly white in color,
and look like the eggs of the common
snail. The nest is always placed upon a
leaf, or some slight twig, and fastened to






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it with spider’s webs. In coloring and form the male and female are quite
different. The male is bronze green above, except the bold white feathers
on the lower part of his back. The throat is rich, metal-like blue, turning
to velvety black in some lights, because each feather is black at the base and
blue at the tip. The wings are rich, dark purple brown. There is a broad
snow white band around the neck, and the whole under surface of the body
is bronze green, except a little band of white near the tail. The tail is very
odd and has many tints. The two central feathers are shining green; the
next are green marked with bronze; the next dark brown, with white spots
on them; the other two are dark brown for half their length, then there is a
broad band of rusty red, afterwards a broad white band, then a brown band,
and the tip is white. The tail is about four inches long. The female is of
a rich bronze green on the upper surface of the body, with marks of buff below.

15
ANGEL FISH.

Although on some parts of the British coasts it is known as the Kingston,
this dark-skinned, wide-mouthed, leather-tinned, and fawn-backed fish which
is shown in the illustration, is properly known throughout many parts of Eng-
land, France and Italy by the name of the Angel Fish. Asa matter of fact, this
is as hideous a fish as can be found in the waters, and from all accounts it is
as unprepossessing to the inhabitants of the sea as to those of the land, as it
is particularly greedy, and reaches a very great size that causes it to bea









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most undesirable foe to the many fishes on which it feeds. Occasionally it
is known by the name of Monk Fish, in consequence of its round head, which
is thought to bear some resemblance to the shaven crown of a monk. In
other places again, it is called the Shark-ray, because it seems to be one of
the connecting links between the sharks and the rays, having many of the
characteristics of both. It has many of the habits of the flat fishes, keeping
near the bottom, and even wriggling its way into the muddy sand of the sea
bed, so as to conceal its entire body. As in the course of these movements
it disturbs many soles, plaice, flounders, and other flat fishes that inhabit the
same localities, it sweeps them up as they endeavor to escape, and devours
great quantities of them, so that it is really a destructive fish upon a coast.
It is most common upon the southern shores, and many of very considerable
size have been captured, some attaining a weight of a hundred pounds. In
earlier days, its flesh was eaten, and consequently was of some value, but
in the present time, it is thought to be too coarse for the table, so that the
creature is useless to the fisherman, who do not desire to catch it, but
revenges himself by killing the creature whenever he can. The skin, how-
ever, is of some value, as it is very rough and can be used by some manu-
facturers. Another queer creature inhabiting British waters is the Picked
Dog-fish. It is very destructive to the fish trade, not only on account of
its large appetite and the number of fish it consumes, but because it
cuts the hooks away from the lines with its sharp teeth. It is very
plentiful, some twenty thousand having been captured at one haul,
if
ANACONDA



















. Thecolor of the Anaconda is a rich brown. Two rows of large, round,
black spots run along the back, and each side is decorated with a series of
light golden yellow rings, edged with deep black. Compression is the only
method employed by the Anaconda in killing its prey. It is not venomous, nor
isit known to injure man, but the natives of the country it inhabits stand in great
fear of this reptile, never bathing in waters where it is known to exist. Its
common haunt, or rather domicile, is always near lakes, swamps and rivers,
likewise close to water ravines produced by inundations of the periodical rains;
hence, from its aquatic habits, it is sometimes known as the Water Serpent.
Fish, and those animals which go there to drink, are the objects of its prey.
The creature hovers watchfully under cover of the water, and while
the unsuspecting animal is drinking, suddenly makes a dart at its nose.

: 17
CAT-BIRD.

The Cat-bird is a most courageous little creature, and in defence of its
young is as bold as the mocking-bird. Snakes especially are the aversion of
the Cat-bird, which will generally contrive to drive away any snake that may
approach the beloved spot. The voice of this bird is mellow and rich, and is
a compound of many of the gentle trills and sweet undulations of our various
woodland choristers, delivered with apparent caution and with all the attention
and softness necessary to enable the performer to please the ear of its mate.
Each cadence passes on without faltering, and if you are acquainted with the
songs of the birds he so sweetly imitates, you are sure to recognize the man-
ner of the different species. It is a most lively and withal petulant bird ina
wild state, performing the most grotesque manceuvers, and being so filled
with curiosity that it follows any strange being through the woods as if irre-
sistibly attracted by some magnetic charm. In its disposition the Cat-bird
appears to be one of the most sensitively affectionate birds on the face of the
earth, as will appear from the following interesting account of a pet Cat-bird,



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called General Bem: Well, General Bem went home with us at once,
and was immediately given his liberty, which he made use of by peer:
ing into every closet, dragging everything from its proper place,
which he could manage, pecking, and squalling, dashing hither and
thither, until at night he quietly went into his cage as if he was nearly or
quite positive that he must commence a new career on the morrow; it was
evident that he had to begin the world over again. Bem looked wise, but
said nothing. The next morning we gave him water for a bath which he
immediately used, and then sprang upon my head, very much to my surprise;
then he darted to the window, then back to my head, screaming all the time
most vociferously, until finally I went to the window for peace’ sake, and stood
in the sunshine, while Bem composedly dressed his feathers, standing on my
head first on one foot, then on the other, evidently using my scalp as a sort of
foot-stone, and my head as a movable pedestal for his impudent generalship
to perch on. In a word, he had determined to turn tyrant; if I had had the
purpose of using him as a mere toy, he had at least the coolness to use me.

18
AMERICAN MONKEYS.

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It is curious to observe how the same idea of animal life is repeated in
various lands and various climates, even though seas separate countries in
which they dwell. The lion and the tiger of the eastern continent are repro-
duced in the western world in the shape of the jaguar and puma. The dogs
are spread over nearly the whole world, taking many kinds of form, color and
size, but still being dogs. So with Monkeys. The four handlike paws and
other peculiarities point out their position in the animal kingdom, while many
differences of form show that the animals are intended to pass their life under
conditions which would not suit the Monkeys of another part of the world.
The group of Monkeys shown in the illustration are purely of the American kind.
As we see the Monkeys in a menagerie, so they frolic in their native haunts.

19
JARDINES HARRIER.

The Jardines Harrier is one of countless numbers. of birds inhabiting that
land of wonders, Australia. It is mostly found in plains and frequents the
wide and luxuriant grass flats that are found between mountain ranges. Like
all birds of this kind, it is never seen to soar, but sweeps over the surface of
the ground seeking mice, reptiles, birds, and other creatures on which it feeds.
It is very fond of small snakes and frogs, and in order to obtain them, may be
seen hovering over the marshes or beating the wet ground. Itis seldom
known to perch on trees, preferring to take its stand on some large stone or

= elevated hillock from which it may

see the surrounding land. The nest
of this bird is built on the ground
in the shadow of some bush or
tuft of grass and placed upon the
top of one of thenumerous “scrub”
hills. The color of the Jardines
Harrier is very remarkable, and
cannot fail to attract considerable
attention. The head and cheeks
are dark streaked chestnut, the
streaky appearance being given by
a deep black line down the center
of each feather. A gray collar or
f= band passes around the neck at
the back of the head. The tail is
marked with dark brown and gray
stripes. The back is dark gray,
sprinkled with a number of little
white spots, and the entire under
surface is a bright ruddy chestnut,
covered profusely with nearly cir-
cular white spots of considerable







iy

wie size. The legs are yellow, and

wit the bill is dark slaty blue, becom-
TAN oz ing black at the extreme end, An-

‘ es other very handsome bird is the
\WotesZ eI

Marsh Harrier, a native of Eng-
fand. It is not a very uncommon bird, being very plentiful upon marshy
ground where it can obtain a large supply of food. It generally preys on
water-birds, mice, water-rats, reptiles, frogs, and fish. It is rather fond of
young game, and is apt to be a dangerous neighbor to a preserve, snatching
the young partridges and pheasants from their parents. It is sometimes so
bold that it will enter a farm and carry away a young chicken or a duckling.
Rabbits also, both old and young, fall victims to this greedy bird, which
sweeps on noiseless wing over the fields, carefully choosing the morning and
evening when the rabbits are almost sure to be out of their burrows. The
Marsh Harrier never takes up its abode in dry places, but always prefers the
marshy district, no matter whether it be the coast or distant inland places.

20
KINGFISHER.

The nest of the Kingfisher is always made in some convenient bank at the
end of a hole which has been occupied by the water-rat or some animal of a
similar character. ‘The Kingfisher makes the hole larger to suit itself. Some-
times the nest of this bird has been found in the deserted hole of a rabbit-
warren. Sometimes the nest is placed in the natural cavities formed in the
roots of trees growing on the water’s edge. In many cases it is easily dis-
covered, as the birds are very careless about the concealment of their nest
even before the eggs are hatched, and after the young have made their ap-
pearance in the world, the noise they make when crying for food is so great
that they can be heard: at a considerable distance. This bird is very gor-
geously decorated. The straight glancing flight of the Kingfisher as it shoots
along the river bank, its azure back gleaming in the sunlight, is a sight
familiar to all those who have been accustomed to wander by the side of rivers,
whether for the purpose of angling, or merely to study the beauties of nature.
So swift is the flight of this bird, and with such wonderful rapidity does it
move its short wings, that as it passes through the air, it seems little more































than a blue streak of light. The food of this bird consists mainly of fish.
Seated upon a bough or rail that overhangs the stream where the smaller fish
_ love to pass, the Kingfisher waits very patiently until he sees an unsuspecting
minnow or stickleback pass below his perch, and then with a rapid movement
drops into the water like a stone and secures his prey. Should it be a small
fish, he swallows it at once, but if it should be a rather large one, he carries
it to a stone or stump, beats it two or three times against the hard substance,
and then swallows it without any trouble. Sometimes the bird has been
known to fall a victim to its hunger. One day a man saw floating on the river
a Kingfisher, from whose mouth protruded the tail and part of the body of a
fish. The struggles of the choking bird became more and more faint and had
well-nigh ceased, when a great pike protruded his broad nose from the water,
seized both Kingfisher and fish, and disappeared into the regions below.

21
BLOODHOUND.

The magnificent animal whichis known as the Bloodhound, on account of
its peculiar ability for tracking a wounded animal through all the mazes of
its devious course, is very valuable. In times gone by, this hound was used
for the purpose of capturing robbers, who in those days made the country
unsafe and practiced blackmail. Sheep stealers, who were much more com-
mon when the offence was visited with capital punishment, were oftentimes
detected by the delicate nose of the Bloodhound. Water holds no scent, and
if the hunted man is able to take a long leap into the water, and to get out
again in some similar fashion, he may set at defiance the Bloodhound. When
the Hounds suspect that the quarry has taken to the water, they swim back-
ward and forward, testing every inch of the bank on both sides, and applying
their noses to every leaf, stick, or even frothy scum that comes floating by.
The Bloodhound is generally bad tempered, and therefore it is rather a dan-



gerous animal to meddle with. So fierce is its desire for blood, and so utterly
is it excited when it reaches its prey, that it will often keep its master at bay
when he approaches, and he will not venture to come near until his dog has
satisfied its appetite on the carcass of the animal which it has brought to the
ground. It is used very often for hunting the deer, and when on the track of
this animal, the Bloodhound utters a peculiar, long, loud, and deep bay, which,
if once heard, will never be forgotten. The color of the good Bloodhound
ought to be nearly uniform, no white being permitted except on the tip of the
stern. The tints are a blackish tan or adeep fawn. The tail of this dog is
long and sweeping, and by certain expressive wavings and flourishings of that
member, the animal indicates its success or failure. When a Blood-
hound is used in deer shooting, it is sent after a deer that has been
shot, but not sufficiently to prevent its escape. As soon as the deer
dashes away, the hound is let loose, and guided by the blood drops,
keeps the trail, and is sure to come up with the wounded animal.

22
CURVED-BILLED CREEPER.

This peculiar-looking bird is about the size of an English blackbird, and
its home is in the forests of Brazil. Its name is taken from its bill, which is
very long in proportion to the size of the bird and is curved like a scythe.
Although so long, the bill is quite strong, and its purpose is to serve in draw-
ing the insects on which the bird feeds from the crevices of the bark in which
they dwell. The tail feathers are stiff and sharply pointed, and upon them
the weight of the body is rested when the bird supports itself in an upright
position upon the trunks of trees, its long, curved claws hooked into the uneven
bark. It wanders over thetree trunks
in its search for food, using these
curved claws to hang on by. The
color of the Curved-billed Creeper is
brown, but it has a wash of cinnamon
upon the greater part of the surface.
The head and neck are of a grayer
brown and spotted with white. There
are many kinds of Creepers of very dif-
ferent forms. They aresmall, excepting
the lyre-bird of Australia. The beaks
of these birds are always long and inal-
most every case slender, with more or
less of acurve. They are sharp at the
end, and the nostrils are placed in a
little groove at the base. ‘The feet
are very strong and have sharp, round
claws, with which the birds cling to
the tree trunks where their prey is in
hiding. The Oven-birdsalso belong to
the family of Creepers and take their
name from the form in which they
build their nests. This large house

a BA \\ |: would not be expected of so small a
ZG: Py Ay builder, and it is very interesting. It
ae is in the shape of a dome with an en-

trance onone side, looking much like an ordinary oven. The walls are fully
an inch in thickness and are made of clay, grass, and different kinds of veg-
etable materials, woven and plastered together in a wonderful way, and the
nest is hard and firm when the sun has dried it. The Oven-bird knows the
strength of its home, and takes no pains to hide it, but builds upon some open
spot, like the large, leafless branch of a tree, the top of palings, or even the
inside of houses or barns. The Oven-bird adds to the safety of its dwelling
by separating it into two parts, building a partition which reaches nearly to
the roof, the eggs being placed in the inner chamber. The number of the
eggs is generally about four. The Oven-bird is a bold little creature, fearless
of man and as fearless of other birds, attacking them fiercely if they approach
too closely to its abode, and screeching defiantly all the time. It is very active
tripping over the ground in search of its prey, accompanied by its mate.

23














’

SNOWY OWL.

The Snowy Owl is one of the handsomest of the owls on account of its
beautiful white mantle and its large orange eyeballs that shine like jewels set
in the snowy feathers. This bird is a native of the north of Europe and
America, but it is sometimes found in other regions. Like the hawk owl, it
is a day-flying bird, and is a terrible foe to some of the smaller animals and to
a number of birds. It has been known to swallow young rabbits whole and
also young birds, plumage and all, although it usually tears a bird to pieces
while it swallows a mouse whole. The Snowy Owl isa great hunter. It has
even been known to chase the hare and to carry off wounded grouse before
the sportsman could pick up his prey. The owl is also a good fisherman,
taking up its position at some point overhanging the water and grasping the
unlucky fish with strong claws as it passes beneath. Sometimes, too, it sails
over the surface of the stream and snatches the fish as they rise for food, but
usually it watches from the bank as described before. It isa great lover of
lemmings. Thelarge round eyes of this bird are very beautiful: Even by
daylight they shine like gems; but in the evening they are still more brilliant,
and look then like balls of fire. Sometimes ships have been visited by as
many as sixty of these birds which were so tired that they could not fly away
and so were captured by the crew. The color of an old Snowy Owl is pure
white without any markings at all, but when it is younger its plumage is

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covered with dark brown spots and bars, for each feather has a dark tip. Upon
the under side these markings form short curves, but on the upper surface
they are nearly straight. The beak and claws are black. The length of the
male Snowy Owl is about twenty-two inches, and that of the female twenty-
six or twenty-seven. There is a funny little long-legged owl in America
which is found in the home of the prairie dog and lives with this animal in a
very friendly fashion, although really the owl is too lazy to make its own
nest and so forces itself upon its busy companion. It feeds upon insects.

24
SPOTTED KFT.

This creature is a native of North America, and is found in some num-
bers in Pennsylvania. Its eggs are not deposited singly, and in the water,
but are laid in small packets and placed beneath damp stones. The head of













































the Spotted Eft is thick, convex, and with the muzzle rounded. Its color
is deep violet black above, and purple black below, with a row of singular or
yellow spots along the sides. The genus to which this Lizard belongs is
rather large, containing about eleven species. One of them, which is known
as the Mole-like Ambystome, derives its name from its habit of burrowing
in the ground after the fashion of the mole. It lives in South Carolina, and is
found in thesea-islands. The fore limbs are short and stout, and the body thick.

SCALY LIZARD.

The color of this little Lizard is very variable, and in general the upper
parts are olive brown, with a dark brown line along the middle of the back,
this line being often broken here and there. Along each side runs a broader
; band, and between these bands are

sundry black spots and _ splashes.
The upper parts are orange spotted
/ywith black in the male, and olive
gray in the female. The total
length of the Scaly Lizard is about
six inches. This is one of the rep-
tiles that produces living young,
the eggs being hatched just before
the young ones are born. With
reptiles, the general plan is to place
the eggs in some spot where they
are exposed to the heat of the sun-
beams; but this Lizard, together
with the viper, is in the habit of ly-
ing on a sunny bank before her young ones are born, for the purpose of
gaining sufficient heat to hatch the eggs which are covered by a membrane.

25


MOTMOT.

The Motmots are named from their cry which sounds like the syllables
“‘mot-mot,’’ called over and over again. The home of these birds is in tropical
Tram America and parts of the world

near to it. There are many kinds
of these beautiful birds, but their
habits and formsare all very much
alike. They have large bills and
a bearded tongue andare some like
the toucans. But their feet are
different in form, and instead of
flocking together as the toucans do,
they live alone inthe deep forests.
The Motmots have wedge-shaped
tails and sometimes the two central
feathers have a naked space just
above the end. The Brazilian
Motmot, like all the rest, is fond
sit, of its own company, and it is sel-
dom seen except in the midst of
some tropical forest. It likes to
~ sit quietly upon some branch where
it can look out across an open
space or path leading through the
woods, and there it perches as
though it were made of stone, until
some insect flies within easy reach.
It then dashes for its prey, seizes it
in its bill and returns to its perch
again, where it sits as silent and
motionless asever. ‘The wings of
/ the Motmot are short and rounded
so it is not formed for very long or rapid flight. Its plumage, too, is loosely
set. Some writers say that the Motmots steal young birds out of their
nests and also eat the eggs. They are all about the size of the common
magpie and are very handsome birds, their plumage being green, blue, scarlet
and other brilliant colors. The Brazilian Motmot is bright green on the
upper parts of the body, except a spot of black on the head edged with green
behind. ‘The chief feathers are blue, and the under portions are green marked
with crimson, while there is a black spot on the breast. The bird is beautiful
and interesting, but it keeps too much by itself to be an easy subject for study.
It is very hard to tell just where the Motmots should be placed in the
bird world. As has been said, they are like the toucans in some ways,
but added to the points of difference given before, their cry is not the
same. The toucans have very hoarse and unpleasant voices, and also
a habit of sitting together in flocks on the branches of trees, placing
a guard to warn them of danger, while they chatter and clatter and gossip.

26













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SA Pe
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MINK.

This creature is known by some people as the Musk Otter, sometimes as
the Water Polecat, while in a few places it is called the Smaller Otter. It is
found in the most northern parts of Europe and also in North America. Its
fur is generally brown with some white about the jaws. Some specimens
are of a much paler brown than others; in some, the fur is nearly black about
the head while the white patch that is found on the chin differs very
greatly insize. It likes the banks of ponds, rivers and marshes, seeking the
stillest waters in autumn and the rapidly flowing currents in spring. Its food
consists almost wholly of fish, frogs, crawfish, water insects and other
creatures that are found either in the water or near by. The body of this
creature is shaped in such a manner that it partly resembles the ferret and




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Lip?

the otter. The teeth, however, are nearer those of the polecat than the
otter; and its tail, although not so hairy as the polecat, is not quite so muscu-
lar and tapering as the otter’s. The feet are very useful for swimming on
account of a slight webbing between the toes. The fur of this animal is
excellent in quality and is by many persons valued very highly. The furriers
pass it under the name of ‘“ Moenk,” and it is known by two other names,
““Putucuri” and “ Noers.” The fur is very like that of the sable, and manu-
facturers oftentimes sell it for that article. This is really unfortunate as the fur
is excellent, handsome in appearance, and very warm. A very plucky
mother rat was one day guarding a litter of young ones when a ferret came
along. The rat did not try to escape, but every time the ferret drew near
she flew at him and knocked him over, inflicting a fresh bite on every attack.
At last two of the baby rats were so frightened that they clung to their
mother, and the ferret seized her. The ferret’s master who had seen the
plucky fight made the ferret let go, when the mother rat again flew at him.
The man then held the ferret by its tail and was carrying it away when the
rat ran up the man’s leg and body, along his outstretched arms, and bit the
ferret once more before she could be driven away. An excellent Ferret was
once so cowed by the ill-result of a defeat in single combat with a rat, that
it would never afterwards even face one of these animals. The training of a
Ferret is a work of difficulty and a good animal can be spoiled very easily.

at
RUBY-THROATED HUMMING-BIRD.

The Ruby-throated Humming-bird is named for the glowing, ruby-like
feathers upon its throat, which gleam in the sunshine as though they were on
fire. This exquisite little creature is found in North America and is one of
those birds which change their home to suit the season of the year. In sum-
mer it sometimes goes as far north as the lands of the Hudson Bay region.
It passes over a very wide range of country. The general color of this lovely
creature is light shining green tinted with gold. The under parts of the body
are grayish white mixed with green, and the throat is ruby color, as has been
said. It is thought that they
make their journeys during the
night as in the day time they are
always seen feeding as though
they had plenty of time. They
fly very fast; but can be seen
only for a short distance, they
are so small. ‘hey rise and fall
during their flight, in a sort of
curve and have great power of
wing. On account of this
power, the Ruby-throat is not
afraid of hawk, or owl or eagle,
and although it is only about
three inches long, it will boldly
attack any bird of prey that
happens to come too near its
home. This tiny creature is a
great tyrant and guards its own
territory very closely, not per-
mitting any other bird to come
into it. It has even been known
to attack the eagle, perching
upon its head and pulling out the
feathers in such a stream that
the great bird was frightened
and dashed through the air with
screams of terror, unable to get
rid of its little foe. The Ruby-
throat can be tamed without
much trouble, and is a loving little thing. It seems, too, to remember its
friends even after a winter south, and will return to the people who have
tamed and fed it, to again prove its love and trust. The nectar which these
birds have been fed upon when tamed is made of two parts fine loaf-sugar to
one part of fine honey and ten of water. This they sip eagerly. The birds
have a queer habit about seeking their nests.- They rise suddenly straight
into the air until they are out of sight, then at last they fall just as swiftly
straight down upon the spot where the nest is placed. The nest is very dainty.

28


PERCH.

The common perch is one of the handsomest river fish, and on account
of its boldness, and the greedy manner in which it takes the bait, and the
active strength with which it struggles against its captor, it is a great favorite
with many anglers. It is a very hardy fish, living a long time when removed
from the water. It will endure being transported for a considerable distance,
if it be only watered occasionally. In some countries, where fish is a common
article of food, these fish are kept in ponds, caught in nets, put into baskets
in grass, which is always kept wet, and taken to the markets, where they re-
main through the day, and, if not sold, carried back to their pond in the
evening and replaced. The Perch is a truly greedy fish, feeding upon all
kinds of aquatic worms, insects and fishes, preferring fish as it becomes older
and larger. The smaller fish, such as minnows, young roach, dace, and
gudgeons are terribly persecuted by the Perch, and a bait formed of any of these
fishes, will generally tempt the finest Perch tothe hook. Although generally
living in mid or deep water, it will sometimes come to the surface to snap up a
casual fly that has fallen intothe water. The flesh of a Perch is white, firm, well-
flavored, andthought to be both delicate and nutritious. The Perch is not a large
fish, from two to three pounds being considered rather a heavy weight. The



color of the Perch is rich greenish brown above, passing gradually into golden
white below. Practical fishermen say that the Perch is the only fish which
the pike does not venture to attack, and that if a pike should make one of its
rushing onslaughts on the Perch, the intended prey boldly faces the enemy,
erects its back fin with its array of formidable spines, and thus beats the ever-
hungry pike. The Perch is not often seen in the middle of a stream, as it
prefers to haunt the banks, and from under their shadow to watch the little
fish, and other creatures on which it feeds. This habit is common to many river
fish, the pike and trout being also bank lovers, and having special retreats
whither they betake themselves, and which they will not suffer any other
fish to approach. Deep holes by the bank are favorite resorts of the Perch,
and on a fine day when the water is clear, it is often possible to see them in
their home swimming gently to and fro, and never stirring from its limits.

29
GREAT-BILLED TODY.

This bird is rather thick built and has a stout, heavy-looking body with a
great boat-shaped beak. This beak is very wide, thick and strong, rounded
up on the upper side and hooked at the point. The two parts of the beak
are of about the same length, and the color is blue. The home of the bird
is the Indian Archipelago, and it is found in the greatest numbers in the
inland portions of Sumatra, where it haunts the banks of rivers in search of
its food. It lives mostly upon insects, worms and creatures which it finds in
the water. Its nest is built of slender twigs, woven into the form of a globe,
or very nearly so, and this nest is fastened to the end of some branch which
hangs over the water, so that the young and eggs are safe from their enemies.
The eggs are from two to four in number and are pale blue in tint. The
Great-billed Tody has rather handsome plumage. ‘The general tint of the
upper part of the body is a dead black and that of the lower parts a dark red.
A broad belt of feathers of a stiff wiry kind and red in color run around the
throat, probably to defend the eyes, as they
point upward on each side. At each side of
the bill, also, there are several stiff, bristly
hairs pointing upward. The top of the wing
. 18 a pure white, which looks very pretty
“lying against the black of the other parts of
the back. This portion is also very sharp,
\ which makes it stand out in even greater
contrast. At the upper end of each wing
there is an orange line with a white spot on
the inside. The tail is shaped like a wedge
and is black; the thigh is a blackish brown,
and the legs are brown. The color of the
eyes is blue, which changes to green soon
after the death of the bird, and then fades
into dullness. All the birds of this family are
handsome and they have many different

names. One of them, for example, with a
very long name, the Great Eurylafmus, has a very wide beak, hooked in
form and of a bright rosy hue, and it has a great gape when it opens its
mouth. The plumage is colored in a striking manner. It is mostly black,
but has a large white mark on the middle of the wing and another at the end
of the tail, with a small scarlet patch of long feathers in the center of the
back. Most of the birds which are nearly related to the one just mentioned
have the same colors, although there is one with a bright plumage of blue,
green and yellow, much like that of the paroquets. Indeed this bird might
almost be taken for a paroquet if its bill had the same shape, its coloring is
so nearly like that of the bird mentioned, and its long blue tail-feathers are so
much like his. As it is the little creature is very handsome and has a place
of its own among birds so that it has no need to claim relationship to any ex-
cept its own family. But it is interesting to compare birds or animals which
look alike, even if they are not to be classed together or studied together.

30


IGUANA.

ay y : s

SA

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AD

1h TINE
a wy

AS



A family of lizards is known under the general title of Iguana. These
reptiles can mostly be distinguished from the rest of their tribe by the forma-
tion of their teeth, which are rounded at the roots, swollen, and rather com-
pressed at the tip, and notched on the edge. The Common Iguana, in spite
of a very peculiar shape, is really a handsome lizard. It is a native of Brazil,
Cayenne, The Bahamas, and neighboring localities, and was at one time very
common in Jamaica. In consequence of the fineness of the flesh and eggs, the
Iguana is greatly persecuted by mankind, and its numbers considerably
thinned. The creature is very bold, having but little idea of running away, and
in general is so confident of its power to frighten away its enemy by looking
ferocious, that the poor creature is captured before it discovers its mistake.

31
GREYHOUND.

It is hardly possible to think of an animal which is more entirely formed
for speed and endurance than a well-bred Greyhound. Its long slender legs,
with their whip-cord-like muscles, denote extreme length of stride and rapid-
ity of movement; its deep, broad chest, affording plenty of space for the play
of large lungs, shows that it is capable of long continued exertion; while its
sharply pointed nose, snake-like neck and slender, tapering tail, are so formed
as to afford the least possible resistance to the air, through which the creature
passes with such exceeding speed. The chief use of the Greyhound is in
coursing the hare, and exhibiting in this chase its marvelous swiftness, and
its endurance of fatigue. In actual speed the Greyhound far surpasses the
hare, so that, if the frightened chase were to run in a straight line, she would
be soon snapped up by the swifter hounds. But the hare is a much smaller
and lighter animal than her pursuer, and, being furnished with very short
forelegs, is enabled to turn at an angle to her course without a check, while



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the heavier and longer limbed Greyhounds are carried far beyond their prey
by their own impetus before they can alter their course, and again make after
the hare. On this principle, the whole of coursing depends, the hare making
short quick turns, and the Greyhounds making a large circuit every time
that the hare changes her line. Two Greyhounds are sent after each hare,
and matched against each other, for the purpose of trying their comparative
strength and speed. Some hares are so crafty and so agile, that they baffle
the best hounds, and get away fairly into cover, from whence the Greyhound,
working only by sight is unable to drive them, no matter how fine the hounds.

32
GREAT NORTHERN DIVER.

The Great Northern Diver is cormmon on the northern coasts of the
British Islands, where it may be seen pursuing its way through and over the
water, sometimes dashing through the air, but very seldom coming to the
shore. Perhaps there is no bird so clever as this creature in its powers
beneath the surface of the water. Its broad webbed feet are set so very far
back that the bird cannot walk properly, but tumbles and scrambles along
much after the fashion of a seal, pushing itself with its feet and scraping its
breast on the ground. In the water, however, it is quite at its ease, and, like
the seal, no sooner reaches the familiar element, than it dives away at full
speec, twisting and turning under the surface of the water in the most
_ delighted manner. So swiftly can it glide through the water, that it can
chase and capture the speedy fish in their own element. Like many other
diving birds, it is able to sink itself in the water, the head disappearing after

Sw ON at
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the body and neck. The eggs of the Northern Diver are generally two in
number, and of a dark olive brown, spotted sparingly with brown of another
shade. They are laid upon the bare ground or a rude nest of flattened
herbage near the water, and the mother bird does not sit but lies flat on the
eggs. If disturbed, she scrambles into the water and dives away, taking care
to keep herself out of range of gunshot, and waiting until all danger is past.
Should she be driven to fight, her long bill is a dangerous weapon, and is
darted at the foe with great force and rapidity. The head of the full grown
Northern Diver is black, glossed with green and purple, and the cheeks and
the back of the neck are black without the green gloss. The back is black,
ornamented with short white streaks lengthening towards the breast, and the
neck and upper part of the breast are white, spotted with black, and marked
witn two collars of deep black. The length of the bird is not quite three feet.

33
FLYING DRAGON.

Perhaps the most curious of all the reptiles is the little Lizard which is
well known under the title of the Flying Dragon. This singular reptile is a
native of Java, Borneo, the Philippines and neighboring islands and is tolerably
common. ‘The most conspicuous characterstic of this reptile is the singularly
developed membranous lobes on either side, which are strengthened by
certain slender processes from the first six false ribs, and serve to support the
animal during its bold leaps from branch to branch. Many of the previously
mentioned Lizards are admirable leapers, but they are all outdone by the
Dragon, which is able, by means of the membranous parachute with which
it is furnished, to sweep through distances of thirty paces, the so-called flight



being almost identical with that of the flying squirrels and flying fish. When
the Dragon is at rest, or even when traversing the branches of trees, the
parachute lies in folds along the sides, but when it prepares to leap from one.
bough to another, it spreads its winged sides, launches boldly into the air,
and sails easily, with a slight fluttering of the wings, towards the point on
which it had fixed, looking almost like a stray leaf blown by the breeze.
As if in order to make itself still more buoyant, it inflates the three mem-
branous sacs that depend from its throat, suffering them to collapse again
when it has settled upon the branch. It is a perfectly harmless creature, and
can be handled with impunity. The food of the flying Dragon consists of
insects. The color of this reptile is variable, but is usually as follows: the
upper surface is gray with a tinge of olive, and daubed or mottled with
brown. Several stripes of grayish white are sometimes seen upon the wings,
which are also ornamented with an angular network of dark blackish brown.

34
WALL CREEPER.

The Wall Creeper is a native of central and soutnern Europe, and is found
plentifully in all suitable localities. It is called the Wall Creeper because it
frequents walls and perpendicular rocks in preference to tree trunks. In its
movements it does not resemble the common Creeper; for, instead of run-
ning over the walls with a quick and even step, it flies from point to point
with little jerking movements of the wing, and when it has explored the
spot on which it has alighted, takes Hight for another. The food of this bird
‘s similar to that of the common Creeper, but it is especially fond of spiders
and their eggs, finding them plentiful in the localities which it fre-
quents. Old ruined castles are favorite places
of resort for this bird, as are also the precip-
itous faces of rngged rocks. he nest of the
Wall Creeper is made in the cleft of some lofty
rock or in one of the many hotes which are so
plentifully found in the old -ruined edifices
which it so loves. In color the Wall Creeper
is a very pretty bird, the general color of the
plumage being light gray, relieved by a patch
of bright crimson upon the shou'ders, the
larger wing-coverts, and the inner webs of the
secondaries. The remainder of the quill-
feathers of the wing are black and the tail is
UZ. ae ONG ‘| black tipped with white. It is a much larger

‘i AA \ i bird than the Creeper of England, measuring
iy aN H about six inches in total length. ‘There is a

, curious genus of the Creeping-bird, known by

the name of Climacteris. It will sometimes
| feed upon the seeds of different plants, espe-
* cially preferring those which it picks out of the
fir-cones. Beechmast alsoseems grateful to its
palate. They are generally found upon the tall
% oum-trees, traversing their rugged bark with
great rapidity, and probing the crevices in
search of insects, after the manner of the com-
mon English Creeper. They do not confine
themselves to the bark, but may often be seen running into the “spouts,” or hol-
low branches, which are so often found in the gum-trees, and hunting out the
‘various nocturnal insects which take refuge in these dark recesses during the
hours of daylight. The Nuthatches form another group, and are represented
in England by the common Nuthatch of our woods. They are all remarkable
for their peculiarly stout and sturdy build, their strong, pointed cylindrical
beaks, and their very short tails. The Nuthatch, although by no means a
rare bird, is seldom seen except by those who are acquainted with its haunts,
6n account of its shy and retiring habits. As it feeds mostly on nuts, it is
seldom seen except in woods or their immediate vicinity, although it will some-
times become rather bold, and frequent gardens and orchards where nuts are
grown. The bird also feeds upon insects, which it procures from under the bark.

35












ENGLISH SETTER.

As the Pointer dogs get their name from the habit of standing still and
pointing at any game they may discover, so the Setter dogs have earned their
title from the habit of “setting” or crouching when they perceive their game.
There are several breeds of these animals, among them being the English
Setter (as in the picture), the Russian Setter, and the Irish Setter. Each of |
these dogs has some particular qualities which are carefully cultivated by
hunters. The Russian Setter isa curious animal in appearance, the fur being
so long and woolly, and so thoroughly matted together that it is difficult to
see the form of the dog. It is a very uncommon animal, but it is a very
clever worker, seldom starting game without first marking them, and its
power of scent is wonderfully delicate. The muzzle of this animal is bearded
almost as much as that of the deer-hound and the Scotch terrier, and the over-
hanging hair about the eyes gives it a look of intelligence that reminds one of





the bright expression on the face of a Skye terrier. ‘The soles of the feet are
well covered with hair, so that the dog is able to bear plenty of hard work
among heather or other rough substances. The Irish Setter is very similar
to the English animal, but has larger legs in proportion to the size of the body.
It is easily distinguished from the English Setter by a certain Irish air, that
is not easy to describe, but is very remarkable. The Setter, as well as the |
fox-hound, is guided to its game by the odor that comes from the bird or
beast which it is following, but the scent reaches its nostrils ina different
manner. The Fox-hound, together with the beagle, follows up the odors
which are left on the earth by the imprint of the hunted animal’s feet, or the
accidental contact of the under side of its body with the grass. But the
pointer, Setter, spaniel, and other dogs that are employed in finding victims
for the gun, are attracted at some distance by the scent that comes from the
body of its game, and are therefore said to hunt by the aid of “ body scent.”

36

.
‘EGYPTIAN VULTURE.

_ The Alpine, or Egyptian Vulture, is, as its name imports, an inhabitant of
Egypt and Southern Europe. It is also found in many parts of Asia, and as
it has once been captured in England, has been placed among the list of
British birds. As is the case with the Vultures in general, the Egyptian
Vulture is protected from injury by the strictest laws, a heavy penalty being
laid upon any one who should wilfully destroy one of these useful birds.
Secure under its human protection, the bird walks fearlessly about the streets
of its native land, perches upon the houses, and, in common with the pariah
dogs, soon clears away any refuse substances that are thrown into the open













EON S Y

















































streets in those evil-smelling and undrained localities. ‘This bird will eat
-almost anything which is not too hard for its beak, and renders great service
to the husbandman by devouring myriads of lizards, rats, and mice, which
would render all cultivation useless were not their numbers kept within limits
by exertion of this useful Vulture. It has been also seen to feed on the nara,
a rough, water-bearing melon, in common with cats, leopards, mice, ostriches,
and many other creatures. ‘The eggs of the ostrich are said to be a favorite
food with the Egyptian Vulture, who is unable to break their strong shells
with his beak, but attains his object by carrying a great pebble into the air,
and letting it drop upon the eggs. The wings of this species are extremely
long in proportion to the size of the bird, and the flight is very graceful,

37
SAVANNAH CRICKET FROG.

The Savannah Cricket Frog of America is a good example of the Frogs
known as Tree Frogs, so called from their habit of climbing trees and attach-
ing themselves to the branches or leaves by means of certain disks in the toes.
This creature is very common in its own country, and is found throughout a
very large range of territories inthe northern and southern states of America.
It is a light, merry little animal, uttering its cricket-like chirp incessantly,
even while in captivity. Should it become silent, an event that is sometimes
greatly to be wished, it can at any time be roused to utterance by sprinkling
it with water. It is easily tamed, learns to know its owner, and will take
flies from his hand. It likes to frequent the borders of stagnant pools, and is
oftentimes found in the leaves of aquatic plants and of shrubs that overhang
the water. It isvery active, asmay be readily supposed from the very slender
body and the long hind legs, and when frightened, can take considerable leaps
for the purpose of escaping the object of its terror. The color of this little
creature is greenish brown above, ornamented with several large oblong spots,
edged with white, and a streak of green, or sometimes chestnut, which runs
along the spine and divides at the back of the head, sending off a branch to
each eye. Thelegs are banded with
dark brown, and the under surface
is yellowish gray, with a slight tinge
of pink. Its length is only an inch
and a half. The Green Toad is
a very handsome creature, and is
found plentifully in the south of
< France. It derives its popular name
from the deep green with which its
cS My PP surface is adorned. It is avery
Ne be “277, remarkable toad in consequence of
ZZ its power to change its color in light
and shade, sleeping and wakefulness.
But a queer looking creature is the
warty toad of Fernando Po. It is
remarkable for a number of hard growths on its back. Each growth has a
horny spine in the center. Above each eyelid is a group of horny tubercles,
which make the creature very remarkable in appearance. Its length is about
three inches. Still another queer reptile is the large Agua Toad of America.
This queer creature digs holes in the ground and resides therein. It is one
of the noisiest of its tribe, uttering a loud snoring kind of bellow by night,
and sometimes by day, and being so fond of its own voice, that even if taken
captive, it begins its croak as soonas it is placed on the ground. It is very
greedy, but, as it is thought to devour rats, it has been imported in large
aumbers in order to keep down the swarms of rats that infest the plantations
in some of the West Indies. When these creatures were first set loose in
their new home, they beganto croak with such good-will, that they frightened
the inhabitants dreadfully, and caused many anxious householders to sit up all
night. This Toad grows toa good size, often reaching a length of seven inches,

38









——

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oS





SACRED IBIS AND GLOSSY IBIS.

The Sacred Ibis is one of a rather curious group of birds. With one ex-
ception they are not possessed of brilliant coloring, the feathers being mostly
white and deep purplish black. The Scarlet Ibis, however, is a most magniti-
cent, though not very large bird, its plumage being of a glowing scarlet,
relieved by a few patches of black. The Sacred Ibis is so called because it
figures Jargely in an evidently sacred character on the hieroglyphs of ancient
Egypt. It isa migratory bird, arriving in Egypt as soon as the waters of the
Nile begin to rise, and remaining in that land until the waters have subsided,
and therefore deprived it of its daily supplies of food. Its food consists mostly



















































































of molluscs, both terrestrial and aquatic, but it will eat worms, insects, and
probably the smaller reptiles. The color of the adult bird is mostly pure
silvery white, the feathers being glossy and closely set, with the exception of
some of the secondaries, which are elongated and hang gracefully over the
wings and tail. These, together with the tips of the primaries, are deep
glossy black, and the head and neck are also black, but being devoid of
feathers have a slight brownish tinge, like that of an ill-blacked boot, or an
old crumpled black kid glove. While young, the head and neck are clothed
with a blackish down, but when the bird reaches maturity, even this slender
covering is shed, and the whole skin is left bare. The body is little larger
than that of a common fowl. The Glossy Ibis (the smaller of the two birds
pictured) is also an inhabitant of Northern Africa. It is sometimes found in
different parts of America, rarely in the northern States, but of frequent occur-
rence in the south. The habits and food of the Glossy Ibis are very similar.

39
GREAT EARED GOAT-SUCKER.

The name Goat-sucker comes from a Greek name which means frog-
mouthed, and a glance at the picture will show why the birds are given such
aname. ‘Their mouths surely look very much like those of frogs. These
- birds all live in warm climates, their home being the Indian Archipelago.
The Great-eared Goat-sucker has some queer long feathers on its head which
are something like those of the horned owl. It has a very wide mouth, soft
plumage, and great round eyes, and altogether it is very much like an owl
indeed. Its color is a mixture of black, gray, buff and brown, put together in
a queer manner which it would be hard to describé. It is a night bird and
very shy. The Grand Goat-sucker is one of the largest of this family, and is
somewhat different from the Great-eared, while the New Holland Goat-
sucker is a very beautiful bird, with a plumage of mixed black and brown for
the upper surface, while below it is rusty gray, mixed with buff. The tail

















Vpn

has dark bars. This bird is owl-like in its habits, and has been called the
Owlet Nightjar for that reason. When it is angry, it utters a sharp, angry
hiss like that of some owls, and it also has the same habit of twisting its head
so that its beak is brought back on its spine. The New Holland Goat-
sucker lives in the hollow branches of some kinds of trees in its riative land,
and when the sportsman wishes to know whether the bird is inside one of
these hollow places, or ‘‘spouts” as they are called, he gives a sharp tap to
the branch with a stick or axe. If the bird is inside it runs quickly to the en-
trance, pops out its head, looks a moment at its visitor, then goes back again.
It does this several times, but at last it gets out of patience and takes to flight,

40
GORILLA.

The Gorilla is found in the thickest jungles of the Gaboon, far from the
homes and haunts of men. It is very cunning and ferocious. If it sees a man
it attacks him at once, even without provocation. The strength of this creat-
ure is very great. The teeth are heavy and powerful and the tusks project
more than an inch from the jaw. The tusks of the male Gorilla are nearly
double the size of those of the female. The natives of the Gaboon country
hold the Gorilla in great dread. They fear it even more than the lion. The



Gorilla will hide itself amiong the thick branches of the forest trees and watch
for some one to approach. Sometimes a happy negro will pass along without
‘any fear of danger. Immediately he begins to pass under the tree on which
the Gorilla is watching, the great animal will let down one of its terrible hind
feet, grasp the negro round the throat, lift him from the earth and drop him
on the ground dead. The creature does not care to eat man’s flesh, but finds
a fiendish delight in the act of killing. It is mere sport for the Gorilla. Once
or twice young Gorillas have been captured, after a furious fight with their
parents, but they have never been known to live long after being taken
prisoners. The natives of Africa believe that these large apes are really men
who pretend to be stupid and dumb in order to escape being made slaves.
The Gorilla’s face is very brutal. Its hair is nearly black. One that was five
feet six inches high measured nearly three feet across the shoulders.

41
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WANDERING PIE.





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sird, the aspect is a deceptive one,
‘aches in length, the remainder of tl

This bird is a native of the Hima-
‘layas, and is found in some numbers
spread over a large part of India. It is
called the Wandering Pie on account of
its habit of wandering over a very large
extent of country, traveling from place to
place and finding its food as it best may,
after the fashion of a mendicant friar.
This custom is quite opposed to the
general habits of the Pies, who are re-
markable for their attachment to definite
localities, and can generally be found
whereyer the observer has discovered
the particular spot which they have se-
lected for their home. Its wandering
habit may be occasioned by the necessity
for obtaining subsistence, the Wander-
ing Pie feeding more exclusively on
fruits and other vegetable nutriment than
is generally the case with the Crow
tribe, and being therefore forced to
range over a large extent of land in
search of its food. Indeed, the short
legs and very long tail of this species
would quite unfit it for seeking its living
on the ground, and clearly point out its
arboreal habits. The shape of this
species is very remarkable on account
of the greatly elongated and elegantly
shaped tail, which is colored in a manner
equally bold with itsform. The general
color of this bird is blackish gray upon
the upper parts, warming into cinna-
mon upon the back. The quill-feathers of
the wings are jetty black, the wings
themselves gray, and the tail feathers
gray, with a large bold bar of black at
their extremities. The under surface
of the bird is light grayish fawn. The
two central feathers of the tail are ex-
tremely long, and others are graduated
in a manner which is well exemplified
in the accompanying illustration. Al-
though it appears to be a rather largé
on account of the long tail, which is ten
1e head and body being only six inches.

42
SKUNK.

All weasels are notable for a certain odor which comes from them, but
the Skunk is worse in this respect than any other animal ever known. By
means of this odor, it can defend itself most successfully, as no enemy will
dare to attack a creature that has the power of overpowering its foes with so
offensive an odor that they are unable to shake off the polution for many
hours. Dogs are trained to hunt this creature, but until they have learned
the right mode of attacking the game, they are liable to be driven off in
consternation. Dogs that have learned the proper mode of attacking the
Skunk, do so by leaping suddenly upon the creature, and killing it before it
can throw off any of the offensive secretion. The odor comes from a liquid
secretion which is formed in some glands near the insertion of the tail.
When the Skunk is alarmed, it raises its bushy tail into an upright attitude,
turns its back on its enemy, and emits the offensive liquid. Should a single
drop of this horrid secretion fall on the dress or the skin, it is hardly possible
to cleanse the tainted object. The odor of this substance is so penetrating,
‘that it taints everything that may be near the spot on which it has fallen,
and renders it quite useless. Provisions rapidly become uneatable, and



clothes are so saturated with the vapor, that they will retain the smell for
several weeks, even though they are repeatedly washed and dried. On one
occasion a coach full of passengers was passing along the road when a Skunk
came across the path and tried to push its way through a fence. Being
unable to get through, it seemed to think that the coach was the cause of its
failure, and, ceasing its attempt to escape, deliberately sent a shower of its
vile liquid among the passengers. This animal is so confident of its power
to drive away enemies, that it always appears remarkably quiet and gentle,
and many times entices unwary individuals to approach it and attempt to be
playful with so attractive an animal, but it is needless to say that they always
retire in consternation. There is nothing in nature that is wholly evil, and
even this offensive liquid has some medicinal virtues, and is sometimes used for
the purpose of giving relief to asthmatic people. The chicf drawback to the
medicinal use of this substance is that after it has been used for some time, the
patient becomes so saturated with the vile odor, that he is not only unpleasant
to his neighbors, but almost unbearable to himself. The fur of the Skunk is
of a brown tint, washed with black, and having white streaks along its back.

43
TOAD.

The Toad is a most useful animal, devouring all kinds of insects, vermin,
and making its rounds by night, when the slugs, caterpillars, earwigs and
other creatures are abroad on their destructive mission. Many of the mar-
ket gardeners are so well aware of the Toad’s services that they purchase
Toads at a certain sum per dozen, and let them out in their grounds. The
Toad will never catch an insect or any other kind of prey so long as it is still, but
on the slightest movement, the wonderful tongue of the Toad is flung forward,
picking up the fly on the tip, and returning to the throat, placing the morsel
just in the spot where it can be seized by the muscles of the neck and passed
into the stomach. So rapidly is this done, that the sides of the Toad can be
seen to twitch convulsively from the struggles of a beetle just swallowed and
kicking vigorously in the stomach. The Toad will also eat worms, and in
swallowing them, it finds its fore-feet of great use; the worm is seized in the
middle and writhes itself into such contortions, that the Toad would not be

Ni
ENN
INES

SS



able to swallow it but by the aid of its fore feet, which it uses as if they were
hands. Sitting quietly down with the worm in its mouth, the Toad pushes it
further between the jaws, first with one paw and then with another, until it
succeeds in forcing the worm far down its throat. Although it is considered
unfit for food, the Toad is eaten by the people of some nations. ‘The Chinese,
however, are in the habit of eating a species of Toad for the purpose of in-
creasing their bodily powers, thinking that the flesh of this creature has the
property of strengthening bone and sinew. This creature is said to possess
the power of remaining alive for an unlimited period if shut up ina complete-
ly air-tight cell. Many stories have been told of Toads which have been
discovered in blocks of stone when split open, and it is supposed that they
were enclosed in the stone while it was still in a liquid state some hundreds
of thousands of years ago, and had remained without food ‘or air until the
stroke of a pick brought them once more to the welcome light of day.

44
COMMON TREE CREEPER.

This little bird is one of the prettiest and most interesting of the feathered
tribe. It is very small, hardly as large as a sparrow, and slender in shape.
Its food consists chiefly of insects, although it sometimes changes its diet, eat-
ing seeds and such things. The insects on which it feeds live usually under
the bark of rough-skinned trees, and when it is in pursuit of its food it runs
up the trunk around and around, probing every crevice with great eagerness,
its little black eyes glancing with delight. While on the side of the tree
nearest to the spectator its dark brown back and quick, tripping movements,
make it look like a mouse, and as it comes into sight from the opposite side
of the trunk, its white breast gleams suddenly in contrast with the bark. Its
eyes are very keen, and it will discover insects so small that the human eye
can scarcely see them, while it seems even to have the power of finding its
prey beneath moss or lichens, and will bore through the substance in which
they are hidden, never failing to get them
at last. The Creeper is a timid bird. If
_ it is alarmed at the sight of a human being
Y it will fly off to a distant tree, or will
a quietly slip round the trunk of the tree on

which it is running, and keep itself care-
fully out of sight. Gaining confidence,
however, if it is not harmed, the little head
and white breast will soon be seen, peering
‘ anxiously around the trunk, and ina few
minutes the bird will resume its journey
up the tree, uttering its faint, trilling song.
Its flights are short, as it is usually content
with flitting from tree to tree. Although
so timid, the Creeper soon becomes
familiar with those whom it is accustomed
to see, and will even take food from their
hands. It has sometimes been supposed
that in climbing the Creeper uses its beak,
after the manner of parrots and other climbing birds, but this is not the case.
The beak is used only for the purpose of digging into the bark, the long,
curved and sharply pointed claws alone serving to take the little creature
along the tree trunk. But these claws retain their hold so firmly that
Creepers have been found hanging by them long after being shot, so tight a
grasp had they taken. The Creeper is a very nervous bird and may be
stunned for a time by a sharp blow upon the tree or branch where it is run-
ning. A little patch of gum was once found on the trunk of a tree at a
spot where a number of branches came together, and this was supposed to
have been placed there by the Creepers, as they were constantly visiting
the. place. Their human friends brought crumbs of bread, seeds and little
pieces of meat, placing them in the cup or hollow which had been formed
from the gum, and the birds liked this food very well, coming often to gather
it up. Altogether the Creeper is one of the most interesting of birds.

45




HOBBY.

This bird appears to favor inland and well-wooded lands rather than the
seashore or the barren rocks; thus presenting a strong contrast to the Pere-
grine Falcon. We may find an obvious reason for this preference in the fact
that a considerable proportion of its food is composed of the larger insects,
especially of the fat-bodied beetles, which it seizes on the wing. Chaffers of
various kinds are a favorite prey with the Hobby, and in several cases the
stomachs of Hobbies that had been shot were found to contain nothing but
the shelly portions of the
larger dung-chaffer. As there-
fore the common cock-chaffer
is a leaf-eating insect and fre-
quents forest lands for the
purpose of obtaining its food,
the Hobby will constantly be
found in the same locality for
the object of feeding on the
cock-chaffer. And as the
dung-chaffer swarms wherever
cattle are most abundantly .
nourished, the Hobby is attract-
ed to the same spot for the
sake of the plentiful supply of
food which it can obtain.
Larks, finches, and various
small birds, fall victims to the
swift wings.and sharp claws of
the Hobby; but its predilec-
tions for insect-hunting are so
‘great, that even when trained
for the purpose of falconry and
flown at small birds, it is too
apt to neglect the quarry to
which its attention was direct-
ed, and to turn aside after a
passing beetle or grasshopper.
Although it is by no means a powerful bird, and seldom of its own free will
attacks any prey larger than a lark, it has been successfully trained to fly at
pigeons, and has even been known to strike down so comparatively large a
quarry as the partridge. The nest of the Hobby is almost invariably built
among the branches of a lofty tree, and is never placed upon a rocky ledge
except under very peculiar circumstances. The eggs are from two to five in
number, these being the usual orange, and some of a grayish white tint,
irregularly speckled over their whole surface with spots of reddish-brown.
When in a state of domestication, the Hobby’s food consists chiefly of tie
smaller birds, and it may also be fed upon beef cut into small pieces and very
fresh. Its temper is gentle, and its disposition mild and docile. It is easily tamed.

46


BOX TORTOISE.

The Box Tortoise belongs to America and is found all over the Northern
States. It is seen in large numbers in those places which it chooses, and al-
though it is a small creature, it is so formed that it can protect itself against
almost any foe, being able to draw its limbs, head and tail into the shell and
close the opening, so that it is impossible to get at it. Many of the Tortoises
can draw back into their shells, but if the openings for the head, limbs, and tail
are left open, the animal can be killed, or hooked out by a foe. The jaguar is
able to get his paw within the shell and scoop out the creature within by
means of its sharp claws. But if the opening is closed, the shell must be














FH Pir \
\ 6G
ARN Road gets
AON ©

broken, which no animal can do, except, perhaps, an elephant. Several kinds
of Tortoises can thus close their houses from the enemy, but the Box Tortoise
does it the most perfectly of all, and has no cause to fear any foe excepting
man and the boa constrictor. He is cruelly roasted by the former, and
the latter swallows him shell and all. There are certain other animals which
have little houses growing on their backs, or rather a kind of armor such as
soldiers used to wear in ancient times, only in the case of the soldiers it could
be removed at will. The hedgehog like the Tortoise is able to shut himself
up in his armor, but a sharp-pointed instrument can enter between the spines,
so heis not so safe after all, for the skin is soft. ‘Thereare other animals also
guarded by scales which form a covering when the body is rolled up within
them, but these scales when curled up leave a passage for the arrow or spear
between them, so they are not a sure protection, and the Box Tortoise after
all stands at the head of animals which have armors. The colors of his shell,
too, vary so much that they make him very interesting, and in this respect
there are few Tortoises which are so remarkable. The Chicken Tortoise also
lives in North America, and is common in ponds, lakes, or marshy ground,
where the creature may be seen resting on logs, stones, or branches of
fallen trees. They are very shy, and as soon as danger comes near,
the first one that sees it falls into the water with a great splash that
frightens all the others, and they go tumbling and_= splashing on
all sides until not a Tortoise is left in sight. They: are seldom
over ten inches long. The flesh resembles that of a young chicken.
47
VAMPIRE BAT.

This creature is a native of southern America. It 1s not a very large
animal, the length of its body and tail being only abou six inches. The
color of the fur is a mouse tint, with a shade of brown. Many tales have
been told of the Vampire Bat and its fearful attacks upon.sleeping men. It
will boldly creep into houses and seek the uncovered foot of any sleeping
inhabitant. Poising above the foot of its prey, the Vampire Bat will fan the
sleeper with its spread wings, cooling the air and soothing the slumberer into
still deeper repose. It will then insert its needle-pointed teeth into the upturned
foot with such great skill, that no pain is caused by the tiny wound. ‘The
lips of the bat are then brought to the wound and the blood is sucked until
the creature is satisfied. It will then throw out the food it has taken and
begin afresh, continuing to suck the blood and disgorge it until the victim
perishes from loss of blood. Although the Vampire Bat is so fond of human
blood and the blood of animals, it does not depend upon blood as a means of
food. It lives chiefly on insects, which are caught while flying through the



air. It has always been remarkable that *'‘ts can find their way among the
boughs of trees with an ease that is almost beyond the power of sight. Even
utter darkness does not seem to interfere with the flight of these strange ani-
mals; and when they are shut up in a darkened place, with strings stretched
in all directions, the bats continue their flight without any difficulty. A bat
that had been robbed of its eyes, was found to escape all obstacles in its flight
with as much ease as it did when it had its sight. This very remarkable
power has been found to arise from the wonderfully formed wings, which are
so finely constructed that they naturally avoid all obstacles. All bats have a
great dislike of the ground, and, unless compelled, never place themselves on
a level surface. They climb with great ease and rapidity and can ascend a
perpendicular wall without any trouble. In doing this, they crawl backwards.

48
WHITE SHARK.

The dreadful White Shark, the finny pirate of the ocean, is never a wel-
come visitor to the shores of any country. It is one of the large species of
creatures which range the ocean, and in some seas they are so numerous that
they become the terror of sailors and natives. One Shark will sometimes
measure over thirty feet in length, and the strength of this creature can be
readily imagined when it is remembered that it can bite off a man’s leg
through flesh and bone as easily as if it were a carrot, and can sever the body
of a boy or woman ata single bite. Many portions of this fish are used in
commerce. The sailors are fond of cleaning and preparing the skull, which
is sure of a ready sale, either for a public museum or to private individuals
who are struck with its strange form and terrible appearance. The spine,
too, is frequently taken from this fish, and when dried, it is placed in the
hands of walking-stick makers, who polish it neatly, fit it with a gold handle,
and sell it at a very high price. One of these sticks will sometimes cost
nearly as much as fifty dollars, There is also a large amount of oil in the
Shark, which is rather valuable, so that in Ceylon and other places a regular
trade in this commodity is carried on. The fins are very rich in gelatine, and























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































in China are employed largely in the manufacturing of that gelatine soup in
which the soul of a Chinese epicure delights. The flesh is eaten by the
natives of many Pacific islands, and in some places the liver is looked upon
as a royal luxury, being hung on boards in the sun until all the oil has been
drained away, when it is carefully wrapped up in leaves and reserved as a
delicacy. These islanders have a very quaint method of catching the Shark.
They cut a large log into the rude resemblance of a canoe, tie a rope around
the middle, form the end of the rope into a noose, and then set it afloat, leav-
ing the noose to dangle in the water, until a Shark becomes entangled.

49






SNOW-CAP HUMMING-BIRD AND SPANGLED COQUETTE.

The two little birds which are represented in the accompanying illustra-
tion are remarkable for the manner in which their heads are decorated. One
of them is seen to be a dark little creature, with the exception of a snowy
white crown to its head, and a bold streak of white upon its tail. This is the
Snow-cap Humming-bird, one of the most curious and most rare of all the
Trochilidee. The colors of this little bird are so dark, that it appears to be uni-
formally brown until it is examined more closely, when it is seen to be of
a coppery hue, on which a purple reflection is visible in extreme lights, the
copper hue taking a warmer tint towards the tail. The crown of the head is
dazzling white, and the tips of all the tail-feathers, and the bases of all except
the two central, are also white. On the same drawing may be seen another
remarkable little bird, possessed of a most beautiful and graceful crest. This



is the Spangled Coquette, an excellent example of the very remarkable genus
to which it belongs. All the Coquettes possess a well-defined crest upon the
head, and a series of projecting feathers from the neck, some being especially not-
able for the one ornament, and some for the other. -The Spangled Coquette
is a native of several parts of Columbia, and was first taken to England in
1847. The singular crest is capable of being raised or depressed at the will
of the bird, and produces a great effect in changing the whole expression
of the creature. When raised to its fullest extent, it spreads itself like the
tail of the peacock, and much resembles the crest of the king tody, a bird
which will be described on another page. When depressed, it lies flat upon
the bird, and is so large that it projects on either side, barcly allowing the
little black eyes to gleam from under its shade. The crown of the head and
the crest are light ruddy chestnut, each feather having a ball-like spot of dark
bronze green at the tip. The throat and face are shining metallic green, be-
low which is a small tuft of pointed white feathers that have a very curious
effect as they protrude from beneath the gorget. The upper parts are bronze
green as far as the lower part of the back, where a band crosses from side: >
side, and the rest of the plumage is dark ruddy chestnut as far as the tail.
The tail is also chestnut brown, with a slight wash of metallic green. The
female has no crest nor green gorget. It is not as beautiful as the male.

50
GROUP OF BABOONS.





Although this group of animals is popularly known by the name of Bab-
oons, they are sometimes spoken of as dog-headed monkeys, on account of
the shape of the head and jaws, which resemble those of the dog tribe. So
odiously disgusting are the habits in which many of these animals continually
indulge, that, as a general rule, their presence is offensive in the extreme,
and, excepting for purposes of scientific investigation, it is better to shun the
cage that holds any specimens of these creatures. The general color of these
animals is a brown tint of varying shades. The Baboons mostly walk on all
fours, and when at liberty in their native haunts, they are almost always seen
either to walk like a dog or sit on their haunches in the usual monkey fashion.

dL
SCARLET DREPANIS.

The Scarlet Drepanis is a very interesting bird for many reasons. Its
position in natural history is one of great value, and other birds which are
nearly related to it are also given a high rank, not only by naturalists, but by
the natives of the countries in which they are found. The plumage of this .
beautiful bird is mostly scarlet, but the wings and tail are black, forming a
striking contrast in color The home of the bird is the Sandwich Islands,
where the natives use its plumage for the wonderful feather mantles and
helmets which show so much skill and patience on the part of the people who
make them, and which are also very artistic. Some fine specimens of these
mantles are in the British Museum. They are made with great care, none of
the feathers being wasted, because they are so precious, and they are
arranged in such a manner that they cannot be shaken from their positions so
as to show the groundwork on which they are woven. Their colors are



, . Ey ‘

‘h

ye






arranged, also, in the prettiest manner, and the effect is brilliant without
being gaudy. ‘The helmets are made in like manner from the plumage of
these beautiful birds, and they are even more wonderful than the mantles,
being very graceful and striking in form, and Grecian in artistic effect.
These mantles flow in such beautiful folds and are so light and so brilliant in
color that they need only to be introduced into the world of fashion to meet
with great favor at once. The feather head dress, too, would have just as
pleasant a reception, as nothing could be more lovely than its soft and brilliant
colors and graceful form. The birds of this genus are fond of flocking to-
gether in large numbers to search for their food among the flowering plants
where they find sweet juices and little insects just suited to their taste. They
have very long bills and tongues which they thrust deep into the heart of the
blossom, as bees do in sucking the honey from the flowers which they like
best. The natives, knowing their habits, set snares for them among the
flowers which are their favorites, and so catch them in considerable numbers.
The Scarlet Drepanis is a small bird, and neither the tail nor wing is em-
ployed to make the mantles or helmets which have been described, so it will
be seen that a very great number of the little creatures must be killed.
52 ;
GIGANTIC SALAMANDER.

The Gigantic Salamander is without doubt one of the least attractive
animals in existence. It is dull in its habits, somber in colcr, with a sort of
half-finished look about it, and not possessing even that savage ugliness which
makes many a hideous creature attractive in spite of its repulsiveness. It is
a native of Japan, and even in that country seems to be rare, a large sum be-
ing asked for it by the seller. It lives in the lakes and pools that exist in the
basaltic mountain ranges of Japan. Its length is about a yard. Many years
ago the first living specimen was taken to Europe and placed in atank, where
it passed a period of many years’ captivity. Two specimens were taken over
at the same time, being of different sexes, but on the passage the male un-
fortunately killed and ate his intended bride, leaving himself to pass the re-
mainder of his life in single blessedness. It fed chiefly on fish, but would eat

















































other animal substance. A very fine specimen living in the English Zoolog-
ical Gardens has attracted much notice in spite of its ugliness and almost total
want of attractive habits. It is very sluggish and retiring, hating the light,
and always squeezing itself into the darkest corner of its tank, where it so
closely resembles in color the rock work near where it shelters itself, that
many persons look at the tank without even discovering its presence. The
head of this creature is large, flattened, and very toad-like in general appear-
ance, except that it is not furnished with the beautiful eyes which make up
for the otherwise repulsive expression of the toad. The head is about four
inches wide at the broadest part, and is covered with many warty growths.
The eyes are very small, placed on the fore part of the head, and without any
kind of expression. They look very much more like glass beads than eyes.

53
COACH-WHIP SNAKE.

The well-known Coach-whip Snake of North America is a remarkable
reptile which has not earned its popular name without good reason, for the
resemblance between one of these Serpents and a leather whip-thong is
almost incredibly close. The creature is very long in proportion te its
width, the neck and head are very small, the body gradually swells towards
the middle and then as gradually diminishes to the tail, which ends in a small
point. The large smooth scales are arranged in such a manner that they
just resemble the plaited leather of a whip, and the polished brown black of
the surface is exactly like that of a well-worn thong. The movements of
this Snake are wonderfully quick, and when chasing its prey, it seems to fly
over the ground. The mode of attack is very remarkable. Seizing the
doomed creature in its mouth, it leaps forward, flings itself over the victim,
envelops it with coil upon coil of its little body, so as to entangle the limbs

Sot ung

Shite
S if Us








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. z (he SS
A i

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SS
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ONE

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and bind them to the body, and, in fact, makes itself into a living lasso.
One of these Snakes was seen engaged in a battle with a hawk, and would
apparently have conquered in the seemingly uneven combat had not the foes
been separated. It had grasped the hawk by one wing, and dragged it to
the ground, and had succeeded in disabling the terrible claws from striking,
when the sudden approach of the narrator alarmed the Snake, which released
its hold, darted into the bushes, and permitted the rescued hawk to fly away
in peace. The color of this Serpent is rather variable. Generally it is
shining black above and lighter beneath, with splashes of purple brown.
Sometimes, however, it is cream or clay colored, and occasionally has been
seen almost white. The length of this Snake is about five or six feet.

54

te ey Wt

¢ ty
HARTEBEEST.

This handsome animal is easily known by the peculiar shape of the horns.
{ts general color is a grayish brown, ornamented with a white spot on the
haunches and a black streak on the face, another along the back, and a black
‘brown, patch on the outer side of the limbs. It is a large animal, being about
five feet high at the shoulders. It is found in little herds of ten or twelve in
number, each herd being headed by an old male who has driven away all
full-grown members of his own sex. It is not very swift in its speed, and its
movements are more clumsy than is generally the case with antelopes. It

can run, however, for considerable distances, and, if attacked, becomes a very

dangerous foe, dropping on its knees and charging forward with lightning
_rapidity. The Hartebeest is found in a very large range of country, extend-










SA
“
a

ANY

ing from the hilly to the flat and wooded district between the Cape and the
Tropic of Capricorn. ‘The Sassaby is another animal closely resembling the
Hartebeest. Its color is a reddish brown, the outer side of the limbs being
dark, and a blackish brown stripe passing down the middle of the face.
Sometimes the body is covered with a bluish gray tint. This animal roams
in small herds of six or ten, in the flat districts near the Tropic of Capricorn,
and is a welcome sight to the wearied hunter perishing from thirst. There
are many antelopes which live almost without water, quenching their thirst
by means of the moist roots and bulbs upon which they feed. But the
Sassaby is a thirsty animal, and it needs drink daily, so that whenever a
hunter sees one of these creatures, he knows that water is not a great dis-
tance away. ‘The Sassaby is rather persecuted by hunters, as its flesh is
greatly liked, but as it soon becomes shy and wary, it is not easily killed.
This much-sought animal is sometimes called the Bastard Hartebeest.

55
SPARROW HAWK.

The extreme audacity of the Sparrow Hawk when urged by hunger is
very remarkable. One of these birds actually snatched up a little white pea-.
chick, selecting it from the rest of the brood, while a lady was engaged in
feeding it. A similar circumstance occurred to a gamekeeper who was
feeding young pheasants, a Sparrow Hawk suddenly sweeping down upon
them and carrying off one of their number. Next day it repeated the
attempt, but as the keeper had taken the precaution to bring his gun, the
Hawk fell a victim to his
own temerity. Again, as
some persons were shooting
dunlins from a boat, in Bel-
fast Bay, a Sparrow Hawk
suddenly shot through the
smoke of the discharged
gun, and poising itself for an
instant, swept a wounded
dunlin from the surface of
the water with such marvel-
ous dexterity, that it did not
wet a feather of its wings.
In consequence of the head-
long courage possessed by
this handsome little Hawk,
it is very valuable to the
falconer if properly trained,
for it will dash at any quarry
which may be pointed out to
it. Unfortunately, however,
the Sparrow Hawk is one of
the most difficult and refrac-
tory of pupils, being shy to
a singular degree, slow at
receiving a lesson and quick
at forgetting it. Besides, its
temper is of a very crabbed
and uncertain nature, and it
is so quarrelsome, that if several of these birds should be fastened to the
same perch, or placed in the same cage, they will certainly fight each other,
and, in all probability, the conqueror will eat his vanquished foe. Such an
event has actually occurred, the victrix—for it was a female—killing and
devouring her intended spouse. Few birds are so easily startled as the
Sparrow Hawk, for even when it is comparatively tame, the presence of a
stranger, or even the shadow of a passing bird in the air, will throw it into a
paroxysm of excitement, during which it seems to lose all consciousness of
external objects. The Sparrow Hawk’s legs are, during these fits of fright
and passion, in a temporary paralysis. But the temper is of short duration.

56




RED FIRE-FISH.

The Red Fire-Fish is an extraordinary creature inhabiting the greater
part of the tropical seas from Eastern Africa, through the Indian seas, right
away to far Australia. It is remarkable for the strange growth of the fins
on its back and sides. The side fins are so very large in proportion to the
size of this odd creature that people used to think at one time that they were
wings like those of the flying fish, and that it could raise itself out of the water
and flyintheair. But this was found to be a mistake, as the bones connected
with the fins are far too weak to allow the fish to fly. No one has yet discov-
ered the true natural use of these big fins. The Red Fire-Fish is plentiful off
the coast of Ceylon, and it is said to be rather valuable as an article of food.



The flesh is very white, firm and nutritious. Native fishermen, however,
have a great dread of this creature as they think it can inflict fatal wounds
with the sharp points that project from the fins in every direction. But,
although they may prick the hand deeply and make the wound very painful,
there is no real danger, as the pricks cannot do serious injury, nor are they
poisonous. ‘The color of the Red Fire-Fish’s body is mostly a pinky brown,
with darker brown stripes, while the head is always redder than the body.
The huge fins on the back and sides are reddish brown crossed with bold
black stripes; the fins on the lower part or belly of the fish are of a black color
dotted with white spots, and the rest of the fins, including the tail fin, are
light brown spotted with black. There are nine or ten different kinds of this
fish. and none of them is known to be more than seven or eight inches long.

57
BLACKBIRD.

Among the best known and best loved of British songsters, the Blackbird
is one of the most conspicuous. This well-known bird derives its popular
name from the uniformly black hue of its plumage, which is only relieved by
the bright orange-colored bill of the male bird. The song of this creature is
remarkable for its full mellowness of note, and is ever a welcome sound to
the lover of nature, and her vocal and visual harmonies. Often the poor bird
suffers for its voice; and being kept within the bars of a cage, is forced to
sing its wild native notes “in a strange land.” In captivity it is sometimes
subjected to training, and has been taught to whistle tunes with great spirit
and precision. Generally the bird sings in the daytime, but there are times
when it encroaches upon the acknowledged province of the nightingale, and
makes the night echoes ring with its rich ringing tones. It is rather curious
that even in its native state the Blackbird is something of a mimic, and will
‘imitate the voices of other-birds with remarkable skill, even teaching itself to
crow like a cock and cackle like a hen. The Blackbird feeds usually on insects,



but it also possesses a great love of fruit, and in the autumn ravages the gardens
and orchards in a most destructive manner, picking out all the best and ripest
fruit, and wisely leaving the still immatured produce to ripen on the branches.
Perhaps it may be partly carnivorous, as one of these birds was seen to
attack and kill a shrew mouse. As it is so common a bird, and constantly
haunts the hedgerows, it is greatly persecuted by juvenile gunners, whom it
contrives to draw away from its nest by flitting in and out of the hedge,
always taking care to keep out of shot range, and having a curious habit of
slipping through the hedge, and flying quietly back to its nest, almost touch-
ing the surface of the ground in its rapid progress. It is not a sociable bird,
being seldom seen in company with others of its own species, and not often
even together with its mate. The Blackbird is very courageous in defense of
its nest, and will attack almost any animal that threatens the security of its
home. On one occasion a cat was forced to retreat ignominiously from the
united assaults of two Blackbirds near whose domicile she had ventured.

58




SHEEP.

In all times the Sheep has been subject to mankind, and has provided him
with meat and clothing, as well as with many articles of domestic use. The
whole carcass of the Sheep is as useful as that of the ox, and there is not a
single portion of its body that cannot be put to some good use. The Sheep,
as we now know it, is never found in a state of absolute wildness. In many
of its habits, especially in its ability to climb rocks, it bears a strong
resemblance to the goats. Whenever a flock of Sheep is in the neighborhood
of high ground, they may always be seen perched upon the highest spots,
and seem to take a curious pleasure in exposing themselves to the danger of
being dashed to pieces. Some of the Sheep will boldly descend the steepest
cliff in search of herbage until they reach the sea level, and are in no way
afraid of the prospect of re-ascending the terrible cliffs down which they
have come. Although the Sheep is thought to be a timid animal, it is truly









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a bold animal, and oftentimes gives many proofs of its courage. If, for
example, a traveler comes unexpectedly upon a flock of little Sheep that
range the Welsh mountains, they will not flee from his presence, but draw
together into a compact body, and watch him with stern and unyielding
gaze. Should he attempt to advance, he would be instantly attacked by the
rams, which form the first line in such cases, and there is little doubt that he
would fare very badly in the encounter. If a dog should accompany him,
the Sheep would at once charge him and drive him from the spot. Even a
single ram is no mean enemy when he is thoroughly irritated, and his attack
is really dangerous. Sheep differ from goats in their manner of fighting;
the goats rear themselves on their hind legs and then plunge sideways upon
their enemy, while the Sheep hurl themselves forward and strike their
enemies with the whole weight, as well as the full force of the body. So
terrible is the shock of a ram’s charge, that it will knock over an ox.

59
CLYDESDALE CART HORSE.

The Clydesdale Cart Horse is one of the best horses for ordinary heavy
work. It is named after the place, Clydesdale, where it was first bred, and is
.a mixture between the Lanark horse and the famous Flemish horse. It has
a very gentle temper and is possessed of great strength and powers of endur-
ance. ‘The pure Clydesdale Horse is large and heavy, and is remarkable for



its very long strides. Another large and powerful horse is known as the
Dray Horse. This is a very slow animal, whose pace cannot be quickened
for any length of time even if the load is light. This enormous horse isa
mixture between the Flemish Horse and Black Draught Horse. It is well
known by people in London, England, as it is seen every day drawing heavy
drays on which beer is taken from the breweries to the purchaser. Its
breast is very broad and its shoulders thick and upright, body large and
round, the legs short, and feet extremely large. The ordinary pace of the
heavy Draught Horse is under three miles an hour, but when the horse is
half Flemish, the pace is nearly doubled, the endurance is increased, while
the size is very little changed.. The great size of the Dray Horse is not
needed so much for the pulling which it has to perform, but because it
requires a large and heavy animal in the shafts of the dray to bear the jolting
that takes place as the dray is dragged over the rough stones of the London
streets. The genuine Dray Horse is a noble beast, and it is very pleasant to
see the kindly feelings that exist between these horses and their drivers. The
long whip which the drayman carries is more for ornament than for the pur-
pose of punishing the horses, and whenever it is used it is laid very gently
upon the horse’s back, while kind words are spoken, which the horse under-
stands. These horses are some of the most famous, intelligent and beautiful
animals in the world. The draymen take great pride in their appearance.

60


HEMIGALE.

The color of this animal’s fur is a grayish brown. There are six or seven
large, bold stripes across the back. On the top of the head there is a narrow
black line, and on each side of the face a black line runs from the ear to the
nose, and aruund the eyes. ‘The name Hemigale is from the Greek language
and means “Semi-weasel.” This animal is one of many similar kinds of
creatures which the naturalists class under the name of the “ Viverrine group.”
With the exception of one or two species, the animals in the Viverrine group
are so little known that their habits in a wild state cannot be fully described.



The habits of these agile and graceful animals when in captivity, are so enter-
taining that it may be readily supposed that when in their natural haunts
their habits must be far more instructive. Many discoverers when they come
across a new animal, are so anxious to secure it that they do not give them-
selves time to observe the habits of the animal but shoot or capture it to
bring home as a rare specimen. The Cryptoprocta is another of the
Viverrine group of animals. It is of a light-brown color, tinged with red.
It appears to be a very gentle and quiet animal, but it is one of the fiercest
little creatures known. The legs are small but very powerful, and its appe-
tite for blood is as strong as the tiger’s. It is very active and becomes a
terrible foe to any animals it may attack. The hind quarters of this little
creature suddenly taper down and merge themselves in the tail. Because of
these peculiarities it receives the full name of ‘‘Cryptoprocta Ferox.” The
first word means “hind quarters,” while ferox means “fierce.” It is believed
that the creatures in the Viverrine group can be domesticated or trained to
human uses as easily as the animals of cat or dog natures. The true study of
animals is of more importance than many people think. It is impossible to
understand the grandeur of human nature until God’s animal creation is studied.

61
GROUP OF VULTURES.

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These Vultures are natives of Southern Europe and Western Asia, and often
reach a very great size, their length being sometimes nearly four feet, and the
expanse of the wings as much as ten feet. Vultures are distinguished from
other birds of prey by the shape of the beak, which is of moderate size, nearly
straight above, curved suddenly, and rounded at the tip. The middle toe is
larger than the others, and the outer toes are connected with them at their
base by asmall membrane. As a general rule, the Vultures feed on dead
carrion, and are therefore most beneficial to the countries which they inhabit.
When pressed by hunger, however, they will make inroads among the flocks
and herds, and will not hesitate to satisfy their wants with rats, mice, small
birds, or insects. Varieties of this bird are found in many parts of Africa.

62




STURGEON. .-

In this remarkable fish, the mouth is placed well under the head, and in

fact, seems to be seated almost in the throat, the long snout appearing to be
-an almost unnecessary ornament. ‘The mouth projects downwards like a
- ‘ short and wide tube much wider than long, and on looking into this tube, no

ee i

























teeth are to be seen. Between the mouth and the end of the snout, is a row
of fleshy finger-like appendages, four in number. These dre organs of touch.
One or two species of Sturgeon are important in commerce as two valuable
articles, isinglass and cavaire, are made from them. The Common Sturgeon
is sometimes, but not very often, found in rivers. It is frequently taken
‘near the shores. The flesh of the Sturgeon is thought a great deal of, and
in the olden English days, it was always saved for the table of the King.
The body of the Sturgeon is very long, and slightly five-sided from the head
to the tail. Along the body run five rows of flattened bony plates, each
plate being marked with slight grooves, and having a pointed and partly con-
ical line on each plate, the points being directed towards the tail. ‘The plates
along the summit of the back are the largest. To make isinglass, the air
blubber is removed from the fish, washed carefully in fresh water, and then
hung up in the air for a day or two, so as tostiffen. The outer coat or
membrane is then peeled off, and the remainder is cut up into strips of great-
er or lesser length called’ straps, the long straps being the most valuable.
This substance affords so large a quantity of gelatinous matter, that one part
of isinglass dissolved in a hundred parts of boiling water, will form a stiff
Jelly when cold. Cavaire is made from the roe of this fish, and nearly
three million of eggs have been taken from a single fish, a fine specimen, truly.

oy 63


NATAL ROCK SNAKE.

The handsome Natal Rock Snake, or Port Natal Python, as it is some-
times called, now comes under our notice. It is a fine, handsome species,
sometimes attaining a great length, and being most beautifully colored.
During life and when in full health and in the enjoyment of liberty, this, in
common with many other Snakes, has a beautiful rich bloom upon its scales,
not unlike the purple bloom of a plum or grape. Should, however, the Snake
be in ill-health, this bloom fades away, and in consequence, we seldom if ever
see it on the scales of the Serpents which have been taken to Europe, and
are kept in glass-fronted cases in lieu of the wide desert, and only a blanket
to creep into instead of the rocky crevices of their native country. The
dimensions of this reptile are often very great. They have been seen to
measure twenty-five feet in length. Flat skins of this creature are, however,
very deceptive, and cannot be relied upon, as they stretch almost as readily
as India-rubber, and during the process of drying are often extended several



feet beyond the length which they occupied while surrounding the body of
their quondam owner. ‘The teeth of this serpent are tolerably large, but not
venomous, and although of no insignificant size, are really of small dimensions
when compared with the size and weight of their owner. Few persons have
any idea of the exceeding heaviness of a large Snake, and unless the reptile
has been fairly lifted and carried about, its easy gliding movements have the
effect of making it appear as if it were as light as it is graceful. Both jaws
are thickly studded with these teeth, and their use is to seize the prey and
hold it while the huge folds of the body are flung round the victim, and its
life crushed out of its frame by the contracting coils of the great reptile,

o4


BELTED KINGFISHER.

The sight. of the Belted Kingfisher is very keen, and even when passing
swiftly over the country, it will suddenly check itself in mid career, hovering
over the spot for a short time, watching the finny inhabitants of the brook as
they swim to and fro, and then with a curious spiral kind of plunge, will dart
into the water, driving up the spray in every direction, and after a brief
struggle, Ne emerge with a small fish in its mouth, which it carries to some
resting plack, and after beating it with a few hearty thumps against a stump
or a stone; swallows it, and returns for another victim. Waterfalls and
rapids are the favorite haunts of the Belted Kingfisher, whose piercing eye is



oy
Boe

able to see the fish even through the turmoil of the dirty water. In spite of
their active fins and slippery scale-covered bodies, it is very seldom that a
fish escapes this bird. Rapid streams with high banks are favorite places of
resort for the Belted Kingfisher, not only because in such places the small
fish are easily seen, but because the steep and dry banks are the chosen places
for this bird’s nest. On these banks the Belted Kingfisher digs a tunnel,
which is sometimes four or five feet in length. The nest is a very simple
structure, being made of a few small twigs and feathers, on which are laid
the four or five pearly white eggs. The birds seem to be very fond of their
homes, and one pair ot Kingfishers will frequent the same hole for
Many successive years and rear many broods of young ones in them.

65
“RINGED SNAKE.

The Ringed Snake is fond of water, and is a good swimmer, sometimes
diving with great.ease and remaining below the surface for a considerable
length of time,and sometimes swimming boldly for a distance that seems very
“great fora terrestrial creature to undertake. This reptile will even take to
-the’sea, and has been noticed swimming between Wales and Anglesea, The
“motions of the Snake while in the water are peculiarly graceful, alad the rapid
progress is achieved by a beautifully serpentine movement of the body and
tail. This Snake is susceptible of kindness, and if properly treated, soon
learns to know its owner, and to suffer him to handle it without displaying any
mark of irritation. ‘Though harmless and incapable of doing any hurt by its
bite, the Snake is not without other means of defence, its surest weapon being
a most abominable and penetrating odor, which it is capable of discharging
when irritated, and which, like that of the skunk, adheres so closely to the
skin or the clothes, that it can hardly be removed even by repeated washings.
Moreover, it is of so penetrating a nature, that it cannot be hidden under
artificial essences, being obtrusively perceptible through the most powerful
perfumes, and rather increasing than diminishing in offensiveness by the
mixture. The reptile will, however, soon learn to distinguish those who



behave kindly to it, and will suffer itself to be handled without ejecting this
horrible odor. The young of the Ringed Snake are hatched from eggs,
which are laid in strings in some warm spot and left to be hatched by the
heat of the weather or other natural means. Dunghills are favorite localities
for these eggs, as the heat evolved from the decaying vegetable matter is
most useful in aiding their development, and it often happens that a female
Snake obtains access into a hothouse and there deposits her eggs. Some
persons say that the mother is sometimes known to remain near the eggs, and
to coil herself round them like that remarkable animal the boa. The eggs
are soft, as if made of parchment, and whitish. They are found in chains
containing fifteen or twenty, and are cemented together by a kind of glutinous
substance. During the winter the Snake retires to some sheltered spot,
where it remains until the warm days of spring call it again to action. The
localities which it chooses for its winter quarters are always in some well
sheltered spot, and generally under the gnarled roots of’ ancient trees.

66 a
GREEN TODY.

; The queer little birds called Todies are somewhat like the kingfishers,
but they have flattened bills, and so there is no danger of mistaking the one
for the other. They have a very wide mouth, and wings and tail are short
~ and rounded, and the outer toes are connected as far as the last joint. The
Todies live in tropical America, and have a very important place among the
beautiful birds of that part of the world. The Green Tody is but little larger
than the wren, but it is very brilliant. The whole upper surface of its body
is a bright green, while the flanks are rose colored, shading to scarlet on the
throat and fading to pale yellow on the under portions of the body. The
under surface of the wings is bare. The Green Tody is a lazy creature, and
may be approached quite closely so that its colors can be studied without
trouble. It sits with its head sunk beneath its shoulders and its bill sticking
out stiffly as though it had no life at all. It always flies near the ground and
never tries a long journey through the air, indecd its wings are not strong
enough for that. It is known as the
Ground Parrot also, from its habit of stay-
ing near the.earth. The Green Tody
lives mostly upon insects, which it catches
es as they crawl about in the muddy banks
: of ponds or rivers. It also searches in the
grass and plants for them and catches
them with much skill. The .nest of this
bird is placed on the ground, usually in
some hole on the river bank, and is built
of dried grasses, moss, cotton, feathers and
similar substances. The eggs are four or
s3, five in number, of a bluish gray, with
mS bright yellow spots. The length of the
bird is: hardly four inches. The Green

= US “Tody has quite a good many relatives
(Za VE X which are more or less like him in form

and habits, although they are all different
from him in some ways. The Javan Tody is one of these and is an in-
teresting bird’ with a very queer form. Its beak is shorter than its
head and has a base wider than the part of the head to which it is fastened.
The center toes are joined together as far as the second joint. The bird‘is a
native of Java and Sumatra. It feeds mostly on water insects, worms, and
such creatures, which it finds on the banks of the rivers near which it lives.
It builds a hanging nest from the slender bough of some tree that grows near
_the water. The Javan Tody is not a very uncommon bird, but it is seldom
seen because it stays mostly in the deep woodlands of its native country near
the swampy grounds that are often found within great forests. It is a strik-
ing bird in its looks, its back being a deep, velvet purple mixed with bright
golden yellow. It does not keep so closely to the earth as the Green Tody,
but it never makes long flights. Birds which are natives of tropical countties,
as the Todies are, almost always have very brilliant and striking plumage.

67








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DIPPER.

The Ant Thrushes find an English representative in the well-known Dipper
or Water-Ousel. Devoid of brilliant plumage or graceful shape, it is yet one
of the most interesting of British birds when watched in its favorite haunts.
It always frequents rapid streams and channels, and being a very shy and re-
tiring bird, invariably prefers those spots where the banks overhang the water,
and are clothed with thick brushwood. Should the bed of the stream be
broken up with rocks or large stones, and the fall be sufficiently sharp to
wear away an occasional pool, the Dipper is all the better pleased with its
home, and in such a locality may generally be found by a patient observer.
All the movements of this little bird are quick, jerking and wren-like, a simil-
itude which is enhanced by its habit of continually flirting its apology for a
tail. Caring nothing for the frost of winter, so long as the water remains free
from ice, the Dipper. may be seen throughout the winter months, flitting from
stone to stone with the most animated gestures, occasionally stopping to pick
up some morsel of food, and ever and anon taking to the water, where it









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sometimes dives entirely out of sight, and at others merely walks into the shal-
lows, and there flaps about with great rapidity. While employed at the bottom
of the stream, the bird keeps itself below the surface by beating rapidly upwards
with its wings, just as a human diver beats the water with his hands and feet,
while seeking forsome object under the water. To an observer at the surface,
the bird appears to tumble and scramble about at random in a very comical
manner, but in truth the little creature is perfectly capable of directing its
course, and picking up any article of food that may meet its eye. It walks
and runs about on the ground at the bottom of the water, scratching with: its
feet among the small stones, and pecking at all the insects and animalcule
which it can dislodge. Sometimes the bird has been observed moving about
in the water with its head only above the surface. The food of the Dipper
seems to be exclusively of an animal character, and, in the various specimens
which have been examined, consists of insects in their different stages, small
crustacez, and the spawn and fry of various fishes. Its fish-eating propensities
have been questioned by some writers, but the matter has been entirely set at
rest by the discovery of fish-bones and half-digested fish in the stomach,

68

“2



IMPERIAL EAGLE,

~The Imperial Eagle is an inhabitant of Asia and Southern Europe, and
bears a rather close resemblance to the golden Eagle, from which bird, how-
ever, it may be readily distinguished by several notable peculiarities. The
“head and neck of this species are covered with lancet-shaped feathers of a
deep fawn color, each feather being edged with brown. ‘The back and the
whole of the upper parts are black brown, deeper on the back, and warming
towards a chestnut tint on the shoulders. Several of the scapularies are pure
white, and the tail is ash-colored, bordered and tipped with black. The ccre
and legs are yellow. The surest mark by which the Imperial may be distin-



. guished from the golden Eagle, is the white patch on the scapularies. This
is most distinct in the adult bird, for in the plumage of the young, the scapu-
lary feathers are only tipped with white, instead of being wholly of that hue.
The Imperial Eagle is seldom seen sweeping over the plains, as it is a forest-
loving bird, preferring the densest woods to the open country. As far as is
known, it never builds its nest on the rocks, but always chooses a spreading
and lofty tree for that purpose. In habits it resembles the preceding species,
and in disposition is fierce and destructive. No specimen of this bird has yet
been taken in England, although it is not at all uncommon in the warmer
parts of Europe. So splendid a bird as the Eagle could not escape the notice
of any human inhabitant of the same land, and we find that in all nations of the
present day, an almost superstitious regard has attached itself to this bird,

69
‘GROUND SQUIRREL.

The Ground Squirrel, or Hackee, as it is sometimes termed, is one of the
most familiar of North American quadrupeds, and is found in great numbers
in almost every locality. It is a truly beautiful little creature, and deserving
of notice both on account of the dainty elegance of its form, and the pleasing
tints with which its coat is decked. The general color of the Hackee is a
brownish gray on the back, warming into orange brown on the forehead and
the hinder quarters. Upon the back and sides are drawn five longitudinal
black stripes and two streaks of yellowish white, so that it is a most conspic-
uous little creature, and by those peculiar stripes may easily be distinguished
from any other animal. ‘The abdomen and throat are white. It is slightly
variable in color according to the locality in which it exists, and has been
known to be so capricious of hue as to furnish specimens of pure white and jet
“black. As a fur it is extremely elegant, and if it were not quite so common
would long since have taken nearly as high a rank as the sable or ermine.
The length of the Hackee is about eleven inches, the tail being about four
inches and a half in length. It is, however, slightly variable in dimensions is

ee ree es i
QZ Mele g



well as in color. The Hackee is one of the livliest and briskest of quadru-
peds, and by reason of its quick and rapid movements, has been compared to
the wren. It is chiefly seen among brushwood and small timber; and as it
whisks about the branches, or shoots through their interstices with its pecu-
liar, quick, jerking movements, and its odd, quaint, little clucking cry, like
the chip-chipping of newly hatched chickens, the analogy between itself and
the bird is very apparent.. As it is found in such plenty, and is a bold little
creature, it is much persecuted by small boys, who, although they are not big
or wise enough to be entrusted with guns, wherewith to work the destruction
of larger game, arm themselves with long sticks, and by dexterous manage-
ment knock down many a Hackee as it tries to escape from its pursuers by
running along the rail fences. Among boys the popular name of the Hackee
is the “Chipmunk.” It is a burrowing animal, making its little tunnels in
various retired spots, but generally preferring an old tree, or the earth which
is sheltered by a wall, a fence, or a bank. The burrows are complicated,
and as they run to some length, the task of digging out the animal is not easy.

70









SALT-WATER TERRAPIN.

The Salt-water Terrapin is also called the Soft Terrapin because its head
"is covered with a soft, spongy skin. The head is large for the body of the
animal and is flattened above. This Terrapin lives in the salt water marshes
ere it is found in large numbers, and it never travels away to any great
istance. During the warm months of the year it is lively and is busy at
unting for its prey, but when the cold weather comes, it burrows in a hole in
the muddy banks of the marsh and crawls into it, lying buried until spring
‘comes and the warm sun wakes it from its long sleep, when it finally crawls
orth again and begins its work. It is more active than most of its relatives,
the Tortoises, and can swim very fast, and walk at a good rate of speed. It
is very shy and knows pretty quickly when danger is near. In this respect it
is different from nearly all of the shelled reptiles, for they are usually dull
_.and sluggish. The color of this Salt-water Terrapin is generally dark

















greenish brown on the upper surface and yellow on the plates which surround
the edge of the shell. Below it is yellow, and in many it is marked with
“spots of dark gray. These spots, however, are not always of the same shape.
The lower jaw has a hook, and the sides of the head are dusty white
sprinkled with small black spots. This animal is much sought after for its

_ flesh, and is most easily taken in the spring and early summer. It is then
_ brought to market in large numbers, but it increases so rapidly that the
tanks do not become thin. The flesh is good at all times, but in the northern
Cities it is thought to be the best when the animal has been dug out of the
mud during its winter’s sleep. The males are smaller than the females, and

_ have the circular lines on the shell more deeply sunken in. Large numbers
of these animals are found in the salt marshes around Charleston. They are
very awkward looking creatures, as every one knows, forthey area good deal

_ like the common mud-turtle. In some countries hunting the Tortoise is a
_ great industry, and this is not strange, for their flesh is really good. The
__ idea of turtle soup, whatever the kind of turtle, is unpleasant to many people,
_ €ven though they can get used to it; but like frogs’ legs and eels, the turtle
_ forms a delicious article of diet. After all there is nothing bad about it ex-
_ €ept that-the looks of the creature set one against the thought of the dainty.

UL


TITMOUSE.

The Yellow-cheeked Titmouse inhabits several parts of Asia, and is
mostly found among the north-western Himalayas, where it is rather abund. —
ant. In its habits it resembles the ordinary Titmouse of Europe. The nest
of this species is constructed of moss, hair,.and fibers, and is lined softly with
feathers. The position in which it is placed is usually a cavity at the bottom
of some hollow stump, generally a decaying oak, and it contains four or five
eggs of a delicate white blotched with brownish spots. The coloring
of this bird is rather peculiar and decidedly
bold. The top of the head, the crest, a
streak below the eye, and a broad band reach-
ing from the chin to the extremity of the
abdomen, are deep jetty black. The cheeks
are light yellow, as is the whole of the under
surface of the body, with the exception of
the flanks, which take a greener hue. ‘The
wings are gray, mottled with black and
white, and the tail is black with a slight
edging of olivegreen. The Rufous-beilied
‘Titmouse inhabits Southern India and Nepal,
and cannot be considered as a rare bird. In
this pretty creature the head, the crest, and
the throat are jet black, contrasting boldly
with the pure white of the ear coverts and
the back of the neck. The back, wings, and
tail are ashen gray, washed with a perceptible
tinge of blue, and the abdomen is reddish
gray, as are the edges of the primary and
secondary quill-feathers of the wing. The
Long-tailed Titmouse is familiarly known
throughout England, and is designated under
different titles, according to the locality in
which it resides, some of its popular names
being derived from its shape, and others from
itscrest. In some parts of the country it is called ‘(Long Tom,” while in others it
goes by the name of ‘‘Bottlecrested Tit,” or ‘“‘Poke-Pudding,” the latter word
being a provincial rendering of the useful culinary apparatus termed a pudding-
bag. During the day the Long-tailed Titmice are always on the move,
flitting restlessly from spot to spot, and bidding total defiance to fatigue. At
night the whole troop perches on the same spot, and the birds gather them-
selves into a compact mass, like that which is formed by the wrens under
similar circumstances. ‘They seem to be careful of their comfort, for each
bird strives to get nearest to the middle, and on a cold evening they fight
vigorously until their positions are settled. When sleeping, they form a
shapeless mass of soft puffy feathers, in which hardly a tail or a wing can be
distinguished. The wings of this species are rather short, but powerful.

72

KN

cae

te
weet


HORNED FROG.

The Horned Frog is one of the queerest creatures among the frog tribe
There are several species of these Frogs, all inhabiting Southern America, and
all very remarkable for the singular growth on the upper eyelids which are
lengthened into hard horn-like points. The back of the Horned Frog is fur-
nished with a bony shield, and the growth over the eyes is remarkably bold
and distinct. The body is short, stout, and squat, the skin covered with
tubercles and folds, and the opening of the mouth enormous. It is a large
and very greedy creature, one specimen, when opened, being found to have
swallowed a full-grown land frog. The toes are long, powerful, and with
hardly any web, except just at the base. The little Ornate Land Frog is a
very striking contrast to the Horned Frog on account of its small size, the
activity of its movements, and the beauty of its coloring. It is found in



Georgia and South Carolina, and is always seen on land and dry spots, its
thirsty frame being amply supplied by the dews and casual rains without
needing to go inthe water. Indeed, this little Frog is so unused to the water,
that if thrown into a pond, it makes no attempt to swim, but lies helplessly
sprawling on the surface. On land, however, it displays wonderful activity,
being of a very lively nature, and making long and bold leaps in rapid succes-
sion, so that it is not to be captured without considerable difficulty. The
color of this species is rather variable, but is generally of a soft dove tint, on
which are placed several oblong marks of deep, rich brown, edged with golden
yellow. Below it is silvery white, ornamented with gray. It is a very little
creature, measuring only one inch and a quarter when full-grown. Another
species of this Frog is the Senegal Land Frog, which inhabits Southern Amer-
ica. It lives in burrows-in the ground, and is rather quiet, except before rain.

73
CHINCHILLA.

The Chinchilla is covered with very soft and delicate fur and is remark:
able for the length of its hind legs and its long hairy tail. The animal is
-very small, measuring only fourteen or fifteen inches in total length, includ-
ing the oa which is bouncy nent long. There is a very great demennd
for the skins of the Chinchilla, which are used in the Ponnt ents of articles
of dress. he little creature has not very much intelligence and oftentimes
fails even to recognize the hand that feeds it. It lives in Southern America
among the higher mountainous districts where its thick, silky fur is of great

value in keeping out the cold. The Chinchilla makes its home beneath the
surface of the ground, digging subterranean tunnels in the valleys of the
hilly country in which it lives. In many localities these creatures band them-
selves together in great numbers. Their food consists of vegetables, and they
are very ‘fond of roots and bulbs which they easily dig up with their powerful
paws. While feeding they sit upon their hind feet and pass the food to their
mouths with the fore feet. The Chinchilla is a very clean animal. It is very
remarkable that whenever an animal has beautiful furor is marked by rich
and dainty colors, it is alway very careful in keeping its coat perfectly clean.



The fur of a Chinchilla is of a dark color, gray on the back, softening into
a grayish white on the under part. Besides being dressed and employed as a
fur, the hair of this animal is so long and soft that it is used for the loom and
is manufactured into many fabrics where warmth and lightness are required.
A queer animal inhabiting the crevices of rocky parts of Peru, is the
Lagotis, which would be re sadily mistaken for a hare or a rabbit if it were
not for its havi ing a long tail. The limbs are like a rabbit’s, the coat is like
a hare’s, and the ears are long. It is very active, but never attempts to
escape by se should it chance to be alarmed. When startled or wounded,
it always seeks the shelter of the nearest cranny, and unless this creature is
killed outright by the hunter he can never hope to recover the body. The
flesh is very delicate and tender and it is hunted for its value as an article of
food. This animal has four toes oa the fore feet, while the Chinchilla has five.

74
COYOTE.

The Coyote is a well-known American Wolf. Its habits are very similar
to those of other wolves. Like many other wild animals, this creature will
feign death when its has fallen into the hands of its pursuers and finds that
escape is impossible. It oftentimes does this so cleverly that experienced
hunters have been deceived, and as soon as their eyes have been turned the
animal has made its escape. Many people believe that it is impossible to
tame a wolf, but there are few creatures that like kindness and affection
more than the wolf if it is captured when young and treated rightly. It will
follow its master like a dog, obey his orders, remember. him after being
separated a long time, and generally conduct himself in a better manner than
many dogs. ‘The nest in which the little ones are reared is softly and warmly
lined with dry moss and with fur which the mother wolf pulls from her own
body. ‘The young wolves begin to eat meat when they are four or five weeks
old and they are soon taught by their parents to join in the chase. Some
time ago a gentleman captured two young wolves and kept them until they
were full-grown. One of them became so tame that she would play with her
master, lick his hands, and often go with him riding in the sledge in
winter. One day when he was absent the wolf got loose from the chain she



SONS
N

was bound with and was away for three days. When the master returned
home and missed the animal he went out on a hill and called, ‘‘ Where is my
Tussa?”’ as the animal was named. No sooner had he called out than the
wolf hearing the voice, came running towards him and fondled with him,
licking his hands just as a dog would when pleased to see its master. This
animal could not bear other people, but its companion wolf was fond of every-
body that came in contact with him excepting his master. The reason for this
was that he had once stolen a hen and received a whipping, which he never
forgot. European people would shudder at the thought of cating the flesh of
wolves, but those who have been driven to eat the flesh when hunery say
that the wolf when properly dressed makes a really excellent dinner. In all
parts of the world wherever the wolf is found it is very badly abused tor
being a cruel and cowardly creature. A wolves’ nest sometimes contains as
man as nine oung ones, and Mr. Wolf is always very loyal to his wife.

jo




GIRAFFE.

‘The Giraffe erects its stately head far above any other animal that walks
the face of the earth. It inhabits various parts of Africa. The height of i full-
grown male Giraffe is from eighteen to twenty feet, the female being some-
what smaller. The great height of this animal is necessary, as it feeds

“upon the leaves of trees, being able to pick out the very choicest ones by
means of its wonderful tongue, which it can stretch to a considerable length.



a





oe Wi : \" i : 2” *
sia
Soe eee = @



NS
Ls i



It can make the point of its tongue so small that it will pass into the pipe of
an ordinary pocket key. The Giraffe never attempts to graze upon level
ground, unless it is driven by hunger. The animal is very dainty in its
appetite, plucking only the freshest and greenest leaves. Hay, carrots,
onions, and other vegetables form its diet while it is kept in captivity. It is
a gentle and playful animal, full of curiosity, and observing everything new
with the utmost interest. It has a very mild and kind expression, and many
a hunter is overcome when he sees the tender look on the face of.a poor
wounded animal as it lies silently on the ground, watching its enemy, the
hunter. The Giraffe is a silent creature and has never been heard to utter a
sound even when strugeline in the agonies of death. Although it is so
gentle, it can defend itself against ordinary foes. It does not bring its head
within reach of the enemy, but delivers a shower of kicks with such lightness
and swiftness, that even lions have been known to give up the fivht. But
when a lion can steal upon a Giraffe without being seen, it is easily able to
bring down the poor animal, by dint of bodily strength and sharpness of teeth.

76
MISSISSIPPI KITE.

America furnishes us with the genus Ictinia, a member of which is very
familiar to ornithologists under the name of Mississippi Kite. This fine bird
is a native of various parts of America, where it may be seen at a vast
elevation in the air, sailing about in strange companionship with the turkey
buzzard, and equalling those birds in the power, grace, and readiness of its
flight. Why two such dissimilar birds should thus inhabit the same region
of air, and delight in each other’s society, is a very perplexing question, and
requires a much clearer knowledge of the species and its habits before it can
be satisfactorily settled. The Mississippi Kite cares not for carrion, and is
not absolutely known to make prey of anything bigger than a locust. Yet
st ig observed that the powerful hooked beak and sharp claws seem as
if they were intended by nature for the capture of prey much more formidable
than grasshoppers, locusts, and butterflies. In its flight, the Mississippi Kite

iy AN
AIR
SN TS
SS Ws nt
SSS











necds not to flap its wings, but sails on its airy course with the same easy grace
and apparent absence of exertion that is so characteristic of the flight of the
vultures. The very great proportionate length of its wings may account for
this habit; the entire length of the body and tail being only fourteen inches,
while the expanse of wing equals three feet. Being possessed of such power
of flight, it emulates the swallow-tailed Falcon in many of its evolutions, and
‘12 similar manner is fond of sweeping rapidly past a branch, and snatching
from the leaves a choice locust or beetle without checking its progress. Like
that bird it also feeds while on the wing, holding its prey in its claws and
transferring it to its mouth without needing to settle. In character it seems
to be a most fierce and courageous bird. The colors with which this bird is
decorated are, though simple in themselves, exceedingly pleasing in their
general effect. ‘The head, neck, and part of the secondaries are a grayish-
white, and the whole of the lower parts are whitish-ash. The back and
upper portions of the body are ashy-black, and the pinions are deep black.

TT
AMERICAN FOX.

The American Fox is sometimes found with pale yellow fur, some with
fur of a blackish color, others of a reddish fawn, while many are remarkable
for the manner in which the blick, the white, the yellow, and the fawn colors
are scattered over the body and limbs. In almost every case there is a dark-
ish cross stripe over the shoulders which causes the animal to be sometimes
known as the Cross Fox. The American Fox has a very large share of
cunning. One of them, on whose track the hounds had often followed, was
always able to baffle them at one particular point on the crest of a rather
stecp hill. Up to this spot the scent was very good, but there it vanished
and so the fox was lost. One of the hunters was so disappointed that one
day he hid himself near the spot and carefully watched the hunted animal.

GS






As soon as the fox was driven from his cover, he led the hounds a long chase
through woods, ponds and thickets and at last came at full speed toward the
crest of the hill. As soon as he reached the spot, he laid himself down and
pressed his body as closely as possible to the ground. Presently the hounds
cine along in full cry, following a strong scent. They darted by in hot pur-
su t,never sopping until they reached the bottom of the hill. Assoon as the
last hound had passed, the fox crept quietly away over the brow of the hill,
and returned to his covert at leisure. Another of these animals always led
his pursuers to a large cliff that rose perpendicularly for several hundred
feet. ‘The desperate hunters had often examined the spot, but without suc-
cess, for it seemed to them that no animal without wings could venture to take
such a fearful leap. The secret was, however, at last discovered by some one
watching from a concealed position. Some feet below the edge there was'a
break in the cliff, forming a kind of step about a foot wide. By means of his
claws the fox let himself down upon the step and then disappeared in the hol-
low, which could not be seen from above. A man was lowered by ropes to the
spot, and found that there was a wide opening in the rock, to whith the
step formed an entrance. Searching the cavern it was found to have another
outict opening upon the level ground above. The fox, however, never used
this entrance when the hounds were on his trail, but cut off the scent by
scrambling over the cliff and coming out at the other side without any fear
of discovery. ‘There is no finer sport than hunting these cunning creatures.

%8
HEDGE SPARROW.

The song of the Hedge Sparrow is sweet, but not varied nor powerful,
and has a peculiar‘plaintive air about it. The bird is a persevering songster,
continuing to sing throughout a large portion of the year, and only ceasing
during the time of the ordinary moult. Like many other warbling birds, it
possesses considerable powers of imitation, and can mock with some success
the greater number of British song-birds. This bird is nearly as bold as the
sparrow, and will sometimes take up its residence in cities, where it soon
gains the precociously impertinent airs that characterize all town birds, speedily
loses the bright rich brown and gray of its plumage, and assumes as dingy a
garb as that of the regular city sparrow. The color of the Hedge Sparrow is
bluish gray, covered with small brown streaks upon the head, and the back
and sides of the neck.: The back and wings are brown streaked with a
deeper tint of the same hue, and the quill-feathers of the wings and tail are of
a rather darker brown, and not quite so glossy. The chin, the throat, and
upper part of the breast are gray, and the lower part of the breast and the

















abdomen are white with a wash of pale buff. The legs and toes are brown
with a decided orange tinge, and the beak is dark brown. ‘The total length
of the bird is nearly six inches. ‘The Alpine Accentor is another interesting
bird. Several specimens of this bird have been killed in England, but it is an
extremely rare visitant to that country, and is hardly entitled to take rank as
‘a true British bird. .The countries where it is usually found are Italy,
France, Germany, and several other parts of Europe. It is a mountain-loving
bird, seldom descending to the level of the plains except during the stormy
months of winter. It can readily be distinguished from the ordinary
Accentor by the throat, which is white spotted with black, and by the
chestnut black and white streaks upon the wing-coverts. The Alpine
Accentor is larger than its British relative, being six inches and a half in
total length, and its blue green eggs are larger than those of that bird. The
nest is generally placed at a very low elevation, seldom more than two or three
feet from the ground, and it is rather large in proportion to the size of the bird.

79
SALAMANDER.

The celebrated Salamander, the subject of so many strange fables, is a
species found in many parts of the continent of Europe. This creature was
formerly thought to be able to withstand the action of fire, and to quench
even the most glowing furnace with its icy body. It is singular how such
ideas should have been so long promulgated, for although Aristotle repeated
the tale on hearsay, Pliny tried the experiment, by putting a Salamander into
the fire, and remarks with evident surprise, that it was burned to a powder.
A piece of cloth dipped in the blood of a Salamander was said to be unhurt
by fire, and certain persons had in their possession a fire-proof fabric made, as
they stated, of Salamander’s wool, but which proved to be asbestos. The



notion of the poisonous character of the Salamander is of very old date, as
the reader may see by referring to any ancient work on Natural History.
One of the old writers advises any one who is bitten by a Salamander to be-
take himself to the coffin and winding-sheet, and remarks that a sufferer from
the bite of this animal needs as many physicians as the Salamander has spots.
If the Salamander crawled upon the stem of an apple-tree, all the crop of fruit
was supposed to be withered by its deadly presence, and if the heel of a man
should come in contact with the liquid that exudes from the skin, all the hair
of his head and face would fall off. There is certainly an infinitesimally
minute atom of truth in all this mass of absurdities, for the Salamander does
secrete a liquid from certain pores in its surface, which, for the moment, would
enable it to pass through a moderate fire, and this secretion is sufficiently
acrid to affect the eyes painfully, and to injure small animals if taken into
the mouth. The Salamander is a terrestrial species, only frequenting the
water for the purpose of depositing its young, which leave the egg before they
enter into independent existence. It isa slow and timid animal, generally
hiding itself in some convenient crevice during the day, and seldom venturing
out except at night or in rainy weather. It feeds on slugs, insects, and sim-
ilar creatures. During the cold months it retires into winter quarters, gen-
erally the hollow of some decaying tree, or beneath some mossy stones.

ane 80
PRAIRIE DOG.

The Prairie Dog is a burrowing animal, and as it is very gregarious in its
habits, the spot on which it congregates is literally honeycombed with its
tunnels. There is, however, a kind of order observed in the “TDog-towns,” as
these warrens are popularly called, for the animals always leave certain roads
or streets in which no burrows are made. The affairs of the community seem
to be regulated by a single leader, called the Big Dog, who sits before the en-
trance of his burrow and issues his orders from thence to the community. In
front of every burrow a small heap of earth is raised, which is made from the



excavated soil, and which is generally employed as a seat for the. occupant of
the burrow. As long as no danger is apprehended, the little animals are all
in lively motion, sitting upon their mounds, or hurrying from one tunnel to
another as eagerly as if they were transacting the most important business.
Suddenly a sharp yelp is heard, and the peaceful scene is in a moment trans-
formed into a whirl of indistinguishable confusion. Quick barks resound on
every side, the air is filled with a dust-cloud, in the midst of which is indis-
‘tinctly seen an intermingled mass of flourishing legs and whisking tails, and
in a moment the populous “town” is deserted. Not a “dog” is visible, and
the whole spot is apparently untenanted. But in a few minutes a pair of dark
eyes are seen gleaming at the entrance of some burrow, a set of glistening
teeth next shine through the dusky recess, and in a few minutes first one and
another Prairie Dog issues from his retreat, until the whole community is
again in lively action. The title of Prairie Dog has been given to this animal
on account of the sharp yelping sound which it is in the habit of uttering, and
which has some resemblance to the barkingof a very small and very peevish
lapdog. Every time that it yelps it gives its tail a smart jerk. This peculiar
sound is evidently employed as acry of alarm; for as soonas it is uttered,
all the Prairie Dogs dive into their burrows, and do not emerge again until
they hear the shrill whistle which tells them that the danger is past. Pretty
as it is, and graceful as are its movements, it is not a desirable pet.

8l
PUFF ADDER.

The terrible Puff Adder is a native of Southern Africa, and is one of the
cammonest, as well as one of the most deadly, of poisonous Snakes. It is slow
and apparently torpid in all its movements, except when it is going to strike,
and the colonists say that it is able to leap backwards so as to bite a person
who is standing by its tail, This formidable looking reptile is more dreaded
than any other of the numerous poisonous Snakes in Africa, a fact which
mainly results from an indolent nature. Whilst other and more active Snakes
will move rapidly away upon the approach of man, the Puff Adder will fre-
quently lie still, either too lazy to move, or dozing beneath the warm sun of
the south. This reptile attains a length of four feet, or four feet six inches,
and some specimens may be found even longer; its circumference is as much
as that of a man’sarm. Its whole appearance is decidedly indicative of venom.
-Its broad ace-of-clubs-shaped head, its thick body, and suddenly tapered tail,
and its chequered back, are all evidences of its poisonous nature. It derives
its popular name from its practice of puffing out or swelling the body when
irritated. There is certainly in nature no more fearful an object than a full-
grown Puff Adder. The creature grovels on the sand, winding its body so
as to bury itself almost wholly in the tawny soil, and just leavingits flat, cruel-

oO
looking headlying onthe ground and free from sand. ‘Vhe steady, malignant,



stony glare of those cyes is absolutely freezing as the creature lies motionless,
confident in its deadly powers, and when roused by the approach of a passen-
ger, merely exhibiting its annoyance by raising its head an inch or two, and
uttering a sharp angry hiss. Evenhorses have been bitten by this reptile, and
died within a few hours after the injury was inflicted. The peculiar attitude
which is exhibited inthe illustration is taken from life, one of the Puff Adders
in the collection.of the Zoological Society having been purposely irritated. It
is rather curious that the juice of tobacco is an instant poison to these creatures,
even more suddenly deadly to them than their poison to the human beings
who can absorb the tobacco juice with impunity. The Hottentots will often
kill the Puff Adder by spitting in its face the juice of chewed tobacco.

82
LION.

The color of the Lion is a tawny yellow, light on the under parts of the
body, and darker above. The ears are blackish, and at the tip of the tail
there is a tuft of black hair. The male Lion, when full-grown, has a thick
and shaggy mane of very long hair, which falls from the neck, shoulders, and
part of the throat and chin. The Lioness has no mane, and the male Lion’s
mane is not perfect until the animal is three years of age. When full-grown,
the male Lion measures four feet in height at the shoulder, and about eleven
feet in length. But when these noble animals are kept in captivity they do
not grow so large. ‘The Lioness is smaller than her mate, but she is quite as
terrible in combat; and, indeed, the Lioness is ofttimes a foe much more to
be dreaded than the Lion. When she has a little family to look after,
Leaena is a truly fearful enemy to those who cross her path. Hunger is the
great cause of a Lion’s boldness, and when this animal has plenty to eat it
does not trouble itself to attack man or beast. The Lion does not come








Fionn
SESS
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A
5

SS

ASS

boldly out on the plain and give chase to his prey, for he is not swift of foot,
and will not run into danger without good cause. He can make tremendous
leaps, and with a single blow from his terrible paw can crush any of the
smaller animals. If the Lion has been prowling about during the evening, and
has found no prey, he places his mouth close to the earth, and utters a terrific
roar, which rolls along the ground en all sides, and frightens every animal
which may chance to be crouching near. He very soon has one for supper.

83
LYRE-TAILED GOAT-SUCKER.
























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‘ii

















SN Bs
WN SNRs

AY i RSS s
Fp



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The common Goat-Sucker was called
Aigothéles or Goat-sucker by Aristotle
in the days of old and has been re-
ligiously supposed to have sucked
goatsever afterwards. The Latin werd
caprimulgus bears the same signification.
It was even supposed that after the bird
had succeeded in sucking some unfort-
unate goat, the fount of nature was im-
mediately dried up, and the poor beast
also lost its sight. Starting from this
report all kinds of strange rumors flew
about the world, andthe poor Goat-
sucker, or Nightjar, as it ought more
rightly to be called, has been invariably
hated as a bird of ill omen to man and
beast. A very remarkable form of
plumage is seen in the Lyrc-tailed
Goat-sucker. This beautiful bird is a
native of Columbia, and is notable for
the extraordinary development of the
outer tail feathers. Although the bird
itself is by no means large, very little
exceeding the common English Nightjar

* in dimensions, the total length of an adult

male Lyre-tailed Goat-sucker is nearly
three feet. Indeed, the general contour
of the body and plumage remind the

observer strongly of the resplendent
‘Trogon, which is remarkable for its

beauty. The general color of this
species is the mottled dark and light
brown which is universal among the Goat-
suckers, but is diversified by a band
round the neck of rich chestnut. The
primaries are nearly black, with an
exception of a few chestnut spots scat-
tered irregularly upon their necks.
The extremely elongated tail-feathers
are deep brown black, edged with a
warm band of pale brown upon the
inner web. ‘The outer web is hardly
a quarter of an inch wide, while the
inner is almost an inch and a_ half
in width. Several feathers of the tail
project for some distance, and lie upon
the base ef the elongated feathers.

84
QUADRUMANA.

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The Quadrumanous, or four-handed animals, are better known by the titles
of Apes, Baboons, and Monkeys. We are all familiar with the small mon-
keys that are led about the streets in company with a barrel organ, or seated
in equestrian fashion upon a bear or dog. ‘These poor little creatures have
been trained to stand upon their hind feet and to shufHle along at a slow and
awkward pace, but if they are startled, and so forget for a moment their ac-
quired art, or if they wish to hurry their pace, they drop down on all fours
and scamper off with an air of easy comfort that is very unlike their former
effort to walk on two legs. The dithicuity seems to increase with the size of
the animal, and the largest apes, such as the orang-outang, are forced to bal-
ance themselves with outstretched arms no matter how carefully educated.

85
’ SEA LEOPARD.

The Sea Leopard is distinguished from other seals by means of its slender
neck and the wider gape of its mouth, which opens further backward than
is generally the case among these animals. The body is rather curiously
formed, being slender at the neck, and largest towards the middle, whence it
tapers rapidly to the short tail. The fore-paws are not connected by any
membrane, and are largest at the thumb joint, getting gradually smaller to
the last joint. The claws are sharp and curved and rather deeply grooved,
their color is black. ‘There are no claws on the hind feet, which bear some
resemblance to the tail fin ofa fish.. The color of this seal is generally a pale
gray on the bare portions of the body, with a number of pale grayish white
spots, which have caused this animal to be known as the Sea Leopard. It is
not a very iarge animal, the largest ones being scarcely ten feet in length.
Around the thickest part of the body, the measurement is nearly six and a
half feet, around the root of the tail about three feet two inches, and around
the neck barely two feet. These animals are mostly found in the Southern
Hemisphere. Another curious animal is the Crested Seal. ‘The head of this

Yigg 4G d Seta
a —- GSU a



creature is broad, and the muzzle is very short in comparison with that of
the Leopard. The teeth are also very remarkable. The reason it is known
as the Crested Seal, is because the fullgrown male have a crest, which rises
sharply over the head to the height of six or seven inches, and is keel-shaped
in the middle. The onset of an enraged Crested Seal is much to be dreaded,
for the creature is terribly fierce when its anger is roused, and its strength is
very great. The teeth are extremely powerful, and can inflict very danger-
ous wounds. When fighting, these animals use their claws as well as their —
teeth. The male Crested Seals are very vicious, and during the season when
they choose their wives, are in the habit of fighting desparately with each
other for the possession of some attractive lady seal; and in these combats,
they inflict terrible punishment upon each other. During the fight, they
emit a torrent of loud passionate screams, which can be heard at a very great
distance. These males have to fight each other very often, as they are not
satisfied with one mate, each one ruling over a small herd of wives. The fur of
this animal is of some value, and great numbers of the skins are imported into
Europe and put to various uses. The Seal is much valued by the Greenlander.

86
CROWNED CRANES AND DEMOISELLE CRANE.

The Crowned Crane is very striking, its coronet of golden plumes and
the scarlet cheeks making it a very conspicuous bird. This species is a native
of Northern and Western Africa, where it is usually found in swampy and
marshy localities, which it frequents for the purpose of feeding on the insects,
molluscs, reptiles, and fishes, which are to be caught abundantly in such places.
The Crowned Crane occasionally indulges in fantastic gambols, and on account
of the conspicuous crest and general aspect of the bird, they have an effect
even more ludicrous. In captivity the Crowned Crane thrives. well, and its



























































habits can be readily watched. At the Zoological Gardens there are some
fine specimens of these birds, and anhour may be pleasantly spent in watching
their proceeding. Sometimes they rest still and stately, one leg tucked under
them quite out of sight, and the body balanced onthe other. Sometimes they
like to sit on their bent legs, their feet projecting far in front of them, and
their knees, or rather their ankles, sustaining the weight of the body. At
another time they will walk majestically about their inclosure, or begin their
absurd dances, while a very favorite amusement is to run races at opposite
sides of the wire fence, and then come to a halt, each bird trying which can
yell the loudest. The voice is very loud, and has something of a trumpet in
its hollow ringing resonance. The forehead is black, the feathers being short
and velvety. From the top of the head rises a tuft of long straight plumes, of
a golden hue, fringed with very delicate black barbules. The skin of the
cheek is bare, and part of it is bright scarlet, the upper part being white, andrun-
ning into a small wattle on the throat. Theheight of this bird is about four feet.
. 87
WATER VIPER.

The name of Water Viper is appropriately given to the creature now
before us, in consequence of its water-loving habits. It is a native of many
parts of America, and is never seen at any great distance from water, being
found plentifully in the neighborhood of rivers, marshes, and in swampy
lands. It is a good climber of trees, and may be seen entwined in great
numbers on the branches that overhang the water. On the least alarm, the
reptile glides from the branch, drops into the water and wriggles its way
into a place of safety. The object of climbing the trees seems to be that the
creature delights to bask in the sun, and takes that method of gratifying
its inclination where the whole of the soil is wet and marshy. But in those
localities where it can find dry banks and rising grounds, the Water Viper
contents itself with ascending them and lying upon the dry surface enjoy ing



















































































































































































the genial warmth. It is a most poisonous reptile, and is even more dreaded
by the negroes than the rattlesnake, as like the fer-de-lance, it will make the
first attack, erecting itself boldly, opening its mouth for a second or two, and
then darting forward with a rapid spring. At all times it seems to be of an
aggressive character, and has been known to chase and bite other Snakes
put into the same cage, the poor creatures fleeing before it and endeavoring
to escape by clinging to the sides of the cage. But when several other
individuals of the same species were admitted, the very Snake that had
before been so ferocious became quite calm, and a box containing four or
five specimens has been sent on a journey of many miles without any quarrels
ensuing among the inmates. The food of the Water Viper consists of fishes,
which it can procure by its great rapidity of movement and excellent swimming.

88
ST. BERNARD'S DOG.

These splendid Dogs are among the largest of the canine race. The good
work which is done by these Dogs is so well known that it is only necessary
to give a passing reference. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and
accustomed from its birth to the deep snows which everlastingly cover the
mountain-top, the St. Bernard’s Dog is a most useful animal in discovering
any unfortunate traveler who has been overtaken by a sudden storm and
lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out by fatigue
and hardship, and fallen into the death-sleep which is the result of severe cold.



Whenever a snow storm occurs, the monks belonging to the monastery of St.
Bernard send forth their Dogs on their errand of mercy. Taught by the
wonderful instinct with which they are endowed, they traverse the dangerous
paths, and seldom fail to discover the frozen sufferer, even though he be
buried under a deep snowdrift. When the Dog has made such a discovery,
it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the
sufferer, and endeavors to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form.
The monks, hearing the voice of the Dog, immediately set off to the aid of
the perishing traveler, and in many cases have thus preserved lives that must
have perished without their timely assistance. In order tc afford every
possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits is generally ticd to the
Dog’s neck. But of all domesticated Dogs, the Poodle seems to be, take him
all in all, the most obedient and the most intellectual. Accomplishments the
most difficult are mastered by this clever animal, which displays an ease and
intelligence in its performances that appear to be far beyond the ordinary
canine capabilities. It is a cleanly little creature and very affectionate.

29
RINGED BOA.

The splendid Ringed Boa of America, sometimes called the Aboma, has
been celebrated for its destructive powers, and in ancient times was wor-
shiped by the Mexicans and propitiated with human sacrifices. Naturally
the people of the country would feel disposed to awe in the presence of the
mighty Snake whose prowess was so well known by many fatal experiences,
and this disposition was fostered by the priests of the Serpent deity, who had
succeeded in taming several of these giant Snakes, and teaching them to
glide over and around them, as if extending their protection to men endowed
with such supernatural powers. This Serpent destroys its prey after the
fashion of its family, merely by squeezing it to death between its folds. While
thus engaged, the reptile does not coil itself spirally round the victim, but
wraps fold over fold, to increase its power, just as we aid the grasping strength
of one hand by placing the other over it. It is said that the Snake can be re-



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moved from its prey by seizing it by the tail, and thus unwinding it. More-
over, a heavy blow on the tail, or cutting off a few feet of the extremity, is
the best way of disabling the monster for the time. This creature is rather
variable in its coloring, the locality having probably some influence in this re-
spect. Generally it is rich chocolate brown, with five dark streaks on the top
and sides of the head, a series of large and rather narrow dark rings along the
back, and two rows of dark spots on the sides. Sometimes a number of large
spots are seen on the back, and white streaks on the sides. In all the members
fo this genus, the hinder limbs or ‘‘spurs” of the male are larger and
stronger than inthe female. Another American species, the Dog-headed Boa,
or Bojobi, is notable for the formidable armament of teeth which line the mouth.

90
BARN OWL.

i €

This species 1s generally considered to be the typical example of the Ow]
tribe, as it exhibits in great perfection the different characteristics of the
Owls, namely, the thick coat of downy plumage, the peculiar disk round the
eye, the large eyeballs, and the heavily feathered legs and toes. The
feathers are so thickly set upon this bird, that it appears to be of much
greater dimensions than is really the case. When standing on its feet, or
while flying over the fields like a huge bunch of thistle-down blown violently
by the night breeze, the Barn Owl appears to be rather a large bird; but
when the creature is lying on the bird-stuffer’s cable, after its skin and
feathers have been removed, the transformation is really astonishing. ‘The
great round head shrinks into the shape and size of that of a small hawk, the
body is hardly larger than that of a pigeon, and but for the evident power of
the firm muscles and their glistening tendinous sheaths, the bird would
appear absolutely insignificant. Although so small it is a terrible bird to
fight, and when it flings itself defiantly on its back, ire glancing from its eyes,







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and its sharp claws drawn up to its breast ready to strike as soon as its
antagonist shall come within their range,,it is really a formidable foe, and
will test the nerves of a man to some'extent before he can secure the fierce
little bird. So fiercely does this bird strike, that there is record of an
instance where a dog was blinded by the stroke of a Barn Owl’s claws. The
Owl was a tame one, and the,dog—a stranger—went up to inspect the bird.
As the dog approached the Owl, the bird rolled quietly over on its back, and
when the dog put its head to the prostrate bird, it struck so sharply with its
claws that it destroyed both the eyes of the poor animal, which had to be
killed on account of the injury. While its young are helpless, the White Owl
watches over their safety with great vigilance, and if any living thing, such
as a man or a dog, should approach too closely to the domicile, the Owl will
dash fiercely at them, regardless of the consequences to itself. The nest ot
this species is placed either in a hollow tree, or in a crevice of some old
building, where it deposits its white, rough-surfaced eggs upon a soft layer of
dried “castings.” These nests have a most ill-conditioned and penetrating
odor, which taints the hand when it is introduced, and cannot be removed.

91




SAND LIZARD.

This reptile is extremely variable in size and coloring, so variable, indeed,
that it has often been separated into several species. Two varieties seem to
be tolerably permanent, the brown and the green; the former, as it is believed,
being found upon sandy heaths where the brown hues of the ground assim.
ilate with those of the reptile, and the green variety on grass and more ver-
dant situations, where the colors of the vegetation agree with those of the
body. Though quick and lively in its movements, it is not so dashingly active
as the scaly Lizard, having a touch of deliberation as it runs from one spot to
another, while. the scaly i.izard seems almost to be acted upon by hiddin
springs. It does not bear confinement
well, and in spite of its diminutive
size and feeble powers, will attempt
to bite the hand which disturbs it in
a place whence it cannot escape.
When it finds itself hopelessly im-
prisoned, it loses all appetite for its
food, hides itself in the darkest cor-
ner ofits strange domicile, and before
many days have passed, is generally
found ‘lying dead on the ground.
Unlike the scaly Lizard, this species
lays its eggs in a convenient spot
: and then leaves them to be hatched

= we by the warm sunbeams. Sand
banks with a southern aspect are the favored resorts of this reptile, which
scoops out certain shallow pits in the sand, deposits her eggs, covers them up,
and then leaves them to their fate. The eggs are probably laid for a consid-
erable period before the young are hatched from them. A's has been already
remarked, the coloring of the creature is exceedingly vari: ble in different in-
dividuals. Generally it is sandy brown above, with some faint bands of a
darker brown with rows of black spots, which sometimes have a whitish dot
in their center The sides have a tinge of green more or less distinct, and
the under surface is white. In some individuals the green is very distinct.
The average length of the Sand Lizard is about seven inches or ‘a little more.
A very curious animal is the Cape Spine-foot. . All the Spine-foot Lizards are
inhabitants of Africa, and most of them are found towards the northern por-
tion of that continent. This Lizard is found on the sandy districts of Great
Namaqua-land. The color of this Lizard is a very peculiar brown above,
changing from yellow brown to a much warmer hue, partaking of ithe orange.
The top of the head is mottled with dark brown, and the back’ is freckled
with the same hue. From the eyes run two whitish bands on each side, the
lower terminating at the hind leg and the upper reaching some distiince along
the tail. Between and about these bands are bold brown mottlings in the
male, and an orange wash in the female. The upper part of the lees is also
mottled with dark brown. The toes are very long, especially those of the
hind foot and are edged with a fringe composed of sharply pointed scales.

92.






AWE
We %
TEND



, ZEBRA,

The Boers, who call themselves, by the title of “baptized men,” think
they would be derogating from their dignity to partake of the flesh of the
Zebra, and generously leave the animal to be consumed by their Hottentot
servants. When wounded, the Zebra gives a kind of groan, which is said to
resemble that of a dying man. In disposition the Zebra is fierce, obstinate,
and nearly untameable. The efforts used in reducing to obedience the Zebra
of the Zoological Gardens are now matter of history. The little brindled
animal gave more trouble than the huge animals, and it overset calculations
by the fact that it was able to kick as fiercely from three legs as a horse from









four. Inits habits the Zebra resembles the dziggetai more than the dauw,
as it is always found in hilly districts, and inhabits the high craggy mountain
ranges in preference to the plains. It is a mild and very timid animal. fleeing
instinctively to its mountain home as soon as it is alarmed by the sight of a
strange object. Between the zebras and the domestic ass several curious
Mules have been produced, and may be seen in the collection of the British
Museum. It is worthy of notice, that wherever a cross breed has taken place,
the influence of the male parent secms to be permanently impressed on the
mother, who in her subsequent offspring imprints upon them some character:
istic of the interloper. The genuine, or Mountain Zebra. will be be found to
be nearly white, while the bands which cover the whole of the body and legs
are seldom anything but a glossy black. At the tip of the tail of this animal.
there is a peculiar tuft of black hair. Its home is mostly in the mountains
of Africa, its choice being the central or southern parts. Few animals
are more noted for their wildness, wariness, and wonderful swiftness.

93
STONECHAT AND WHINCHAT.

The Stonechat is one of the birds that remain in England thrdughout
the year, being seen during the winter months among the furze-covered com-
mons, which are now rapidly becoming extinct. ‘The name of Chat is earned
by the bird in consequence of its extreme volubility, for it is one of the nois-
iest birds in existence. Its song is low and sweet, and may be heard to great
advantage, asthe bird is not at all shy, and, trusting to its powers of conceal-
ment, sings merrily until the spectator has approached within a short distance,
and then, dropping among the furze, glides quickly through the prickly maze,
and rises at some distance, ready to renew its little song. It is a lively bird,
ever on the move, flitting from place to place with restless activity, and ever
and anon uttering its sweet strains. Even in the winter months the Stone-
chat will make itself audible as it flutters about the furze-grown spots in
which it loves to live. It is in these localities that it finds its supply of winter
food, for the thick furze-bushes afford shelter to various worms and insects,
and the little Chat is able to procure a plentiful meal by digging in the damp
ground. The nest of the Stonechat is made of mosses, grass of different
kinds, and is lined with fine fibres, hairs and feathers. The number of eggs
is from four to six, and their color is very pale blue, diversified with numerous








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minute spots of reddish brown upon the large end of the shell. The colors
of the Stonechat are rather pretty. The head, the neck, the chin, throat,
back and tail, are deep sooty-black, contrasting boldly with the pure white
of the tertial wing-coverts, the upper tail-coverts, and the sides of the neck. |
The remaining wing-coverts are deep brown, and the quill-feathers of the
wings are also brown. The breast is chestnut, and the abdomen yellowish
white. The total length of the bird is rather more than five inches. ‘The
bird which occupies the left-hand of the illustration is called the Whinchat,
on account of its fondness for the furze or whin. ‘The Stonechat has, how-
ever, quite as much right to the title, as it frequents the furze as constantly
as the Whinchat. This species may be easily distinguished from the preced-
ing, by the long and bold white streak which passes across the sides of the head.

94



BRINDLED GNU.

The faculty of curiosity is largely developed in the Gnu, which can never
resist the temptation of inspecting any strange object, although at the risk of
its life. When a Gnu first catches sight of any unknown being, he sets off
at full speed, as if desirous of getting to the farthest possible distance from
the terrifying object. Soon, however, the feeling of curiosity vanquishes the
passion of fear, and the animal halts to reconnoiter. He then gallops in a
circle round the cause of his dread, halting occasionally, and ever drawing
nearer. By taking advantage of this disposition, a hunter has been enabled
to attract, towards himself a herd of Gnus which were feeding out of gun-
shot, merely by tying a red handkerchief to the muzzle of his gun. The
inquisitive animals were so fascinated with the fluttering lure, that they



actually approached so near as to charge at the handkerchief, and forced the
hunter to consult his own safety by lowering his flag. The same ruse is fre-
quently employed on the prairies of America, when the hunters desire to get
a shot at a herd of prong-buck Antelopes. Several experiments have been
made in order to ascertain whether the Gnu is capable of domestication. As
far as the practicability of such a scheme was concerned, the experiments
were perfectly successful, but there is a great drawback in the shape of a
dangerous and infectious disease to which the Gnu is very liable, and which
would render it a very undesirable member of the cattle-yard. Ordinary
cattle have no love for the Gnu, and on one occasion, when a young Gnu of
only four months old was placed in the yard, the cattle surrounded it and
nearly killed it with their horns and hoofs. The color of the ordinary Gnu
is brownish black, sometimes with a blue gray wash. The mane is black.

95
ANOLIS.

All lizards of this kind are very active, inhabiting trees and jumping about
from branch to branch with wonderful skill, and clinging even to the hanging
leaves by means of their curiously formed feet. The Anolis is a native of
America, and is a bold and daring animal, haunting out-houses and garden
fences, and in new settlements, it even enters the houses, walking over tables
and other articles of furniture in search of fles. It feeds on insects, and
destroys great numbers; seizing them suddenly and devouring them rapidly.
Towards the spring these creatures become so quarrelsome that the adult




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males will hardly ever meet without a fight, the vanquished usually coming
out of the fray with the loss of his tail. This misfortune, however, often
happens to both combatants. The color of the Green Carolina Anolis is very
variable, altering in the same individual, according to the season, the temper,
the health, or even the present state of the creature's temper. Generally the
whole upper surface is beautiful golden green, and the abdomen white with
a tinge of green. The throat pouch is white with a few little spots, and five
bars of red, which color, when the pouch is inflated, spreads over its whole
surface. The total length of the Green Carolina Anolis is nearly seven
inches. The Red-throated Anolis is perhaps a little too fond of fighting, and
terribly apt to quarrel with others of its own kind. Those who have wit-
nessed a fight between two of these lizards say that it is remarkable for
ferocity, courage and endurance. They face each other with swollen throats
and glaring eyes, their skin changing its lustrous coloring, and their whole
being instinct with fury. As during each combat, one or two females are
spectators of the fight, it is probable they may be the cause of the war, and
that the victim may reccive his reward from one of the female witnesses of
his prowess. So fiercedo they become, that the conqueror sometimes devours
the vanquished, who escapes if he can, even with the loss of his tail, whicl: is
left writhing in the victor’s mouth, and soon swallowed. Those who have
thus lost their tails seem to be greatly affected at the mutilation, and are
timid and languishing everafterwards. The color of the Anolis is greenish blue,

96
BRAZILIAN PORCUPINE.

In Southern America is to be found this very interesting Porcupine, which
is sometimes known as the Coendoo, and which is not only very remarkable
for its array of quills, but also for the very grasping power of its long tail.
The extraordinary power which it has of seizing hold of a branch by its tail,
and also the peculiar way in which its claws are armed, enable it to live in
trees, which are its native haunts, and where it finds its food among the lofty
branches. On level ground, this animal is slow and awkward, but among
the boughs of trees it climbs with great ease, drawing itself from branch to
branch by means of its hooked claws, but seldom using its tail except as an
aid in descent. The food of this animal consists of leaves, flowers, fruit,
bark, and the soft woolly substance of young and tender branches, which it



slices easily with its chisel-edged teeth. During the summer months, the
Brazilian Porcupine becomes extremely fat, and its flesh is then in great
request, being both delicate in flavor and tender in quality. The young of
this animal are born in the month of September and October. The totai
length of the Brazilian Porcupine is about three feet six inches, of which the
tail occupies one foot six inches. Its nose is thick and blunt like that of the
common Porcupine, and the face is furnished with very long whisker hairs of
a deep black. ‘The numerous prickly hairs which cover the body are black
in the center and white at the end. The length of these spines is rather
more than two inches on the back, and an inch and a half on the forelegs.

y 97
RESPLENDENT TROGON.

Of all the birds of the air, there is
hardly any which excites so much
admiration as the Resplendent Trogon.
Many, such as the humming bird, are
gifted with greater brilliancy of color,
but for the gorgeousness of hue, beauti-
ful tints, elegance of shape, and flowing
grace of plumage, there is no bird to
equal this in all the feathered tribe.
This magnificent bird is a native of
Central America, and was in former
days greatly honored by the ancient

exican monarchs. None but members
of the royal family were permitted to
decorate themselves with the flowing
feathers of this beautiful bird. The
Resplendent Trogons are fond of in-
-habiting the most dense forests of
Southern Mexico, and generally haunt
the topmost branches of the loftiest
trees, where they cling to the boughs
like parrots. The color of the adult
male bird is generally of a rich golden
green on the upper parts of the body,
including the graceful rounded chest,
the head, neck, throat and long lancet
shaped plumes of the shoulders. The
breast and under parts are brilliant
scarlet. The central feathers of the
tail are black and the others white with
black bars. The wonderful plumes
which hang over the tail are generally
about three feet in length, and in very
fine specimens, have been known to
reach three feet four inches, so that the
entire length of the bird can be said to
be four feet. The bill is of a light
yellow color. As is often the case with
birds where the male is remarkable for
the beauty of his plumage, the female is
altogether an ordinary and rather insig-
nificant bird, at least to human eyes,
although beautiful enough in the eyes
of her mate. In all Trogons the skin
is very delicate, and the feathers are so
loosely attached that they easily fall out.

98





























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NX


EAGLES AND NEST.

When an Eagle perceives a bird on the wing, the mere shock caused by
the stroke of the Eagle’s body is almost invariably sufficient to cause death,
and the bird, should it be a large one, such as a swan, for example, falls dead
upon the earth without even a wound. Smaller birds are carried off in the



































































































































































































































































































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talons of their pursuers, and are killed by the grip of their tremendous claws,
the Eagle in no case making use of its beak for the purpose of killing its prey.
If the bird carries off a lamb or a hare, it grasps the body firmly with its
claws, and then by a sudden exertion of: its wonderful strength, drives the
sharp talons deep into the vitals of its prey, and does not loosen its grasp un-
til the breath of life has fled and all movement has ceased in the poor victim.

99
LONG-WINGED GOAT-SUCKER.

The color of the Long-winged Goat-sucker is generally of the usual tints
of chestnut and brown, but is diversified by a broad grayish-white irregular
band, which passes across the centre of the secondaries, and part of the base
of the primaries. From the white band, a dark-brown stripe runs towards
the back, the feathers composing it being tipped with white. The elongated
feathers of the wing increase the length of the bird to two feet or even more,
and their color is very dark brown on the outer web, and grayish-white on
the inner. The Long-winged Goat-sucker is an inhabitant of Western
Africa. The Long-tailed Goat-sucker is another of the most conspicuous of this
group of birds; the long and slightly curved feathers of its tail giving it some
resemblance in outline to the European Cuckoo. The body of this species is

































by no means large, but the bird appears to be considerably above its real
dimensions on account of the great length of its tail. In the color of its
plumage it is rather a handsomer bird than the generality of Goat-suckers,
owing to the quantity of white which is laid in bold markings on several
parts of its feathers. The chin is white, as is also a streak that passes from
the corner of the mouth. ties of the lesser wing coverts, and there is a smaller band of cream color
upon the tips of the greater coverts. Another beautifully white band is drawn
across the middle of the first six primary feathers, and the remaining
primaries have a spot of white on their tips. The rest of the plumage is
variegated with black and brown, warmed here and there with a more ruddy
hue. ‘he Long-tailed Goat-sucker is an inhabitant of Western Africa.

100 °

4
POLAR BEAR.

This animal is sometimes called, on account of its beautiful silvery fur, the
White Bear. Bears are good swimmers, and are able to cross channels of
considerable width, but the Polar Bear is an animal that is especially formed
for going through the water, and for passing its life among the ice mountains
of the northern regions. In consequence of the extreme cold which prevails
in the high latitudes where this creature is found, its food consists almost
entirely of an animal nature, comprising seals and fish of various kinds. The
Polar Bear’s sense of smell is very wonderful. As it wanders over the icy
plain, it scents the little breathing holes which the seals have made through
the ice, and is thus enabled to capture its prey. So active is this Bear, and
so great are its powers of moving through the water, that it has been seen to
plunge beneath the surface in chase of a salmon, and return with the captured
fish in its mouth. When it discovers seals lying asleep on a rock or an ice





















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raft, it quietly slips into the water, and, diving below the surface, swims in
the direction of the seals until it is forced to return to the surface in order
to breathe; as soon as it has filled its lungs with fresh air, it again gocs
beneath the water and continues its journey, timing its movements so well,
that when it ascends to the surface for the last time, it is close to a slum-
. bering seal, The fate of the unfortunate victim is now certain, for 1t cannot
take refuge in the water without falling into the clutches of its pursuer, and
if it tries to escape by land, it is speedily overtaken and destroyed by the
swift-footed Bear. It has been seen swimming steadily across a strait of
some forty miles in width. The color of the Polar Bear’s fur is a silvery
white, tinged with a yellow hue, which varies in the different animals. ‘The
feet are armed with strong claws of no very great length, and but slightly
curved. The color is black, so that they form a very bold contrast with the
white fur that falls over the feet, and the Polar Bear is easily distinguished.

101
SHETLAND PONY.

Several breeds of partially wild Horses are still found in the British
islands, the best known of which is the Shetland Pony. This odd, quaint,
spirited little animal is an inhabitant of the islands at the northern extremity
of Scotland, where it runs wild, and may be owned by any one who can
catch and hold it. Considering its diminutive proportions, which only
average seven or eight hands in height, the Sheltie is wonderfully strong, and
can trot away quite easily with a tolerably heavy man on its back. One of
these little creatures carried a man of twelve stone weight for a distance of
forty miles in a single day. The head of this little animal is small, the neck
short and well arched, and covered with an abundance of heavy mane, that
falls over the face and irresistibly reminds the spectator of a Skye-terrier. It
is an admirable draught Horse when harnessed to a carriage of proportionate

size; and a pair of these spirited little creatures, when attached to a low




LEE



lady’s carriage, have a remarkable piquant and pretty appearance. Man has
so long held the Domestic Ass under his control, that its original progenitors
have entirely disappeared from the face of the earth. There are, as it is well
known, abundant examples of wild Asses found in various lands, but it seems
that these animals are either the descendants of domesticated Asses which
have escaped from captivity, or mules between the wild and domestic
animals. In size and general appearance the Ass varies greatly, ac-
cording to the country which it inhabits, and the treatment to which it is
subjected. The Spanish kind, for example, is double the size of the ordinary
English Ass, and even the latter animal is extremely variable in stature and
general dimensions. As a rule, the Ass is large and sleek-haired in warm
countries, and small and woolly-haired in the colder parts of the globe. A
valuable Carriage Horse has alarge admixture of good blood in him, and as he
is required more forthe sake of appearance than for steady hard work, he is re-
quired to possess a high, strong action and proud bearing, well arched neck, and
a light springy step. His speed is good and he can do a great amount of work,

102
WATER RAT.

The food of the true Water Rat, or Water Vole, as it is more correctly
named, consists almost entirely of water plants and roots. It does great
damage by weakening the banks of streams by its tunnels beneath the ground.
Sometimes it will leave the water side and travel across the country in
search of cultivated vegetables. Beyond these two things it is not known to
be guilty of doing very much damage. One of these animals was seen to
cross a large field and enter a garden in which some French beans were
growing. The Water Rat crept up the beanstalks and after cutting off
several of the pods with its sharp scissor-like teeth picked them up and retraced
its steps home. The color of the Water Rat is a chestnut brown dashed
with gray on the upper parts and fading to gray below. The ears are so
short that they are hardly seen above the fur. The length of the full-grown







Water Rat is about thirteen inches, including the tail, which is nearly five
inches long. These creatures are oftentimes abused for doing things of which
they are not guilty. They are so often mistaken for an ordinary brown rat.
It is quite true that rats are often seen on the river banks in the act of eating
captured fish but these culprits are only the brown rats, which have come
from the farm yard for the summer months and returnas soon as autumn sets
in. Much more destructive than the Water Rat is the short, sturdy, stupid
animal which is known in northern Europe as the Hamster. It is a great
pest to the agriculturists who wage unceasing war against so destructive an
animal. The color of the fur is a grayish fawn, deepening into black on the
under portions of the body and softening into a yellow hue upon the head and
face. It does very great damage among crops no matter whether they are
corn, peas or beans. And when autumn approaches they begin to plunder a
field in a very systematic manner for the purpose of laying up a winter store
of provisions. The Hamster is a very prolific animal, as appears from the
fact that it still holds its own in spite of the constant persecution to which it
is subjected by agriculturists and the regular hunters. There are several
broods in each year, the average number of each family being from seven to
_ twelve. As soon as the young Hamsters are able to shift for themselves, an
event which occurs in a wonderfully short time, they leave their maternal home.

103
RAVEN.

The Raven is one of the most interesting of birds and is noted for its long
life and its intelligence. In many instances it has lived to be seventy or eighty
years old, without growing any less active, or losing the sparkle of its eyes.
It is not known how long a Raven will live in the wild state. This bird has
a blue black color, with a green tint in certain lights. The female is always
the larger. The Raven learns to speak very easily and hasa good memory. Its
voice sounds much like that of a human being talking behind a thick woolen
cloth. The creature is very cunning and its capture when full grown is not
easy; but young Ravens have a habit of falling out of the nest and flopping
to the ground where they are found the next morning sitting beneath their
homes and croaking. They can then be taken quite easily. But the young
things fight so fiercely that they must be covered with a cloth before they













can be held with safety. Whena Raven strikes with its beak, it throws the
whole weight of the body into the blow as well. The tame Raven is a very
funny and also a very mischievous bird, playing its pranks on every possible
occasion, and planning more as soon as it has finished those on hand. A
single Raven will do more damage in an hour, it is said, than a dozen boys,
and he goes about his mischief in the most sober way, as though he were
doing just the right thing and no one could be disturbed by it. One of these
birds was seen to steal a sausage from a drayman and then flop about with
it in his beak just in front of the man, keeping a yard or so ahead, but mak-
ing no attempt to get farther away. The creature seemed to delight in the
chase and the trouble he was causing, and would have kept up the play for
an hour or two without doubt if the man had not left. He would stop when
the man stopped and act as though he were about to swallow the sausage;
but when the man rushed forward again, he too would advance, keeping
only ata safe distance. Another Raven and a terrier dog, became great friends.

104
TWELVE-THREAD EPIMACHUS.

Around tne neck of the Twelve-Thread Epimachus is placed a collar of
glowing emerald green feathers, which stand boldly from the neck, and pre-
sent a most brilliant contrast with the deep violet of the back and wings. The
tail is short in comparison with the dimensions of the bird. From the back
and the rump spring a number of long silken plumes of a snowy white color,
and a loose downy structure that causes them to wave gracefully in the air at
the slightest breeze. Six of these lower plumes at each side are furnished
with long, black, thread-like prolongations of the shaft, a peculiarity which
has earned for the bird its title of T'welve-thread. Albino specimens of this
bird have been found, in which the entire plumage was of the same snowy
white as the downy plumes. In attempting to describe these gorgeously-dec- |
orated creatures, it is impossible to avoid a feeling of dissatisfaction when
mentally comparing the wondrous beauty of the being under consideration
and the imperfect words in which the writer has endeavored to portray their |



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beauties. Even with the assistance of color, any idea that can be giyen of
these birds would necessarily be very imperfect and the most admirable illus-
trations that ever were drawn, rich in ultramarine, carmine, and gold, would
“pale their ineffectual fires” even before the stiff and distorted form of the
stuffed bird. Yet that very stuffed semblance of the living creature fails
egregiously in reproducing the bird as it was during life, as every one must
have observed who has visiteda museum. Putting aside the inevitable shrink-
ing and darkening of the soft parts about the head, legs and claws, which
change from their natural forms into dry and shriveled pieces of dull, black
parchment, the feathers always present an unsightly staring appearance.

105
BROWN OWL.

The food of this Owl is of a very varied nature, consisting of all the
smaller mammalia, many reptiles, some birds, fishes when it can get them,
and insects. It seems to be a good fisherman, and catches its finny prey by
waiting on the stones that project a little above the water, and adroitly
snatching the fish from the stream by a rapid movement of the foot. Some-
times it flies at much higher game, especially when it has a young family to
maintain, and will then attack birds and quadrupeds of very great size when
compared with its own dimensions. Ina single nest of this bird have been
found three young Owls, five leverets, four young rabbits, three thrushes,
and one trout weighing nearly half a pound. A pair of Tawny Owls reared
and ushered into the world their hopeful young, after having fed them assid-
uously upon the trees for many wecks after they had left the nest. The fodd
must often have consisted in great part of
worms, snails, and slugs, for the old birds
brought it every minure from the ground
in the immediate Vicinity of the trees
where the young were perched. This,
however, might only be considered as a
whet to their appetites before dinner, for
the parents made repeated and persever-
ing attacks upon three or four magpies’
nests, sometimes during half an hour at a
time. As the defence was gallant and
spirited, they were often repulsed, but
finally the remains of young magpies were
found under the favorite perch of the Owls,
and one morning the bloody head and
feathers of an old magpie, conspicuous for
its size and the want of any cerous skin
about the beak. This, then, must have been taken while roosting. One even-
ing they attacked a pair of magpies that had their nest in the top of a very tall
sycamore. At last, instead of the frantic chattering of the poor magpies, one
of them began to shriek in agony like a hare when caught in a noose, and it
was evident that the Owl was trying to drag it—the mother bird—by the
head from the entrance of the nest. Before the next morning, the young of
an only pair of rooks had disappeared from the nest in a retreat in which none
but the Owls could have imagined them. The voice of the Brown Owl is a
loud monotonous hoot, that may be often heard in the evening in localities
where the bird has made its home. The nest is usually placed in a hollow of
a tree, and contains several white eggs. The color of the Brown or Tawny
Owl is an ashen-gray upon the upper parts of the body, variegated with
chocolate and wood-brown. Several whitish-gray bars are seen upon the
primaries, and there are several rows of whitish spots upon the wings and
scapularies. The facial disk is nearly white, edged with brown, and the
under surface of the body is of the same hue, covered with longitudinal mot:
tlings of variously tinted brown. The claws are nearly white at their base.



106
MALTESE DOG.

A. very celebrated, but rare, “ toy ’’ Dog, is the Maltese Dog, the prettiest
and most lovable of all the little pet Dogs. The hair of this tiny creature is
very long, and silky, with a rich glossy sheen, so beautiful that it resembles
spun glass. The fur is so long, that when this animal runs, the real shape is
altogether lost in the streaming mass of flossy hair. One of these animals,
which barely weighed three pounds, measured fifteen inches in length of hair
across the shoulders. The tail of the Maltese Dog curls over the back, and
adds its wealth of silken fur to the torrent of glistening tresses. It is a lively
and very good tempered little creature, endearing itself by sundry curious
little ways to all its friends. It was first brought from Malta, and is a very
scarce animal. The Lion Dog, so called on account of its resemblance to the
king of beasts, when it is shaven after the fashion of poodles, is a cross
between the poodle and the Maltese Dog. The Blenheim Spaniel is smaller



than the King Charles, and resembles it very closely. Both these animals
ought to have very short muzzles, long silky hair without any curl, extremely
long and silky ears, falling close to the head and sweeping the ground. The
legs should be covered with long silky hair to the very toes, and the tail
should be well “feathered.” The eyes of these little Dogs are extremely
moist, having always a slight trickling from the corner of eacheye. Although,
from their small size, these Dogs are not formidable, they are terrible foes to
the midnight thief, who cares little for the brute strength of a big Yard-Dog.
Safe behind a door or under a sofa, the King Charles sets up such a yelling
at a strange step, that it will alarm professional burglars, with much more
effect than the deep bay and the fierce strugeles of the mastiff or the blood-
hound. It is easy enough to quiet a large Dog in the yard, but not tosilence
a watchful King Charles Dog within doors. Many “toy” Dogs are useful
in this respect, and the small terrier, or the Skye terrier, is very valuable
in giving timely warning of a foe’s approach, although it may not be
able to repel him if he has once made good his entrance into the house.

107
GARRULOUS ROLLER.

Although tolerably common on several parts of the continent of Europe,
the Garrulous Roller is at the present time a very rare visitant. ‘There seems,
however, to be reason to believe that in former days, when England was less
cultivated and more covered with pathless woods, the Roller was frequently
seen in the ancient forests, and that it probably built its nest in the hollows of
trees, as it does in the German forests at the present day. Africa is the
legitimate home of the Roller, which passes from that land in the early spring,
and makes its way to Europe, véa Malta and the Mediterranean Islands, which
afford it resting-places during its long journey. Accordingly, in those islands
the Rollers are found in great plenty, and as they are considered a great
delicacy when fat and in good condition, they are killed in considerable num-
bers, and exposed for sale like pigeons, whose flesh they are said greatly to
resemble. Even in its flight it possesses something of the pigeon character,
having often been observed while
flying at a considerable elevation
to “tumble”. after the manner of
the well-known tumbler pigeons.
It is rather curious that through-
out Asia Minor the Rollers and
magpies were always found in
close proximity to each othe’.
Another closely allied species is
the Australian Roller. This bird
is popularly known to the Aus-
tralian colonists by the title of
Dollar Bird, on account of a cir-
cular white spot upon the inside
of each wing, which is very con-
spicuous when the bird is flying overhead. The flight of the Australian
Roller is heavy and labored, and the bird does not appear to chase insects
with the activity and perseverance of the preceding species. Generally it is
fond of sitting on some convenient bank overhanging the water, and from
that post of vantage pouncing upon a passing insect, much after the fashion
of the harriers. While thus engaged, it frequently utters a peculiar chatter-
ing cry. Its most active seasons are sunrise and sunset; at other parts of the
day it is but sluggish in its movements. It is, however, a very bold and
fearless bird, and will attack man, beast, or bird that approaches within a
certain distance of the spot where its cradle lies. True nest there is none,
as the bird contents itself with a hole in a decaying tree-trunk, and depositing
its eggs upon the soft wood. The eggs are from three to four in number.
The Rollers evidently form one of the connecting links between the swallows
and the bee-eaters, as may be seen by the shape of their feet, which have the
two hinder toes partially joined together, while those of the bee-eaters are
wholly connected, or, as it were, soldered together. The Rollers,.as is evi-
dent from their long pointed wings, stiff tail, and comparatively feeble legs
and feet, are to a great extent feeders on the wing, although not wholly.

108

wu



fa SS
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DOG-FISH.

This fish is very plentiful on the coasts of England, and is often thought
a great nuisance by fishermen, whose bait it takes instead of a more valuable
fish for which the hook was set. It generally remains near the bottom of
the water, and is a greedy creature, feeding upon countless small fish. It

often follows shoals of fish, and on account of its doing so, it is called the













































































Dog-fish. Generally its flesh is neglected, but when properly dressed, it is
by no means unpalatable, and it is sometimes trimmed and dressed, and dis-
posed of as a substitute for more valuable fish. The skin of this, and other
similar species, is rough and file-like, and is employed for many purposes.
The handles of saws, where a firm hold is required, are sometimes bound
with this substance, and joiners use it in polishing the surface of fine woods,
so as to bring out the grain. It is also employed instead of sand paper upon
match-boxes. The eggs of this fish are very curious in form and structure,
and are often found on the seashore, flung up by the waves, especially after
astorm. ‘These eggs are known by the name of mermaids’ purses, sailors’
purses, or sea purses. Water, which to the little Dog-fish contains the breath
of life, reaches the imprisoned creature through two slight openings, one
towards each end of the egg. The substance of the eggshell is of a stiff
horny character, becoming harder when dry, and of a semi-transparent yel-
lowish hue, not very unlike, though not so clear as the yellow portion of
tortoise shell. For the escape of the young shark, when strong enough to
make its own way in the wider world of waters, an outlet is provided in the
opened end of the egg which permits the little creature to make its way out,
though it bars the entrance against any foe. When it first leaves its horny
home, the young shark bears with it a capsule containing a portion of the
egg, upon which it exists until it has attained the power of seeking its
own food. The head of the little Dog-fish is rather flat upon the top.
0)
BEAUTIFUL TROGON.

The Beautiful Trogon is a native of South America, and well deserves its
name, as it is not only richly gorgeous in the colors of its plumage, but is also
elegant in form. Several of the Trogons are distinguished from their rela-
tives by the length and downy looseness of many of the feathers, more espe-
cially the lance-shaped feathers of the shoulders, and the elongated upper tail-
coverts. On account of this structure of the plumage, they are gathered
into a separate genus under the appropriate title of Calurus, or Beautiful-
tailed Trogons. The Malabar Trogon is a very local bird, and is thought
never to be seen in any locality except that from which it derives its name. It
is a somewhat nocturnal bird, and is so totally different in its habits according
to the time of day, that it would hardly be recognized for the same creature.
During the day the Malabar Trogons sit in pairs on the topmost branch of

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some tree, and seldom stir from their post until evening. Sometimes thev
rouse themselves sufficiently to pounce upon a passing insect, but immediately
return to the perch, and resume their position. But when the dusk approach-
es, the Malabar Trogon shakes off its drowsiness, and becomes one of the
most spirited and active of birds, flitting from branch to branch, and tree to
tree, or traversing the boughs in search of its prey, with wonderful adroitness,
and almost meteoric rapidity. The head and neck of the adult male bird are
deep sooty black, and the back and upper surface are brownish yellow. A
white crescent shaped stripe runs round the chest, and separates the black hue
of the throat from the brilliant scarlet of the breast and remainder of the upper
surface, The primary quill feathers of the wings are black edged with
white, and the centre of the wings is pencilled with very delicate white lines,

110
GROUP OF RODENT ANIMALS.

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The Rodents, or gnawing animals, derive their name from the peculiar
formation of their teeth, which are specially fitted for gnawing their way
through hard substances. ‘The jaws of the Rodents are heavily made, and
very large in proportion to the head, their size being not only needful for the
support of the gnawing teeth, but for their development. As their teeth are
continually worn by the severe friction which they undergo, there must needs
be some provision for renewing their substance, or the creature would soon
die of starvation. Sometimes it happens that one of the teeth is broken or
injured in some accident, which is very sad for the animal, and frequently
causes its death. The Rodent Animals are widely spread over the entire globe.

111
CEDAR BIRD.

On account of its fondness for cedar berries, it goes by the popular name
of the Cedar Bird, or Chatterer, the latter name being not at all appropriate to
the species, as it is one of the most silent of birds, not even raising its voice
in the season of love. The Cedar Bird carries with it no mystery respecting
its dwelling-place, but openly builds in the month of June upon various trees,
sometimes choosing the cedar, and at other times fixing on different orchard
trees. The nest is large for the size of the bird, fixed in the forked or hori-
zontal branch of an apple tree, ten or twelve feet from the ground; outwardly
and at bottom is laid a mass of coarse, dry stalks of grass, and the inside is
lined wholly with very fine stalks of the same material. The eggs are three
or four, of a dingy bluish white, thick at the great end, tapering suddenly, and
becoming very narrow at the other; marked with small roundish spots of black
of various sizes and shades, and the great end is of a pale dull-purple tinge,
marked likewise with various shades of purple and black. About the last








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MILD IEEE

week in June the young are hatched, and are at first fed on insects and their
larve, but as they advance in growth, on berries of various kinds. The gen-
eral color of the Cedar Bird is yellowish brown, the upper parts of the body
being fawn-colored, rather darker on the head, which is surmounted with
a long and pointed crest, which can be raised almost perpendicularly from
the head. The chin is black, the breast and abdomen yellow, and the under
tail-coverts white. ‘The wings are deep slaty blue, and the upper tail-coverts
are slate-blue, deepening into black, which also extends over the greater part
of the tail. The extremities of the tail-feathers are rich yellow. A rather
broad line of black crosses the forehead, and passes round the head, enveloping
the eyes in its course. The secondary feathers of the wings are adorned with
wax-like appendages resembling those of the Bohemian chatterer, and their
number is variable, sometimes being only four or five, and sometimes as
many as nine. The appendages are nothing more than horny expansions of
the shafts. The color of the female is similar to that of the male, but the
tints are not so brilliant. This bird is much smaller than the European
species, being only six inches and a half in length, and very slenderly built.

112
CHAMELEON.

The food of the Chameleon consists of insects, mostly flies, but, like many
other reptiles, this creature is able to live ‘for some months without taking
food at all. This ability to fast, together with the singular manner in which
the reptile takes its prey, has caused many people to think that the
Chameleon lived only on air. The tongue is the instrument by which the fly
is captured, being darted out with such singular swiftness that it is hardly
seen, and the fly seems to leap into the mouth of the reptile as if attracted by
magnetism. ‘The tongue is very muscular, and at the tip there is a kind of
secretion to which the fly sticks. The eyes have a singular appearance,
and each one works independently of the other, one eye rolling backwards,
while the other is looking forwards or upwards. There is not the least spark
of expression in the eye of the Chameleon, which looks about as intelligent as
a green pea with a dot of ink upon it. Owing to the slowness of its move-

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ments, it has no way of escaping when once discovered. Great numbers of
these creatures fall victims to enemies of every kind, and were it not that
their color changes to resemble the foliage in which they dwell, the race
would soon be extinct. ‘The Chamelecn has an odd habit of puffing out its
body for some reason, and swelling itself to nearly twice its natural size. In
this curious state, it will remain for several hours, sometimes allowing itself
to collapse a little, and then again puffing its skin until it becomes as tight as
a drum, and looks as hollow as a balloon. It is easily tamed, and can be
handled without danger, and, although its teeth are strong, it will not attempt
to bite the hand that holds it. It is, however, rather quarrelsome with its
own kind, and the only excitement it ever has, seems to be when it is
fighting with a neighbor. There are about twenty kinds of Chameleons.

113
WEASEL.

Like the pole-cat, and many other animals, the Weasel is most destructive
in its nature, killing many more animals than it can devour, simply for the
mere pleasure of killing. A single Weasel has been known to make its way
into a cage full of freshly caught song birds and to destroy every one. ‘The
little assassin was discovered lying quite at its ease in a corner of the cage,
surrounded by the dead bodies of its victims. Even such large animals as
hares sometimes fall victims to the Weasel. At all times the Weasel is very
irritable in its temper, and extremely apt to take offence, but when a mother
Weasel imagines that her little ones are likely to be in danger of man or
beast, she becomes a really dangerous opponent. Even so small an animal is
capable of inflicting a very severe bite, and when she is incited by the des-
perate courage which is implanted in the breast of every mother, she is not
unlikely to succeed in her object before she is driven away. Moreover, she
does not trust to her sole efforts, but summons to her assistance the inhab-
itants of the same little community, and, with their aid, will drive away an
unarmed man from the neighborhood of their habitations. ‘Two men were
riding in the vicinity of Chelten-
ham in England, when one of
them dismounted in order to
inspect some cattle in a field,
leaving his horse in charge of a
companion; presently a Weasel
came out of a neighboring hedge
and fastened on the fetlock of one
of the horses, grasping so firmly
it would not loosen its hold
until it had been crushed under
foot by the owner of the horse.
A short time after this, a party

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See ee idea that they must prevent
oat ‘any one from passing near their

habitation, and a boy who was obliged, on his way homeward, to pass
near the spot, was chased for some distance by the Weasels. This hap-
pened on several occasions, and he dared not oppose the fierce little crea-
tures. A carrier happened to come in that direction and accompanied the
boy to the spot and was immediately attacked by the Weasels. A few sharp
blows from his whip laid the principal assailants dead at his feet, and the others,
seeing the fate of their comrades, left the field to their conquerors. The
Weasel has been scen to catch and kill the bunting, by quietly creeping to-
wards a thistle on which the bird is perching, and then to leap suddenly upon
it before it could use its wings. When it seizes an animal that is likely to
escape, the Weasel flings its body over that of its victim as if to prevent it
from struggling. In single combat with a large and powerful rat, the Weasel
has but little success, unless it should be able to attack from behind, as the
long-chisel edged teeth of the rat are terrible weapons against the small animal.

114
GROUP OF HUMMING BIRDS.

















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ay i ae OS Bee
Atty ( it AS FS eS co Sa : ov E
VARS RES Sli we ALES SLES SR eS

The number of different kinds of these birds is truly wonderful, as more
than three hundred are known, while new species are being discovered all
the time. The legs of these little creatures are very weak and delicate, and
the wings are particularly strong, which shows that they are intended to pass
more of their time in the air than on foot. Even when feeding, they very
seldom trouble themselves to perch, but sustain themselves in the air before
the flower on which they desire to operate, and with thcir long slender
tongues are able to feed at ease without faltering. The food of the Hum-
ming Birds is much the same as that of the very numerous Honeysuckers.

115
BI-COLORED TREE FROG.

This large’and handsome frog is quite distinct from all other kinds known
at present. Its toes are not webbed, but in other ways it is very like most
frogs. It inhabits many countries of South America, and is very plentiful.
Its bright colors make it more noticeable than other frogs that are of green
and olive shades. The upper parts of the Bi-colored Tree Frog are of a deep
azure color and the under parts pure
white, or white tinged with rose.
The thighs and sides are spotted
with the same color, The name of
the frog was given to it on account
of the two striking colors, white
} and azure. The first thing that
surprises one when looking at the
skeleton of a frog, is the shape of
the head and the very large holes
that contained the eyes. Very little
room is left for the brain, and this
is why the intelligence of the frog
is weak. The hind legs and the
¢ toes are so long that, in the common
frog, the middle toe takes up about
three-fifths of the length of the entire
body. If a frog is watched it will
appear to be gulping something
down its throat all the time. This
is really what it is doing, but it is
taking in nothing more solid than
air, and the appearance of gulping
is caused by frogs having no ribs,
so that in breathing the throat is
used instead of the sides. All frogs
cling to life. They suffer very
severe ‘wounds without appearing
to .be much injured at the time,
and bear cold and hunger with sin-
gular endurance. Heat, however, is
«uways disliked by frogs, and if they are exposed to very extreme heat it will
kill them. In hot countries all kinds of frogs avoid the hot beams of the sun
by hiding in burrows or crevices during the day, coming out only at night or
when it is rainy weather. Many of them even lie beneath the muddy soil of
pools, so as to remain cool until the next rain refills their own homes that
have been dried up by the heat of the sun. Another of the many beauti-
ful Frogs found in so many parts of the world is the Blue Frog of Australia.
‘This creature is about three and a half inches long. The color of the Blue
Mrog is light blue above, while the lower parts are a silvery white. The head
of this Frog is broad, and the opening of the mouth is very large.

116


VIGORS’ BUSH SHRIKE.

The home of this bird is South America, and it lives in the forests and
thick brushwood, where it keeps busy in hunting for the small animals, birds,
reptiles and insects which make up its food. It is a large and quite strong
bird, about thirteen inches long, and is a beautiful creature. It has a hand-
some dress of black and rich red chestnut, with a vest of pale grayish brown.
The head has a crest of reddish feathers, marked with black at the tips. The
beak of the Bush Shrike is strong and sharply hooked, and it has powerful
curved claws, which are also very sharp; thus it is a foe to be dreaded by all
the creatures which it preys upon. Its legs are long for its body, so that it
can get about easily among the thick foliage and high plants, and the grasp
of its feet is very strong, for this reason it can perch upon a bough or on the
ground and raise its head to quite a height as it looks around with its pierc-
ing eye in search of its victims. The wings of the bird are rather short and
rounded, as it does not need either long or sharply pointed wings to get about
amongst the thick leaves and branches where it lives. ‘The tail of the Bush



Shrike is long, the closed wings reaching but a little way upon it, and about
the bill are feathers which look like a beard. Although the Shrikes, or
Butcher Birds, seem cruel, yet they simply act out the nature which has been
given them, and go about their work of seeking and preparing food, as the
smaller birds do, which feed only upon insects. And they are no more to be
blamed for killing animals and other birds for food than man is for butcher-
ing those creatures which he needs for his own use. But it is not pleasant to
think of the poor little things being torn to pieces, and although the Bush
Shrike is so handsome, he can never be a great favorite with those who love
birds. There is a queer belief about the Shrike in many places where it
dwells This notion is that it always kills and impales, that is, sticks upon
some thorn or sharp spike, nine creatures before it begins its meal. Tor this
reason it is called the ‘‘Nine-killer.””.. When food is plenty it is said that the
Shrike eats only the soft parts, but this is not the case with all of them.

117
SABLE.

The Sables take up their abcde chiefly near the banks of rivers and in the
thickest parts of the forests that cover so vast an extent of territory in those
uncultivated regions. Their homes are usually made in holes which the crea-
tures burrow in the earth, and are generally made more secure by being dug
among the roots of trees. Sometimes, however, they prefer to make their
nests in the hollows of trees, and there they rear their young. ‘Their nests
are soft and warm, being composed chiefly of moss, dried leaves and grass.
Their food is said to partake partially of a vegetable and partially of an ani-
mal character, according to the season of the year. Jn the summer time,
when the hares and other animals are rambling about the plains and forests,
the Sable takes advantage of their presence, and kills and eats them. But
when the severity of the winter frost has compelled these creatures to remain
within their domiciles, the Sable is said to feed upon the wild berries that it
finds on the branches. ‘The hunters assert that the Sable is not content to
feed only on the hares and such like animals, which constitute the usual prey
of the larger Weasels, but that it is in the habit of killing and devouring the
ermine and the smaller members of the Weasel tribe. Even birds fall victims



to these agile and voracious animals, being often overtaken in their flight
among the branches of trees by a well-aimed leap and a sharp stroke of the
fore-paws. Sometimes the ordinary supplies of food fail, and then the Sable
enacts the part of parasite to some larger animal, such as a bear or a wolf,
and, follewing on its track, endeavors to gain a subsistence by feeding on the
remnants of the prey which may be taken by the superior powers of its un-
witting ally. The Sables are taken in various modes. Sometimes they are
captured in traps, which are formed in order to secure the animal without
damaging its fur. Sometimes they are fairly hunted down by means of the
tracks which their little feet leave in the white snow, and are traced to their
domicile. A net is then placed over the orifice, and by means of a certain
pungent smoke which is thrown into the cavity, the inhabitant is forced to
rush into the open air, and is captured in the net. The hunters are forced to
support themselves on the soft yielding surface of the snow by wearing “ snow-
shoes,” or they would be lost in the deep drifts which are capable of sup-
porting so light and active an animal as the Sable, but would engulf a man.

8
GROUP OF KINGFISHERS.

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The bills of these birds are all long and sharp, and in most cases are
straight. Their front toes are always joined together more or less, and the
number of the toes is very variable in form and arrangement; some of the
birds possessing them in pairs, like those of the parrot, others having them
arranged three in front and one behind, as is usually the case with birds,
while a few species have only three toes altogether, two in front and one
behind. The wings are rounded. As may be gathered from the name of
these birds, they mostly feed en fish, which they capture by pouncing upon
the finny prey as it swims through the water. In some instances, however,
they make the greatest part of thefr diet of insects and other similar creatures.

119
HONEY BUZZARD.

In the Honey Buzzard we find a singular instance of a predaceous bird, en-
dowed with many capabilities of catching and destroying the ordinary kinds
of game, yet preferring to feast upon insect food in preference to the flesh of
quadrupeds or birds. Whenever a Honey Buzzard has been killed, and the
stomach opened, it has always been found to contain insects of some kind. In
one case, when a Honey Buzzard was shot in Ireland, and examined, the
stomach contained some larvee of small beetles, as well as the perfect insects,
which it had evidently obtained by grubbing in cow-dung, as its bill and fore-
head were covered with that substance in a perfectly fresh state. Some
white hairy caterpillars, the pups of a butterfly, and three of the common
six-spot Burnet moth were also discovered in the stomach, together with
some short lengths of grass stems which had probably been swallowed to-
gether with the pupa-case of the Burnet moth, as that insect always suspends
itself upon a stalk of grass when it is about to change into the perfect state.
The district around Twizel in England appears to have something attractive
to this species, for within a few years several specimens have been procured
both in the adult and immature plumage, One bird was observed to rise from
the situation of: wasp’s nest, which it had been attempting to excavate, as,





in fact, to a certain extent, it had accomplished; and the large hole which
had been scooped showed that a much greater power could be employed, and
the bird possessed organs much better fitted to remove the obstacles which
eenerally concealed its prey than a superficial examination of the feet and
legs would warrant us in ascribing to it. A few hours afterwards, the task
was found to be entirely completed, the comb torn out and cleaned from the
immature young; and after dissection proved that in the autumn, at least,
birds or mammalia formed one part of the food. A steel trap, baited with
the comb, secured the aggressor in the course of the next day, when he had
returned to view the scene of his previous havoc. This bird seems to be es-
pecially defended by nature against the attacks of the irritated wasps.

120
DANISH DOG.

The Great Danish Dog is best known in England as the follower of horses
and carriages upon roads; and, probably on account of being restricted to this
monotonous mode of existence, is supposed to be rather a stupid animal. As,
however, in its own country the Danish Dog is employed as a pointer, and
does its work very creditably, we may suppose that the animal is possessed
of abilities which might be developed by any one who would take pains to
do so. On account of its carriage-following habits, it is popularly called
the Coach Cog, andon account of its spotted hide receives the rather ignoble
title of Plum-Pudding Dog. The height of the animal is rather more than
two fect. All the various Dogs which have been brought under the subjec-
tion of men are evidently members of One single species, being capable of
mixture to an almost unlimited extent. By means of crossing one variety






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with another, and taking advantage of locality, climate, or diet, those who
have interested themselves in the culture of this useful animal have ob-
tained the varied forms which are so familiar to us. In general character,
the groups into which domesticated’ Dogs naturally fall are similar, but the
individual characters of Dogs are so varied, and so full of interest, that they
would mect with scanty justice in ten times the space that can be afforded to
them in these pages. One of the most magnificent examples of the domesti-
cated Dog is the Thibet Dog, an animal which, to hisnative owners, is as use-
ful as he is handsome, but seems to entertain an invincible antipathy to stran-
gers of all kinds, and especially towards the face of a white man. These
enormous Dogs are employed by the inhabitants of Thibet for the purpose of
guarding their houses and their flocks, for which they are peculiarly fitted.

121
GARRULOUS HONEY-EATER.

The Garrulous Honey-eater, so named on account of its singularly
talkative propensities, is a native of Van Diemen’s Land and New South
Wales, in both of which localities it is very common. It enjoys, however, but
a very limited range, being contained within certain boundaries with such re-
markable strictness, that in some cases it is found in great numbers on one
side of a river, while on the other side not a single bird can be seen. Those
which inhabit Van Diemen’s Land are rather larger than those of New South
Wales, the greater size being probably caused by a greater profusion and more
nourishing properties of the food. The Garrulous Honey-eater generally
takes up its habitation among the thick forests of eucalypti that are found
upon the plain and the hills of low elevation, and there passes a very lively
existence. Its food consists of the sweet nectar flowers, which it procures
after the manner of Honey-eaters in general, by plunging its long tongue into
the depths of the flowers, and licking up their luscious store. It also feeds
upon various insects, being always ready to eat those minute creatures which
inhabit the flowers, and delighting alsoin chasing the beetles and large insects
as they run upon the ground at the foot of the eucalypti. In its habits the
Garrulous Honey-eater is very amusing, although it often is the cause of no
small annoyance to the traveler or the sportsman. The Garrulous Honey-eater
is not gregarious, but moves about in small flocks of from five to ten in num-
ber. In disposition it is unlike any other bird, for if its haunts be in the least

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intruded upon, it becomes the most restless and inquisitive creature possible,
and withal so bold and noisy that it is regarded as a nuisance rather than an
object of interest. The nest of the Garrulous Honey-eater is a rather large
edifice when the dimensions of the bird are taken into consideration, but it is
very neatly put together. The materials of which it is composed are very
slender twigs and grass as a framework and the lining is made of wood, hair,
and any other soft and warm substance that the bird may be able to obtain.
It is generally placed among the upright branches of some small tree.
122
NILOTIC MONITOR.

The Nilotic Monitor, or Varan of the Nile, as it is sometimes called, is,
as its name imports,a native of those parts of Africa through which the Nile,
its favorite river, flows. ‘The natives have a curious idea that this reptile is
hatched from crocodile’s eggs that have been laid in hot elevated spots, and
that in process of time it becomes a crocodile. This odd belief is analogous
to the notion so firmly implanted in the minds of our own seaside population,
that the little hermit crab, which is found so plentifully in periwinkle shells, is
the young of the lobster before it is big and hard enough to have a shell of
its own. It is almost always found in the water, though it sometimes makes
excursions on land in search of prey. To the natives it is a most useful
creature, being one of the appointed means for keeping the numbers of the
crocodile within due bounds. It not only searches on land for the eggs of the
crocodile, and thus destroys great numbers before they are hatched, but



chases the young in the water, through which it swims with great speed and
agility, and devours them unless they can take refuge under the adult of their
own species, from whose protection the Monitor will not venture to take
them, When full grown, the Nilotic Monitor attains a length of five or six
feet. The color of this species is olive gray above, with blackish mottlings.
The head is gray, and, in the young animal, is marked with concentric rows
of. white spots. Upon the back of the neck is a series of whitish yellow bands,
of a horse-shoe, or semilunar shape, set crosswise, which, together with the
equal-sized scales over the eyes, serve as marks which readily distinguish it
from many other species. The under parts of this creature are gray,
with cross bands of black, and marked with white spots when young.

123
FRIAR BIRD.

This odd bird lives in Australia and is most common in the southern parts
of that continent. It is known by a good many names, some of them taken
from its looks, others from its voice. The name by which it is generally
known was given to it because its head was thought to look like the shaven
head of the friar, or monk. It is called the Monk Bird for the same reason.
Another name is Leatherhead, and
it is easy to see why this name was
given, also, for the head of the bird
has a very dark leathery look, as
much so when it is alive as after it
isdead. The Friar Bird never tires
of its own voice, but will get upon
the topmost branch of some lofty
tree and chatter away for hours at
the top of its loud voice, as though
it were very proud of itself and its
powers inthat way. It isan active
creature and goes about upon the
branches in all directions with great
ease, clinging to their rough bark
with its strong toes and curved
claws. Sometimes the bird hangs
from the branch by a single foot,
‘) While it is peering into the little
crevices of the bark for its prey—
the insects which make their home

‘there. The Friar Bird is a honey
bird and is very fond of the sweet
parts of flowers, liking the blos-
soms of the gum-tree best of all,
while it also likes to pick out the
tiny insects that are always found
in the hearts of honey-bearing
flowers. It feeds as well upon
beetles and other insects that live under the bark and eats many kinds of
berries; so it has quite a bill of fare, taken all together. The Friar Bird has
rather short wings for its size, and can not bear itself up at an even distance
in the air, but dips down and rises again asit goes. It can make quite a long
flight, however. This bird is a good fighter, being very brave, and when it
is wounded, sco that it cannot get away, it will strike fiercely with its sharp,
curved claws, which can make ugly wounds. It has a rather quarrelsome
nature, and when it is taking care of its young it is a terror to all the large
birds that happen to pass near its nest. It attacks the strongest hawk or
crow and always forces them to flight, driving them far away. ‘The nest is a
clumsy affair and is built on some low branch where it is not in the least
hidden, so that it is often robbed of its eggs or young by crows and other birds.

124








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GROUND PIG.

The Ground Pig is one of the links between the beavers and the porcu-
sines, and has a considerable resemblance to the latter animals. It is found
in many parts of Southern Africa, as well as on the coast of Guinea, where
it is not at all uncommon. ‘The hair of this animal is rather peculiar, and is
similar to the quill-hairs of the true porcupines, being either flat and grooved
above, or developed into flexile spines. The tail is but sparely covered with
hair, and is rather short in proportion to the size of its owner. The hinder
feet are only furnished with four toes, armed with large, rounded, and rather
blunt claws. The ears are short and rounded. ‘The shy and retiring
Hydromys, or Beaver Rat, is another very queer animal, although it is not
very rare in its native country, but as, in addition to its natural timidity, it is
nocturnal in its habits, it is seldom scen by casual observers. It is a native



of Van Diemen’s Land, and is found inhabiting the banks of both salt and
fresh water. It isan admirable swimmer and diver, reminding the specta-
tor of the water vole of Europe. Like that animal, it has a habit of sitting
upright. supported by its hind paws and tail, while it employs the fore feet
for the conveyance of food to its mouth. The color of the Beaver Rat’s tur
is as follows: The neck and upper parts of the body are of a dark rich
brown, which is washed with a light golden hue along the sides of the face,
shoulders, and the flanks, as far as the hind limbs. The under surface of the
body is golden yellow, and has earned for the animal the name of “ chryso-
easter,” which signifies “ golden bellied.” The first half of the tail is black,
and the remaining half is white. The total length of the Beaver Rat is
about two feet, the tail being the same length as the body. The hinder fect
are webbed. Of the many kinds of ‘rats in the world’ perhaps there is none
so fierce and dangerous as the ordinary brown rat. An unarmed man would
not be able to fight against a small party of old sewer rats, while a number
of these animals would soon overcome a man who was well armed. A
number of these animals have been known to attack a cat and injure it so
badly that the poor creature: had to be killed by its owner. Even a single rat is
sometimes a dangerous enemy, and will fiercely attack its foe no matter how big.
\

: 125
MALACHITE SUN-BIRD.

The Malachite Sun-bird has long attracted the attention of ornithologists,
on account of its great comparative size and its beautiful plumage. It is one
of the African species, being an inhabitant of the Cape of Good Hope, where
it remains throughout the entire year, and is in the habit of frequenting the
gardens, and soon becomes familiar with the proprietors, provided that it be
not disturbed. Sometimes the Malachite Sun-birds take a violent fancy to
some particular shrub or tree, and may be seen in flocks of forty or fifty in
number congregating upon its branches and amusing themselves among its
blossoms. Day after day these birds may:
be seen in the same spot, attracted by some
irresistible though obscure charm resident in-
the tree which they favor. The nest of this
species is composed of very tiny twigs
covered with moss, and contains four or five
green eggs. The title of Malachite Sun-
bird has been given to this creature on
account of the brilliant malachite-green of
its plumage. The male bird when dressed
in full nuptial costume is a remarkably hand-
some bird, and is nearly double the length of
any other species, often exceeding nine
inches in total length. The whole of the
upper surface is rich golden green marked
with a reddish bronze. The feathers of the
throat and forehead are of the same hue, but
of so deep a tone that they appear to be
velvety-black at first sight, and are so
constructed that they have a velvet-like feel
to the touch as well as to the sight. When-
ever the bird moves, even by the act of
respiration, waves of bright hues seem to
ripple upon its surface, caused by the
peculiar coloring of the feathers, which are
black at their bases and colored at their
extremities. The wings and tail are black,
and the secondaries and wing-coverts are edged with green and violet.
There is a tuft of bright yellow feathers under each shoulder. The female is
much smaller than her mate, and is of a dull olive-brown, except the exterior
feathers of the tail, which are edged with white. Another beautiful bird is
the Blue-headed Honeysucker, an inhabitant of Brazil, where it is extremely
common, and by the bright gorgeousness of its plumage and the restless
activity of its movements, adds much to the beauty of the wondrous scenery
among which it dwells. It is found spread over the whole of Brazil, and may
always be found haunting the blossoming trees and plants, dashing to and fro
with its glancing flight, hovering with tremulous wing over the flowers while
indetermined in its choice, and plunging its long beak into their blossoms.

126


AFRICAN CROCODILE AT HOME.

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Although these creatures are capable of walking upon land, for which
purpose they are furnished with four legs, they are more fit for the water
than its shores, and are swift and graceful in the one, as they are stiff,
awkward and clumsy on the other. Through the water they urge their course
with very great speed, their long, flattened, flexible tail answering the double
purpose of an oar and rudder; but on land their bodies are so heavy, and
their legs are so weak that they can hardly be said to walk. The young of
these reptiles are very small when hatched, but so fierce, even in their early
days, that they can be caught by pushing a stick towards them, letting them
bite it, and pulling them out of the water before they can loosen their hold.
The Crocodiles feed on fishes and various water-loving creatures, but are in
the habit of lurking by the river bank and scizing animals that come to drink,
PUMA.

The color of the Puma is a light tawny tint. Until the Puma has learned
to fear men it is a very dangerous neighbor. It will track human beings for
long distances waiting for a chance to spring upon heedless passersby. As
long as the traveler can keep a Puma in sight he need have no fear of danger
as it will not leap upon any one while its movements are watched. When
urged by fierce hunger it will issue boldly from the dark woods and follow
on the pathway of the travelers. _ It will creep rapidly towards the traveler
and get near enough to make the fatal spring, when, if a traveler turn around
sharply and face the animal with a calm steady gaze, it will slowly retreat,
moving its head from side to side as if trying to shake off the fear which has
made it so cowardly. Even when imprisoned within the limits of a cage,
.where the eye has no great range of objects for inspection, the Puma will
often lie so closely pressed against a shelf, that the cage appears at first sight
to be empty, even though the spectator may know that there is a Puma in
the cage. Although this animal is not very much feared by the civilized



inhabitants of the forest lands, it is a great annoyance to the farmer,
committing sad havoc among his flock and herds and acting so craftily that
it can seldom be caught in the act of destruction or prevented from doing
damage. No less than fifty sheep have been killed by a Puma in one night.
But all Pumas are not so lucky as to reside in the neighborhood of sheep,
and they have to chase the different wild animals on which they feed. The
total length of the Puma is about six and a half feet, of which the tail
occupies rather more than two feet. The tip of the tail is black, the limbs
are very thick and muscular, as most of its life is spent in climbing trees.
The Puma’s head is small, and this makes it appear a less powerful creature

than it really is. The flesh of this animal is very white and tender and of
good flavor. Ifcaptured when young the Puma can easily be domesticated ‘

and has been known to follow its master just like a dog. But in its wild
state it loves to hide upon the branches of trees and to launch itself upon any
doomed animal that may pass within reach of its death-dealing paw.

128

.
HOODED COBRA.

This celebrated serpent is one of the most dreaded and venomous crea-
tures in existence, It inhabits many parts of Asia, and in almost every place
where it is found, there are certain daring men who profess to charm these
reptiles, and handle them without any fear. One of these men will take a
Cobra in his bare hands, toss it about in the most careless manner, allow it to
twine itself about his naked breast, tie it around his neck, and treat it with as
little ceremony as if it were an earth worm. He will take the same serpent,
make it bite afowl, which soon dies
from the poison, and will then renew
his performance. The color of this
serpent is singularly uncertain. In
some cases the body is brownish olive, .
and the spectacles are white edged
with black. Another variety is also
brownish olive, but covered with irreg-
ular cross bands of black. ‘The spec-
tacles are remarkably bold, white,
edged with black. Other specimens
are olive, marbled richly with brown
below. Sometimes a few specimens
are found of a uniform brownish olive
without any spectacles. Others are
black with white spectacles, and
others again black without spectacles.
Even the number of rows in which
the scales are disposed is as variable
as the color. The specimens without
spectacles seem to come from Borneo,
Java, the Philippines, and_ other
islands. The length of the Hooded
Cobra is usually between three and
four feet. One remarkable peculiar-
ity in the Cobra is the expansion of
the neck, popularly called the hood.
The native Indians have a curious

~:. legend respecting the origin of this
mark and their reverence for the reptile. One day when Buddha was lying
asleep in the sun, a Cobra came and raised its body between him and the
burning beams, spreading its hood so as to shade his face. Buddha, who
was very grateful for this service, promised to repay the favor, but forgot
to do so. In those days the Brahminny kite used to prey largely on the
Cobra, and work such great destruction among them, that the Cobra who
had done Buddha the forgotton service, reminded him of his promise, and
begged relief from the attacks of the kite. Buddha immediately granted the
request by placing the spectacles on the snake’s hood, thereby frightening
Mie kites so much they have never since ventured to attack a Cobra.

129


OPOSSUM MOUSE.

In some parts this beautiful little animal is known as the Flying Mouse.
It is about the size of the common mouse and is a wonderfully pretty creature.
When it is resting upon the branches of a tree with its parachute, or um-
brella of skin, drawn close to the body, it looks very like the ordinary mouse.
Its length is about six inches. The body being about three and one half inches
in length, and the tail not quite three inches. ‘The upper part of the body of the
Opossum Mouse is of regular mouse tint color slightly sprinkled with a reddish
hue. Onthe lower part of the body the fur is beautifully white. When the animal
is at rest the parachute closes and gathers itself into folds which look very
pretty. The tail of the Opossum Mouse is very slender and is remarkable
for the manner in which the hairs grow on it. The hairs that fringe the
greater part of the tail are about one sixth of an inch in length, reddish grey
in color, rather stiff, and are set on the tail in a double rowlike the barbs of a



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feather. The food of this creature consists of leaves, fruits and buds, but
the sharply pointed teeth are very like those of insect eating animals. The
parachute formed by the skin of the Opossum Mouse is very useful to the
animal when it wishes to pass from one branch, or from one tree to another
without the trouble of climbing up and down each tree trunk. When it
wishes to pass from one branch to another it stretches out its four legs and
boldly throws itself into the air. The skin which acts as a parachute causes
the animal to float through the air just as we see birds when they are resting
on the wing. The little creature is thus able to sweep through the air fora
considerable distance. But it cannot support itself in the air by moving its
wings as the bats do, although it is able. to alter its course while floating
through the air. A great many animals are formed for the purpose of
procuring their food among the branches of the trees on which they pass the
greater portion of their lives. The general name for this group of animals
is Phalangistines, and they are mostly inhabitants of Australasia and the islands
of the Indian Archipelago. The Opossum Mouse is called the Pigmy Petaurist.

180
BALD-HEADED EAGLE.

The name of Bald, or White-headed Eagle, has been given to this bird on
account of the showy color of its head and neck, which makes it very notice-
able. The rest of the body is a deep chocolate brown, while along the back
it is almost black. The tail is of the same white hue as the head and neck.
In its early life it is of more somber tints, its beautiful white head and tail not
being obtained until it is four years of age. The Bald Eagle delights in
building its nest high up in some tall tree, and this nest is added to year by
year, as the bird kecps the same home, only making additions to it. The
eggs are laid in January, and the young ones are hatched by the middle of
February. The Bald Eagle is very affectionate toward its young and will
never desert them, even if the nest is encircled by flames. The Eagle is fond













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aaa

rae



of fish, but being no fisher himself, he obtains his supply from those who are
more skilled than he, robbing the osprey in particular, on every possible
occasion. He has not a very dainty appetite and will eat almost anything
that has ever been alive. Carrion suits him very well, and he will hold his
own against a crowd of vultures, if he has a dead horse to feast upon, gorging
himself before permitting them to approach. He is very fond of lambs, and
will even attack a sickly sheep, somctimes causing its death by the use of his
strong beak and claws. When hunting, he perches on the top of some tall
tree, looking over a vast extent of country with his sharp and far-seeing eyes,
and listening for the slightest sound which his quick ear is able to detect.

131
KING TODY.

The King Tody, which is also known as the Royal Great Crest, is a
wingular as well as a beautiful bird. Its native home is Brazil. In both form
and coloring it is most attractive, and it is all the more to be appreciated be-
cause it is so rare, being but little known even in its own land. The most
remarkable feature of the bird is its splendid crest, a peculiar feature of
which is its capability of being raised or lowered at will. When raised, it is
almost perpendicular, and assumes a spreading form like a fan; when lowered,
it lies back upon the neck. ‘This crest is formed of long, narrow feathers,
spoon shaped at the extremities. The color is bright chestnut red for the
greater part of the length, followed by a narrow stripe of rich orange, while
the tip is velvet black, encircled by a band of steel blue. When this crest is
spread, the effect is striking in the extreme. ‘The upper parts of the body
are a dark chestnut brown, deepening on the quill feathers of the wings.
The throat, chest and abdomen are a pale fawn, warming toward chestnut on

/ iS
i ON Wy:
WEA RN SAS



‘

the central line. The entire length of this bird is only six inches and a half.
The White-shafted Fan-tail of Australia is a most remarkable bird, and is a
typical fly catcher. In appearance the bird is not particularly attractive, but
it has some eccentric habits, which are worthy of note, and the form of its nest
is singular. This bird is a native of the southern and western portions of
Australia and also of Van Diemen’s Land, and is a permanent resident there,
merely changing about to different portions according to the seasons of the
year. It is not a gregarious bird, being content with the companionship of
its mate. It is brisk and cheerful, and has a curious habit of mounting high
in the air and then descending in a headlong, reckless style, after turning
completely over in the air, like the tumbler pigeon. It has a broad tail,
resembling a feather fan, and in descending it spreads widely both tail and
wings. It will permit the near approach of human beings and even enter
houses in search of flics and other insects. Its song consists of a soft and
sweet twittering sound, not powerful or varied, but full and pleasing. When
_ guarding its nest, the bird becomes shy and wary. There are not more than
two eggs, grayish white in color and covered with olive brown blotches.

132
GROUP OF BRITISH WAGTAILS.

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This small group of birds is familiar to every observer of nature. The
Wagtails get their name from the well-known habit of shaking their tails

while running on the ground, or on settling after a flight.

These birds are

found in both hemispheres, and are easily known from the habit from which

they get their popular name.

No less than nine species of this group occur

in Great Britain, some of which are nearly as well-known as the common
sparrow, while others are less familiar to the casual observer. The Pied
Wagtail is the most common of all the British examples of this genus of birds,
and may be seen at the proper season of the year near almost every pond or
brook, or even in the open road, tripping daintily and pecking at insects.

1388
GOULD’S NEOMORPHA.

This remarkable bird has been very appropriately named Neomorpha, or
New-form, as it exhibits a peculiarity of formation which, so far as is at pres-
ent known, is wholly unique. These birds, which the natives call E. Elia,
are confined to the hills in the neighborhood of Port Nicholson, whence the
feathers of the tail, which are in great request among the natives, are sent as
presents to all parts of the island. The natives regard the bird with the
straight and stout beak as the male, and the other as the female. In three
specimens which were shot this was the case, and both birds are always to-
gether. These fine birds can only be obtained with the help ofa native, who
calls them with a shrill and long-continued whistle, resembling the sound of
the native name of the species. After ancxtensive journey in the hilly forest
in search of them, a hunter had at last the pleasure of seeing four alight on
the lower branches of the tree near which the native accompanying him stood.

oo. :



They came quick as lightning, descending from branch to branch, spreading
out the tail and throwing up the wings. Anxious to obtain them he fired;
but they generally comeso near that the natives kill them with sticks. Their
food consists of seeds and insects. The species are apparently becoming scarce,
and will probably be soon exterminated. Inthe coloring ofits plumage, it is, al-
though rather dark, a really handsome bird when closely inspected in a good
light. The general hue of the feathers is a very dark green, appearing to be
black in some lights, and having a bright glossy surface. Upon each side of
the neck is a fleshy protuberance, or “wattle,” analogous to the wattle of

the common turkey, and of a rich orange color during the life of the bird.
134
BEAD SNAKE.

One of the brightest and loveliest serpents is the Bead Snake of North
America. This.beautiful little reptile inhabits cultivated grounds, especially
frequenting the sweet potato plantations, and burrows in the earth close to
the roots of the plants, so that it is often dug up by the Negroes while getting
in the harvest. It possesses poison fangs, but is apparently never known to use
them, allowing itself to be handled in the roughest manner without attempting
to bite the hand that holds it. The colors of this snake are bright, pure, and
arranged in a manner so as to contrast boldly with each other. The muzzle
and part of the head are black; the remainder of the head is golden yellow,
and the front of the neck is jetty black; a narrow band of golden yellow with
waving edges comes next the black, and is followed by a broad band of the




uy 8
gf \ Ny
[ is Dp

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lightest carmine; from this point the whole of the body and tail are covered
with narrow rings of golden yellow mixed with broad bands of carmine and
jetty black; towards the tail the carmine band becomes paler and more of a
vermilion hue, and for the last four inches there are no red bands, the black
and yellow being equally divided; the extreme tip of the tail is yellow. The
Bead Snake never reaches any great size, seldom exceeding two feet in length.
A very curious, but poisonous snake, is the Spuugh-slange or Spitting Snake,
which derives its name on account of its power of throwing a poisonous secre-
tion toa distance. By breathing suddenly and violently, it will strike an
object at a distance of several feet. This creature is one of the fiercest among
poison-bearing snakes, seldom running from an enemy, but generally turning
to fight, and very often beginning the attack. Generally it moves slowly,
but when angry it darts at its foe, strikes and spits with such rapid energy
that the antagonist stands in need of a quick hand and eye toconquer the fierce
reptile. It is a good climber, and is in the habit of ascending trees in search
of prey. It is also fond of water. While in the water it swims well, but slowly,
scarcely raising its head above the surface. The color of this creature is very
variable; it is mostly of a light yellow brown, with irregular blotches.

135
*

TURKEY BUZZARD.

The Turkey Buzzard is more rightly termed the Carrion Vulture. Its
name of Turkey Buzzard is earned from the strange resemblance which
a Carrion Vulture bears to a turkey, as it walks slowly and with a dignified
air, stretching its long bare neck, and exhibiting the fleshy appendages which
bear some likeness to the wattles of the turkey. Indeed, instances are not
wanting, where recent visitors to the country have actually shot these birds,
thinking that they had succeeded in killing a veritable edible turkey. ‘This
bird is chiefly found in North America, but is also an inhabitant of Jamaica,
where it is popularly known as the John crow. Wher gorged with food, an
event which always takes place whenever there is the least opportunity, the
Turkey Buzzard leaves reluctantly the scene of the banquet, and gaining with
some difficulty a branch of a neighboring tree, sits heavy and listless, its head
sunk upon its breast, and its wings hanging half open, as if the bird were too





lazy even to keep those members closed. The object of this curious attitude
seems to be, that the bird may gain as much air as possible, for these feath-
ered creatures are singularly susceptible to atmospheric influence. It is not
improbable that this air-bath may aid the bird in digesting the food which it
has so ravenously consumed, as well as to cleanse its feathers from the fetid
animal substance which cannot but cling to them after their strong-scented
repasts. While eating, they are not at all particular about soiling their feathers,
for they will often tear a hole in the skin of a dead animal, and walk inside.

136
EYED LIZARD.

This beautiful creature is sometimes known as the Great Spotted Green
Lizard. It is a native of southern Europe and various other warm parts of
the world, being found in Algiers, Senegal, and parts of America. It inhabits
dry spots where the sun has most power, and may be seen among hedges,
underwood or loose stones, running about in search of food, and displaying

x the gleam-like brilliancy of its cloth-
ml ing as it darts from spot to spot
with great agility. It is of rather

=~ a fierce nature, having little fear,
and boldly attacking any enemy
that it may meet. Like the rest of

~ the Lizards, it feeds on insects and
similar creatures, darting on them
—. with great speed. The color of
this Lizard is very beautiful, mak-
ing it one of the most lovely of its
. i tribe. The general color of the
= WS... Sg =f JP body is bright glittering green, as
= TN if covered with an armor of emer-
alds, upon which are set along the
sides, some rather large eye-like spots of rich azure. The length of this creat-
ure, when full grown, is about fifteen or sixteen inches, but it is variable in size.

GREEN LIZARD.

The Green Lizard is sometimes called by the name of the Jersey Lizard.
It is found in Jersey and many parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. ‘This rep-
tile is of a green color, and is one of the most beautiful creatures among the
tribes of Lizards. Like the Eye Lizard, it haunts sunny spots, and may be
found in orchards, gardens, shrubberies, copses, and similar localities, where

U








it can find plenty of food, and hide when it is alarmed. Old ruins are greatly
haunted by this beautiful Lizard, which flits among the moss-covered stones
with singular activity, lying at one moment as if asleep in the sunbeams, or
or crawling slowly, then disappearing with a rapidity that looks like magic.

137
GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN.

One of the prettiest birds is the Golden-winged Manakin, with its mottled
plumage of black, yellow and orange. The name of the bird is derived from
the bright yellow feathers which adorn its wings, producing a striking effect.
Its head is crowned with beautiful plumes of golden yellow, shading into a
rich orange at the back of the neck. The Manakins form quite a large group
of birds, many of which have very beautiful and curious plumage. ‘They are

‘mostly inhabitants of America, although they are found only in the tropical
regions ofthecountry. They feed upon both animal and vegetable substances,
and frequent the hottest and moistest forest where the vegetation is luxurious,
because in such places they find an abundance of food. ‘Their movements
are very active. The Golden-winged Manakin is always to be found on the
skirts of forests, where it chooses the hot and marshy grounds that are often
found in such localities, and there it busily seeks its food, suffering no harm
from the deadly gases which escape the heavy, warm, and poisonous mist from
the moisture which the burning sun changes to vapor. It is interesting to









watch the quick and vivacious movements of the birds, as they dart.and peer
and feed here and there in every direction, or perch in flocks on the top of
some tall tree, decorating it with their beauty, and it is worth while to study
them carefully. The Green Calyptomena is a species of Manakin which is
found in Singapore and the interior of Sumatra. It is a small bird, but very
beautiful. It is shy and solitary in its habits, shrouding itself during the day
among the heavy verdure of the forest trees, where the bright green of its
feathers harmonizes so well with the coloring of the leaves that it is almost
impossible to distinguish it even with a practiced eye. The food of this bird
seems to be entirely of a vegetable nature. The Green Calyptomena has a .
fine and well-marked crest which curves so as to nearly hide the short, wide
and hooked beak under its feathers. The plumage of the bird is a brilliant
emerald green, while above and in front of the eyes the feathers are a velvet-
black at the base, tipped with green. ‘The tail consists of ten feathers, green
above and bluish black below, and is short and rounded. The length of this
bird is about six inches, and it resembles a thrush in the shape of the body.

138
NYULA.

The Nyula has very beautiful fur, grizzled and forming a zig-zag pattern
over the head, body and limbs. This pattern looks like those seen in some
kinds of woven fabrics, or fine basket work. Upon the back and body the
design is large, but upon the head it is smaller, and it is very small indeed
upon the upper portion of the nose, althougk even there it is as perfect as
upon the rest of the body, so that the Nyula is one of the most handsome of
the Ichneumons. ‘The paws are dark and plain in color. The word Ichneu-
mon is Greek and means “tracker.” The common Ichneumon, or Pharaoh’s
Rat, as it is generally called, although that name is not a proper one, is found
in Egypt, where it it very useful in keeping down many animals that do
harm, as well as dangerous reptiles. It is small and does not look very im-
portant, but it is fond of crocodile eggs and by feeding upon them keeps the
number of crocodiles smaller than it would be if all the eggs were allowed to
hatch. Snakes, rats, lizards, mice and a good many kinds of birds, fall a
prey to this creature, which will track its victim to its hiding place and wait
for hours with great patience until at last the animal appears, or it will creep
quietly up to the unsuspecting prey and fling itself boldly upon it, to destroy



it by rapid bites of its long, sharp teeth. Although this little animal is not
large enough to be of any danger to the crocodile itself, the eggs of that huge
reptile are so small that it takes several of them to make a meal for the
Ichneumon. The color of this animal is brown, grizzled with gray, each hair
having rings of gray and brown. The total length of the body is about three
feet three inches, while the tail measures eighteen inches. The claws can be
drawn in to some extent, like those of a cat. The Ichneumon has a very
large scent eland, but this has not yet proved of any value in commerce.
The Mongoose, sometimes called the Indian Ichneumon, is as useful an animal
in its home in Asia, as the one which has just been described is in Africa.
In that country it is a destroyer of rats, mice and reptiles and is taken care
of by the inhabitants that it may in turn help them. Like all Ichneumons it
is cleanly in its habits and takes to domestic life very easily, so it is kept
tame in many families and does good service in keeping the houses free from
pests. It is.somewhat like a cat in its ways, sniffing at everything.

139
BEECH MARTEN.

There are several names by which this animal is known, such as the
Marteron, the Martern, and the Stone Marten. It prowls around houses and
hides itself in barns and sheds for the purpose of getting to the poultry. The
Marten is easily tamed. One of these creatures was captured when young
by a shoemaker, and remained with him until it was full-grown. It then _
escaped from its home, and began to destroy the fowls which were kept by
the neighbors, returning every night, and concealing itself in the house. Its
destructive energies became so troubiesome that it was at last sentenced to
death by the united voices of those who had suffered from its raids, and paid
the penalty of its many robberies. Another Marten was captured in a
rather curious manner. It had been driven from its home, and, in order to
escape the dogs that were chasing it in hot pursuit, leaped over a precipice,
and fell from a height of forty or fifty feet, without mecting with anything
to break its fall. It lay on the ground as if dead, and one of the spectators
descended the cliff and captured the Marten. However, it soon gave signs



of life by scratching and biting so fiercely that the captor was glad to put it
into a bag. It became tame under kind treatment, and was led about a
garden by a string which was tied round its waist. The Marten is a good
swimmer, as well as an excellent leaper and climber, and has often been seen
to swim across a wide river when it has been hard pressed in the chase.
Even in captivity, its nimbleness is so great that, while it is enjoying its
graceful antics, its shape can hardly be seen. It is more watchful at night
than in the day time, but will often awake from its slumbers during the
hours of light, and take a little exercise. It is fond of nuls, which it strips
of their shells while they are still hanging on the tree, leaving the shattered
fragments on the branches. So sharp are its teeth, and so powerful its jaws,
that one of these animals has been known to gnaw its way through the
wooden door of the.room in which it was kept, and to make its escape through
the opening. The Martens are nearly banished from cultivated countries.

140
AFRICAN BULL-FROG.

This fine Frog is found in southern Africa, being most plentiful towards
the extreme coast, where it always frequents springs, pools, or the neigh-
borhood of fresh water. It is very impatient of drought, and when a more
than usually dry season has parched the ground and rendered the hot soil un-
comfortable for the delicate skin of the creature’s feet and abdomen, these
Frogs congregate in the pools in great numbers, and just before the water
has quite dried up, they burrow deeply into the soft mud, and there lie until
the next rains bring the welcome moisture. Fifty of these large Frogs have
been seen gathered together in a little pool far from any other water. ‘These
large Frogs, which, when cooked, look like chickens, are supposed by the natives
to fall down from the thunder clouds, because after a heavy shower the pools



which are filled and retain water become instantly alive with the loud croak-
ing Frogs. It is a large and handsome creature, but becomes duller in color
as it increases inage. The young, however, are very lightly tinted. The
general color is greenish brown above with a decided rusty shade, variegated
with mottlings of reddish brown, and streaked and spotted with ycllow. ‘the
ereen takes a bright and purer hue along the sides of the head and legs.
The abdomen is ycllow mottled with orange, and the chin is striped and
splashed with brown. The eyes are very curious and bold, being a rich
chestnut hue, covered with a profusion of little golden white dots, which
shine with a metallic lustre. When young, the yellow lines on the body are
edged with jetty black, and the legs are covered with bold black bars. The
head is straight and rather flat, and the skin of the body is puckered into
folds. The lower jaw is remarkable for two large bony tooth-like projections
in front. The ordinary length of a full-grown African Bull-Frog is about six
inches. During the months of drought, this interesting creature makes a
hole at the root of certain bushes, and there betakes himself. As he seldom
comes out of the hole, a large variety of spider takes advantage of this fact,
and makes its web across the opening to the Frog’s den, thus making a screen.

141
OTTER.

The fur of the Otter is so warm. and-handsome that there is quite a
demand for it in the market. The entire length of the animal is under three
and a half feet, of which the tail ‘tukes up about fourteen or fifteen inches.
The average weight of the animal is about twenty-three pounds. The track
which the Otter makes upon the bank of the river is easily distinguished
from that of any other animal, on account of the impressions which are made
by a certain round ball on the sole of the foot. It is easily followed by dogs,
which are always eager for the sport, although they do not like to engage in
single fight with such an animal. An Otter has been known to turn savagely
upon a dog that was urged to attack it, to drag it into the water, and to
drown it. Even human foes are resisted with equal violence. On one occa-
sion, an Otter was hard pressed in the water and tried to escape into an open
drain, when it was prevented from carrying out its purpose by one of the
hunters, who grasped it by the tail and tried to force it into the water. The
excited animal twisted itself sharply around, and made so savage a snap at
the man’s hand. that it took off the end of his thumb at a single bite. When

















































the Otter once fairly fixes its teeth, it cannot be forced to relinquish its grasp
without the greatest difficulty. And even when it is dead, its jaws keep their
hold with Conc deren firmness. When the animal is naned it swims and
dives with such singular agility, that the only mode of capturing it is by
watching its progress below the surface of the water by means of the train of
air bubbles which mark its course, and by forcing it to dive again before it
has recovered its breath. By keeping up this, t the poor creature is wearied
at last, and falls an unwilling prey. When attacked, the Otter is a fierce
and desperate fighter, biting and snapping with most dreadful energy, and
never yielding as long as life remains within the body. The bite of an angry
Otter is very severe, for the creature hasa habit of biting most savagely, and
then working its head violently as if it were trying to killarat. There are few
dogs which can conquer an Otter in a fair fight, and the combat is generally
ended by the spear of one of the hunters. The Otter easily catches fish.

142
TERNATE KINGFISHEP

The Ternate Kingfisher is a very
handsome and striking bird, being
decorated with richly colored plum-
age. The head is of a bright ultra-
marine blue, and the upper parts of
the body are of a deeper tint of the
same color, being of a Prussian blue
that is almost black in its intensity.
The wings are of the same ultra-
marine as the head, as also are the
edges of the quill feathers of the tail.
The two middle tail feathers are very
long, and curiously shaped, being
webbed at their roots, bare for
nearly the whole of their length, and
again webbed at the ends. The color
of them is blue, excepting the tips
which are white. The other feathers
of the tail are white, with blue edges.
The whole of the under parts of the
bird are white. The Ternate King-
fisher is a native of New Guinea, and

from thence its beautiful skin is often |

sent to other parts of the world. The
Australian Kingfisher is another re-
markable bird. It resides in New
South Wales from August to Decem-
ber or January, and then passes to a
warmer climate. It isa most noisy
creature, and very fond of making a

loud startling cry, which resembles |

the shriek of a human being in dis-
tress. It is a sharp, short cry and
frequently repeated. ‘This bird does
not build a real nest, but chooses a

convenient hollow branch as its home,

and there lays its eggs, from three to
five in number and pure white. ‘The
Australian Kingfisher is nearly the
same size as the laughing jackass.
The top of its head is tinged with a
dull green, and the throat, neck, and
abdomen are buff, flecked with brown
spots. The food of Kingfishers
consists mostly of fish, although some
of them likecrabs, shrimps and prawns.










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143
SLEPEZ MOLE RAT.

The common Mole Rat, which is also known by its Russian name of Slepez,
is a native of Southern Russia, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Syria. Like
the ordinary mole, to which it bears no little external resemblance, it passes its
existence in the subterranean tunnels which it excavates by means of its pow-
erful claws. As it but seldom ventures into the light of day, it stands in no
need of visual organs, but is compensated for their absence by the very large
development of the organs of hearing. ‘The place of the eyes is taken by two
little round black specks, which lie under the fur-covered skin, so that even if
they were sensitive to light, they would be unable to perceive the brightest
rays of the noontide sun. The ears, however, are extremely large, and the
hearing is exceedingly sensitive, so that the animal receives earlier information
of danger through its sense of hearing than through that of sight, which latter
faculty would indeed be useless in its dark abode. Sometimes the Slepez
leaves the burrow and lies basking in the warm sunshine, but upon the least



ee pane ES ae oe



alarm, or unexpected sound, it plunges into its tunnel, and will not again make
its appearance until it feels perfectly assured of safety. The Marmot is a
queer animal about the size of an ordinary rabbit, and not very unlike it in
color. The general tint of the fur is grayish-yellow upon the back and flanks,
deepening into black-gray on the top of the head, and into black on the ex-
tremity of the tail. It is very common in all the mountainous districts of
Northern Europe, where it associates in small societies. The Marmot is an
expert excavator, and digs very large and rather complicated burrows,
always appearing to reserve one chamber as a storehouse for the heap of dried
grasses and other similar substances which it amasses for the purpose of sus-
taining life during the winter. The chamber in which the animal lives and
sleeps is considerably larger than the storehouse, measuring, in some cases,
as much as seven feet in diameter. The tunnel which leads to these chambers
is only just large enough to admit the body of the animal, and is about six
feet in length. To these burrows the Marmot retires about the middle of
September, and closes the entrance for the winter with grass and earth.

144
GOSHAWK.

This handsome bird is even larger than the jerfalcon, the length of an
adult male being eighteen inches, and that of his mate rather more than two
feet. It is not, however, so powerful or so swift-winged a bird as the jerfalcon,
and its mode of taking prey is entirely different. The jerfalcon dashes at
every flying creature that may take its fancy, and attacks successfully the
largest winged game. But the Goshawk, although possessed of the most
undaunted courage and of great muscular power, is unable to cope with such
opponents, and prefers ter
restrial to aerial quarry. Ow-
ing to the shape of the wing,
and comparative shortness =
of the feathers, the Goshawk = =f
is unable to take long flights, ;

















PEt feat
(Are ere San
or to urge a lengthened and ee re
: “ [ual
persevering chase. More- orale IS
a ic oe ot diy Mn a
Ithough it vel — Wea “AN
over, although its courage 1s _— Rees oi \ NN =
of the most determined char- 2 — irae \\\ a
: . = NLT
acter, it soon loses sheart if == eae aM
Cai ly g

often baffled by the same
uarry, and in such cases
will turn sulky and yield the
chase. When trained, the
Goshawk is best employed
at hares, rabbits, and other
furred game, and in this par-
ticular sport is unrivalled.
Its mode of hunting is singu-
larly like that of the cheetah
which steals upon its vic-
tims in a very cat-like oN

manner. Like that animal, \REN








it is not nearly so swift WW









nl BA ik ne

WAS



as its prey, and there- \ VAN | (wi
fore is obliged to steal NAY QUAN AN
ore is obliged to steal upon rH Val Hay |

them, and seize its victim by (a, \ \Y

a sudden and unexpected a
pounce. When it has once

grasped its prey, it is rarely found to lose its hold, even by the most violent
struggles or the most furious attack. The gripe is so enormously powerful,
that a Goshawk has often been observed to pounce upon a large hare, and to
maintain its hold even though the animal sprang high into the air, and then
rolled upon the ground in vain hope of shaking off his feathered antagonist.
Only the female bird is able to cope with so powerful a creature as a full-
grown hare or rabbit, for the male, although more swift of wing, and there-
fore better adapted for chasing birds than the female, is comparatively feeble.

It never follows its quarry into cover but perches upon a bough and waits.
145

N h yi
SKYE TERRIER.

The quaint-looking Skye Terrier is liked by all classes of Dog-owners.
When of pure breed the legs are very short, and the body long; the neck is
powerfully made, but of considerable length, and the head is also rather long,
so that the total length of the animal is three times as great as its height.
‘The hair is long and straight, falling heavily over the body and limbs; and
hanging so thickly upon the facethat the eyes and nose are hardly seen under
their covering. The hair israther harshand wiry inthe pure-bred Skye Terrier.
‘The size of this animal is rather small. Its weight ought to be from ten to
seventeen or eighteen pounds. It is an amusing and clever Dog, and makes a
very good companion, being faithful and affectionate in disposition, and as
brave as any dog, except the bull-dog. Sometimes, though not often, it is used
for sporting purposes. A history, however short, of the Dogs would be in-

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complete without some reference to that terrible disease called ‘‘ Hydrophobia,”
which at times arises among the canine race, and makes the trusted companion
afoe. From some cause, which at present is unknown, the bite of a Dog,
which is affected with this terrible malady, or even the mere contact of his
saliva with a broken skin, becomes so deadly, that the unfortunate person
upon whom such an injury is inflicted is almost as certain to die as if he nad
been struck by the poison-fangs of the rattlesnake or cobra. The symptoms
of this malady are various in different animals. There is an entire change
of manner in the Dog. The affectionate, caressing Dog becomes suddenly
cross, shy, and snappish; retreating from the touch of the friendly hand as if
it were the hand of a stranger. His appetite becomes depraved, and, forsak-
ing his ordinary food, he eagerly swallows pieces of sticks, straws or any other
substances that may lie in his way. He is strangely restless, seeming unable
to remain in the same position for two seconds together, and continually
snaps at imaginary objects which his disordered senses image in rapid succes-
sion before his eyes. Strange voices seem to fall upon his ear, and he ever
and anon starts up and listens eagerly to the sounds which so powerfully
affect him. Generally, he utters at intervals a wild unhappy howl.

146
PIPING CROW SHRIKE.

This bird, which is sometimes called the Magpie by colonists, on account
of its magpie-like white and black plumage, is a native of New South Wales,
and towards the interior is very plentiful. The bird is found in almost every
‘part of the country, prefering, however, the open places to the wooded dis-
tricts. Vhe Piping Crow Shrike is a very trustful bird, attaching itself to
mankind, and haunting the neighborhood of barns and farmyards. On the
very slightest encouragement this bird will take possession of a barn, garden
or plantation, and, with the exception of a favorite few, will not suffer any of
his friends to intrude upon his property. The owner of the garden is well
repaid for his hospitality by the rich and varied song which the bird pours
forth in the early morning and towards evening. No bush-bird has a clearer
or richer note than the Magpie. It is a very hardy bird and bears captivity
well. In its native country it does not travel about much, but remains
throughout the year in the spot which it has adopted as its home. The food
of the Piping Crow consists mostly of insects, the large grasshoppers being
especial dainties. The bird isa good hunter, pursuing its active prey over





the ground with great agility, and pouncing upon it at last with remarkab.e
accuracy of aim. In captivity, it will eat almost any kind of animal food, and
also feeds upon different kinds of fruits and berries. The nest of the Piping
Crow is a large and not very neatly constructed edifice, made principally
of sticks, leaves and small grasses. It is loosely placed among the branches
ofa lofty tree at a considerable heighth from the ground, and. contains from
two to four eggs. There are generally two broods of these birds in a year.

14%
SCORPION LIZARD.

In spite of the rather alarming name which the terrors of the ignorant
have caused them to bestow upon it, the Scorpion Lizard is one of
the most harmless, as well as one of the most useful little creatures that
inhabit the earth. It is a native of Northern America, and is spread over a
very large tract of country. ‘This curious Lizard is one of the species that
delights in trees. It generally resides in some tree buried in the depths of
the forest, and remains at a considerable elevation above the ground, never
liking to make its home less than thirty or forty feet above the earth, and
often placing itself at a much greater height. ‘The domicile in which this
reptile most delights is the deserted home of the woodpecker, which has
brought up her little family, and forsaken the burrow which had taken such
time and trouble to hollow from the decaying wood. Here the Scerpion
Lizard takes up its residence, and here it remains snugly concealed unless ft
is alarmed by an enemy at the gate of its wooden fortress, when it runs nim-

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bly to the entrance, and pokes out its red head with so threatening a gesture,
that its intending assailant, thinking it must possess a store of poison to
assume so resolute an aspect, retreats.from the spot and leaves the reptile in
- quiet possession of its abode. The Scorpion Lizard is naturally a very timid
and retiring creature, and on the approach of danger slips quietly out of the
way, wisely preferring flight to combat. But if seized, the captor will have
no small struggle before he can fairly secure his small but determined quarry,
for the creature bites fiercely with its sharp teeth, retains its hold with such
bull-dog tenacity, and kicks and scratches with hearty good-will. The bite,
indeed, is so severe, and the creature has such power of jaw, that the wounds
inflicted are always exceedingly painful for an hour or two, and might give
rise to the idea that the teeth were poisonous like those of the rattlesnake.
The head of the Scorpion Lizard is very broad at the base, and narrows
rather suddenly to the snout, which is slightly elongated. The upper part of
the head is of a bright red. The length is about eleven or twelve inches.

148
COLUMBIAN THORNBILL.

The Columbian Thornbill is a native of South America, and its home is
in the more temperate regions of that country. It never seeks the hill-tops,
but remains on the plains or in some of the valleys where it can find plenty of
food. It does not care for the tops of trees as many of the humming-birds do,
but likes the low flowering shrubs
better. Its color is golden green
on the upper portions. Below it
is dull green, except for a tuft,
or beard, which hangs from the
chin. This is light green at the
base and purple red toward the
end. The -wings are purple
brown, the tail brown with a
bronze gloss. There is a bright
red mark on the throat. There
are also some feathers of brown
yellow. The female is much like
the male, but has not the flame-
like mark on the throat which
the male has. The total length
of these birds is between five and
six inches. Herran’s Thornbill
is quite different from the Col-
umbian in having a broad, purple
tail, with snowy white tips to
some of the feathers, while Con-
vers’ Thornbill has a very queer
tail, with a spike-like look when
spread out. It is beautiful both
in shape and color, but, as in most
other birds of brilliant plumage,
the male is much the handsomer.
His general color is green, and
he has a white bar running across the lower end of the back. The tail
feathers are very long, narrow and pointed, which gives them the odd look
spoken of before. In color they are a shining black, with white shafts or
quills. The general color of the female is like that of the male, but not so
brilliant. The tail is short and the feathers are rounded, they are dusky in
color and have white tips. ‘These birds are swift in flight and look some like
a swallow when on the wing. The nests of all humming birds are interest-
ing, and it is an odd fact that sometimes they are not finished until the young
are hatched. After that the mother bird sets to work again to build up the
sides so that the little ones cannot fall out. As they grow, she keeps making
the walls higher and higher, so that the nest which was shallow and sauccr-
like on the start, has grown into a round and deep cup. The mother bird
knows the little ones are likely to tumble out of the nest if not protected.

149


NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.

There are few dogs which are more adapted for fetching and carrying
than the Newfoundland. This Dog always likes to have something in its
mouth, and seems to derive a kind of dignity from the. conveyance of its
master’s property. It can be trained to seek for any object that has been
left at a distance, and being gifted with a most persevering nature, will
seldom yield the point until it has succeeded in its search. A rather amusing
example of this faculty in the Newfoundland Dog recently occurred. A
gentleman was on a visit to one of his friends, taking with him a fine New-
foundland Dog. Being fond of reading, he took his book upon the downs,
to enjoy at the same time the pleasures of literature and the invigorating
breezes that blew freshly over the hills. On this occasion he was so deeply
buried in his book, that he overstayed his time and just as he arrived



SS
at the house, he found that he had inadvertently left his gold-headed
cane on the spot where he had been sitting, and as it was a piece of property
which he valued extremely, he was much annoyed at his mischance. As
soon as the Dog arrived, his master explained his loss to the animal, and
begged him to find the lost cane. Just as he completed his explanations,
dinner was announced, and he was obliged to take his seat at table. Soon
after the second course was upon the table, a great uproar was heard in
the hall; sounds of pushing and scuffing were very audible, and
angry voices forced themselves on the ear. Presently, the phalanx of
servants gave way, and in rushed the Newfoundland Dog, bearing in his
mouth the missing cane. He would not permit any hand but his master’s
to take the cane from his mouth, and it was his resistance to the at-
tempts to dispossess him of his master’s property that led to the skirmish.

150
SALLE’S HERMIT HUMMING-BIRD.

The birds called Hermits have very long and beautiful tails, the two cen-
tral feathers longer than the rest. The male and female are mostly alike
both in color and size, as well as in the shape of the plumage. These birds
are found in Venezuela and the Carracas, liking best those parts where the
flowers bloom most freely. All the Hermits build strange and pretty nests,
long, like a funnel, and running down to a slender point. They weave these
nests to some twig or leaf by means of spiders’ webs. The material of the
nest is also bound together with spiders’ webs; this matcrial is silky cotton























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fiber and a woolly kind of shrub. The picture shows the bird known as
Salle’s Hermit. Its habits are not at all well known, but like other humming-
birds its voice is not very strong, for when a humming-bird has any voice, its
song is feeble and uncertain. Salle’s Hermit has a green bronze body
trimmed with rusty red, bronze, black and white. ‘The wings are purple
brown. The under parts of the body are a sober gray, while above and
below each eye there is a white streak. Some of the humming-birds are
very bold, and if attacked by a bird ten times their size will rush at it furiously
and drive it away. It is most interesting to watch the little bright-hued
creatures flitting about with their darting movements, gathering the swectness
from the flowers which they love, and their beauty makes up for the want
of song. Perhaps not as beautiful as the humming-bird just described, but
very interesting because it is so rare and because of its queer-shaped bill, is
the Sickle-bill Humming-bird. The plumage is not very brilliant, but the
bird is pretty. Its total length is about four inches and a half. Another
kind of Sickle-bill is found only at a very high elevation, not less than ten
thousand feet above the sea. The group of humming-birds called Sun-
angels have very beautiful and lustrous’ plumage, especially about the
throat, and they also seck a high elevation. Smaller than any of these and
also very lovely is the Vervain Humming-bird, which is one of the most tiny
forms among birds. Its total length is not more than three inches, and as
the tail measures nearly an inch and the head half an inch, it leaves very little
for the body, not quite an inch anda half. This dainty creature is a native of
Jamaica. It takes its name from a_ kind of plant on the blossoms of which
it feeds, called the West Indian Vervain; but it has other names as well.

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SQUIRREL.

Every one knows the active little Squirrel which makes the woods joyous
with its active gambols. On the ground it is not so much at ease as when it
is ecareering amid the branches of some large tree, and as soon as it feels
alarmed, it always makes the best of its way towards the nearest tree trunk.
It runs along with a kind of gallop, and even when ascending a straight trunk
of a tree it continues to gallop, and reaches a great height in a very short
time. Squirrel hunting is always a great sport among boys and is much
more exciting because the Squirrel is hardly ever captured in fair chase. To
watch a little party of Squirrels in a tree is a most amusing occupation, but
the little creatures are blessed with quick eyesight and if they happen to spy
any object which they fancy may
be dangerous they always keep
themselves on the opposite side of
the trunk or branches of the tree
which they are running about. So
jealously do they guard themselves
by getting behind the branches
that it is very difficult to shoot one
of these animals after it has once
caught sight of the gunner. By
dint of perseverance, however, it
is possible to witness all the little
capers of the merry creatures and
to obtain a great fund of amusement
by sodoing. The food of the Squir-
rel consists chiefly of nuts, acorns, wheat and other fruits and seeds. The little
creature lays up a winter store of provisions and towards the end of autumn,while
acorns and nuts are in their prime, becomes very busy in gathering its little
treasures which it hides in all kinds of nooks, crevices and holes near the
tree in which it lodges. It passes most of the winter in close confinement,
sleeping nearly the whole time. But this pretty little creature has a very
accurate memory, as it always remembers the spots where it has placed its
stores of food, and even when the snow lies thickly on the ground the Squir-
rel betrays no perplexity, but whenever it requires food goes straight to the
hidden storehouse, scratches away the snow and eats of its hidden treasures. .
The nest of the Squirrel is an admirable specimen of natural architecture, and
is almost invariably placed in the fork of some lofty branch, where it is
concealed from the view of any one passing under the tree, and is out of the
reach of any ordinary foe, even if its situation were discovered. Sometimes
it is built in the hollow of a decayed bough, but is always admirably con-
cealed from sight. In form it is nearly spherical, and is made of leaves, moss,
grass, and other substances, woven together in so artistic a manner that it is
impermeable to rain, and cannot be dislodged from its resting-place by the
most violent wind. A single pair of Squirrels inhabit the same nest, and
consider some particular tree as their home, remaining in it year after year.
The female Squirrel produces about three or four young at a litter.

152


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BIRD OF PARADISE.

This magnificent and gorgeous bird
is an inhabitant of New Guinea. It is
not only remarkable for the glorious
splendor of its robes, with their ever-
changing colors, but for the very wonder-
ful growth of its tail, and the beautiful
velvety crest on its head, which would
render it a bewitching bird even were
the dainty plumage but sombre black or
a dull brown. Indeed, on first seeing
one of these birds, it is difficult to believe
that it is not altogether a “made-up”

, specimen, composed, like the many mer-
‘maids now in existence, of portions

taken from different kinds of creatures,
and ingeniously put together. We are
accustomed, by our knowledge of the
peacock, to see a bird with a very long
train, but in the case of the Incomparable
Bird of Paradise the tail feathers are

a
we developed both in length and width to

such an extent that they hardly seem to
have started from the little body to which
they belong. The true position of this
species of bird has been much doubted
by naturalists. Some have consid-
ered it to correspond with the thrushes,
andhave accordingly placed it near those
birds; while others have ranked it
among the paradise birds, but have given
it an independent character. There is,
however, no real cause for removing it
from the other birds of paradise, as it
only increases the difficulty of separating
the species. As it is by no means a
common bird, and the natives of New
Guinea are not observant naturalists,
caring nothing for the birds except the
price which is paid for their skins, very
little is known of its habits. The tail of
this species is fully three times as long as
the body. The head is ornamented with
a double crest of glittering feathers, and
its whole plumage glows with an efful-
gence of varied hues that almost baffle

description. The female bird is smaller.

153
PARADISE FLYCATCHER.

The Paradise Flycatcher is an
Asiatic bird, being found spread over
the grealer portion of India, where it is
far from uncommon. It is generally
found in thick clusters of tall bamboos,
and is in the habit of frequenting gar-
dens, shrubberies, and plantations in
search of its prey. Its mode of feeding
israther variable. Generally it perches
upon some lofty branch, and when it sees
an insect passing within reach makes a
s sudden swoop upon it, catches its prey
with a hard snap of the beak, which can
be heard at some distance, and returns
to its post in readiness for another
swoop. Sometimes, however, it searches
upon the branches for the various insects
that are found crawling on the bark or
hidden beneath its irregularities, and
picks them off with great certainty of
aim. It has ever been known to alight
on the ground and to seek its food upon
the soil. It is a most restless bird, ever
on the move, flitting from branch to
branch, or darting after its winged prey
with ceaseless activity. Like many pre-
daceous creatures, it is rather solitary
in its habits, being generally seen singly
or in pairs, or at all events in no greater
numbers than may be accounted for by
the presence of the two parents and
their young. ‘There are several species
closely allied to each other, which are
found both in India and Africa; and
even the present species was once sup-
posed to be separated into three, the
adult male, the female, and the young
being so different in form and color, that
each was set down as a distinct species.
It is now known that the long-tailed
birds, of whatever color they may be,
are the adults of either sex, while the
comparatively short-tailed bird is the
young male or female. When these
distinctions are once known, it is very
easy to discriminate between the birds.

154





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BLACK SNAKE.

The Black Snake of America is perhaps the best known of the numerous
serpents, which, happening to be black or dark brown, have been called by
the same title. This snake is common in Northern America, where it is
sometimes known by the name of “Racer” because of its great speed. It is
a perfectly harmless creature, but very bad tempered, especially during the
breeding season, when it seems to become very ferocious, but, happily for the
world, it cannot do any injury. It has a curious habit of rustling its tail
among the herbage in such a manner as to resemble the whirr of the dreaded
rattlesnake, and then darts at the object of its rage and inflicts a tolerably
severe bite, thereby causing great terror upon the part of the sufferer, who,
in the hurry of the moment, naturally believes that he has been bitten by the
rattlesnake itself. It is fond of climbing trees in search of young birds, eggs,
and other dainties, and even in that position, its disposition is so irritable, that
‘t will descend in order to attack its foe. Even if confined with other snakes,
it becomes quarrelsome, fights with them, and, if possible, kills them. The

haunts of Black Snakes are usually to be found along the edges of streams,

f.



ponds, or lakes, and the reptile is mostly to be seen in shady spots well shel-
tered by brush wood. Sometimes, however, it goes further afield and wanders
over the free country, traversing rocky soil or gliding along the roadside.
It is a most useful reptile, being very fond of rats, and able from its great
agility to climb over walls or buildings in search of its prey, and to creep
with its black body into the holes of the rats. It also feeds much on birds,
especially when they are young, and, in consequence of this, it is greatly
detested by the feathered tribe. The Milk Snake, which is sometimes known
as the House Snake, is another curious creature, being found in many parts
of North America. It derives its name from its habit of entering houses and
:ts fondness for milk. Its general food consists of mice and insects, and, like
other snakes, it is of some use to the farm where it takes up its residence,
and it is worthy of the encouragement which it sometimes receives. The
general hue of the body is a beautiful blue tinge, the under parts are
silver white boldly decorated with oblong and sharply defined marks of black.
The length of the Milk Snake is generally about four feet, sometimes larger.

15

an
WOOD SWALLOW.

The Wood Swallows are spread over a large portion of the globe; some
species being found in India and the islands of the Indian seas, and others being
inhabitants of Australia. Owing to their shrike-like form, and their swift
flight, they have been termed Swift Shrikes by some naturalists. Several
species of this genus are foundin Australia, and that which is most frequently
noticed is the common Wood Swallow, or Sordid Thrush. This species is
common in many parts of Australia, and is migratory in its habits, arriving
in and leaving Van Diemen’s Land at regular intervals, and making a partial
migration on the Australian continent. Some individuals, however, remain
in the same country throughout the year, as they find abundance of food
without the absolute need of repairing to another climate. The habits of the




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Wood Swallow are very curious and: interesting. This Wood Swal-
low is remarkable for a habit which is perhaps unique among birds, and
hitherto has only been observed in certain insects. A large flock of these
birds will settle upon the branches of a tree, and gather together in a large
cluster, precisely like bees when they swarm. Four or five birds suspend
themselves to the under side of the bough, others come and cling to them,
and in a short time the whole flock is hanging to the bough like a large
swarm of bees. Mr. Gilbert, who first noticed this curious habit, states that
he has seen the swarms as large as an ordinary bushel measure. The nest of
the Wood Swallow is cup-shaped and rather shallow, and is made of very
slender twigs bound and lined with delicate fibrous roots. The locality in
which the nest is placed is extremely variable, the bird seeming to be won-
derfully capricious in its choice of a fit spot whereon to affix its residence.
Sometimes it is placed in a low forked branch, at another time it will be bur-
ied in thick massy foliage, while it is sometimes found fixed against the trunk
of a tree, resting on some protuberance of the bark or lodged within some
suitable cavity. The eggs are about four in number, and are grayish
white, speckled and mottled very variably with gray and white shades.

156 r
BLINDWORM.

The great family of the Skinks find a familiar representative in the
common Blindworm or Slow-worm of England, which, from its snake-like
form and extreme fragility, might well deserve the title of the English glass
snake. In this reptile there is no external trace of limbs, the body being
uniformly smooth as that of a serpent, and even more so than in some of the
snakes, where the presence of the hinder pair of limbs is indicated by a
couple of little hook-like appendages. Under the skin, however, the traces
of limbs may be discovered, but the bones of the shoulders, the breast and
the pelvis are very small and quite rudimentary. ‘This elegant little reptile is
very common throughout England, and is spread over the greater part of
Europe and portions of Asia, not, however, being found in the extreme north
of Europe. In this country it is plentiful along hedgerows, heaths, forest
lands, and similar situations, where it can find immediate shelter from its few
enemies, and be abundantly supplied with food. It may often be seen
crawling leisurely over a beaten footpath. It has a pair of conspicuous
though not very large eyes, which shine as brightly as those of any animal,
and are capable of good service. Indeed, all animals which prey upon



insects, and similar moving things, must of necessity possess well-developed
eyes, unless they are gifted with the means of attracting their prey within
reach, as is the case with some well-known fishes, or chase it by the senses of
hearing and touch, as is done by the mole. Moreover, the chief food of the
’Blindworm consists uf slugs, which glide so noiselessly that the creature
needs the use of its eyes to detect the soft mollusc as it slides over the ground
on its slimy course. Speed is not needful for such a chase, and the Blind-
worm accordingly is slow and deliberate in all its movements except when
very young, when it twists and wriggles about in a singular fashion as often as
it is touched. ‘The great fragility of the Blindworm is well known. By a
rather curious structure of the muscles and bones of the spine, the reptile is
able to stiffen itself to such a degree, that on a slight pressure, or trifling
blow, or even by the voluntary contraction of the body, the tail is snapped
away from the body, and on account of its proportionate length, looks just as
if the creature had been broken in half. The object of this curious
property seems to be to insure the safety of the animal when in danger.

107
HAWKSBILL TURTLE.

The Hawksbill Turtle, so called from the formation of the mouth, is a
native of the warm American and Indian seas, and is common in many of the
islands of those oceans. One or two specimens have been taken on our
coasts. The Hawksbill Turtle is the animal which furnishes the valuable
“tortoiseshell” of commerce, and is therefore a creature of great importance.
The scales of the back are thirteen in number, and as they overlap each
other for about one-third of their length, they are larger than in any other.
species where the edges only meet. _ In this species, too, the scales are thicker,
stronger, and more beautifully clouded than in any other Turtle. The
removal of the plates is a very cruel process, the poor reptiles being exposed





































to a strong heat which causes the plates to come easily off the back. In
many cases the natives are very rough in their mode of conducting this proc-
ess, and get the plates away by lighting a fire on the back of the animal.
This mode of management, however, is injurious to the quality of the tortoise-
shell. After the plates have been removed, the Turtle is permitted to go
free, as its flesh is not eaten, and after a time it is furnished with a second set
of plates. These, however, are of inferior quality and not so thick as the first
set. When first removed, they are rather crumpled, dirty, opaque, brittle,
and quite uscless for the purpose of manufacture. The young are
generally hatched in about three weeks after the eggs are laid in the sand,
the hot rays of the sun being the only means by which they attain their
development. When first excluded from the shell, the young Turtles are
very small and soft, not obtaining their hard scaly covering until they have
reached a more advanced age. Numberless animals, fish, and birds feed on
these little helpless creatures, and multitudes of them are snapped up before
they have breathed for more than a few minutes. The rudiments of the
scales are perceptible upon the backs of these little creatures, but the only
hard portion is the little spot in the center of each plate, which is technically
called the areola, the layers of tortoiseshell being added by degrees.

158
CONDOR.

On account of a curious fleshy appendage which decorates the base of
the bill and the neighboring portions of the head, a small group of vultures
has been separated from the remaining species, and gathered into a family
under the appropriate title of Sarcorhamphida, or flesh-beaked vulture. This
family is but a small one, comprising the Condor, the king vulture, and the
well-known American vultures, or zopilotes. The Condor has been long
celebrated as a Goliath among birds, the expanse of its wings being set down
at eighteen or twenty feet, and its strength exaggerated in the same propor-





tion. The Condor is an inhabitant of the mountain chain of the Andes
and is celebrated not. only for its strength and dimensions, but for its
love of elevated localities. When enjoying the unrestricted advantages
uf its native home, it is seldom found lower than the line of perpetual snow,
and only seems to seek lower and more temperate regions when driven by
hunger to make a raid on the flocks or the wild quadrupeds of its native coun-
try. Although preferring carrion to the flesh of recently killed animals, the
Condor is a terrible pest to the cattle-keeper, for it will frequently make a
united attack upon a cow or a bull, and by dint of constant worrying, force
the poor beast to succumb to its winged pursuers. ‘Two of these birds will
attack a vicugna, a deer, or even the formidable puma, and as they direct
their assaults chiefly upon the eyes, they soon succeed in blinding their prey,
who rapidly falls under the terrible blows which are delivered by the beaks
of its assailants. ‘The strength of the Condor is really prodigious, a powerful
man being no match even for a wounded and tethered bird; and its tenacity of life
is such that a combat of endurance is nearly certain to end in favor of the Condor,

159


HOUSE MARTIN.

When once these dainty little birds have attached themselves to any
particular locality, they set their faces against any alterations or improve-
ment. A gentleman, once finding that these littlé birds were beginning to
build their nests under the eaves of his house, was anxious to do all he could
to keep them there and make them comfortable. He therefore ordered a
kind of veranda to be erected along the side of the house, so that the Martins
might find a better shelter than was afforded by the shallow eaves. But the
little birds did not look at the matter in this way, and deserted the nests
which they had already built, and never came back. In all cases, Martins
show a strong dislike of smooth walls; they detest stucco, and only tolerate new
brick when they can find no other resting place. Their chief delight is in
walls that are covered with “cast,” or that are built of roughened stone.
The Martin is very peculiar in its choice of a place to build its nest.
Generally it likes human dwellings, and rests safely under the protection of
their inhabitants; but it will often fly far from the presence of man, and
build its nest in uninhabited spots. In northern Europe, the Martin is

© thought a very great deal of, and it
seems to keep down the numbers of
the mosquito and those winged pests
which swarm in the cold regions as
profusely as under the tropical sky,
and use their poisoned weapons with
quite as much severity. The pres-
ence of the bird is therefore welcomed,
and the inhabitants strive to attract
the Martins to themselves by prepar-
ing attractive boxes, in which they
are able to build their nests without
the labor that is required for fixing
their nests upon an upright wall. A pair
of Martins that returned to their nest
which had been built the year before, found that the sparrows had taken
possession of their little home. On seeing this they kept up such a chatter-
ing about the nest as to attract the attention of the owner of the house, but
after some time, they became convinced that the sparrows were determined
to stay, so they flew away, and did not return for a considerable time. When
they did come back, they brought with them about twenty of their compan-
ions. They at once began claying up the entrance to the nest, which was
completed in the course of a day. Next morning they began to construct
a new nest against the side of the old one, and in it they reared their brood
without being disturbed, After some time the owner of the cottage pulled
down both nests, and in the one that the sparrow had stolen, he found the
rotten corpse of a poor sparrow with several of its eggs. The poor sparrow
was thus severely punished for its theft. Although these little birds are by
no means brave, they display great courage in defending their homes from
the attacks of foes, and will fight to the best of their power any enemy.

160










GLASS SNAKE.

The curious reptile which is appropriately called the Glass Snake is a
native of North America. In this creature there is not even a vestige of
limbs. ‘The Generic title of Ophisaurus is of Greek origin, signifying Snake-
lizard, and is given to the reptile on account of its serpentine aspect. The
Glass Snake is indeed so singularly like a serpent that it can only be distin-
guished from those reptiles by certain anatomical marks, such as the presence
of eyelids, which are wanting in true serpents, the tongue not sheathed at the
base, and the solid jawbones, which in the serpents are so loosely put together
that the parts become widely separated when the mouth of the creature is
dilated in the act of swallowing its prey. The Glass Snake is one of the
earliest of the reptile tribe to make its appearance in the spring, shaking off
its lethargy and coming out of its home to bask in the sunbeams and look
after the early insects, long before the true snakes show themselves. It is



J SEN
FEREEK RATT NK
26 ERS

generally found in spots where vegetation is abundant, probably because in
such localities it finds a plentiful supply of the insects, small reptiles, and
other creatures on which it feeds. It is fond of frequenting the plantations of
sweet potato and during harvest-time is often dug up together with that
vegetable. The home of this reptile is made in some very dry locality, and it
generally chooses some spot where it can be sheltered by the roots of an old
tree, or a crevice in a convenient bank. It moves with tolerable rapidity,
and its pursuer must exercise considerable quickness before he can secure it.
To catch a perfect specimen of the Glass Snake is a very difficult business,
for when alarmed, it has a remarkable habit of contracting the muscles of its
tail with such exceeding force that the member snaps off from the body at
slight touch, and sometimes will break into two or more pieces if struck
slightly with a switch, thus earning for itself the title of Glass Snake.
The tail is more than twice the length of the body, from which it can only
be distinguished by a rather close inspection. ‘The head of the Glass Snake
is small in proportion to the body and rather pyramidal in shape.

x 161
WIRE-TAILED SWALLOW.

The tail feathers of this bird are very long, and for the greater part of
their length they are without any web. The general color of this bird is a
rich steel blue, the head being chestnut, and the under portions of the body
white, with the exception of a large black patch upon the back of the thigh.
The wiry portion of the tail feathers is black, and the same tint runs around
the edge of the webbed portions, which in the center are white like the under
part of the bird. ‘These birds are found in Madras and Abyssinia. Another
‘ very handsome bird is the Purple -
Swallow, anative of the United States,
where it is one of the most familiar
birds, and generally beloved. It loves
to build its nest about human habita-
tions, and even finds favor in the
eyes of the American Indians, a being
who is little given to mercy. Yet
even the copper-skinned native re-
spects the Purple Swallow, and takes
care to prepare a convenient resting
place for the little bird by hanging
on a neighboring tree an empty
gourd in which a hole has been
roughly cut. In this receptacle, the
Swallow makes its nest and cheers
the heart of its Indian host by its
monotonous but sweet-toned song.
The more civilized inhabitants of
farms provide for the roosting of this
bird by fastening nest boxes against
the wall; and some people even build
regular cotes, of which the sociable
birds soon take possession. Sometimes
the Purple Swallow becomes rathertoo
familiar, and turns the pigeons out of
their own nest boxes when they do
not find sufficient room for themselves.
Even the Negro takes pleasure in providing a home for this most trustful of
birds, and fastens hollow calabashes to the tops of long bamboo caries, which
are stuck in the ground for the purpose. Like other Swallows, this bird has
a liking for the place in which it first built its nest, and will return year after
year to the beloved home. The Purple Swallow feeds mostly upon the
larger insects, such as wasps, bees, and beetles, caring little for the gnats,
flies, and other small insects which form the food of most Swallows. The
flight of this bird is wonderfully rapid and active. It dashes to and fro with
lightning speed, and wheels with such remarkable suddenness, that it has
nothing to fear from the larger but less powerful claws of the eagle or falcon.
The Wire-Tailed Swallows generally have two broods in each year.

162






















GREEN TURTLE.

Formerly, before steam power was applied to vessels, the Turtle was
extremely scarce and very expensive, but it can now be obtained on much
more reasonable terms. Many vessels are now in the habit of bringing over
Turtles as part of their cargo, and it is found that these valuable reptiles are
easily managed when on board, requiring hardly any attention. The Island
of Ascension is a great resort of Turtle, which are there captured and retained
prisoners in some large ponds from which they are occasionally transferred to
ships for “rations” for the crew. ‘These Turtle may be seen in the ponds,
lazily moving along, one above another, sometimes three or four deep. They
occasionally come to the surface to take breath, and will splash about at times
quite merrily, as though ignorant that their destiny tended towards conver-
sion into soup and cutlets. At the best, however, they are lethargic, awkward
creatures. As these animals are large and very powerful, it 1s not a very
easy task to’secure and bring them on board. The usual plan is to intercept
them as they are traversing the sands, and to turn them over on their backs,

where they lie until they can be removed. Many of the tortoise tribe can

af



=

tisipas










recover their position when thus overturned, but the Green Turtle is quite
unable to restore itself to its proper attitude, and lies helplessly sprawling
until it is lifted into the boat and taken on board. In many cases the creature
is so enormously heavy that the united strength of the pursuers is inadequate
to the task, and they are consequently forced to employ levers and so to tilt it
over. Sometimes the Turtle is fairly chased in the water and struck with a
curious kind of harpoon, consisting of an iron head about ten inches in length,
and a staff nearly twelve fect long. The head is only loosely slipped into a
socket on the staff, and the two are connected with a cord. ‘Two men gen-
erally unite in this chase, one paddling the canoe and the other wielding the
harpoon. ‘They start towards the most likely spots, and look carefully at the
bottom of the sea, where it is about six or ten feet in depth, to see whether
the expected prey is lying at its ease and does not perceive them. The food
of this Turtle consists of vegetable substances, which are found in abundance.

168


DIAMOND BIRD.

The family of the Ampelidae, or Chatterers, is quite a large one, and in-
cludes some very beautiful and interesting birds. They are characterized by
a broad, short beak, curved on the upper mandible and notched at the tip.
The claws are sharp and hooked, with a groove underneath. ‘The Chatterers
are at home in all the warm portions of the world, and even in temperate
regions the Waxen Chatterer, a typical species, is sometimes found. They
are divided into several groups, or sub-families, the first of which is called the
Thick-heads, the name being given them on account of the heavy make and
great size of the head as compared with the body. One of the best examples
of this group is the Diamond Bird. This dainty little creature is found in
Van Diemen’s Land and all the southern portions of Australia, and is generally -
seen upon trees and bushes, skipping about very rapidly, and_ peering into
every crevice in search of its food, which consists of insects. Its limbs are
very active and its claws are strong, so that it is able to traverse the boughs
while hanging suspended from them by its feet. It has no particular favorites

among trees, and chooses the hard,
==. scrubby bushes as frequently as the
= loftiest of the forest monarchs. The











ing voice, and its cry consists of two
“S notes constantly repeated. This
cry sounds like the syllables, ‘“We-

NSS deep, we-deep,” and the natives call
“it by that name. The nest of this
<.. bird and the position which it
chooses for the building of its home,
are remarkable peculiarities. It

some bank, usually on the margin
= of a stream, and builds its nest at
=== the extremity of the hole. The

tunnel slopes slightly upward, and
is about two or three feet in length, the nest being placed in a litttle chamber
at the farther end. Unlike most burrowing birds, the Diamond Bird builds
a neat home and one of quite elaborate construction, which is all the more
wonderful because the work is done in the dark. The shape of the structure
is very nearly globular, and the nest has its entrance in the form of a hole at
the side. The material of which it is made consists of strips of the inner
gum-tree bark, and the lining of the finer portions of the same substance.
The Diamond Bird is a pretty little creature, with lively coloring. The crown
of the head, wings, and tail are black, speckled with white, each feather hav-
ing a snowy white spot at its extremity, which gives a very pretty effect.
A white streak begins at the nostrils, crosses the face, and passes over each
eye. The back is made up ofscveral tints, which harmonize well, each feather
having a gray base and a triangular spot of fawn edged with black at its extrem-
ity. The upper tail-coverts are ruddy brown, growing redder toward the tail.

164




































MISSEL THRUSH.

There are a very great many birds called Thrushes, which are found
almost all over the world, and the Missel Thrush is the largest and hand-
somest of them all. It is very nearly a foot in total length, and is quite a
fighter. It has a bright-colored breast, a rich voice, and social habits, large
numbers of these birds flocking together toward the end of summer in their
search for fruit. ‘The Missel Thrush begins to build its nest about the first
of April, and its house is so large that it can be seen for a great distance





















through the leafless bushes, although sometimes it is concealed with great
care. When this is done, perhaps it is by some old bird who has learned to
guard against danger, for as a rule no care is taken in that way. The Misscl
Thrush uses everything possible in building its nest. Moss, hay, straw, dead
leaves and grasses, are added to by rags, paper, or shavings. It even builds
in an old hat, if that is handy. The nest is lined with mud, and this again
with soft grasses, so that the eggs and young havea warm bed. The Missel
Bird is very quarrelsome during the time when it is caring for its young, and
will drive away birds of much greater size and strength, just by the fearless
courage which it shows. It is not content with driving them a short distance
only, but will follow them a long way, its mate joining in the fight and the
chase. Sometimes, however, the Thrushes have more than they can do to
drive away their enemies, if several come together, but they always try their
best, and have even been known to fly at human beings if they came too near
the nest. They will also fight at times when there is no nest to be guarded,
seeming to take a dislike to some other kind of bird. They eat both fruit and
insects. Cherries and raspberries are liked by them, also the berries of the
mountain ash and the arbutus; but they are so fond of the berries of the mis-
tletoe plant that they have been named for it This bird sings prettily,

165
°

WOODCHAT SHRIKE.

This bird is found in many parts of Europe and Africa, especially the
northern part of: the latter country, and it is even seen as far south as the
Cape of Good Hope. In the Woodchat Shrike the top'of the head and back
of the neck are a rich chestnut red with a white streak across the base of the
upper part of the bill and a broad black band crossing the forehead, taking in
the eye. The wings are mostly black, but they have some white upon them.
The tail is black and white. The whole of the under surface is white. In
the female the head and neck are red of a dusky shade, the back is a brown-
ish black, and the breast is grayish white. The nest of this bird is placed on
the branch of a tree, usually the oak. It is made of pine twigs, moss and
wool, and is lined with wool and slender grasses. ‘The eggs are very pale
bluish white, speckled with brown. ‘The Red-backed Shrike has a good
many habits like the bird last described and is about the same in size, but its

a

—

=





coloring is different. This bird spends its winters in Africa, but goes north
into Europe for the summer. It flits about the tops of small trees and hedges
in search of its food, and has a manner of wagging its tail when it settles
down, much as the Wagtail does. It. is usually accompanied by its mate
until the mother has her family to look after, then she stays at home. The
Red-backed Shrike feeds mostly upon the larger insects, such as grasshoppers,
beetles, etc., and has a habit of sticking them upon the thorns near its nest,
perhaps doing this that the mother bird will not have to hunt for her meals.
These insects are stuck about the nest in.such numbers that they serve for a
guide to it, and the parent birds also make such a noise when anyone comes
near that it is easy to tell where their home is placed. ‘The Red-backed
Shrike does not feed upon insects alone, but has even killed other birds when
they were taking care of their young. Its nest is built in bushes and hedges.

166
SNAPPING TURTLE.

The typical species is the celebrated Fierce Trionyx, or Snapping Tur-
tle, a reptile which derives its former title from the exceeding ferocity of its
disposition, and the latter from the method in which it secures its prey or
attacks its foes. It is found spread over many parts of North America.
This fierce and determined marauder of the waters is even more formidable
than the two previous species, and not only causes terror among the smaller
creatures which inhabit the same localities, but is even dreaded by man, whose
limbs have often been severely wounded by the bite of these ferocious reptiles.
Like the aquatic Tortoises, it is carnivorous in its habits, and is terribly de-
structive among the fish, smaller quadrupeds, birds, and reptiles. Lurking on
the banks it snatches away many an unfortunate animal as it comes to drink,
or seizes the water-fowl that have ventured too close to their terrible neigh-
bor. So fiercely carnivorous is this Tortoise, and so voracious is its appetite,
that it will even catch young alligators, and devour them in spite of their
teeth and struggles. Its captor’s work, is not confined to hooking and draw-































































































































ing it ashore, as the Snapping Turtle, when it finds itself with a hook firmly
fixed in its jaws, and itself being irresistibly dragged from the water, seems
possessed with tenfold ferocity, writhing its long flexible neck, darting its
head furiously at its foes with the rapidity of a serpent’s stroke, and snapping
sharply with its formidable jaws, one bite of which would shred away the fingers
from the hand, or the toes from the feet, as easily as the gardener’s scissors
sever the twigs and leaves. Such a misfortune has indeed been known to
occur, The eggs of the Snapping Turtle are very spherical in form, and brit-
tle of substance. ‘The female lays a large number of these eggs, from fifty to
sixty being the usual average, and always deposits them in some dry situation.

167
LINDEN’S HELMET CREST.

The Helmet-crests are known by the pointed plume which crowns the top
of the head, and the long beard which hangs from the chin. They are queer
birds and live in such cold climates that few people would think of looking
for a humming bird there. Lynden’s Helmet Crest or Black Warrior is a
good example of these birds. It is found in South America, among the moun-

_ tains far above the sea level. | It
i feeds mostly upon small insects, but
sometimes tries for a change, the
different shrubs which grow in the









G; cai region of its icy home. It makes

La We . a swift flight but a very short one

Ga fh x s e Brn y : : p
b Vi NO When it starts off, launching itself
fn Le j£=2> downward ina slanting direction, it
My iy a utters a sad, whistling sound, and

RNY INijz it also makes this sound sometimes

when it is perching. It does not
-make the humming noise which
most humming-birds do, and it is
not so active and happy in its man-
ner. The upper surface of the body

yy, and the two central tail-feathers are
ye bronze green; the head and neck
2x5. are black with a line of white run-
at 4, ning along the center. The long
an | plumes of the throat are white.
(AWW Round the neck and back of the
< head runs a broad white hand. The
other feathers of the upper portions
are a reddish bronze, and white to-
wards the body. This describes
the coloring of the full-grown male.
’ His length is about five and a
quarter inches. The female is a cop-

ae per brown upon the head and

upper surface of the body, and there is no plume on the head,
nor beard on the chin. The throat is also a copper brown, mixed with
white, and the flanks are a copperbrown tinged with green. Her length is
about an inch less than that of the male. Very different indeed from this
bird in appearance is the Sword-bill Humming bird, which takes its name
from its long, sword-shaped beak. This beak is nearly as long as the rest of
the body. The Sword-bill isa rather large humming bird, measuring about
eight inches long. Like the Black Warrior it lives at a high elevation, often
as much as twelve thousand feet above the sea. The long bill of
this bird is given it to aid in seeking its food from the very long blossoms on
which it feeds. While probing the flowers, it hangs inthe air with a trembling
motion of the wings. Its nest is very beautiful, being woven with great skill.

168





COMMON SKINK.

The name of Officinal Skink has been given to this reptile on account
of the high place which it formerly held among the medical profession, and
the extreme value which it was thought to possess when dried, pounded,
made up neatly into draughts or boluses, and used as a medicine. There is
hardly a disease to which the human race is liable, which was not thought
curable by the prepared body of this reptile, certainly not the least repulsive
of all the disgusting substances which the early physicians delighted to choose
from the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdom, to fill their multitudinous
boxes and bottles, and to inflict upon their patients. Sometimes a physician
would even evince his belief in the efficacy of his medicine by taking it him-
self, and would swallow, with full belief in its healing powers, the burnt liver
of a hyena, the moss from a dead man’s skull, the erated flesh of a mummy,
or the remains of a pounded lizard, together with many other substances too
revolting to mention. Wherever modern civilization has most penetrated,



He
the Skink has, happily for itself, fallen greatly in medical estimation, and in
some places is entirely rejected from the pharmacopeia, though there are not
wanting some European physicians who assert that the creature really does
possess some valuable properties, but that it has fallen into disrepute through
the over-estimate which had been formed of its powers, and which naturally
created a reaction in the opposite direction. In Southern Egypt it still com-
mands the firm belief of the people, and is hunted down with the greatest Zeal,
as it not only can be applied to the personal ailings of the captors, but can be
quickly dried in the burning sunbeams, and sent to Cairo and Alexandria,
where it commands a ready sale. In its habits, this Skink much resembles
the generality of terrestrial Lizards of its size and locality. As it seeks for
safety below the sand, it is generally to be seen upon the hillocks of fine loose
sand which are collected by the south wind, at the foot of any tree which
may manage to survive in so ungenial a soil, or are blown against the hedges
of the more cultivated land. It generally lies quietly upon the sand, but oc-
casionally starts into vigorous action when it perccives an insect passing.

169
YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT.

The Yellow-breasted Chat of America is one of the funniest of birds, its
odd manners making one laugh to watch it. It has very pretty plumage and
a graceful form, and is one of the moving birds, going south for the winters.
It is'found, too, over quite a wide range of country in its native home. The
line of its travel from the warmer to the colder regions and back is almost
straight north and south, and the male birds always make the change first.
The bird chooses for its home close thickets of hazel, brambles, vines, and
thick underwood, and if any one comes near it scolds away in queer little
syllables which may be easily imitated. The bird will sometimes follow
these sounds for some distance, answering with an angry anxious voice, and
keeping out of sight all the time. He makes very queer noises when he
answers back; sometimes they sound like the barking of young puppies, and
sometimes like the mewing of a cat, and the calls of other animals. Some-







times, too, they seem to be close by, and then again far away, first on this
side, and then on that, so that it is impossible to tell where he is. Earl

in the season if the weather is fine and mild with clear moonlight, the
male bird keeps up his chattering during nearly the whole night, but
later on he is not heard at night. The Yellow-breasted Chat is a very shy
bird, keeping out of sight if possible; but if discovered, it shows its alarm in
a very funny way. It dashes up to a height of forty or fifty feet, drops
suddenly, then rises again with its legs dangling at full length, and cries out
in terrified squeaks and yells. Its movements are so quick and its habits are
so shy that it is seldom shot by a single sportsman; it takes two to catch this
cunning and active little creature. It seldom comes out of the brushwood,
but flits about in the shade, trying to keep away from the light and open
spaces. It feeds mostly upon insects, and looks upon the larger beetles as
dainties just to its taste. These beetles seem too large for the little crea-
ture, and it is strange that so small a bird can swallow so big an insect.

170
MUD TORTOISE.

The common Mud Tortoise, so called from its mud haunting propen-
sities, is an example of rather a curious genus of Tortoises, inhabiting Amer-
ica. It is an odd little creature, being when adult not quite four inches in
length, and moving with moderate speed. It is mostly found in ponds and
muddy pools, where it feeds upon fish, aquatic insects, and similar diet, catch-
ing even the active fish without much difficulty. Some aquatic Tortoises,
which undoubtedly belonged to this interesting genus, had to be ejected from
the large basin of a fountain because they killed the newts which inhabited the
same locality. ‘The movements in the water were so deliberate that it was
not until they were detected in the very act of biting the newts that their
delinquencies were discovered. ‘Their mode of attack was simply to creep
under their victim as it balanced itself in the water or swam gently within
reach, and then to secure it with a quiet snap of its beak. Like the lettered
terrapin, this creature has a vexatious habit of taking the angler’s bait,
and causes many. a fisherman to lose his temper when pulling up a useless
little Mud Tortoise instead of the fish on which he had set his heart. It seizes
the worm just as it catches the newts, taking it so quietly into its mouth that
the float is hardly shaken by the touch. But when the fisherman pulls his





















line, the Tortoise kicks, pulls and flounces about in so energetic a style that it
often deludes the angler into the idea that he has hooked quite a fine fish.
This species has a decided smell of musk, a peculiarity which is found in
others of the same genus, one of which goes by the appropriate, though not
very refined, name of Stink-pot, in consequence of the powerful musky odor
which it exudes. The color of the Mud Tortoise is mostly dusky brown
above, and chestnut below, though this coloring is liable tosome variation in
different individuals. The tail is thick and pointed, and horny at the tip.
The head is large, and there are four large warty appendages on the chin.
The Box Tortoise is a terrestrial species and always keeps to the dry forest-
lands, detesting the vicinity of water. It iscommonly found in the pine forests,
because they are always on thoroughly dry soil, and on account of its fondness
for such localities is sometimes known by the popular name of the Pine Terrapin.
In the wild state it mostly feeds on insects, and is peculiarly fond of crickets.

171
ALLIGATOR.

No easy matter is it to drive the breath out of an Alligator, for its life
seems to take a separate hold of every fibre in the creature’s body, and
though pierced through and through with bullets, crushed by heavy blows,
and its body converted into-a very pincushion, spears taking the place of the
pins, it writhes and twists, and struggles with wondrous strength, snapping
direfully with its huge jaws, and lashing its muscular tail from side to side
with such vigor that it takes a bold man to venture within range of that ter-
rible weapon. It is fortunate for the assailant that its head is not gifted with
mobiiity equal to that of the tail. The Alligator can only turn its head very
slightly indeed, on account of two bony projections, one on each side of the
head, which are efficient obstacles to any but the smallest lateral motion.
The antagonist may therefore easily escape if on land, by springing aside be-









fore the reptile can turn. He must, however, beware of its tail, for the
Alligator, when angry, sweeps right and left with that powerful member,
and deals the most destructive blows with wonderful rapidity. Still, the
creature would rather avoid than seek a combat, and does not act in this
fashion until driven to despair. The eggs of the Alligator are small and nu-
merous. ‘The parent deposits them in the sand of the river side, scratching a
hole with her paws, and placing the eggs in a regular layer therein. She
then scrapes some sand, dry leaves, grass and mud over them, smooths it and
deposits a second layer upon them. ‘These eggs are then covered ina similar
manner and another layer deposited until the mother reptile has laid from
fifty to sixty eggs. Although they are hatched by the heat of the sun and
the decaying vegetable matter, the mother docs not desert her young, but
leads them to the water and takes care of them until their limbs are suf-
ficiently strong and their scales sufficiently firm to permit them to roam the
waters without assistance. As is the case with the crocodiles, the young
Alligators are terribly persecuted by birds and beasts, and are even in danger
of being eaten by the old males of their own species. During the winter
months the Alligator buries itself in the mud, but a very little warmth is
sufficient to make it quit its retreat and come into the open air again. While
lively, it is a most noisy animal, bellowing in so loud a tone that concert
of jaguars and monkeys is hardly heard when the Alligators are roaring.

172
MOCKING-BIRD.

The Mocking-bird of America is universally allowed to be the most
wonderful of all songsters, as it not only possesses a very fine and melodious
voice, but is also endowed with the capacity for imitating the notes of any
other bird, and, indeed, of immediately reproducing any sound it may hear.
At night especially, earth hears her merry voices singing in her sleep. Yes,
they are all here! Hear, then, each warble, chirp, and thrill! How they crowd
upon each other! You can hear the flutter of soft wings as they come hurry:
ing forth! Hark, that rich clear whistle! ‘Bob White, is it you?’ Then
the sudden scream! is it a hawk? Hey! what a gush, what a rolling limpid
gush! Ah, my dainty redbreast, at thy matins early? Mew! what, Pussy!
No, the cat-bird; hear its low liquid love-notes linger round the roses by the
garden-walk! MHillo! listen to the little wren! he must nearly explode in the
climax of that little agony of trills which it is rising on its very tip-toes to
reach! What now? Quack, quack! Phut, phut, phut! cock-doodle-doo!

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What, all the barn-yard! Squeak, squeak, squeak! pigs and all. Hark, that
melancholy plaint, Whip-poor-Will, how sadly it comes from out the shadowy
distance! What a contrast! the red-bird’s lively whistle, shrilly mounting
high, higher, highest! Wark, the orchard oriole’s gay, delicious, roaring,
run-mad, ranting-riot of sweet sounds! Hear that! it is the rain-crow, croak-
ing fora storm! Hey day! Jay, jay, jay! it is the imperial dandy blue-jay.
Hear, he has a strange, round, mellow whistle too! There goes the little
yellow-throated warbler, the woodpecker’s sudden call, the king-bird’s woeful
clatter, the dove’s low plaintive coo, the owl’s screeching cry and snapping
beak, the tomtit’s tiny note, the kingfisher’s rattle, the crow, the scream, the
cry of love, or hate, or joy, all come rapidly, and in unexpected contrasts, yet
with such clear precision, that each bird is fully expressed in its own
individuality. Yet all these varied notes are uttered by the one single
Mocking-bird, as it sits on a lofty spray or flings itself into the air, rising and
falling with the cadence of its song, and acting as if absolutely intoxicated.

173

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LEADBEATER’S COCKATOO.

This very handsome bird is a native of Australia. It is not so noisy
as many other Cockatoos, and it is a favorite inhabitant of our aviaries, its
soft bluish white plumage and splendid crest making it very attractive to
bird fanciers, ‘The crest is remarkable for its large size, and for the manner
in which the bird can raise it like a fan over its head or place it upon the back
of itsneck. The general color of the bird is white with a slight pinkish flush.
Around the base of the beak runs a very narrow crimson line, and the feath-
ers of the crest are long and pointed, each feather being crimson at the base,
then broadly barred with golden yellow, then with crimson, and the remain-
der white. The neck, breast, flanks, and beneath the tail are deeply stained
with crimson, and the under surface of the wings is deep crimson red. ‘The
back is partly grayish white, the eyes brown, and the feet and legs dark gray.
In its own country, the cockatoo is not a favorite bird, on account of the dam-
age it doesamong the crops. It is hunted and shot down wherever it is found,
and although this lessens the numbers considerably, it is still very abundant,
moving about in flocks which
range from a hundred to a
thousand in number. ‘The
Cockatoo seems to be a very
humorous bird and enjoys
what is commonly known as
practical joking. A lady had
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Te Sates lieve to attack her, merely
for the pleasure of hearing her scream and seeing her run away. Another
very interesting Cockatoo is known as the Long-billed Parrot. This bird is
found only in Philip’s island, which is only five miles in extent; and it isa
very remarkable fact that it is never even found in Norfolk island, which is
hardly four miles distant. Its favorite resorts are among rocky ground
interspersed with tall trees, and its food consists mostly of sweet vegetable
substances. ‘The blossoms of a plant known as the White Hibiscus afford it
a plentiful supply of food, and in order to obtain the sweet juices of the
flowers, the tongue of the bird is furnished with a long, narrow, horny spoon
at the under side of the extremity, not very unlike a fingernail. The bird
is believed to seek some portion of its food in the ground, and to dig up with
its pick-ax of a bill the ground nuts and other subterraneous vegetation. The
hard and strong fruits favored by other parrots, are rejected by this Cockatoo.

174
KING VULTURE.

This bird was given its high-sounding name because of a belief of the
natives of the country where he lives that certain other birds of his kind do
not dare touch a dead carcass until the King Vulture has taken his share.
This is partly true, for the King Vulture will not allow any other bird to eat
until its own meal is finished. It is a common habit, however, among all
creatures; the strong usually drive the weak and look out for their own com-
fort, even if no other bird or beast is comfortable. But if the King Vulture
happens to be away when a dead animal is found, the other vultures do not
by any means wait for him to come back and take his share before they
begin, so the story is not a true one, except in part. ‘The vultures like their
meat better when it has turned -quite a little, and then they feast upon the

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vile stuff until they have had their fill. The odor of the decaying flesh calls
these disagreeable and disgusting birds from a long distance, and they flock
around, perching in trees near by if the King Vulture is feeding, and when he
has had enough they fall to with a relish. The King Vulture is a native of
tropical America and is most common near the equator, though it 1s found at
quite a distance both north and south. It is a lover of forests and does not
care for high mountains as the condor does. It chooses swampy and low-lying
regions, where the wood is heavy, for there it finds plenty of the food which
it likes. It places its eggs in the hollow of some decaying tree. These eggs
are two in number. Although the King Vulture when full grown has a gor-
geous dress, it is a very repulsive bird. It is sometimes called the White Crow.

175
DHOLE.

The Dhole, or Kholsun, as it is sometimes called, inhabits the western
frontiers of British India, its range extending from Midnapore to Chamar,
but does not appear to take up its residence in other parts of the same great
country. Even in the localities which are favored by its presence, the Dhole
seldom makes its appearance, and by many residents in India has been counted
but as a myth of the natives. It is a very shy animal, keeping aloof from
man and his habitations, and abiding in the dense, dark jungles, which extend
for hundreds of miles, and afford little temptation for human beings to enter.
Among the peculiarities of the Dhole’s character, its fondness for the chase is
the most remarkable. But the Dhole is apparently the only animal that,















although individually so far the inferior of its fierce prey, in size, strength,
and activity, has sufficient confidence in its united powers, to chase and kill
the terrible tiger, notwithstanding his fangs and claws. Hardly any native
Indian animal, with the exception of the elephant and the rhinoceros, can
cope with the Dhole; the fierce boar falls a victim, in spite of his sharp
tusks, and the swift-footed deer fails to escape these persevering animals.
The leopard is tolerably safe, because the dogs cannot follow their
spotted quarry among the tree branches, in which he fortifies himself
from their attacks; but if he were deprived of his refuge, he would
run but a poor chance of escaping with life from the foe. It is true that, in
their attack upon so powerfully armed animals as the tiger and the boar, the
pack is rapidly thinned by the swift blows of the tiger’s paw, or the repeated
stabs of the boar’s tusks; but the courage of the survivors is so great, and
they leap on their prey with such audacity, that it surely yields at last from
sheer weariness and loss of blood. In height the Dhole equals a rather small
greyhound. It does not assault human being unless it be attacked by them.

1%6
WHITE TIGER.

Perhaps of all animals the Tiger is one of the easiest to kill, although the
wound may not be an instantaneous cause of death. Whether the cause may
lie in the habits or diet of the creature is not certain, but true it is, that a
wound inflicted on a Tiger very soon assumes an angry appearance, becomes
tainted, and affords a resting-place for the pestilent blow-flies, which take
such a hold of the poor beast, that even a slightly wounded Tiger has been
known to die, not from the immediate effects of the injury, but from the
devouring maggots which swarm in and about the wound. In tracking the
wounded Tiger, the blood-spots that are flung from the agitated animal are
of vast service. They are easily distinguishable, even though they dry
instantaneously on touching the ground. As it dries, each blood-patch is
surrounded by innumerable tiny ants, which seem to crowd to the spot as if
they had been created for that sole purpose, and from their numbers make the
gory traces more apparent. When the Tiger is killed, it is necessary to



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guard it in some way from the direct beams of the sun, or even from actual
contact with objects which have been heated by its burning rays. Should
the creature fall on a tolerably cool spot, all that is necessary is to cover it
with bushy branches, grass, and other foliage; but if the locality should be a
hot one, as is generally the case, further precautions must be taken, by
dragging the dead animal under the shelter of some shady tree or bushes.
The color of the Tiger is more variable than might be supposed, some skins
being much darker than ethers; while occasionally, a specimen is discovered,
the fur of which is so pale as to earn for the animal the title of White Tiger.
One of these animals is figured in the illustration. The original of this was
a well-known specimen in London about the year 1820. ‘The color of this
animal was a creamy white, with the ordinary tigerine stripes so faintly
marked that they were only visible in certain lights. It is very uncommon.

1V%
GIANT BREVE.

The Giant Breve is one of the birds called Ant-thrushes in some parts of
of the world, because they feed so largely upon ants. The Breves live in India,
the Indian Islands, and Australia, but not in America. They are most useful °
creatures, for without them the ants which swarm in the countries where
these birds dwell would overrun everything. These ants cover the ground
and all vegetation and are great pests, destroying so much that if they were
not thinned out there would be nothing left for man. It is wonderful to









think how the ant-eating birds have been placed in just these regions for the
purpose of helping their human friends to live. The Breves are found only
where ants are in such great numbers. But the ants, too, have their use;
they feed upon dead animals and other things that wouid be dangerous to
man if not removed, and it is only because they increase to such numbers
that they become pests. The birds guard against this by feeding upon them,
and still there are enough left to do the work which they have to do in the
plan of the world. As it is, the traveler in the dry and overgrown parts of
the country where they are found, can go only a few feet without treading
upon their nests, and if they are not killed off as they are, they would become
harmful even to the birds themsclyes. The Breves, or ant-thrushes, differ
very much in color and size, but in general form they are all a good deal
alike. They have big, thick-set bodies, large heads, long legs, short tails,
and strong bills. The Great Ant-thrush, or Giant Breve, is one of the odd-
est of these birds. It is large and of a queer shapes, Its head is very big, its
legs very long, and it has a short, wren-like tail which looks as though it had
been cropped off. The plumage of this bird is bright, and its wings, when
closed, entirely cover its tail. The general color of the plumage is a light
blue, which is not quite so bright and shining upon the wings as upon the
back and tail. The quill-feathers are black, tipped with sky-blue. There is
a big family of Thrushes, and the Breves, or Ant-thrushes, are only a small
part of it, but they are interesting in their way and of just as much use in the
world as any of the birds. Some of them, too. are very pretty in their colors.

17
GROUP OF BRITISH SHREWS.

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The head of the Shrew is rather long, and is increased by the long nose.
The object of this long nose is to enable the animal to root in the ground
after the various creatures on which it feeds, or to thrust its head among the
densest and closest herbage. Worms are also captured and eaten by the
Shrew. The home of this small creature is in little tunnels, which it digs in
the soil, and which serve as a hunting ground as well as a home. Sometimes
the Shrews kill each other, for they are most pugnacious beings, and with very
little cause for quarrel, will enter into deadly combats, which if they took
place between larger animals, would be terrible sights, but in such little
creatures they appear almost laughable. The total length of the full-grown
Shrew is not quite four inches, of which the tail occupies nearly half.



179
SOOTY AMPHISBAENA.

This is a most repulsive reptile, although it is not as bad as it looks. It
is a native of tropical America, and has been called the King of the Emmets
because of the old story that it was blind and fed by large ants or emmets.
This story, however, is not true. There is another queer story believed by
natives of the countries where this creature lives, that if it is cut in two,
each half having a separate head, will hasten to join the other half, when the
two will be united again as though nothing had happened. This, of course,



is also untrue; but the tail looks so much like the head that it is easy to see
how the story started. Believing as they do, that the Amphisbaena has
such power, the natives think that its flesh, made into a fine powder, is
a sure cure for all broken or displaced bones, and they use it with great faith
for everything of that kind. Perhaps civilized people are sometimes just as
silly, although in other ways. The Amphisbaena is black and white in color,
but its markings are not always the same. It is about three feet long. There
is also a White Amphisbaena, named so because of its color. The Am-
phisbaena is rather a stupid and lazy creature when in the light. It crawls
slowly upon the ground, twisting itself lazily about and opening its mouth in
an aimless way without any real purpose of biting or of escaping if a human
being is near. There is another reptile very much like the one just described,
which is called the Hand-eared Lizard. This name is given it because the two
very small fore-legs are set just behind the head, nearly in the place where the
ears should be. These legs are short, rather flat and strong, and they end in
five toes, four of which have quite a stout claw each. The fifth toe js very small
and has no claw. The Hand-eared Lizard is the only one of the Amphisbaena
that has limbs at all. The head of this creature is no larger than its body, the
teeth are quite strong and curved backwards, the tongue is horny at the tip,
the tail is short, and there is a row of small pores on the under side of the
body. It is about eight or ten inches in length, and is of a yellow color,
spotted with brown above, and whitish below. Its native home is Brazil.
These reptiles are both scaled. In some of their near relatives, however, the
scales are larger on the chest and of different shape. They are all most dis-
agreeable-looking creatures, but every animal is of interest in some way.

180
KING BIRD.

In the months of May and June, and part of July the life of the King Bird
is one continued scene of broils and battles, in which, however, he generally
comes off conqueror. Hawks and crows, the bald eagle and the great black
eagle, all equally dread this dauntless little champion, who, as soon as he per-
ceives one of these last approaching, launches into the air to meet him, mounts
to a considerable height above him, and darts down upon his back, sometimes
fixing there, to the great annoyance of his sovereign, who, if no convenient
retreat or resting-place be near, endeavors by various evolutions to rid him-
self of his merciless adversary. But the King Bird is not so easily dismounted.
He teases the eagle incessantly, sweeps upon him from right and left, re-
mounts, that he may descend on his back with the greater violence; all the

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while keeping up a shrill and rapid twittering; and continuing the attack
sometimes for more than a mile, till he is relieved by some other of his
tribe equally eager for the combat, There is one bird, however, which, by
its superior rapidity of flight, is sometimes more than a match for him. ‘This
is the purple martin, one whose food and disposition is pretty similar to his
own, but who has greatly the advantage of him on the wing, in eluding all
his attacks, and teasing him as he pleases. The flesh of the King Bird is
held in some estimation in one or two of the States, and the bird is shot in
order to supply the table. The King Bird is in great disfavor with the farm-
ers, who are in the habit of shooting it whenever they can find an oppor-
tunity, on account of its fondness for bees. It cannot be denied that the sus-
picions of the bee-owner are not without foundation, for the King Bird will
perch upon a rail or fence near the hives, and from that elevated post pounce
upon the bees as they leave or return to their homes. Many persons, how-
ever, think that it does not devour the working bees, but merely singles out
the drones, thus sparing the workers the trouble of killing those idle members
of the community at the end of the season. This supposition derives some
force from the well known fact that the King Bird is very fastidious in its
taste, and that it will watch the flight of many insects in succession before it
Gan select one to its taste. Even if it should destroy a few hundred
bees annually, it repays the loss by the destruction of noxious insects.

181

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SAND-BEAR.

The curious animal whose portrait is presented to the reader is known
under several titles, among which the Sand-bear is that by which it will be
designated here. It is also called the Indian Badger, and sometimes the Balisaur,
aname which is corrupted from the Hindostanee word Balloo-soor, signifying
Sand-Hog. There is a very great resemblance between this animal and the
well-known English badger, from which creature, however, it may easily be
distinguished by the greater comparative length of its legs, and the more
hog-like snout. The general color of the fur of the Sand-Bear is of a yel-
lowish white, with two black bands oneach side of the head. The upper of
these bands includes the ear and eye in its course, and curves downward at the
shoulder, where it is nearly met by the dark hue of the fore-limbs. The
‘claws are slightly curved, extremely powerful, and well suited for digging in



the ground, as the tees are united for the entirelength. The tail is extremely
short. In its wild state the Sand-Bear is said to be fierce in disposition, and
sufficiently powerful to beat off a dog that would not hesitate to attack a
wolf or a hyena. When attacked or irritated, the Sand-Bear raises itself on
its hind legs, after the manner of the bears, and threatens its antagonist with
its fore-limbs, in which it seems fully to trust. Its food is of a mixed char-
acter, but appears to be more of a vegetable than an animal nature. It is not
a very common animal, and is generally found in the hill country. Another
very queer animal is the Teledu. The color of the Teledu is a blackish
brown, with the exception of the fur upon the top of the head, a stripe along
the back, and the tip of the short tail, which is a yellowish white. The under
surface of the body is of a lighter hue. The fur is long and of a silken tex-
ture at the base, and closely set together, so as to afford to the animal the
warm covering which is needed in the elevated spots where it dwells. The
hair is especially long on the sides of the neck, and curls slightly upwards
and backwards, and on the tov of the head there is a small transverse crest.

182
COCK OF THE ROCK.

This bird is the largest and most showy of all the Manakins. It receives
its name from the slight resemblance it bears to our domesticated cock. It
is a native of South America and Guinea. The Cock of the Rock is a very
retiring bird, preferring a solitary life, and must be searched for in its own
particular haunts. It chooses the banks of rocky streams and deep ravines,
where it gets about with great rapidity, using its strong legs vigorously.
This bird has bright orange colored plumage covering its whole body, while
on its head is a beautiful crest which resembles an ancient helmet. It is
pretty safe from the rifle of the white man on account of its solitary habits,
but the poisoned arrow of the Macoushi Indians have brought down a consid-
erable number, From these Indians the greater number of specimens so far
obtained have been procured. ‘The skin brings a large price in the markets,

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and for this reason many of the birds are killed. During the day-time, the
Cock of the Rock takes its rest in its dark hiding-place among the rocks,
seeking its food before sunrise and just after sunset. It does not associate
with other birds, nor even with those of itsown kind to any extent. It builds
its nest of little sticks, splinters of wood, and dry grasses, which it lays loosely
in some hole in the rock, and there it deposits two white eggs. The color of
the Cock of the Rock is very beautiful, the rich orange of the plumage being
heightened by the black quill-feathers of the wings, and the brown ones of
the tail, which latter are tipped with yellow. On the head is a double row
of feathers which stand erect, their extremities uniting ina line corresponding
to the central line of the head, thus forming a peculiar crest, like a fan, which
hangs over the forehead and extends to the back of the head. The tips of
crest feathers are tinged with brown and yellow. Upon the wing coverts and
the upper tail coverts, are flowing plumes which droop ina very graceful manner.

183
WOMBAT.

The Wombat, or Australian Badger, as it is popularly called by the colo-
nists, is not as might be imagined from its heavy body and short legs, an
active animal, but trudges along at its own pace, with a heavy rolling waddle
or hobble, like the gait of a very fat bear. It is found in almost all parts of
Australia, and is rather sought after for the sake of its flesh, which is good,
although rather tough, and flavored with more than a slight taint of musk.
The fur of the Wombat is warm, long, and very harsh to the touch, and its
color is gray, mottled with black and white. The under parts of the body
are grayish white, and the feet are black. The muzzle is very broad and
thick. The length of the animal is about three feet, the head measuring
seven inches. In its temper the Wombat is tolerably placid, and will
permit itself to be captured without venting any display of indignation. Some-



times, however, it is liable to violent gusts of rage, and then becomes rather
a dangerous antagonist, aseit can scratch most fiercely with its heavy claws,
and can inflict severe wounds with its chisel-like teeth, Easily tamed, it
displays some amount of affection for those who treat it kindly, and will come
voluntarily to its friends in hopes of receiving the accustomed caress. It will
even stand on its hind legs, in token of its desire to be taken on the knee,
and when placed in the coveted spot will settle itself comfortably to sleep.
Generally, however, the Wombat is not a very intelligent animal, and exhibits
but little emotion of any kind, seeming to be one of the most apathetic ani-
mals in existence. When in captivity it is easily reconciled to its fate, and
will feed on almost any vegetable substance, evincing considerable partiality
for lettuce-leaves and cabbage-stalks; milk also is a favorite article of diet,
and one of these animals was in the habit of searching after the milk vessels
when set out to cool in the night air, to push off the covers, and to bathe in
the milk as well as drink it. In its wild state it js nocturnal in its
habits, living during the day in the depths of a very capacious burrow.

184
SABLE ANTELOPE.

This truly magnificent creature is found in Southern Africa, but is never
seen near the colony, as it is a very shy and crafty animal, and being possessed
of great speed, is sure to keep itself far aloof from civilization. Gordon
Cumming’s description of this animal is as follows: ‘Cantering along
through the forest, I came suddenly in full view of one of the loveliest ani-
mals which graces this fair creation. This was an old buck of the Sable
Antelope, the rarest and most beautiful animal in Africa. It is large and



powerful, partaking considerably of the nature of the ibex. Its back and
sides are of glossy black, beautifully contrasting with the belly, which is white
as driven snow. The horns are upward of three feet in length, and bend
strongly back with a bold sweep, reaching nearly to the haunches.” It lives
in herds of no very great size, consisting mostly of ten or twelve does led by
a single buck. Asa general fact, the buck takes matters very easily, and
trusts to the does for keeping a good watch and warning him of the approach
of an enemy. Owing to the jealous caution of these female sentinels, the
hunter finds himself sadly embarrassed when he wishes to enrich his museum
with the horns of their leader, and if any of them should happen to take alarm,
the whole herd will bound over the roughest ground with such matchless
speed that all pursuit is hopeless. In the native dialect the Sable Antelope
is known under the name of Potaquaine. It is very tenacious of life, and wifl
often make good its escape even though shot entirely through the body.

185
JACAMAR.

The Jacamars are all natives of the New World, and live in tropical
regions. ‘They have straight, long bills and bristle-like hairs at the corners
of the mouth. Some of them have only three toes while others have four,
like nearly all birds. Their plumage is tinted with glowing hues of green,
azure, gold, and metal-like red, scattered about without any fixed design.
It is almost as beautiful as that of the humming-birds when examined feather
by feather, but taken as a whole it is not very noticeable in most of the birds
and at a little distance does not appear as handsome as that of the starling.
The Green Jacamar is so named because there is rather more green than any
other color in its plumage, but coppery red, changing to a purplish hue, is
its main color, as in all the Jacamars. ‘The bird is quite small. ‘The Para-







































dise Jacamar is also small, but it is a striking bird because of its beautiful
plumage, graceful form, and long, forked tail. This bird has a rather
long neck which it can turn about very easily, so that it is able to dart its
long bill in every direction with great swiftness. The tail is odd, the feathers
being so placed that the central ones are much longer than the others and
form a kind of fork, which the bird can change at will. The Jacamars look
much like the kingfishers, and the Paradise Jacamar has been called the
Fork-tailed Kingfisher. The head of this bird is brown with a violet tinge,
and the throat, neck, and some feathers of other portions are pure white.
The back, wings, and the rest of the body, are a rich golden green, while the
bill and feet are black. The fect are covered with feathers nearly to the
toes. ‘The Paradise Jacamar does not often chase its prey through the air,
but sits uoon a bough to catch the pretty butterflies as they pass near it.

186
BULL-DOG.

The Bull-dog is, with the exception of the game-cock, the most coura-
geous creature in the world. In height the Bull-dog is but insignificant, but
in strength and courage there is no dog that can match him. Indeed, there
is hardly any breed of sporting dog which does not owe its high courage to
an infusion of the Bull-dog blood; and it is chiefly for this purpose that the
pure breed is continued. There seems, indeed, to be no animal which the
Bull-dog will not attack without the least hesitation. The instinct of fight is
strong within him, and manifests itself actively in the countenance and the
entire formation of this creature. The pure Bull-dog is not naturally a quar-
relsome creature, and it would not bear so evil a character if it were better
taught. It is really a sufficiently. intelligent animal, and its mental qualities
capable of high cultivation. It is true that the animal is an unsafe companion
even for its master, and that it is just as likely to attack its owner as a



stranger, if it feels aggrieved. An accidental kick, or a tread on the toes,
affords ample pretext for the animal to fasten on its supposed enemy; and
when once it-does fix its teeth, it is not to be removed except by a very bar-
barous method. The shape of this remarkable animal is worthy of notice.
The fore-quarters are particularly strong, massive and muscular; the chest
wide and roomy; and the neck singularly powerful. The hind-quarters, on
the contrary, are very thin and comparatively fecble; all the vigor of the
animal seeming to settle in its fore-legs, chest and head. Indeed, it gives the
spectator an impression as if it were composed of two different dogs; the one
a large and powerful animal, and the other a weak and puny quadruped,
which had been put together by mistake. The little fierce eyes that gleam
savagely from the round, combative head, have a latent fire in them that
gives cause for much suspicion on the part of a stranger who comes within
reach of one of these dogs. The Bull-dog does not trouble to bark before he bites.

187
BRAZILIAN KITE.

This bird is a native of the Southern portions of America. It is of a
blackish brown color, and has wavy bands of dark brown on a grayish ground
running across the neck and shoulders. The tip of the tail is black, and the
rest is grayish white, with many narrow, wavy bands of dusky brown. The
bill is tinged with blue at the
base; the claws are black, and
the legs are yellow. The Bra-
zilian Kite is a carrion bird, feed-
ing upon animals that have fallen
along the road and have died
there. It also follows hunters in
order to feast upon the parts of
animals which they throw away,
and visits slaughter houses, where
it is of service in clearing up the
matter that would be left to de-
cay and thus poison the air. The
bird has a keen scent, and knows
at once when a dead animal, or
carcass, or even a dying beast is
anywhere near. Indeed, it dis-
covers them even at a long ¢is-
tance. It has a great appetite,
and never leaves any flesh upon
the bones of its prey. The Bra-
zilian Kite is sometimes seen in
company with carrion birds that
are nearly related to it, but it
does not like these companions,
and is never friendly with them. It
pays little attention to them, how-
ever, although they try their best
to be disagreeable, sometimes fly-
ing back and forth in a half circle before the branch where the Kite is sitting,
and striking at him with their beaks. The larger bird gives little heed
to this except to bob its head. It has a very queer cry, and while uttering
the strange, rough sounds, slowly raises its head, bending it farther and far-
ther backward, until at last the top of the head almost touches the back of
the neck. Sailors think the cry of this bird is like that of the English Rook.
The Brazilian Kite is a disagreeable bird, and one of its bad habits is to chase
the Zopolite, another bird, and force it to give up the food which it has
already swallowed. Besides dead creatures, this bird also eats young lambs,
and other small animals, reptiles, and many insects. In fact, it has a very
accommodating appetite, and will eat almost anything. Sometimes it chases
and feeds upon smaller birds, while it also: visits the seashore to catch the
fish, crabs, molluscs, and other creatures that are found between tides.

188


WALRUS.

The most remarkable part of this animal is the head, with its big muzzle
sparingly covered with long wiry hairs, and the huge teeth that project from
the upper jaw. These great teeth measure from fourteen inches to two feet in
length and weigh upwards of ten pounds each. The ivory which is obtained
from these powerful weapons is of very fine quality and sells for a high price
in the market. The other teeth of the Walrus are very small compared with
the two huge teeth in the upper jaw. The food of this creature consists of
small seals, fish, shrimps and other animal substances, with such vegetable
food as the sea may furnish. The Walrus is found in very large herds along
+he coasts of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, where they gather in such great
numbers that the noise of their roarings have often given warning to sailors
who have been bewildered in a fog and unable to discover whether or not
they were near land. ‘These herds are a curious sight, as the great clumsy
animals are always moving about, rolling and tumbling over each other in a
strange fashion, and always uttering their hoarse bellowings. As many as










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seven thousand of these creatures have been seen in a single herd, and when
attacked, they take alarm and all come scuttling towards the sea, tumbling over
each other in their haste, and driving everything before them by the sheer
weight of their great clumsy bodies. The Walrus is a valuable animal. Its
skin, teeth, and oil are very useful to the Esquimaux. It is very strong.
In conflict with a Walrus its enormous tusks are found to be very fearful
weapons. They will easily pierce the plankings of a vessel. Even the Polar
Bear has been frightened by these weapons and has been driven away by an
old Walrus on whom the Bear had hoped to make a meal. A full-grown
male Walrus is generally from twelve to fifteen feet in length, and black,

189
YELLOW SCORP/ENA.

This quaint looking fish is found along the Atlantic shores of North
America. It inhabits the same places as the codfish, and is very often caught
by fishermen when they are fishing for cod. There are no scales on the skin
of the Yellow Scorpzena. The fin on the belly of the fish, and also the side -
fins, which are just behind the gills, are covered with thick skin. The head
is pressed down and looks rather naked or bare, although it is covered with
many loose pieces of skin that flap and wave about in the water and seem to
be of no use whatever. On the back of the Yellow Scorpzna there are two
fins, but some naturalists have thought at first that it had three, because the
foremost one is so deeply scooped that at first glance the fish appears to have
that number of fins. The illustration shows the peculiar scoop which follows
the fourth spine or rib of the long back fin, counting from the head of the fish.























‘The first four spines are gencrally very long. Nearly all the spines or bones
in the fins end in rather sharp points, so that the fish can protect itself with
these and give very disagreeable pricks to an enemy, even if he be a fisher-
man. As the name of the fish indicates, the general color is yellow, which is
tinged more or less with red, while in some of the fish it is marbled with
brown. Very fine specimens of the Yellow Scorpzena sometimes reach about —
two feet in length, but the ordinary length is from fourteen to eighteen inches.
The great variety of queer shapes, peculiar formations, odd combinations of
color,crushed heads, flattened bodies,extraordinary fins, andstrange habits of the
many fish of this kind, is always very wonderful and interesting to naturalists.
Another very queer fish, known as the Sea Locust, inhabits the Red Sea
and is remarkable as being the only flying fish to be found in those strange
waters. it is very plentiful on that part of the coast near which the Israelites
were forced to wander for a space of forty years. It is because of this that it is
called the Sea Locust. This fish can raise itself from the water and will some
times inflict painful wounds with the sharp pricks that project from its head.
Then there is the Seepaard, a native of the seas around the Cape of Good
Hope. Its color is brown, mostly marbled with black, and the skin is smooth.
The fins on its back have very strong and sharp pricks, but none on the head.

190
7

WREN.

The voice of the Wren is very sweet and melodious, and of a more
powerful character than would be imagined from the dimensions of the bird.
‘The Wren is a merry little creature, and chants its gay song on the slightest
encouragement of weather. Even in winter there needs but the gleam of a
few stray sunbeams to set the Wrena-singing, and the cold Christmas season
is often cheered with its happy notes. While skipping among the branches,
the Wren utters a continuous little twitter, which, although not worthy of
being reckoned as a song is yet very soft and pleasing, The nest of the
Wren is rather an ambitious structure,
being a completely domed edifice, and built
ina singularly ingenious manner. If, how-
ever, the bird can find a suitable spot, such
as the hole of a decaying tree, the gnarled
and knotted branches of old ivy, or the
overhanging eaves of a deserted building,
where a natural dome is formed, it is sure
to seize upon the opportunity and to make
a dome of very slight workmanship. ‘The
dome, however, always exists, and is com-
posed of non-conducting matcrials, so that
the bird always contrives to insulate itself
and its young from electrical influences.
It is a very singular fact that a Wren will
often commence and partly build three or
four nests in different localities before it
settles finally upon one spot. Some per-
sons have supposed that these supplementary nests are built by the parent
bird as houses for its young after they have grown too large to be contained
within the house where they were born, while others have suggested that they
are experimental nests made by the inexperienced young while trying their
*prentice beak in the art of bird architecture. The materials of which the nest
is composed are always leaves, moss, grass and lichens, and it is almost always
so neatly built that it can hardly be seen by one who was not previously aware
of its position. The opening of the nest is always at the side, so that the eggs
are securely shielded from the effects of weather. As to the locality and
position in which the nest is placed, no definite rule is observed, for the Wren
is more capricious than the generality of birds in fixing upon a house for her
young. Wrens’ nests have been found in branches, hedges, hayricks, water-
spouts, hollow trees, barns and outhouses. Sometimes the Wren becomes
absolutely eccentric in its choice and builds its nest in spots which no one
would conjecture that a bird would select. A Wren has been known to make
its nest in the body of a dead hawk, which had been killed and nailed to the
side of a barn. Another Wren chose to make her house in the throat of a
dead calf, which had been hung upon a tree, and another of these curious little
birds was seen to build in the interior of a pump, gaining access to her eggs
and young through the spout. The eggs of tue Wren are very small.

191

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TREE FROG AND TREE TOAD.

The best known Tree Frog is the common Green Tree Frog of Europe.
This pretty creature is mostly found upon trees, clinging either to their
branches or leaves, and being generally in the habit of attaching itself to the
under-side of the leaves, which it resembles so strongly in color, that it is
almost invisible even when its situation is pointed out. When kept in a fern



case, it is fond of ascending the perpendicular glass sides, and there sticking
firmly and motionless, its legs drawn closely to the body, and its abdomen
flattened against the glass. The food of the Tree Frog consists almost
entirely of insects, worms, and similar creatures, which are captured as they
come near the leaf whereto their green foe is adhering. It is seldom seen on
the ground except during the breeding season, when it seeks the water and
there deposits its eggs much in the same manner as the common Frog. The
Tadpole is hatched rather late in the season, and does not attain its perfect
form until two full months have elapsed, The common Tree Frog is won-
derfully tenacious of life, suffering the severest wounds without seeming to
be much distressed, and having even been frozen quite stiff in a mass of ice
without perishing. ‘The Changeable Tree Toad is a native of many parts of
America, being foundas far north as Canada, and as far south as Mexico.
It is a common species, but owing to its faculty of assimilating its color to
the tints of the object on which it happens to be sitting, it escapes observation,
and is often passed unnoticed in spots where it exists in great numbers. This
is a curious and noteworthy Toad which can change its tints to so great an
extent that its true colors cannot be described. It is usually found on the
trunks of trees and old moss-grown stones. The skin of this creature will in
a short time pass from white through every intermediate shade to dark brown,
and it is not an uncommon event to find a cross-shaped mark of dark brown
between the shoulders. Old and decaying plum trees seem to be its favorite
resting places, probably because the insects congregate on such trees. It isa
noisy creature, especially before rain, and has a curious liquid note, like the
letter 7 frequently repeated, and then ending with a sharp, short monosyllable.

192
HIPPOPOTAMUS.

This enormous quadruped is a native of various parts of Africa, and is
always found either in water or in its near vicinity. In absolute height it is
not very remarkable, as its legs are extremely short, but the actual bulk of
its body is very great indeed .The average height of a full-grown Hippopot-
amus is about five feet. Its naked skin is dark brown, curiously marked with
innumerable lines like those on “crackle” china or old oil-paintings, and is also
dappled with a number of sooty black spcts, which cannot be seen except on
a close inspection. A vast number of pores penetrate the skin, and exude a
thick, oily liquid, which effectually seems to protect the animal from the
injurious effects of the water in which it is so constantly immersed. The
mouth is enormous and its size is greatly increased by the odd manner in
which the jaw is set in the head. Within the mouth is an array of white,
gleaming tusks, which have a terrific appearance, but are solely intended for
cutting grass and other vegetable substances, and are seldom employed as



weapons of offense, except when the animal is wounded or otherwise irritated.
Possessed of an enormous appetite, having a stomach that is capable of con-
taining five or six bushels of nutriment, and furnished with such powerful
instruments, the Ilippopotamus is a terrible nuisance to the owners of culti-
vated lands that happen to be near the river in which the animal has taken
up his abode. During the day it is comfortably asleep in its chosen hiding-
place, but as soon as the shades of night deepen, the Ilippopotamus issues from
its den, and treading its way into the cultivated lands, makes sad devastation
among the growing crops. Were the mischief to be confined to the amount
which is eaten by the voracious brute, it would still be bad enough, but the
worst of the matter is that the Hippopotamus damages more than it eats by
the clumsy manner of its progress. The body is so large and heavy and the
legs are so short that the animal is forced to makea double track as he walks,
and in the grass-grown plain can be readily traced by the peculiar character
of the track. They do consicerable damage at every step of their way.

193
FOXHOUND. |

Of all the dogs which are known by the common title of “hound,” the
Foxhound is the best known. There are few animals which have received
more attention than the Foxhound, and none perhaps which have so entirely
fulfilled the wishes of its teachers. The modern Foxhound is one of the most
wonderful animals in creation. The efforts which have been made and the
sums which have been spent in the endeavor to make this animal as perfect
as possible are scarcely credible. As might be expected, the command of
such enormous sums of money, backed by great judgment on the parts of the
owners and trainers of hounds, has produced a race of dogs that for speed,
endurance, delicate scent and high courage approach as near to absolute per-
fection as can well be imagined. By thus improving the condition of the
domesticated dog the country has been benefited, for it is impossible to im-
prove any inhabitant of a country without conferring a benefit on the land in
which it is reared. It is supposed that the modern Foxhound derives its
origin from the old English hound, and its various points of perfection from





judicious crosses with other breeds. For example, in order to increase its
speed the greyhound is made to take part in its pedigree, and the greyhound
having already some admixture of the bull-dog blood there is an infusion of
stubbornness as well as of mere speed. There are various breeds of dogs
which are remarkable for the very great development of some pecuhar fac-
ulty, such as speed in the greyhound, courage in the bull-dog, delicacy of
scent in the bloodhound, sagacity in the poodle, and so on. So that when a
breed of dogs begins to fail in any of these characteristics, the fault is amended
by the introduction of a dog belonging to the breed which exhibits the need-
ful quality in great perfection. It is remarkable that the mental character is
transmitted through a longer series of descendants than the outward form.
Even in the case of such widely different dogs as the bull-dog and the grey-
hound all vestige of the buli-dog form is lost in the fourth cross, while the
determinate courage of the animal is persist nt, and the courage invigorated.

194
REDWING.

Another well-known example of the British Thrushes is found in the
common Redwing, a bird which is plentiful throughout the greater portion
of.the British Isles. It is one of the finest songsters even among its own
melodious group, rivaling the nightingale in the full sweet tones of its flexible
yoice. Sometimes the bird sings alone, seated on a favorite perch, but it
oftener prefers lifting up its voice in concert with its companions, and fills
the air with its harmonious sounds. It has, however, several kinds of voice,
sometimes pouring forth its full rich strains, and at other times singing quictly
to itself in an undertone that can only be heard a very short distance. This,
however, is only the peculiar sound which is termed “recording” by bird-
fanciers, and must not be mistaken for the real song, which is a loud, wild and
delicious melody. The Redwing partakes so far of the character of the
nightingale as to sing after sunset. The Redwing is less of a fruit-eater than
the generality of its kind, feeding principally upon worms, slugs, and insects.





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In a protracted and severe winter, therefore, when the ground is frozen so
hard that the bird’s beak cannot penetrate its stony surface, the Redwing is
forced to rely for ‘its subsistence on the hibernating molluses, and the larvae
and pup of different insects which may be found in sheltered spots, but
when these resources have been exhausted, the poor bird is in a sad plight,
and has been known to die of sheer starvation. During the summer months,
the Redwing goes northward, visiting Norway, Sweden, and even Iceland.
In these countries it generally builds its nest, which is similar to that of the
common blackbird, and is placed on the center of some thick bush. Occa-
sionally, but very rarely, the Redwing has been known t» build in this country,
and Mr. Yarrell records two such instances in England, and another in Scot-
land. The eggs are from four to six in number, and of a blue color, spotted
with black. The Redwing is, like many of its kind, a sociable bird, gathering
together in large flocks, and roosting sociably in company on_ the
thickly matted branches and twigs of hedgerows and well-wooded planta-
tions. During the winter these thrushes scatter themselves rather widely.

195
SUPERB PLUME BIRD.




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2 \\ to blue,and ending in a
\

The Plume Birds are much like

-the birds of paradise in the richnéss

and beauty of their plumage. ‘The
Superb Plume Bird is the most beau-
tiful of them all and is one of the most
lovely of feathered creatures. It has
not a large body, but its plumage is
so heavy that the bird measures

_nearly four feet from the point of

the bill to the end of the tail. Above
and below its wings, also, are hand-
some feathers which make it still more
attractive. The head, neck and breast
are glittering green, the feathers be-
ing as soft as velvet; the back is violet
which changes in different lights; the
wings too seem to change in color
from blue or violet to deep black, and
always look like velvet. The tail has
twelve feathers, the two middle ones
the longest and those on the sides
growing shorter toward the outer
edge; it is violet or blue above,
according to the light, and black be-
neath. ‘The feathers are wide as well
as long and shine as though they had
been polished. Just above the wings the
color is like polished steel changing in-
large spot of

“\S brilliant green. These feathers form a



tuft which is very handsome. Below

SY the wings spring long curved feathers



“The bill and feet are black.

\S pointing upward; these are black on

the inside and green on the outside.
Some-
times when the light strikes just right,
the colors seem to be a velvet black
where before they were green or blue.
The change of color is like that which

ye
‘is often seen in shells, and depends
* upon the way in which the light strikes

upon the plumage. As beautiful as
the Superb Plume Bird is, the Twelve-
thread Plume Bird is even more beau-
tiful. It has just as brilliant plumage
as the other bird and also a number
of long, handsome,thread-like plumes.

196
MOOSE.

The Moose or Elk is the largest of all the deer tribe, attaining the extra-
ordinary height of seven feet at the shoulders, thus equaling many an ordi-
nary elephant in dimensions. The horns of this animal are very large and
widely spread at their extremities, their united weight being so great as to
excite a feeling of wonder at the ability of the animal to carry so heavy a
burden. It does not reach its full development until its fourteenth year. ‘The
muzzle is very large and is much lengthened in front, so as to impart a most

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unique expression to the Elk’s countenance. The color of the animal is a dark
brown, the legs being washed with a yellow hue. It is a native of Northern
Europe and America, the Moose of the latter continent and the Elk of the
former being one and the same species. As the flesh of the Elk is palatable,
and the skin and the horns extremely useful, the animal is much persecuted
by hunters. It is a swift and enduring animal, although its gait is clumsy and
awkward in the extreme. The only pace of the Eli is a long swinging trot;
but its legs are so long and its paces so considerable, that its speed is much
greater than it appears to be. Obstacles that are almost impassable to a
horse, are passed over easily by the Elk, which has been known to trot unin-
terruptedly over a number of fallen tree trunks, some of them five feet in
thickness. It isas wary as any of the Deer tribe, being alarmed by the slight-
est sound or the faintest scent that gives warning of an enemy. As the Elk
trots along, its course is marked by a succession of sharp sounds, which are
produced by the snapping of the cloven hoofs, which separate at every step,
and fall together as the animal raises its foot from the ground. Generally,
the Elk avoids the presence of man, but in some seasons of the year he be-
comes seized with a violent excitement, that finds vent in fighting with every
living creature that may cross his path. His weapons are his horns and fore-
feet, the latter being so used that one blow will slay a wolf on the spot.

197
ARMADILLO. |

The Armadillos are inhabitants of Central and Southern America, and
are tolerably common throughout the whole of the land in which they live.
The general structure of the armor is similar in all the species, and consists of
three large plates of horny covering; one being placed on the head, another on
the shoulders, and the third on the hind quarters. These plates are connected
by a series of bony rings, variable in number, overlapping each other, and
permitt’ the animal to move freely. Each plate and band is composed of
a number of small plates, joined together, and forming patterns which differ
in the various species. The whole of the animal, even to the long and taper-
ing tail, is covered with these horny scales, with the excepticn of the upper
part of the legs, which are concealed under the armor of the body, and need
no other protection. The common Armadillo, or Poyou, is about twenty
inches in total leneth, the tail occupying some six or seven inches. It is very





common in Paraguay, but it is not easily captured, owing to its remarkable
agility, perseverance and wariness. Encumbered as it appears to be with its
load of plate armor, it runs with such speed that it can hardly be overtaken
by a quick-footed man, and if it.should contrive to reach its burrow, it can
never be got out except by dint of hard work. Its hearing is acute, and as
during the daytime the creature never ventures very far from its home, it
readily evades the attacks of every foe excepting man. “The food of the
Armadillo is nearly as varied as that of the swine, for there are few edible
substances, whether vegetable or animal, which the: Armadillo will not devour,
provided they are not too hard for its little teeth. Various roots, potatoes and
maize are among its articles of vegetable diet, and it also will eat eggs, worms,
insects, and small reptiles of every description. Wherever wild cattle are
slain, the Armadillo is sure to make its appearance in a short time, for the
purpose of devouring the offal which the hunter leaves on the ground. It is
not particular in taste, and eats the half-putrid remains with great eagerness.

198
LS RTA actly

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‘There are many kinds of Sturgeons, but one of the oddest of them is the
Shovel-fish, which takes its name from the shape of its head. This, it will be
seen. from the picture, is flattened, rounded, and_very much like a shovel.
The smaller of the two figures shows the young fish, and the larger one the
adult. The bony scales upon the body of the Shovel-fish are very long and
stand out ina way that makes them quite noticeable. The tail of the Shovel-
fish has a snaky look, and altogether the creature is not very pretty. Another
Sturgeon with an oddly-shaped head is the Spoonbill, which is sometimes
called the Paddle-fish. Both of these names are quite well-fitted to the
creature, because its long, flat snout looks very much like a paddle, and it also
might serve for a spoon. ‘The body of the Spoonbill Sturgeon has none of the
bony plates which are usually found upon Sturgeons, but is quite smooth instead.

199
SWALLOW.

The delicately shaped and beautifully colored Swallow is very readily
distinguished from any of its relations by the great length of the feathers
which edge its tail and which form nearly two-thirds of the bird’s entire
length. Its remarkable familiarity with mankind, and the trustfulness with
which it fixes its home under the shelter of houses, causes it to be held as
an almost sacred bird, as in the case of the robin and the wren. In
eastern countries, the human inhabitants protect this beautiful little bird
even more than they do in England, where too often it is killed or wounded
by the unfeeling owner or hirer of a gun, who shoots merely for the
practice of “shooting flying.” Even without considering the cruelty of
killing such beautiful creatures for the mere pleasure of shooting, it is very
unwise to destroy the dainty swallow There are some birds which become













so numerous and troublesome... that it is well to destroy numbers of them,
but the Swallow is nothing but an insect-eating bird, and is therefore very
valuable in helping to destroy the myriads of insects that nature produces.
There are large numbers of very offensive insects that are really valuable
for certain reasons, but after a time they become so numerous, that nature
furnishes such birds as the Swallows to destroy them, and prevent the
trouble of over-abundance. If it were not for the Swallow and other birds
that thoughtless people oftentimes destroy, we should in many cases be
overwhelmed with myriads of insects that are very useful in their place but
become great enemies to mankind when they increase in too great numbers.
The very large amount of flies and insects which a Swallow can pack into its
mouth, is almost beyond belief, and in this way the beautiful creature collects
food to take home to its hungry little family. The Swallow wages a never-
ceasing war against many kinds of insects. At one time it will feed almost
entirely upon gnats and other small flies, destroying many thousands of them
ina single day. At another time it will prefer beetles, sometimes nothing
but May flies, and frequently attacks nothing but the larger prey to be found
in the neighborhood of bee-hives, swooping with sure aim upon the inmates
as they enter or leave their straw-built houses. It is a very remarkable fact,
however, that the working bee is generally unharmed by the Swallow.

200
GRIZZLY BEAR.

It is sometimes believed that the Grizzly Bear cannot ascend trees, but
the animal is quite a clever tree climber and makes use of the art to supply
itself with a bountiful meal. As the Bear is very fond of acorns, and does
not choose to gather them singly from the branches on which they grow, it
climbs the trees, and with its powerful fore-limbs gives such severe blows
and shakings to the boughs, that the ripe acorns shower down like hail to
the earth, whither the cunning animal speedily descends in order to reap the
benefit of its work. Yet very often a man who has been chased by a Grizzly
Bear has saved his life by climbing a tree which the bear has not been able
to get up. While the Bear is young, and active, it is able to climb a perpen-
dicular tree-trunk; but when it becomes large and unwieldy, its limbs are not
strong enough to raise its great body from the earth. Sometimes the color
of the Grizzly Bear’s fur is a dullish brown, flecked with grizzled hairs, and
sometimes the whole fur is of a beautiful steely gray. When young, the






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Grizzly Bear has a very beautiful fur, which, although very long, thick, and
shaggy, is not of that coarse, wiry texture which the full-grown animal has.
The fur of the young Bear is of a brownish color, with a dark stripe along
the spine. All animals are afraid of the Grizzly Bear, and have the greatest
terror when they even see or smell a Bear skin that has been stripped from
the body. Even the powerful bison falls a victim to the Grizzly Bear, which
has been seen to spring upon the foremost bull of a herd, dash it to the
ground, and destroy it by blows with its armed paws. Another of these
animals deliberately carried off a bison that had been shot by a hunter.

201
- EUROPEAN LYNX.

The European Lynx is found in that part of the continent of Europe
extending from the Pyrenees to Scandinavia. It is also found in the more
northern forests of Asia. The fur of this animal changes color according to
the season of the year. The usual color of the European Lynx is a rather
dark gray, with a red shade, while a few large dark patches are scattered
about the body, and many small ones on the legs. On the body the spots are
oblong or oval in shape, but upon the limbs they are nearly round. In the
winter months the fur becomes larger, fuller and more grizzled. The grizzled
appearance is caused by a change taking place in the tips of the hairs, which
turn a grayish-white. The tail of the Lynx is short, being not more than



seven or eight inches long, and sometimes only six inches. ‘The length of
the body and head together is only about three feet. ares, rabbits, and
other small animals are the chief articles of food for the European Lynx, but
it very often attacks sheep. It is an excellent tree climber, and can chase
its prey among the branches with great ease and success. ‘The fur of this
animal is very valuable. Big prices are paid for it in the market. The
people who hunt the Lynx for the fur, always choose the winter months for
the time of their operations, as in the cold season the fur is richer and warmer
than it is during the hot summer months, Of the many kinds of these cat-
like animals, none is more beautiful than the Pardine Lynx which inhabits
Spain, Sardinia, Portugal and other southern countries. Its ruddy chestnut
fur is covered with leopard-like spots. The Spaniards call this animal Gato-
clavo. The New World has many kinds of [.ynx as well as the Old World,
and even in the cold regions of Northern America one of these animals may
be found. It is known as the Canada Lynx, but often spoken of as the
“Peeshoo” by the French colonists, who also call it “Le Chat.”” The flesh of the
“Peeshoo” is eaten by the natives. The meat has no flavor, but is very tender.

202
NIGIITINGALE.

The well known and far-famed Nightingale seldom visits the northern
counties, and in Ireland and Scotland it is almost unknown. Attempts have
been made to introduce the Nightingale into different parts of England by
substituting its cegs for those of robins and other small birds, but although
the young were regularly hatched and fledged, they all retired at the usual
season and never came back again. The food of the Nightingale consists
principally of various insects, and it is so powerfully attracted by the common
mealworm that one of these creatures employed as a bait is sure to attract the





bird to its destruction. It appears to make great havoc among the cater-
pillars, which come out to feed at night, and are to be seen so abundant on
damp warm evenings. In the autumn it is somewhat of a fruit-eater, and has
been seen in the act of eating “ black-heart” cherries, plucking them from the -
tree and carrying them to its young. In captivity it is best fed upon meal-
worms, raw beef scraped with a knife and given fresh, hard-boiled cee and
water. As is well known, the song of the Nightingale is almost wholly uttered
in the evening, but the bird may sometimes be heard in full song throughout
the day. Towards the end of June, when the young birds are hatched, the
song changes into a kind of rough croaking sound, which is uttered by way of
warning, and accompanied with a sharp snapping sound of the beak. ‘The
time when the Nightingales sing loudest and most constantly is during the
week or two after their arrival, for they are then engaged in attracting their
mates, and sing in fierce rivalry of each other, hoping to fascinate their brides
by the splendor of their voices. When once the bird has procured a partner,
he becomes deeply attached to her, and if he should be captured, soon pines
away and dies, full of sorrowful remembrances. The bird-dealers are there-
fore anxious to catch the Nightingale before the first week has elapsed, as
they can then, by dint of care and attention, preserve the bird in full song to
a late period. ‘The nest of the Nightingale is always placed upon or very
near the ground, and is generally carefully hidden beneath heavy foliage.

203
-_GOLDEN TREE-‘SNAKE AND LANGAHA.

The family of the Wood Snakes, or Driyophide, as they are learnedly
called, contains some interesting and rather curious reptiles. The upper
figure in the illustration represents the Golden Tree-Snake, which is a native
of Mexico. It is a most lovely species, and of a most singular length, looking
more like the thong of a “gig whip” than a living reptile. It lives in trees,
and. its colors are beautifully soft and delicate. The general tint of this
Serpent is gray, tinged with yellow, and having a golden reflection in certain



lights, and being decidedly irrdescent in others. The body is profusely
covered with minute dottings of black. The lower figure represents the
Langaha, one of the Serpents of Madagascar, remarkable for the singular
appendage to the head. The muzzle is extremely elongated, and is furnished
with a fleshy projection, about one-third as long as the head, and covered
with small scales. ‘There is another species, the Cock’s-comb Langaha, also a
native of Madagascar, which is known from the ordinary species by the form
of the appendage, which is toothed something like the comb upon a cock’s head.
The color of the Langaha is reddish brown. A very beautiful example of
the Wood-Snakes is found in Ceylon. This is the Brown Wood-Snake. Like
the Langaha, the snout of this Serpent is furnished with an appendage, which
is pointed and covered with scales, and is about one-fourth as long as the head.
' This appendage is conspicuous, but its use is not very plain. It lives almost
wholly in trees, and is nocturnal in its habits, traversing the boughs at night
for the purpose of catching the small birds as they sleep, taking their young
out of the nest, and preying upon the lizards which also prowl about the trees.

204
MERIAN’S OPOSSUM.

This beautiful little creature has no true pouch, and so is quite different
from some of the other Opossums. In place of the pouch, or pocket, in which
the baby Opossums are usually carried, there is in this animal only a fold of
the skin; and so when very young the baby Opossums are placed upon the
back of their mother, where they cling to her fur with their little hand-like
feet, and twist their own little tails tightly around hers. Many Opossums
carry their young upon their backs in this manner even when they have
pouches, but in the pouchless kind the young travel in this way at an earlier
age. Merian’s Opossum is a very small creature, being only six inches from
the nose to the root of the tail; while the tail itself is over seven inches in
length, so that it is longer than the whole head and body. This Opossum
looks like a large mouse or a small rat. Its fur is very short and lies close to
the skin. On the upper portions of the body it is a pale grayish brown, fad.
ing into yellowish white, and there is a deeo brown mark around the eyes,

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ending in a small dark patch inf front of each eye. ‘The forehead, upper part
of the head, cheeks, limbs and feet are yellowish white with a grayish tinge.
The tail near the body has hair of the same color as that of the upper part of
the body, but towards the end the hair is white. This little animal, like so
many of its kind, lives in trees. The Yapock Opossum leads a very differ-
ent life from that of the creature just described. It is found on river banks
and is a water animal, having partly webbed feet. It has very bold markings
upon its fur, and in this way is different from other Opossums. Its coat is
made up of gray and sooty black in about equal parts, so that it can not be
said that there is more of one than the other. The gray has a watery look.
There are four bands of sooty black drawn across the body in an odd manner,
and along the spine, also, runs a broad black band, made up of three dark
patches, which join and spread into a broad black patch upon the top of the
head. Two-thirds of the tail are dark in color and the other third is white.

205
WAGTAILS.

The Gray Wagtail is a pretty bird, with its slender and graceful shape
and its soft-colored plumage. Its movements are also light and airy. The
Wagtail changes its locality with the weather, going a little north or a little
south, as it grows warmer or cooler, but it is a bird of temperate climates.
It loves the water and does not often fly to any great distance from the brook
or river where it seeks its food. It feeds mostly upon water insects and larve,
and also upon the small creatures which it finds in shells, swallowing them
shell and all. The place chosen for a nest is usually a hole in some wall, and
the Wagtail likes best those around bridges and mill-wheels and other walls
near the water. Sometimes there are two broods in a year. Like many
other birds the Gray Wagtail lines its nest with hair, and it is strange that it
can find enough of this material. ‘There are generally four eggs. In the win.
ter these birds keep in pairs; inautumn the whole family is together; but they
do not flock with other birds. They roost at the foot of trees or underwood





hanging over the water. Their general color is gray, but there are two buff.
colored stripes upon the sides of the head. There is also a mixture of black
sprinkled with white and pale buff, and bright yellow. The Gray Wagtail

is nearly eight inches long. In winter the colors change somewhat, the black
of the chin being turned to white with a buff tinge, and the yellow feathers
fading to a yellowish gray. While the bird just described is fond of the water,
the Yellow Wagtail likes pasture land best, and there it hunts for the insects
which are roused by the trampling of the cattle. Itis often met with on the driest
lands, far away from water, busily at work catching beetles, flies, and other
insects. It is also seen upon roads, tripping rapidly along, and every time it
catches an insect, wagging its tail, this habit of wagging the tail having given
the name to the birds of the Wagtail family. Wagtails are very numerous.
206
SAW-FISH.

The common Saw-fish is one of the most interesting of the finny tribe. It
is found in almost all of the warmer seas, and even in the cold regions near
the pole. This creature is noted for its very long snout, which is flattened
like the blade of a sword and has a row of teeth on each edge, while the tip
‘5 covered with hard scales. At the base the teeth are few, short and wide
apart, but they grow larger and are set closer together toward the point.
The sockets are quite plainly shown on the surface of the sword-blade, but
the number of teeth is not always the same; in some there are twenty-eight
on each side of the saw. This creature is said to attack the whale, thrusting
its huge beak, or sword, into the soft, blubber-covered body of the monster,
and by its swift movements keeping out of the way of the huge tail, which
could easily crush it to death with one blow. A Saw-fish often charges
upon a shoal, or throng, of fish, striking right and left with its toothed sword



































































































































































































































and thus killing and wounding great numbers of them. In all these creatures
the skin ig covered with little scales. The blow-holes are very large and are
set some distance behind the eyes. The mouth is on the under surface of the
head and is supplied with the necessary means for crushing the food. In
color the Saw-fish is dark gray above, nearly black in some cases, the sides
are ashen and the under surface is white. This fish often reaches a total
length of fifteen or eighteen feet. Another one of the Rays, as these fishes
are called, is the Horned Ray, or Sea Devil. This great creature is found in
the Mediterranean and in nearly all the warm seas, and is often caught in
nets. Its flesh is not eaten except by the very poor, but it is valued for its
oil. Some of the smallest of these creatures measure twenty-eight feet in
width by twenty in length and weigh a ton. A Ray of this size has a mouth
large enough to swallow a man. This creature feeds almost wholly upon
fishes and molluscs. A Ray is always very affectionate towards its mate.

207
NORTHERN CHIMZERA.

This creature is also known as the Rabbit-tish, because it is thought to
look somewhat like a rabbit; while another name is King of the Herrings.
This latter name was given to it on account of its habit of following the herrings
and thinning their ranks, also because of the crown-like fins. In some places
it is known as the Sea Cat, and because of its brilliant coloring, the Gold and
Silver Fish. It is found mostly in the Northern seas, and when living is a
most beautiful creature, its body glowing with golden brown and white, and
its eye being green and white. Its food is chiefly the smaller fish, but it also
eats molluscs and other creatures of the sea. Its flesh is not good, being hard
and coarse. ‘The creature has an odd form, with a body large and rounded,
while the tail grows rapidly smaller until it ends in a thong almost like the
lash of a whip. It also has an odd arrangement of the fins, and a pair of bony













































structures close to the ventral fins. It is seldom over a yard in length. In
the Southern hemisphere there is another Chimeera, called the Southern Chi-
mera, or Elephant-tish, the latter name being given because of the lengthened
snout. This lengthened part is bent backward in a hook-like form, and is
thought by some people to look like a common hoe. The tail of the Southern
_Chimzera does not form a whip-lash, like that of the Northern Chimera, and
is not as odd as its head. The color of this creature isa satiny white mottled
with brown, and its size is about the same as that of its northern relative.
Another fish with a long, whip-like tail is the Eagle Ray, which is sometimes.
called the Whip Ray because of the great length of this slender tail. The
Eagle Ray, like the Chimera, is a strange looking creature, with a short body,
blunt head, and wing-like fins. Its snout looks as though it had been cut short
off, being very different in that respect from the snout of the Southern Chi-
meera. ~The flesh of this fish isnot eaten, as it is hard and disagreeable to
the taste, but the liver is sometimes used for food, and large quantities of oil
are obtained from it. The home of this fish is in the Mediterranean and the
southern seas, although it has sometimes been found very much farther north,

208
HOOPOE.

The Hoopoe has a most appropriate name, which may have been given it
because of its crest or ‘“huppe,”’ or from the sound which the bird frequently
utters and which is like the syllable hoop! hoop! which is breathed out softly
and rapidly and is like the note of a dove, ‘The Hoopoe has a tripping kind
of walk, which at times is quick and spirited, and at other times slow and
stately, as though the bird were proud of its crest, which it well might be. It
is fond of low, marshy ground and sequestered places near the woods, because
here it finds an abundance of food. The Hoopoe thrives well in captivity, and
is very interesting in its habits. If several of these birds are in a cage to-
gether, they will scramble and strugele for a piece of meat offered them,
keeping up the contest with the greatest determination, even if they are not







hungry, and stopping to rest only to begin again with renewed energy, al-
though even while resting those which have hold of the piece will not relax
their grip upon it. This quarrelsome disposition seems to be characteristic
of the Hoopoes; sometimes they fight in the most desperate manner and at
the end of the combat the battlefield is covered with feathers that have been
torn off in the struggle. They are very much afraid of birds of prey, and
when frightened crouch down with their wings stretched out so that the large
quill-feathers touch, forming a coat of armor, while the head is turned back
with the bill pointing upward. In this position they look like little patches
of old rags. As soon as the cause of fright disappears, they jump up, making
cries of joy. They are fond of lying in the sun and show their happiness by
little quivering tones; but when angry, their voices are harsh. ‘The Hoopoe
makes its nest in hollow trees, building it of dry grass stems, feathers, and
other soft substances. The eggs are light gray in color and from four to
seven in number. They are laid in May, and the young birds appear in
- June. The young Hoopoe has a short beak, which does not attain its
curved form or its length until the bird is full grown. The Hoopoe’s nest
has a very disagreeable odor from a substance in the tail-glands of the birds.

209
PINC-PINC.

The Pinc-pinc is interesting because of the large, queer-shaped nest which
it builds and which may be seen in the picture. This nest is often more than
a foot around, being very large indeed for the size of the bird, and it is one of
the oddest in looks of any bird’s nest known. It is built of vegetable fibres,
which are beaten, twisted and woven into a fine felt-like substance and
strongly fastened to the branches of the tree. It is something like a gourd
in shape, and always has a neck, or spout, for a door, which is so formed that
the bird can keep out any foe that may try to enter by mecting it witha
sharp beak at the narrow entrance. There are usually one or two perches
near the mouth of the nest which are probably used by both birds, the male
sitting on one of them while his mate is on the eggs, and the latter taking a
rest there now and then. Sometimes this nest is of a snowy .white color and
at others of a dingy
brown. Its queer shapes
can be understood when
itisknown that the Pince-
pinc has many foes, and
so should make its home
assafe as possible. There
are generally from six to
eight eggs. A very
pretty relative of the
bird just described is the
little Emeu Wren of
Australia. This bird is
noted for its tail-feath-
ers, which are very lone
and odd. When it is
z= running it holds its tail
up straight over its back
in a very funny way. It
seldom flies, but runs
“@%* very fast, indeed, and.

is usually found among
long grasses.. In color it is brown above, mottled, or spotted, and very light fawn
‘underneath, with chestnut on the flanks. The throat of the male is tinted
with blue, and he has larger tail-feathers than his mate. The nest of this
Wren, like that of the Pine-pinc, is large for the size of the builder, and is
placed on the ground, where it looks like a big ball of grass with a hole in
the side. It has a nice lining of soft feathers, and the eges usually number
three. Another dainty little creature, which in some ways is quite different
from those described above, is the Golden-crested Wren, which is very com-
mon in England, and likes to flit and hop about in orchards, woods and culti-
vated land; but it isa shy bird and usually keeps pretty much out of sight.
This tiny creature is quite hardy in spite of its size, and does not seem to
mind cold weather. The eggs of this bird are about the size of peas.

210



ay,




AN



A


JAPANESE SINGLETHORN.

This fish, as its name shows, is found in the waters of the seas of Japan.
Its body is somewhat flattened sideways, the eyes are large, and the mouth
is slanting. The scales are rather large, very strong, and so closely put to-
gether that they form a strong covering for the body, like a coat of mail.
The name of the fish is taken from the strange shape of some of its fins, which
are more like spines than fins, while the shield-like scales of the body are
rough, and stand out sharply. The fish is noted for the size of its head, the
strong, thorn-like spines, and its suit of hard scales. ‘The ‘Uhree-banded Mul-
let is another of the spine-finned fishes, and is somewhat like the Singlethorn
in shape, although not so thick, while it has not the hardscale-covering. This
fish is a native of the Indian and Polynesian Seas. _ It is sometimes called the

Three-banded, and sometimes the Two-banded Mullet, according to the num-











——AN




¢



































ber of stripes, which is not always the same. Usually the fish is marked with
a large black lengthened spot behind the ear, a broad band over the tail, and
another across the back; sometimes there is a third band starting from the
dorsal or back fin. Between the bands the scales are either yellow or white.
The fins are marked with black and white. The Archer Fish also belongs
to the scale-finned fishes and is very interesting. It is a native of the East In-
dian and Polynesian seas, like the one last described, and is an odd-looking
creature. It is noted, however, not for its looks, but for its power of shooting
water at its prey with such skill that it can strike a fly at a distance of three
or even four feet. The lower jaw of this creature is much longer than the
upper, which gives the odd look mentioned, and which may aid in the sure
aim of the fish with its watery weapon. ‘The Archer Fish uses its power of
shooting water as the sportsman uses his gun, and hunts its food in this funny
way, bringing down its game almost without fail. The Archer Fish is of a
greenish color, with dark brown bands across the back. ‘These bands are
also shaded with green. The Filamentous Gurnard is stranger than any of
these. Its eyes set out like those of a frog and its snout is long and swine-like.

211
CHIMPANZEE.

This large ape is found in some portions of Western Africa, and ranges
over a large space of country. In color it is almost wholly black, but there
are a few white hairs scattered over the muzzle. Age seems to bring gray
hairs, however, As in the gorilla, the hair of the fore-arm is turned toward
the elbow, where it meets the hair from the upper arm, forming a pointed
tuft. On the chest and abdomen it is somewhat thinner than on the other
portions of the body, and the skin can be seen through the hairs; but onthe arms
and other parts it is thick and long. There is a small beard on the chin and
face. The muzzle stands out from the face, but the nostrils lie flat upon this
mass, giving a brutal look, especially from the side. In the Chimpanzee, as
in all his race, the face and jaw are much larger as compared with. the brain,
than in human beings. In its native country the creature lives in a kind of




Wi

oo IG. G,
: a

village, and the inhabitants grow quite noisy at night, their cries and yells
filling the air. It is said that these animals weave huts for themselves and
their families, the females and young tiving inside and the males upon the
roof of the dwellings. This ape chooses rocky and broken ground for its
home, rather than the forest branches which are best liked by some of its
relatives, for it is so strong that it does not need to seek shelter above the
ground. Even the lion, leopard, and elephant leave these creatures undis-
turbed. The food of the Chimpanzee is almost wholly vegetable in nature,
and it helps itself to rice, bananas, plantains, and anything else which it
fancies and which is within an easy journey from its home. When tamed,
the animal eats food of a mixed nature. Its arms are very powerful.

212
THE VIRGINIAN GOAT-SUCKER.

-The Virginian Goat-sucker inhabits the northern parts of the American
continent, and in the summer months is seen even in the Arctic regions. It
ss sometimes known by the name of the Mosquito Hawk or Night-hawk.
Most of the Goat-suckers are nocturnal birds, resting in the day and seeking
their food after the setting of the sun. But the Virginian Goat-sucker often-
times leaves its home ona cloudy day and begins its task of hunting flies,
moths, beetles and other insects on which it feeds. It is a very active bird,
and follows its insect prey into the loftier regions of the air, where it seems
as much at ease as the Swift or Swallow. While chasing the insects, the
Night-hawk constantly utters a shrill squeaking kind of cry. It also has a
curious habit of hovering over its mate as she sits on her eggs, darting down
upon her froma great height, and then suddenly sweeping up again with a
loud booming sound. This strange action is constantly repeated, and is
performed for the purpose of showing a delicate attention to the sitting bird,
and amusing her during her long and tedious task. The eggs of this bird



are placed on the bare ground, and when a stranger happens to approach the
spot where they are lying, the parent bird immediately flings herself in the
way of the intruder, and by tumbling about in front of him as if she had a
broken wing or was otherwise disabled, endeavors to induce hiin to leave the
sacred spot and give chase. If she succeeds in tempting the intruder away
from the place, she darts into cover, and at the very earliest opportunity
returns quietly to her nest. The eggs of this bird are generally two in
number, grayish white in color, covered with a number of streaks and dashes
of brown. ‘The young ones are odd little creatures, clothed with a quantity
of fine brownish gray down. The tail of this bird is forked, and the long
wings overpass the tail when they are closed. The bill is rather small. The
color of the Virginian Goat-sucker is very remarkable in consequence of
having a greenish gloss upon the dark red ground of the general plumage.
It has a number of yellowish spots upon the head, neck and wings, together
with a white patch on the throat. The length of the bird is about ten inches.

213
OSPREY.

The Osprey is a very noted bird and has its home in Great Britain and
Southern America. It used to be very common in the former country, but
is now rare. ‘The Osprey is a fine bird and a great fisher, and it chooses for
its home cither the sea-coast or the banks of some large river, although it has
been found quite a distance from the water. In such cases it was probably
driven inland by severe weather. The nest of the Osprey is very large,
and it is formed almost wholly of sticks. There are two or three whitish
eggs with reddish brown blotches, or spots, these spots being toward the large
end. “Phe Osprey has only one mate while that one lives, but in case of its
death quickly finds another. It is an affectionate bird. fond of its mate and



young, and taking great care of its home; it is like the turtle-dove in this
fondness for its family. An interesting story is told of a mother-bird of this
kind which had lost one of her legs and so could not fish; her mate did
double work and kept the family well supplied, so that she had no need to
leave her home duties to search for food, either for herself or her young.
Even after the young ones were fledged he kept up his work, bringing home
cnough for all. This is a very pretty and interesting story and makes the
bird dear to. his human friends. The Osprey is a good and easy flier, and
has much grace in that way, which would be expected from his shape, for he
is only twenty-two inches long, while the width of his spread wings is nearly
five feet anda half. The flight of the Osprey is both strong and beautiful.

214
~WAPITI.

The Wapiti, or Carolina Stag, is one of the largest of the deer tribe, the
full grown male measuring nearly five feet in height at the shoulders and
about seven feet nine inches from the nose to the root of the tail. Itisa
native of North America, where it is known by the name of Elk. The
Wapiti is found in herds of from ten or twenty to three or four hundred
members, and these herds are always under the command of some experi-
enced buck, who rules the rest with a great deal of strictness. When he
stops the herd stops, and when he moves on the herd moves on, advancing
and retreating, wheeling to right or left like soldiers, and sceming to under-
stand the orders which are given them. ‘This high position of leader is won







Sos
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SEE
SSSR WES
5 iss TAR



by courage and strength, and held by force against all
fighting fiercely for it. The Wapiti also fights with great courage when
wounded and brought to bay by the hunter. But although he fights, too,
most bravely for his mate, he is not at all kind to her, and she is in constant
fear of him until he has lost his horns. This animal is a good swimmer, and
even when very young will breast the current of a wide and rapid river with-
out the slightest hesitation. It is fond of being in the water in warm weather
for the sake of cooling its heated body and keeping off insects. It is a good
runner, also, and in dashing through the forests throws its head back, and in
this manner it speeds through the tangled boughs without the least trouble.

215
GOLDEN ORIOLE.

The Golden Oriole is often seen in southern Europe, and in summer it
sometimes goes as far North as Engiand, but it returns to its warmer home
in the fall. It takes its name from the bright golden color which tinges the
feathers of the full-grown male bird. ‘These colors do not reach all their
beauty until the bird is three years old, It is fond of the company of its own
tribe and usually goes in little flocks. It likes high trees and orchards, where
it can find the food it wants. It is a very shy bird, and does not care to get
acquainted with human beings, looking upon them as enemies, so it keeps as
far as possible from the home of man, coming near only to seek its food in
the cultivated ground. Even then it is very careful and sets guards around
to warn if danger is coming, so it cannot be easily caught. It chooses lonely

aD)

spots and the outskirts of forests, where it can dive back quickly into shelter,







WP
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pr whe | {



and even the most skillful hunter has hard work to shoot it, it is so cunning.
His only way to get at it is to imitate its note, and that he must do well, for the
Golden Oriole has a good ear, and if the sound is at all false it will at once
take fright and bury itself in the forest. It never perches upon naked
branches, but chooses those which give the most shelter. Probably instinct
teaches it that its plumage is too bright not to be easily seen. The Golden
Oriole lives mostly upon insects, and as it hasa very good appetite, it does
great service in clearing away caterpillars and other creatures which feed
upon fruit in its earliest forms. It is also fond of ripe fruit, and in the autumn
it feasts upon cherries, figs and grapes. ‘The Golden Oriole takes great
pains with its nest, which is cup-like in shape and usually placed in a fork
of some tree-branch. It is made of delicate grass-stems with wool woven in
so firmly that the house is strong and warm. ‘There are four or five pur-
plish white eggs, marked with deep red and ashy gray. It is thought there
is only one brood a year. Sometimes the nest of the bird is shaped like a
purse and hung from the fork of a branch, instead of being placed init. The
note of this bird is loud and flute-like and sounds like a spoken word.

216
RATTLESNAKE.

This dreaded reptile is a native of North America, and is remarkable fou
the rattle at the end of its tail and from which it derives itsname. ‘The rattle
‘5 formed of curious loose horny pieces, which vary in number according to
the size of the Rattlesnake. The joints in the rattle indicate the age of the
reptile, a fresh joint being gained each year just after it changes its skin and
before it goes into winter quarters. The joints in the rattle run from five or
six to fourteen or fifteen in number. They have been found with as many as
twenty. When the Rattlesnake is annoyed or alarmed it sends a quivering
movement to the tail, which causes the joints of the rattle to shake against
each other with a peculiar skirring ruffle that is never forgotten when once
heard. All animals, even those that bave never scen a rattlesnake, tremble
at this sound and try to get out of the way. The food of a Rattlesnake con-
sists of rats, mice, reptiles and small birds. The Rattlesiake can coil itself

Cr
teait ea
A) ee
iY Sy i
ei



at the foot of a tree, and, by gazing at a squirrel or bird, cause it to descend
and fling itself into the open mouth of the snake which is waiting to receive it.
The general color of the Rattlesnake is pale brown. As soon as the frosts
of winter begin to announce its coming, the Rattlesnake seeks a winter
home in a hole or crevice, but likes to be near marshy ground where it can
shelter under the heavy masses of a certain kind of long stemmed moss,
which is plentiful in such places. Sometimes six or seven are found coiled up
together or creeping about slowly beneath the moss. Many of them are
killed during the cold weather by persons who know where to find them in
their winter quarters. The bite of the Rattlesnake is very deadly, and death
has been known to occur two minutes after the bite. But fortunately for
human beings the Rattlesnake is very slow in its movements and seldom
attempts to bite unless it is provoked, sometimes even ‘allowing itself to be
handled without getting irritable. During the months of Spring it will seldom
-attempt to bite, and if it does strike a foe the poison is always mild.

aly
INDIAN RHINOCEROS.

The Rhinoceros is found in different parts of Asia and its islands and in
some portions of Africa. It is a huge and ungainly animal with a queer horn
upon its nose. This horn is not a growth from the skull, but simply from the
skin, and is of the nature of hairs, spines, and quills. It is polished and smooth
at the tip, but rough and split into thread-like portions at the base. At birth
the horn can scarcely be seen at all, and it does not reach it full size for years.
It is placed upon the crown of a bony arch, so that blows upon it will not in-
jure the Rhinoceros, unless they are very severe indeed. The horn is heavy
for its size, and also strong, while the skin of the animal is very thick, so that
ordinary bullets have no effect upon it. This skin is made into shields by the











































natives of those regions where the creature is found. The Rhinoceros is very
touchy in his temper, and is liable to get angry without any cause. When
in a fit of rage he is a dangerous creature, and will attack any moving object
within his reach. Sometimes he seems to take a spite against some bush, and
will rip it up with his horn and trample it with his fect, roaring and grunting
all the time, until he has cut it into shreds and trodden it into the ground.
He will also push the point of his horn into the ground and rush along, plough-
ing up the earth into a furrow like that made by a real plough. He seems to
do this for exercise, and for the love of using his strength. ‘The creature is a
good swimmer, and is fond of wallowing in the mud, with which it covers
itself to form a shield; for mosquitoes and other insects manage to find
tender places in spite of its thick hide. The sight of the Rhinoceros is not
perfect, the animal being unable to see objects which are exactly in front of
it. Its scent and hearing, however, warn it of danger. The Indian Rhinoceros
has a great weight of hide, the skin forming flaps that can be lifted up by the
hand but on the under portions of the body the hide is not so very thick.

218
CROWNED GRAKLE.

The Crowned Grakle is one of the handsomest of the genus of birds to
which it belongs. It inhabits the parts of the jungle where the vegetation is
thickest and mixed with tall trees, on whose topmost branches the Crowned
Grakle loves to settle while engaged in its search after berries, fruits and the
various substances on which it feeds. It -is not a very timid bird and will
frequently haunt human habitations, entering the gardens wherever tall trees
have been left standing and whistling cheerily as it flies from one tree or

: Jf bough to another. When fright-
ff ened, itsignifiesits alarm by a harsh,
rough screech, but its ordinary
notes are full and melodious. The
top of the head and part of the nape,
together with the chin, are bright
yellow; around the eye is a large
comma-shaped patch of bare pink
skin, the point of the comma being
directed towards the ear. The gen-
eral color of the body, as well as
the short and scarlet-tipped tail,
which looks as if it had been snipped
off apparently by a pair of shears,











blue in certain lights and sooty
black in others. Another curious
group of this large family of birds
is known by the name of Beef-cat-
ers or Ox-peckers, a title which
they have earned by their habits.
The African Beef-eater is found
in great numbers both in southern
and western Africa. It generally
assembles in flocks, and haunts the
spots where cattle are kept, alight-
ing upon their backs and setting
vigorously to work in digging from
beneath their skins the larve of the
bot-flies, which burrows beneath the hide, and may often be seen on the backs
of our cattle by means of the little hillock of skin which they raise. ‘To dig
out these deeply burrowed creatures would seem to be a matter of great
difficulty, but the Beef-eater manages the matter easily enough by fixing
itself firmly on the animal’s back by means of its very powerful claws and
working with its strong and oval-shaped beak. Other animals besides oxen
are subject to the attacks of these insect foes, and are also visited by the Beef-
eater, who pursues his course without the least opposition on the part of the
suffering animal. The general color of the African Beef-eater is a dull brown
upon the whole of the upper portions of thé body, the chin and the throat.

219
MANDRILL.

The kind of baboon called the Mandrill is a most grotesque and repulsive
creature. he general color of its fur is an olive brown, fading into gray on
the under side of the limbs, and the chin has at small, yellow, pointed beard.
There is a kind of rim, or border, around the muzzle, which gives the
creature a hog-like look, and the ears are small, without fur, and black in
color, with a tinge of blue. Upon the skin of the animal in-various places
there are bright and glowing colors like those seen in the plumage of birds;
but these tints fade if the creature is not well, while after its death they turn
to a dingy black. On each side of the nose where the snout swells into two
great masses, there is a bright azure color, and the strange bunches are
deeply grooved, while the ridges are also tinted with blue. There are lines
of brilliant scarlet and deep purple mixed with the blue, and the end of the



muzzle is a fiery red. Below the tail, the bare skin is a ruddy violet, and the
tail itself is short, set high on the back, and curved upward in a funny manner.
The eyes are placed very high in the face, leaving hardly any forehead above
them, and are deeply set beneath heavy brows; while the hair forms a kind
of pointed crest on the top of the head. Only the adult male Mandrill has
the strange cheek-swellings, which do not add to his beauty, giving him a
very brutal look, and he is, in truth, the most savage of all the baboons. He
is apt to have spells of insane fury with very slight cause. At these times a
demon light glares from his eyes, while he seems to have the strength and
evil spirit of a demon as well. “Sometimes this rage isso great and is yielded
to so blindly that the creature falls lifeless in the midst of his wild yells and
struggles. In his native land, which is the coast of Guinea, he reaches a
height of more than five feet when standing upright. He is fierce and savage.

220
BLUE TITMOUSE.

The little Blue Titmouse is one of the most familiar birds of England, as
it is widely spread throughout the land, and is of so bold a nature, that it
exhibits itself fearlessly to any observer. As it trips glancingly over the
branches, it hardly looks like a bird, for its quick limbs and strong claws
carry it over the twigs with such rapidity that it resembles a blue mouse
rather than one of the feathered tribe. Being an almost exclusively insect-
eating bird, and a most greedy little creature, it renders ereat service to the
agriculturist and the gardener by
discovering and destroying the in-
sects which crowd upon the trees and
plants in the early days of spring,
and which, if not removed, would
injure a very large amount of fruit
and produce. In the course of a
single day, a pair of Blue ‘Titmouses
were seen to visit their nest four
hundred and seventy-five times,
never bringing less than one large
caterpillar, and generally two or
three small ones. These birds, ‘A
therefore, destroyed inthe average %& : Ey
upwards of five hundred caterpillers or
daily. While watching for insects, the Blue Titmouse often bites away the buds
of fruit trees, together with pears and apples, but in almost every case it seeks
to devour not the fruit, but a maggot that lies concealed within it, and which,
if not destroyed, would not only injure the particular fruit, but would also
destroy many others by means of its future family. The Blue Titmouse is
avery obstinate little bird, and is always ready for a combat with any one
of its own kind, but in the breeding season its combative character is devel-
oped to the fullest extent, and the tiny blue creature will boldly attack a man if
he should happen to approach near the nest. Should the position of the nest be
discovered and the hand inserted in order to feel for the eggs, the mother
bird utters a sharp angry hiss, and bites so sharply at the intruding fingers,
that they are generally hastily withdrawn, under the impression that a viper
has been the hidden aggressor. Small as the bird is, his beak is so sharp
and strong, that it can‘ cause considerable pain, and has earned for the bird
the name of “Billy Biter.” The nest of this bird may be found in the most
extraordinary localities, such as hollow trees, holes in old walls, the interior
of disused spouts, sides of gravel pits, the hat of a scarecrow, the inside of a
porcelain jar, or the cylinder of a pump. One bird had .actually chosen a
beehive as its residence, and had suctess in building its nest and rearing its
young while surrounded by the bees going to and returning from their work.
‘Another Titmouse managed to get into a weathercock on the summit of a
spire, and there made its nest with security. The eggs are small and rather
numerous, being generally about eight or ten, and sometimes more than that.

The Titmouse has been known to eat eggs, meat of various kinds, peas, and oats.

221




AMERICAN BLACK BEAR.

The Musquaw, or American Black Bear, is still found in many parts of
North America, although it has been killed in such numbers that its ranks
have been much thinned. Both the fur and the fat of this animal are articles
of commerce, and so the hunters have gone out against the creature in full
force. The fur of the Black Bear is smooth, glossy and very handsome, while
it is also thick and warm. This animal lives mostly upon vegetable food,
but it is fond of the little snails which are found in the sweet prairie grass
when wet with rain or dew, and also has a very decided sweet tooth, and will
climb almost any tree where there is a nest of wild bees, in search of the
honey which is such a dainty to its kind. If the nest is so hidden and pro-
tected that he cannot get at it in any other way, the Bear will gnaw through
the wood until he has made an opening into the storehouse. When he has



managed to get at the combs he scrapes them together with his fore-paws
and eats comb, honey and young bees without paying any attention at all to
the stings of the bees that are left. Hunters often eat bear’s oil with honey,
as they find it more healthful in that way. The flesh of the Black Bear is
looked upon as a great delicacy by many people.. ‘The Brown Bear also fur-
nishes good meat. Bear’s fat is said to increase the growth of the hair, but
lard made from the fat of the pig is often sold for bear’s oil. ‘The Bear is a
dangerous creature to hunt. Although it is naturally very quiet, keeping
away from mankind unless hunger forces it to approach his home, yet when
driven to bay it is a furious beast. Sitting erect, with eyes blazing, tongue loll-
ing out of its mouth and every motion full of fierceness, it is an object of terror.

222
GUINEA PIG.

The Guinea Pig is not a pig at ail, but a rodent, and it does not come
from Guinea, but from South America; so its name is not at all a fitting one.
It is a pretty little creature and is often kept for a pet, being easily tamed.
But it is dull and not very interesting to study. It must be kept in a warm,
dry place, or it will soon die. The Guinea Pig lives upon a vegetable diet,
and while feeding it usually sits on its hind feet and carries the food to its mouth
with its fore paws in a cunning way. The family of a Guinea Pig usually
consists of six or eight little ones, which come into the world with their eyes
open and with a coat of hair, although they do not reach their full size until
they are eight or nine months old. The color of this little creature is gener-
ally white, red, and black, in patches of different sizes and shapes. ‘The bare
portions of the skin are flesh-colored, and the eyeis brown. ‘The flesh of this
animal is not very good, and its coat is of no use to the furrier. [ew people

grt p
8 one as f f
UNE I e
uw yy Silas
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would think that the great creature called the Capybara was a relative of the
little Guinea Pig, but such is the case, as the Capybara is a rodent, being the
largest of all those animals. Its total length is rather more than three feet,
while it is heavy and clumsy in form, has coarse fur, more like the bristles of
a hog than the soft fur which covers most of the Rodents, and its toes are
hooflike. It is a native of South America, and is found over a rather wide
range of country. The muzzle of this animal is heavy and blunt, the cyes
are set high in the head, and there is no tail at all. Its color is a dingy
blackish gray with a tinge of yellow. The hairs of the fur are rather long
and fall heavily over the body. It has large teeth, some of them very curious
in form. It is a water-loving animal, using its webbed feet with great power,
and not only swims well, but is a good diver. It can stay under water for
as long as eight or ten minutes, and thus can escape any ordinary foe if it
can only reach the shelter of some stream. When frightened it utters a sound
between a bark anda grunt. Its food is wholly vegetable. The Capybara is
generally found in small herds upon the banks of streams. The flesh is good.

223
HIGHLAND SHEEP.

The light and active Highland Sheep is a very intelligent and independ-
cat creature, quite distinct in character from the large, woolly, dull animals
that live only in the fold and are regularly supplied with food by the careful
hands of their masters. The Highland Sheep pastures in enormous herds
and roams over vast ranges of bleak, hilly country. It lives in the highlands
of Scotland and in many ways resembles a wild animal. It is very prompt
in noticing changes in the weather and wanders in different directions ac-
cording to the temperature or atmospheric influences. A good shepherd
will go forth in the morning, and by noticing the temperature, the direction
of the wind, and the amount of moisture in the air and on the ground, can
easily tell in which direction the flock has wandered. As Highland Sheep
wander great distances from home, the shepherd is always aided in his task
of watching the flock by several of those wonderful dogs that the Scotch
people know and love so well. In taking care of a large flock of sheep a
great deal depends upon the temper of the shepherd. If he be irritable or






SN

————
Sy

impatient the flock will speedily become as difficult to manage as his own
temper. If he be gentle and patient, thouch resolute and firm, he will find
the flock very willing to do his bidding even without the aid of the dogs. The
life of a Highland shepherd is usually one of great hardship. His master
generally permits him to own a number of sheep in the flock so that he will
be more careful in looking after all the sheep. Each shepherd generally
owns a flock of sheep consisting of ten to fifty, or even sixty animals, and
likewise owns the pasturage for a few cows. A lamb belonging to one of
these shepherds was one of the oddest creatures that ever lived. If blamed
or scolded it would shrink away into a corner, push its head out of sight,
and appear quite overwhelmed with sorrow; but if it were praised or petted
it became almost mad with excitement, rolling over and over like a ball, and
even standing upon its head, an odd trick its master had taught it to do,

224
BRAZILIAN EAGLE.

This rather queer bird is found in Brazil, Cayenne, and parts of the West
Indies. It is a small Eagle, being only about the size of a common raven.
Its color is nearly black, with some grayish marks upon the wings, and white
about the tail. The beak is strong, very rounded above, and the claws are
sharply pointed. The legs are yellow, and the foot has a number of scales in
front. ‘The plumage of the young bird is very different from that of the
mature Eagle, being mixed with a good deal of yellow and dark brown.
This bird is always found
near rivers, lakes and
swamps, where it feeds
upon water reptiles whichare
so numerous in such places,
and also upon small animals
which are also found there.
A very great contrast to the
Brazilian Eagle on account
of its color, is one with a
hard name, the Jean Le
Blanc, which is named so
from its white plumage.
This bird, although called
an Eagle, is really more a
falcon, but it is an interest-
ing bird to study with the
Eagles. It hasa queer foot,
feathered below the heel,
while the outer claws are
joined together with a kind
+ of membrane, or skin. The

white of its plumage is
= speckled with brown spots,
Jigez and there is a mixture of
QT, brown on the back. The
ee Ye

= white, however, is the

ae chief color and gives it its
FEZ A name, for even in the back

ee and wings the feathers are

white at the base. The tail is long and even, and is darker than the
the rest of the plumage, being a light gray brown, with dark brown
bars. The foot and toes are blue, also the portion of the leg just above the
foot. The claws are black. This bird is about thirty inches long. It is
found over many portions of Asia and Europe. The Jean Le Blanc Eagle
feeds chiefly upon snakes, frogs, rats, mice and insects, and generally chooses
low forest lands for its home. It builds a nest of quite a large size, usually
at the top of a high tree, and there are either two or three eggs of a pure,
spotless gray. Not so handsome a bird is the White-tailed, or Sea-eagle.

# 225








REDBREAST.

Robin Redbreast is one of the dearest of birds, not only to the children
who remember how it tenderly covered up the Babes in the Wood when
they were left alone in the great forest, but to grown people as well; for its
cheerful looks and voice are very welcome in the spring when it comes back
to its summer home from the milder climate of the South. The Redbreast
is found over a wide range of country, but it cannot stand cold weather and
is one of the first birds to seek
shelter upon a sharp day. At such
times it crouches in holes, or sits
upon the ground, instead of perch-
ing upon twigs and_ branches.
The Redbreast is fond of man
and his home, and will follow the
plowman over the ficld, picking
up the worms which he turns up
with the plowshare, and some-
times will even enter his home to
share in his meal. The Red-
breast is both bold and shy, and
is a bird that always wins the
= love of those whom: it takes a
fancy to. It is very fond of bread and butter, and even of scraps of fat meat.
Honey is also much liked by this bird, as well as sugar, and it will eat large
quantities of bread and butter spread with these sweets. Cream is another
dainty for the Robin, and it has even been known to eat soap. The Redbreast
is quite a fighter, and often kills its own kind when in a quarrel. It does not
willingly allow any other bird to come near a place which it has chosen for
itself, and is very jealous also of its human friends, not liking to share their
love even with its own young. The nest of the Robin is usually placed near
the ground ina thick, leafy bush, or in a bank, and is made of dry leaves,
moss, grass, hair and feathers. Sometimes, too, it is hidden in the thick ivy
around a tree-trunk as much as eight feet from the ground. The bird takes
care not to lead any one to its nest, not going straight to or from it, but flying
to within a little distance and then creeping through the leaves and branches
until it can enter. But when the little creature chooses a human friend, it is
very trustful, and will place its nest and eggs under his care. The Robin
builds its nest in very strange places sometimes, the center of cabbages hav-
ing been chosen for this purpose. It has also built in baskets hanging against
a wall, in a fold of a window curtain, upon greenhouse shelves, and in other
places. One of these little creatures built its home upon a pantry shelf and
sat upon the eggs for five weeks before it gave up, hopping down when anything
was taken from near its corner, but going back as soon as all was quiet again.
Another bird of this kind was in the habit of visiting a caged eagle and peck-
ing up little scraps of the meat which was fed to him, jumping upon his
perch when the eagle had hopped down, and even upon the chain which
was fastened to his foot, The little creature was never once disturbed,

226














SPERMACETI WHALE.

These Whales are noted for their very large heads and short snouts, and
for the position of the blowhole, which is nearly at the top of the snout.
They have very strong teeth in the lower jaw, but the upper jaw has only a
short row of them on each side, and these are partly hidden. When
the animal is young these teeth are rather sharply pointed, but they grow
blunt with long use. The Spermaceti, or Cachalot, as it is sometimes called,
is one of the largest of the Whales, an adult male measuring from seventy to
eighty feet in length, and thirty feet around. The head is nearly one-third
of the total length. There is a large hump upon the back. In color this
Whale is a blackish gray, with a little tinge of green upon the upper portions
of the body. Around the eyes and upon part of the under surface it is a
grayish white. It is of value for the oil and spermaceti which is obtained
from its body. The oil comes from the layer of blubber which covers the
creature and which is called the “blanket” by whalers, this name being

SS



given to it on account of its usefulness in keeping the animal warm, while
spermaceti comes from the head, where it is found in a liquid, oily state in
two great cavities or hollows. When the Whale has been killed, and towed
to the side of the ship, its head is cut off and hung up, a large hole is cut in
the top, and a number of sailors lower buckets to bale out the liquid matter.
At first this has a clear, oily look; but after a while the spermaceti begins to
separate from the oil, and in a short time it becomes so firm that it can be
removed and put into a different vessel. There is still some oil mixed with
the spermaceti, however, and this must be removed by different processes.
From a Cachalot that measured only sixty-four feet in length, twenty-four
barrels of spermaceti and nearly one hundred barrels of oil were obtained.
Ambergris, which is used for a perfume, being dissolved in alcohol for that
purpose, is also found in some of these Whales, but seldom in the young and
healthy animals. It is taken from the intestines of the creature. This Whale
will sometimes fight fiercely, and can spring to a surprising height above water,

227
CAT.

The Domestic Cat is a restful creature, and she gives a home-like look to
the fireside where she lies curled up in her lazy happiness. It is a pretty
sight, too, to see the little soft, ball-like kittens rolling and tumbling over the
mamma-cat and over one another in their play. They are bright and funny
little creatures, with their baby faces and their pretty ways. It is supposed
that the Domestic Cat is a descendant of the Egyptian Cat, having been
brought from Egypt to Greece and Rome, and being taken from those coun-
tries to other parts of the world. It is usually thought that the dog is a
better-natured animal than the Cat, and also that he is more intelligent; but
this is not at alla settled fact. Some cats, it is true, are stupid, and some are
ill-tempered, but this may also be said of many dogs. There surely are Cats
which are just as good-tempered as any dog, and which are just as intelligent
as a dog could possibly be. When well treated a Cat is generally as kindly
an animal as a dog, and it is one of the most trustful of creatures; but when

yf
“Wi i











harshly treated it becomes very nervous and suspicious. The Manx Cat and
the Angola Cat are very noted among the domestic animals of this kind, and
they are as different in their looks as Cats could well be. The Angola Cat
has long, silky hair and a bushy tail, while the Manx Cat is covered with
close-set fur, and has hardly any tail at all. A tine Angola Cat is a hand-
some animal, and seems to know this as well as a person would. It is a very
dignified creature, and moves about with something of the slow grace of a
peacock. It is one of the largest of the Domestic Cats. The Manx Cat is noted
for its lack of a tail, and is nota pretty animal, being much less graceful than
most of its relatives, probably because of its tailless condition. A black
Manx Cat, with its glaring eyes, is not a pleasant creature to look at.

228
BLUE-BIRD.

The pretty and lively little Blue-bird of America is a Sreat favorite, shar-
ing with the robin red-breast the affection of all who know it. The Blue-bird
is social in its nature, and likes the companionship of human beings as well as
that of its own kind. It comes early in the spring as soon as the snow begins
to melt and the soil to break away from the bands of ice which have held it,
but sometimes a sharp frost or heavy snow will drive it back to its hiding-
place, although it soon appears again and cheers its human friends with its







“ 5 i fe
\ Qn NE aS

Fi Sry

a

f
oA

=

ei

cheerful feathers and rich song. Many people make little nest-boxes for the
Blue-bird, with a little hole in the side for entrance. ‘The little creature is
always grateful and accepts the home thus offered it, thanking the giver with
its song, which it pours forth very often. The Blue-bird is not as a rule
found in the North except in the spring and summer months; but even in
the cold season if a few warm sunny days come, two or three are pretty sure
to be seen, enjoying the escape from the snowy home where they are spend-
ing the winter. The Blue-bird has very interesting habits; one of these is
the great-care which it takes of its young. It sits near them and sings its
sweetest songs, flying off now and then to hunt a caterpillar or some other
insect for their food, and returning bright and cheerful, to drop it into a
hungry mouth. The nest of the Blue-bird is built in the hollows of decaying
trees and such places, that the eggs and nest may be well sheltered from the
cold and the rain, because the Blue-bird knows as well as its human friends,
that it must guard against the weather. There are generally from four to
six eggs, and their color is a pale blue. Two broods are usually reared in a
single season and sometimes a third brood, if the weather does not grow too
cold. This bird lives upon insects, spiders, small worms, etc., and in the
autumn it varies its diet with soft fruits and seeds. The happy song of
the Blue-bird is heard through the greater part of the year, beginning at the
end of February or the first of March and lasting until the end of October.
In the spring time however, the song of the Blue-bird is frequent and lively.

229
ARIEL GAZELLE.

This beautiful little creature is found in Syria and Arabia and is often
tamed for a pet, running in and out of the houses at its own will. It is very
graceful in its movements, and is so light and active that it fairly skims over
the ground, hardly treading down the grass at all with its dainty feet. The
upper part of its body is a dark fawn, and there are still darker stripes for
trimming. The Ariel Gazelle has a very gentle temper, and a sweeter pet
could hardly be found. It seems a pity to kill so beautiful and gentle a
creature, but it falls a victim to manas do so many harmless animals. Its
flesh is valued, and its hide is made into many useful articles. It is a small
creature, measuring only about twenty-one inches in height at the shoulder.
When the Gazelle is hunted simply for sport, the falcon and greyhound are
used, for no one can catch a Gazelle in a fair chase without such help. The
falcon can fly even faster than the Gazelle can run and catching up with it,
swoops down upon its head, repeating this attack until the poor victim is con-
fused and falls an easy prey to the greyhound which is watching its chance.

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But when the Gazelle is hunted for the sake of its flesh and skin, it is driven
into large traps, sometimes nearly a mile and .a half square. ‘The walls of
these traps are built of loose stones and are made so high in most places that
even a Gazelle could not leap over them, while in several parts they are left
much lower. These lower parts open upon deep pits. The trap is built near
some watering-place where the animals come daily, and a number of
hunters band together to drive the poor creatures into the pits. Hundreds
perish at a time in this way. The Ourebi is another graceful Antelope, and
is found in Southern Africa, While most creatures of its kind are very shy
and will not come near man or his abode, the Ourebi will stay near villages
and on hills and in valleys where it is in daily peril. This animal is usually
seen in pairs, and is fond of the plains, plunging into the brush when frightened,

230
AZURE-THROATED BEE-EATER.

The truly magnificent Azure-Throated Bee-Eater is an inhabitant of
India, and is found, although very rarely, in the interior of that country. It
is a very rare bird, not so much on account of the small number, as from its
shyness, and the out of the way places where it makes its abode. ‘The home
of this bird is always in the deepest recesses of the vast Indian forests,,and in
spite of its glowing colors and noisy tongue, it is so wary and fearful of man
that it is seldom seen. When discovered, however, it often falls an easy prey
to the native hunter on account of the nervousness of its nature. The report
of a gun close by will have such an effect upon its nervous system as to
afflict it with a momentary paralysis, and it sometimes happens that in the
great hunting expeditions of the native chiefs, this Bee-Eater is so stupefied
by the unwonted turmoil, and repeated explosion of firearms, that it lies
helplessly on the branch, and permits itself to be taken by hand. ‘The man-
ners of the Azure-Throated Bee-Eater are particularly quiet, and during the
daytime it is seldom seen to be in motion. At the approach of night, how-
ever, it becomes very active, and utters its peculiar short grating cry in rapid







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succession. ‘The food of this bird consists of bees, wasps and other insects.
In plumage the Azure-Throated Bee-Eater is a really splendid bird, and is
remarkable for the long soft azure feathers which hang from the throat and
neck. The top of its head is bright scarlet and blue, and the whole of the
upper surface a brilliant green. The feathers of the throat are verditer-blue,
and those of the neck are bluish-green, edged with the same verditer-blue as

the plumes of the throat. The eeneral hue of the under surface is buff.

221
POINTERS.

The Pointer 1s a very useful dog to the hunter, as it beats up the game
for him and thus saves him a great deal of work, while it makes his success
far more certain. It is said that a good Pointer has a rather large head, wide
but not very long, with a high forehead and an intelligent eye, a broad muzzle,
square in front, with a long neck and a body of good length also, with a dee
chest, but not hatchet-shaped like the greyhound. ‘The tail should be strong
at the base, but should grow rapidly thinner until it is very slender, while at
the end it should be sharp like the sting of a wasp. This shape of the tail
shows the breed of the dog. Speed is necessary in a Pointer so that the
hunter can walk forward while his dogs are beating over the field from right
to left. ‘These intelligent animals are so obedient to the voice and gesture of
their master, and are so well trained to act together, that at a wave of the
hand they will separate, one going to the right and the other to the left, and
so they go over the entire field, back and forth, in front of the sportsman as


























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he walks forward. When either of them scents a bird he comes to a sudden
and complete stop, his head thrust forward, his body and limbs fixed and his
tail stretched straight out behind him. This position is called a “point,” and
on account of this way of showing that game is near the dog is called a
“Pointer.” ‘When one of the dogs comes to a point in this manner he is backed
by his companion, so as to avoid disturbing other game. It is quite difficult
to teach these dogs properly, as they may make a mistake through their wish
to please their master as well as through carelessness or laziness.. Some dogs
will come to a point when no game is near, pigs, sparrows, cats and other
animals serving to bring them to the position, and they will refuse to move
on until compelled to do so. Such dogs are very provoking to the sportsman.
The Pointer is not apt to be much with his master except in the field, and so
it does not become attached to him in quite the way that it might otherwise.

232
SPRING-BOK.

This creature is rightly named, for it can easily spring to a height of
seven or eight feet, and sometimes reaches to even twelve or thirteen feet.
When leaping, the back is greatly curved, and the long white hairs that cover
the lower part along the spine and pass downward on either side of the tail,
come plainly into view, being almost hidden when the animal is at rest.
The Spring-bok is very timid, and will never willingly cross a road, often
leaping over it when obliged to do so. It is very pleasing in color, the upper
surface of its body being a warm cinnamon brown, while the lower portion is
pure white, the two colors being separated from each other by a broad band
of reddish brown. The flesh of the Spring-bok is eaten, and the hide is used
for many purposes. The creature is a native of Southern Africa, and
journeys from one region to another in search of water and perhaps for other
reasons. Many thousands move together upon such journeys, laying waste
to the country as though they were animal-locusts, and any creature which is







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taken prisoner in such a vast herd is forced to move along with it, for there
is no chance of escape; even the lion himself has sometimes been caught in
the moving mass and taken along like one of its own number. But the lion
and other beasts of prey, as well as human foes, destroy many of these
creatures by picking them off from the edges of the herd as it passes, and
thus the ranks are thinned. As the animals move in such a mass, it is plain
to see that if the leaders kept to the front and went on eating there would be
nothing left for those which make up the rear; but the truth is that the leaders
eat until they can eat no more and then fall back, giving the hungry ones be-
hind a chance to press forward and get their share; and so a change of posi-
tion is taking place all the time, and there is enough for all. The body of
the Spring-bok is rather clumsy in form, and seems too large for the slight limbs;
but as has been learned, the creature is very agile. The horns of the full-grown
male are much larger than those of the young male or the female, and are
marked with eighteen or twenty narrow rings. When young they are ‘straight,

233
BOBOLINK.

Few of the American birds are better known than the Bobolink, which
is sometimes known as the Rice-troopial. In some parts of the states it is
called the Rice-bird; in another, the Red bird; in another, the Rice-bunting;
while its more familiar title, by which it is called throughout the greater part
of America, is Bobolink, or Bob-
linkun. It sometimes visits Ja-
maica, where it gets very fat,
and is, in consequence, called the
Butter Bird. Its title of Rice-
troopial is earned by the depre-
dations which it annually makes
upon the rice crops, though its
food is by no means restricted to
that sced, but consists in a very
large degree of insects, grubs,
and various wild grasses. It is
a migratory bird, residing during
the winter months in the South-
ern parts of America and the
West Indian Islands, and passing
in vast flocks Northwards at the
commencement of spring. Few
birds have so wide a range as the
Bobolink, for it is equally able to
live in the warm climates of trop-
ical America and the adjacent
islands, and in the Northerly .
regions of the shores of the St.
Lawrence. The song of this bird
is very peculiar, and varies great-
ly with the occasion. As the
flocks of Rice-birds pass South-
ward after the breeding season,
their cry is nothing but a clink-
ing kind of note frequently repeat:
ed, but the love song addressed to the actual or intended mate, is of a very
different character; cxcellent, sweet and fervent. Filled with happiness, and
uttering the joy of his heart in blithe and merry notes, the Bobolink flings
himself into the air, hovers for a while over the object of his love, pours forth
a volley of wild and rapid notes, whose exulting strains can be understood
even by a human ear, and rising and sinking on the wing, thus pays his court
to his chosen mate in the wildest medley of melodious notes that ever issued
from a feathered throat. The male Bobolink is a handsome little bird. The
upper part of his head, the sides of his neck, the wings, tail, and under surface
. of his body are deep black, the feathers sometimes being edged with yel-
low, if the bird is not an old one. The back of the bird is also. black.

234












































WILD BOAR.

The Wild Boar of India is larger, stronger and swifter of foot than the
common Swine, and is looked upon as a plague in its native land, on account
of the harm it does to the crops. It is very fond of visiting the sugar-canes,
not only eating them, but chopping them into short lengths to form little huts
for its young. This creature is very fierce, and if driven from the cane-brake
will rush at any man or animal that may be within its reach, and make savage
use of its sharp tusks, ripping and slashing with them in a most dangerous
way. When forced to run, however, he often escapes the swiftest horse and
gains the shelter of the cane-brake unharmed. ‘There are numbers of old
wells among the plantations, with sides partly fallen in, but which have never
been entirely filled up, and in these wells the boar is fond of lying; for he is
pretty much hidden from view by the thick grass and other growths which
cover the mouth so closely that he can scarcely be seen even by a person
standing on the brink. In Boar-hunting, or “‘pig-sticking” as it is commonly




a
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called, the spear is the weapon in general use, and it is either thrown from the
back of the horse, or held like a lance to meet the animal as it charges fiercely
upon its foe. When driven to bay the Indian boar is a most savage animal.
With eyes flashing and mouth foaming, he dashes at the mounted men,
charging first upon one and then upon another, until he succeeds in driving
them from the field, or is himself overcome. The Babyroussa of Malacca is
another wild and fierce member of the Swine family, and is noted for its
curious tusks. The lower ones are like those of the common Boar, but the
upper ones are curved upward and backward, passing through a hole in the
upper lip, and curling over the face. Some of these creatures are said to be
as large as donkeys, and they have great strength, using their lower tusks as
do the other wild boars; but the upper tusks are curved in such a manner
that they are not of use as weapons. These strange tusks are not seen upon
the female. The skin of the Babyroussa is rather smooth, with a sparse cov-
ering of short, bristly hairs. This creature lives in herds, in the marshy places,

239
‘SPOTTED GROUND THRUSH.

' This odd and important bird has its home in Australia and Van Diemen’s
Land, where the natives think its flesh a great dainty. It is fond of certain
places and keeps pretty closely to them, so that it can easily be found by those
who know its ways. It does not care about trees and bushes, and seldom
perches upon the branches, but likes better the tops of low stone-covered hills,
or rocky gullies, especially those where there are grass and brushwood. It
likes also the spaces between fallen trees. It isnot much of a‘flier, and will not





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take to the wing unless forced to, except, perhaps, to fly across a gully, or
something of that kind. When it does try its wings on account of fright,
it rises with a loud fluttering noise, and goes through the air in a dipping
manner. But if it has little power of wing, it makes up by the strength of
its legs andis a very fast runner, so that it can easily hide when danger
comes. It builds its nest in a loose and careless way, using for that purpose
leaves, the inner bark of trees, and different vegetable materials which it
places ina hollow of the ground. The eggs are large for the size of the
bird, and of a grayish white color, covered with large olive brown spots.
Some authors say that the number of the eggs is two, others that it is three.
The young run about almost as soon as they are hatched, and in two days
they have a dress of soft black down. The flesh of the Ground Dove is very
good, and when the bird is fat it sells readily. ‘The creature has not a very
sweet voice, and all its song is a low piping whistle. In color it is brown
upon the back and upper portions of the body, and this color is mixed with
black. There is a white streak over each eye and a white patch on the
cheeks. The lower portions are white and gray, with a touch of reddish
buff, and each feather has a black center. There is also a black band across
the body underneath. In length the bird measures about ten inches. It has
a clean, pleasing look, and shows in its attitude and shape its power for swift
flight by means of running. The chestnut-capped Timalia of Java is very similar.

236
WILD CAT.

The Wild Cat is found over a wide range of country, and is well-known
in many lands. It is much like the Domestic Cat in looks, but there are some
points of difference between the real Wild Cat and the Domestic Cat which has
taken to a wild life. The tail of the Domestic Cat is long and pointed, while
that of the Wild Cat is much shorter and more bushy. ‘The color of the wild
animal, too, is always very much the same in the different creatures, and has
a yellowish, or sandy gray hue, for its groundwork, with dark streaks drawn
over the body and limbs, somewhat like those of the tiger. A very dark
chain of streaks and spots runs along the spine, while the tail has a black tip,
and many dark-colored rings. ‘The stripes along the ribs and on the legs are
not as dark as those of the spine. . The tail is barely half the length of the
head and body. The fur is always of a good length and thickness, and when
the animal is found in colder regions, this covering is very heavy. ‘These
creatures make great raids upon game of certain kinds, but they seem to



have a special taste for the heads of their victims, sometimes eating that part
of the body only. The Wild Cat chooses a rocky and wooded country for its
home, and takes up its quarters in the cleft of a rock or the hollow of some
old tree, while it has been known to settle itselfin the nest of some large bird.’
The family of the Wild Cat usually numbers from three to six, and the young
Cats remain with their parents until they are full-grown and able to take care
of themselves and to rear a family of their own. An adult male Wild Cat is
about three feet long, the tail being nearly a foot of this length.’ There are
Domestic Cats which are even longer than this, but their tails make up a good
portion of the length, so that the body is shorter. It is claimed by some
people that the Wild Cat is a native of Ireland, but this is not proved. In
addition to the true Wild Cats, there are many Domestic Cats which have
taken to a wild life and have become as fierce as their savage relatives, but,
as has been said before, they still have the long, pointed tail of the tame
animal, even though they have been roaming the woods for many generations,

237
OUNCE.

This creature looks very much like the leopard, but its fur is rougher and
fuller, and its markings are also somewhat different from those of the animal
mentioned. ‘The spots upon its body are not so plain as those upon the leop-
ard, and there is a large black spot behind the ears. The spots run a little
toward stripes, also, and the tail is more bushy than that of the leopard, while
the general color of the body is paler, being a grayish white with a slight
yellow tinge. The upper parts of the body are darker than the lower, as is
usual with most animals. The Ounce has its home in some parts of Asia.
It is about the size of the leopard of Asia and Africa. Another animal with
spotted fur is the Serval, or Bush-cat, of Southern Africa. It is a very pretty
creature, both in coloring and in shape, although its short, puffy tail does not
add to its beauty. Furriers buy the skin of this animal in large quantities on
account of the beautiful fur. The ground color of this coat is of a bright
golden tint, with a wash of gray. The under portions of the body and the



inside of the limbs are nearly white. There are numerous dark spots upon
the light ground, and these sometimes run into stripes. The ears are black
with a broad white band across them, and they are wide at the base. Not
so handsome a creature as the one just described, but also interesting, is the
Ocelot, which is found in tropical America, and which also has a spotted coat.
The Ocelot can be partially tamed without much trouble, and soon knows its
friends from its foes, while it is not at all bashful about showing its likes and
dislikes. It snarls at strangers and purrs at the approach of the friend who
brings it some dainty, and altogether behaves very much like a great cat.
There are several kinds of Ocelots, among them the Common, the Gray and
the Painted Ocelot. They are pretty and agile creatures. In its native
woods the Ocelot seeks its food chiefly among the smaller animals and birds,
although sometimes it kills small monkeys. It can chase its prey in the trees,

283
SAPPHO COMET AND YARRELL’S WOODSTAR.

One of the most noted of all the Humming-birds is the Sappho Comet, or
the Bar-tailed Humming-bird, as it is often called. It is a native of Bolivia,
but usually goes to Eastern Peru in the winter. It is a bold bird, seeking
sweets for its food in gardens and orchards when the trees are in blossom, and
it is especially fond of apple-blossoms. The males are great fighters, chasing
each other through the air, and keeping up a battle with great spirit and
tirelessness. The bird comes to its winter quarters, or summer quarters, as
they are in that region, in September or October, and makes itself at home

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in the shrubberies of the city and the gardens about the Indian cottages. It
also likes the hillsides of the country near by, where it lives among the trees
and sbrubs, coming out to the cultivated fields a number of times a day. It
is fond of maize and some other kinds of plants, as well as the flowers of the
large cacti, which give it a good supply of insect food. When the summer
is over, both old and young birds fly away, to come back again another
spring. his beautiful bird is about two and a half inches in length,

239
UMBRELLA BIRD.

The Umbrella Bird is a kind of Fruit Crow, and is one of the queerest:
looking of all the feathered tribe. Its plumage is placed in such an odd
manner that the creature is very noticeable. The bird has his native home
on the islands of South American rivers, and is not often seen on the main-
land. It is about the size of the common crow, and would look much like
that bird if it were not for the large plume on its head and the tuft of feathers
on its breast. In general color it is a rich shining black, glazed with different
















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tints of blue and purple. It has, perhaps, the most beautiful crest of any bird
known. This'crest is made up of long, slender feathers and is placed on the top
of the head. The plume is blue and white, fine, and curved at the tip. Whenit
is laid back, it isnot so beautiful, although even then it has a pleasing look; but
when it is fully spread, all its beauty is seen. The feathers stand out on all
sides from the top of the head, hiding the beak from view, and forming a
beautiful shining blue umbrella of feathers, from which the bird takes its
name. ‘The tuft on the breast is also handsome and interesting in form and
in the way it is attached to the neck. The Umbrella Bird feeds upon berries
and different fruits, but it does not swallow the hard stones of any. It hasa
very loud and deep cry. The Bald Crow is a common fellow compared with
the Umbrella Bird, but there are many things of interest about it. This

_ bird is heavy in build, and the whole front of the body is bare. The head is
very large, bald, as the name shows, and heavy. It is thought that when
the bird is young, both its head and the front of its body are covered with
fine feathers, which it loses as it grows older, as the rook is known to. The
Bald Fruit Crow, like the other Fruit Crows, feeds mostly upon fruit,

240



L&)s
a






LEOPARD.

The Leopard is found in Africa, as well as in Asia, and has a representa-
tive in America which is known as the Jaguar, or perhaps more rightly by
the name of Puma. ‘This animal is one of the most graceful of the graceful
tribe of cats, and although far less in size than the tiger, it challenges com-
petition with that animal in the bold markings of its fur and the easy elegance
of its movements. It has an accomplishment that is not within the powers of
the lion or tiger, being able to climb trees with singular agility, and even to
chase the trec-loving animals among their familiar haunts. In Africa the
Leopard is well known and much dreaded, for it possesses a very crafty brain,
as well as agile body, with sharp teeth and claws. It commits sad depreda-
tions among flocks and herds, and has sufficient foresight to lay up a little
stock of provisions for a future day. A larder belonging to a Leopard was
once discovered in the forked branches of a tree, some ten feet or more from
the ground. Several pieces of meat were stowed away in this novel recep-



tacle, and hidden from sight by a mass of leaves piled upon them. When
attacked, the Leopard will generally endeavor to slink away, and to escape
the observation of the hunters; but if it is wounded and finds no mode of
escape from its foes, it becomes fierce and charges at them with such great
rage that unless it falls a victim to a well-aimed shot it may do fearful dam-
age before it yields up its life. In consequence of the ferocity and the courage
of the Leopard the native African races make much of those warriors who
have been fortunate enough to kill one of these beasts. The natives seem in
some way to connect the Leopard’s skin with the idea of royalty, and to look
upon it as part of the insignia of majesty, even when it is spread on the kingly
throne instead of hanging gracefully from kingly shoulders; and though the
throne be but a mound of earth, and the shoulders stink of stale grease,
yet the native African monarch exercises a sway none the less despotic.’
46 241
MUSK RAT.

The Musquash, Ondatra, or Musk Rat, is a native of North America. In
color it is a dark brown upon the upper portions of the body, with a reddish
hue upon the neck, ribs, and legs, while the under portion is ashy gray, and
the tail is of the same dark hue as the upper surface. It is a little more than
two feet in length, counting the tail, which measures about ten inches. The
color of the Musk Rat is so much like that of the muddy banks where it has
its home, that the creature is often taken for a lump of mud until it begins to
move. The hind feet are webbed, and make a track in the mud like that of
a common duck. The Musk Rat.feeds almost wholly upon vegetable matter
in its wild state, although when caged it has been scen to eat mussels and
oysters, cutting open the softest shells and taking out the inmates, while it
waits for the hard-shelled creatures to open their shells of their own accord,
or to die. The Musk Rat isa clumsy walker, but it sometimes makes trips of











































nearly three quarters of a mile fromthe water. These creatures at times visit
gardens in search of food, and help themselves to turnips, parsnips, carrots,
maize, and other vegetable products. The most of these they gather by
burrowing beneath the plant and biting through the root, after which they
carry off their plunder to their underground storehouses. To get the maize, -
however, they cut the stalks near the ground. The Musk Rat lives mostly
in burrows, which it digs in the banks of the river. Some of these burrows,
or tunnels, are fifteen or twenty yards long and slope upward. There are
generally three or four entrances, all of which open under water, and all lead
to a single chamber, where the creature makes it bed. This couch is
made of sedges, water-lily leaves, and plants of that nature, and is large
enough to fill a bushel basket. But sometimes the Musk Rat builds little
houses instead of tunnels, and these rise three or four feet above the water
and look like haycocks. The houses are seen on marshy ground, and es-
pecially where there are springs. The Musk Rat is a very amusing creature.

242
LONG-TAILED TITMOUSE.

This bird is well known in England, being very social in its habits, and
flitting about in the trees, hedge-rows, and orchards in little troops of six or
eight. The young birds stay with their parents for the first year, so that
when there is a large brood as many as sixteen Long-tailed Titmice may be
seen together hopping and skipping around. One of the parents is at the
head of this little company, and all of the rest follow it ina funny fashion that
looks as though they were playing a game. ‘he leader calls out to the
others with a chirping cry as it flits from one branch to another, and all are
as merry and happy as can be. ‘These birds are very carly risers, and may
be seen in their favorite places in the gardens before the day’s work for
human beings has begun; but when man commences his labors, the ‘Titmouse
takes himself off to the fields farther away, and the tall trees of the hedge-
rows. ‘These birds are always on the move during the day, flying about



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from spot to spot, lively and tireless. At night the little troop perch together,
huddling into a close mass, as the wrens also do. Each bird tries to eet
nearest to the middle of this cluster on a cold evening, and they keep up a
lively fight until the matter is settled and each one has its place. When they
are asleep, hardly a tail or wing can be seen in the thick, fluffy mass of
feathers. The wings of the Titmouse are rather short, but are quite strong.
It is thought that these birds feed almost Wholly upon insects, and on account
of their keen sight they are able to catch the tiniest creature that crawls or
flies. In this way they are of great use to the gardener, as they feed on these
pests in every stage of their growth, and thus rid the plants of dangerous
foes. ‘hey also eat the seeds of the broom, perhaps for medicine, and carry
away some of the more tender ones to their nests. The Titmouse has a soft,
lively, twittering chirp, which changes at diffetent times with the bird’s feel-
ings. Sometimes it picks up new notes, and when it does this it seems very
proud, skipping about and practicing the new sound for an hour or two.

243
FLYING FOX.

The proper name of this creature is the Roussette, but it is called the Fly-
ing Fox, because its fur is of a red fox-like color, and the head is very. much
like that of a fox. Some of these bats measure as much as five feet across
when the wings are spread out. Although they are so large, there is nothing
-o fear from Flying Foxes, as they will not bite any living creatures unless
they are treated unkindly or roughly handled. They live mostly on vege-










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tables, and, in their own land, do great damage among fruit trees. Figs and
other soft fruits are their favorite food, and agriculturists have a great dread
of them when they make raids on crops and trees. ‘These queer creatures do
not seem to care much for dark and out-of-the-way places to live in, and they
pass the day, which is night to them, hanging from the trunks of large trees,
always choosing fig trees if they can findthem. On the boughs of these
trees the Flying Foxes hang in great numbers, and any one who is not
acquainted with their habits would readily mistake them for bunches of large
fruit, so closely and quietly do they hang. If any one disturbs them while
they are at rest, they set up a chorus of sharp screams and flutter about in a
state of bewilderment, their night-loving eyes being dazzled by the hateful
glare of the sun. Under such circumstances they are very apt to quarrel and
fight for their resting, or hanging, places just as birds do when they retire to
rest for the night. ‘The people who have ventured to eat these creatures say
that the flesh is very white and delicate in flavor, besides being very tender
in substance. The Flying Fox flies in straight lines, not as ordinary bats fly.

244
ANGELA STAR-THROAT.

The Star-throated Humming-birds are all known by the bright metat
like gleam of the feathers on the throat. One of these birds, the Angela
Star-throat, lives in Buenos Ayres and many parts of Brazil, but it is not 4
very common bird. The Angela Star-throat has a quecr-shaped bill, long
and slender, and very well suited to the shape of the blossoms on which it
feeds. It is very wonderful to study the many ways in which nature fits
creatures for what they have to do in life. Large or small, they are just
what they should be for the place they have to fill, and all are full of interest,
from the huge elephant to the tiny insect. ‘To go out into the fields and
study the ways of common birds and then to study from books those others
which are not to be seen except by one who travels widcly, is a source of
great pleasure and profit. The cups of the
flowers upon which the Angela Star-throat
feeds have long blossoms, which are always
filled with tiny insects as though they were
put there for the bird’s food. ‘The male
bird’s head is metal-like green upon the
crown, with little spots of blue and gold.
The upper part of the body is a golden
green, with more gold upon the lower part
of the back. ‘The wings are purple brown
and the tail purple black with a dark green
gloss upon it. Behind each eye is a white
spot, and a gray streak runs through the
cheeks. The center of the throat is a_bril-
liant crimson, and looks like fire. It is
edged with long feathers of 'a deep blue.
The under surface is a dark green, changing
to blue in the center, and on each side of the
flanks there is a tuft of white feathers. ‘The
female is gold bronze on the upper part of
the body, and the crown of her head is gray:
ish. There is no crimson or blue on hey
throat; it is simple gray, covered with pale
brown spots, so she is not as brilliant as her
mate; but this is true of nearly all birds.
The tail of the Angela is forked, being much
shorter in the middle than on either side.
The bill is not nearly as long as that of the Sword-bill Humming-bird which
has been described, and it is not widened at the end, but it is unusually long,
even for a Humming-bird, as has been said, and it gives the bird a rather stern
look, In fact, his whole appearance is dignified as he sits upon a long stalk
of the flowering plant which he loves, his head from the way the feathers are
placed, having a very erect look. The flaming red of his throat shines as
though it were really on fire, so that he may well be called a Star-throat,
while his brilliant body is like a jewel against a background of blossoms.

245


SHEPHERD'S DOG.

This is one of the most useful of dogs, as well as one of the most interest-
ing. It is rather large and very strong, with great powers of endurance, se
that it can care for its charges by day and still be ready to hunt on its own
account at night, as some breeds of these dogs are known to do. The Shep-
herd’s Dog has a thick, warm coat, woolly and heavy about the neck and
breast, and it needs this warm coat because it must be out in ail sorts of
weather. The tail of this dog is naturally long and bushy, but it is often
removed when the animal is young, because there was long ago a Jaw requir-
ing this to be done, and the practice is still kept up. The muzzle of the
Shepherd's Dog is sharp, its head is of medium size, its eyes are very bright and
intelligent, and its feet are strong and tough. The true Shepherd’s Dog is
kind to the flock under its care, and the helpless creatures turn to him when
danger comes and flock around him as though sure of his care and protection.

SARA ARE EESSN



These dogs are said never to bite their charges unless set on by their masters,
but to keep them from straying with the greatest care and to guide them
with kindness. As a rule, the Shepherd Dog cares little for any one except
his master. He dislikes strangers and rarely makes companions of other
dogs. The Sheep-Dog is a valuable creature. If his work were to be done
by men, it would cost so much that the profits of the flock would be swallowed
up, and, besides that, the men would not be of as much service as the dog is,
because the sheep understand the dog better than the shepherd, while the dog
understands his master and can pass on his orders to the flock. A large flock
of lambs became frightened one night and dashed off among the hills in three
different directions. The shepherd was unable to call them back and told the
dog that the lambs had run away, setting off himself in search of them. He
was unsuccessful, but on his return met the dog with the whole flock.

246
CHAFFINCH.

The Chaffinch is a very interesting bird and is found in large numbers in
England and the countries near. It has a queer habit in its moving to dif-
ferent regions, the mother-birds with their children going first and their mates
staying behind for a time, getting along as best they can. When the first
flocks of these moving birds appear, they seem to be made up of females; but
this is probably due to the fact that the young male birds have not yet put
on their grown-up dress. In severe weather these birds flock around human
homes, being seen in the gardens and farm-yards, where they are very bold
and fearless. The Chaffinch has a merry whistle, and its call-note is sweet
and ringing, and sounds like the syllable “pinck!” This name has been
given to the bird in some places because of its cry. The Chaffinch builds a





very. neat and pretty nest, cup-shaped, and formed of moss, wool, hair, and
lichens, also a kind of moss, the lichens being placed on the outside so as to
make the nest look like the bough on which it is placed. ‘This little house is
usually put in the upright fork of a branch, just where it joins the main stem,
or bough, from which it sprang, and can hardly be seen, it is so much like the
tree itself. It takes about three wecks for the building of the nest. The eggs
are four or five in number, pale brownish buff in color, with spots and streaks
of rather dark brown. The Chaffinch has pretty colors. At the base of the
beak the feathers are jetty black, and the wings are also black, with a little
dash of brown. The top of the head and back of the neck -are slaty gray,
the back is chestnut, and the sides of the head, chin, throat and breast are
bright chestnut. There are also trimmings of white and yellowish white.

247
SWALLOW.-TAILED FALCON

This beautiful bird lives in different parts of America and is sometimes
seen in England. It isfound over quite a wide range of country, and moves
from north to south. It comes north about the last of April or the first of
May, and is found in great numbers in the regions along the Mississippi. In
October these birds begin to return to their southern homes, large numbers
having been seen in Florida at this season. They soar at great heights for
several days at a time, slowly making their way to their winter quarters along

SE the Gulf of Mexico. They are

aS not found in large numbers in the

S east, but towards the south there
eee ES vi »» SM\ are more, while in Louisiana and
ss XS » Mississippi great flocks have been
‘seen. On their first arrival after
a long journey they are so tired
~. that they can easily be caught,
~~ but at other times they are safe,
as their flight is so high. This
=== falcon looks much like the swal-
low, and as it flies, circling in the
air in search of its food, it might
be taken for a swallow. The
flight is much the same in the
r1\, two birds and the mode of feeding
VEX p is also alike. The Swallow-tailed
p i AA RK Falcon, or Kite, feeds upon the
VAN! RVs larger insects, which it sometimes

iy catches on the wing, and some-

: times snatches from the bushes

a, wii al
ha Gee as it passes them in its flight.
ral, : :











ay

A

i)



















NN 1A aN ao MAE sera
AVIRA S Wie ANY Wan ) Locusts of different kind d
WAY AV eeaull W by Oi ht 5s, an
\ A yi | NU other insects, are caught in this
' iN wy \Y IN A \" al WY; manner. It is also fond of wasps
KANN SEAR A 7
Ni NA \ VN Ne and their larve, and has been
| SSK ml i | known to dig into a wasp’s nest
(

and tear away the comb, as the
honey buzzard does. Small snakes, lizards, and frogs, also help to make up
the bill of fare of this bird. When it is hunting, it is so interested in its work
that it can be easily shot, as then it does not notice its human foe. After one
of these birds has been killed, it is casy to shoot many more, as they have a
habit of circling around their dead comrade as though they wanted to carry
it away. The Swallow-tail usually builds its nest on the very top of some
high rock or pine, and also near the water. The nest is built of small sticks
and lined with grasses, moss and feathers. There are from four to six eggs,
of a white color, with a greenish tinge, and they are marked with some dark
brown blotches. ‘There is only one brood in the year. ‘The first dress of the
young ones is buff-colored. The dress of the full-grown bird is very bold.

248
ANT-BEAR.

This queer looking creature is known as the Tamanoir, the Great Ant-
Eater, or the Ant-Bear. It is a native of Guinea, Brazil, and Paraguay.
The Ant-Bear has no teeth whatever. Its head is wonderfully long and
narrow, and its body is covered with long, coarse hair, while the thick hair
on its tail forms a heavy plume. The color of this animal is brown, shaded
with gray on the head and face, and mixed with some pure white hairs on the
head, body and tail. The throat is black, and a long black mark, in the form
of a triangle, arises from the throat and passes over the shoulders. There
are four toes on each of the fore feet, and five on the hind feet. The cotai
length of the Ant-Bear is between six and seven feet, the tail being about two
feet six inches long. ‘The claws of the fore feet are very long ana curved



This ugly animal does not make any burrow, but sleeps in the shade of
its own plumy tail. When aslecp it looks like a rough bundle of hay thrown
loosely on the ground. It is not a fighting animal, but when attacked by a
dog or any similar enemy, it uses its very powerful fore feet to strike hard
blows. It will clasp a dog in such a terrific grip that the poor animal is half
suffocated and only too glad to escape from the Ant-Bear. The eyes of this
creature have a very cunning look, and make it appear remarkably wicked.
As it rests by day, the night is the time it hunts for food. It will make its
way towards the ant-hills and begin the work of destruction. Laying its fore
feet upon the strong walls the ants have built, it will speedily tear them
down, and as the frightened insects run about bewildered, the big hungry
enemy sweeps them into its mouth with rapid movements of its long tongue
which is covered with a sticky substance that prevents the insects from
escaping while they are being drawn into the mouth of the Great Ant-Eater.

a4
HEDGEHOG.

The hard round spines or prickles which cover the upper part of the body
of this animal are about an inch in length. ‘These curiously formed spines
are useful to the Hedgehog for many reasons besides protecting it from the
attacks of its foe. A Hedgehog can throw itself from a high wall, curl itself
into a ball as it is coming down, and reach the ground without suffering any
harm from its fall. In the full-grown animal the bristles are hard and shining.
They thickly cover the entire back and top of the head, and are of grayish

ce
os

5 ps iN



white color, with a blackish brown ring near the middle. In the young animal
they are few in number, very soft, and nearly white in color. For the first
few days of their life the little creatures look like balls of white hair. The
tail of the full-grown Hedgehog is nearly always hidden by the bristling
quills which are about one-fourth longer. In the young animal, the tail can
be seen until the quills grow long enough to hide it. The length of a full-
grown Hedgehog is about ten inches, the tail being only three-quarters of an
inch long. When the young ones are born, they are not anything like their
parents, and some people mistake them for young birds. The nest of the -
Hedgehog is a very ingenious structure. It is woven of moss and other
substances, and so well thatched with leaves that the inside of the nest will
keep dry in the midst of the heaviest rain. The Hedgehog is very fond of
cream and eggs. It is a great destroyer of snakes, frogs, and other animals,
crunching them together with their bones as easily as a horse will eat a
carrot. Even the thick bone of a mutton chop, or the big bone of a fish is
splintered by the Hedgehog’s teeth. It will attack a viper as readily as a
grass snake, and does not fear the serpent’s fangs. It seems impossible to
poison a Hedgehog, no matter whether it is bitten bya viper or given arsenic
or other deadly poisons, The common Hedgehog is easily tamed, and there
is nothing better than one of these creatures for driving away cockroaches.

250
TREE PIPIT.

The Tree Pipit is called by that name because it has a habit of perching
‘in trees, while the Meadow Pipit likes best to flit about in waste lands and
marshes. The Tree Pipit is only a summer visitor in temperate regions, not
liking the cold or dreary winters. Although this bird perches in trees, it has
not a very strong hold upon the bough, and is not so lively in jumping about
as are most of the perching birds. While on the tree it generally settles on
the end of some bough, and does not hop about from branch to branch as
often as most of the tree birds do. Although it is called the Tree Pipit, it
likes the ground better than the
byanches and runs and _ trips
about over the roughest soil
with an easy grace, which is not
at all like its carefulness in the
trees. The song of this bird is
quite sweet and much more
powerful than that ofthe Mead. .
ow Pipit, and is given in this
way: The little creature flics
into some tree near by and hops
about from branch to branch,
chirping merrily with cach hop,
until it gets to the top of the
treey, lie perches theres fora
few moments and then launches
itself into the air and flies upward, bursting into a strain of music which
sounds as though it were quite proud of itself for what it had donc. I*lutter-
ing downward as it sings, it alights on the same tree from which it started,
and hops down again until it reaches the ground. The nest of the ‘Tree Pipit
is almost always placed upon the ground under some tuft of grass, although
sometimes the bird builds in alow bush. This nest is made of moss, roots,
and fine grasses, and the lining is mostly of hair. There are five eges,
whitish in color and covered with reddish brown spots. ‘The eggs vary quite
a little in color, some having more spots and larger ones than others, and
sometimes there are different shades of purple mixed with brown. ‘The
Tree Pipit is larger than the Meadow Pipit, and it has a flatter head and a
larger bill, with shorter hind claws. In color it is like the Meadow Pipit.
The Tree Pipit is a lively little creature, and it is interesting to watch its
happy flitting and to hear its little song of triumph as it soars up into the air
above the tree-top, and also to watch its descent in the same manner in which
it made its way upward. ‘There is nothing lazy about this bird. It is busy
from morning to night, and as happy as it is busy. The White Wagtail is
much like the Tree Pipit in form and has the same long tail. Like the
Pipits, also, it changes its dress to suit the season; but its coloring is
different, the throat and head being jet black, while the back and the
rest of the upper surface are light ash gray. The White Wagtail is
common in France and southern Europe, and is a very pretty bird.



251
BLUE AND YELLOW MACAW,

The Macaws are mostly inhabitants of southern America, in which
country so many magnificent
birds find their home. They are
all very splendid birds, and are
remarkable for their great size,
for their very long tails and the
splendid hues of their plumage.
The beak is also very large and
powerful, and in some species the
ring around the eyes and part of
the face has no covering. The
Macaws often fly to a very great
height in large flocks, and are
fond of performing sundry evolu-
tions in the air before they alight.
With one or two exceptions, they
care very little for the ground,
and are generally seen on the
summit of the highest trees. The
Blue and Yellow Macaws mostly
keep in pairs, though, like the
other species, they will sometimes
assemble in flocks of considerable
size. When thus congregated
the Macaws become very con-
versational, and their united cries
are most deafening, and can be
heard at a great distance. In
common with the other Macaws,
this species is easily tamed, and
possesses some powers of imita-
tion, being able to learn and re-
peat several words, or even
phrases. But the Red and Blue
Macaw is superior in size and
beauty to any parrot of southern
America. His commanding
strength, the flaming scarlet of
his body, the lovely variety of
red, blue, yellow and green on
his wings, the great length of his
scarlet and blue tail, seem all to
join‘and demand for him the title
of Emperor of all the parrots.
He is scarce in Demerara until
you reach the Macoushi country.






STICKLEBACKS.

The two Sticklebacks shown in the illustration are the three-spined Stickle-
back and the ten-spined Stickleback. These little fish are very plentiful in
England, and are known in different parts under the names Tittlebats, Prickly |
Fish, and Sharplins. It is a most bold and lively little fish, hardly knowing
fear, very See ‘and remarkably interesting in its habits. It is even
more greedy than the perch, and renders great service to mankind by keep-
ing within due bounds the many insects, which, although they perform their
duties in the world, are so very prolific that they would ake the country
uninhabitable were they allowed to increase without some check. So greedy
and fierce are these little creatures, that they always form the earliest game
for the juvenile anglers. Never were there such creatures to fight as the
Sticklebacks, for they will even go out of their way to attack any thing which
they think Pen offend them, Rael they will charge at a human being almost
as readily as at one of their own kind. About the breeding season, when
every adult Stickleback challenges every other of his own sex, they do little

=

ess aS
aas== Se
ae SS A es
; =~ RAS











































































































































but fight from morning until night. They are as jealous as they are brave,
and will not allow anotner fish to pass within a certain distance of their home,
without darting out and offering battle. Two antagonists will jump at eae
other’s head or gills, and hold on with as much determination as a bull dog.
They whirl round and round in the water, fighting hard until one is beaten.
Then is the time to see the triumphant little fish in all his glory. Ilis back
glows with shining green; his sides and head are glorious with eolden scarlet;
and his stomach is sily ery white. The Stickleback is one of the very few
fish that build houses for their young, as a defense against the many foes that
are ever lying in wait for the destruction of the eggs or of the newly hatched
young. ° The nest is slightly larger than a twenty: “five cent piece, ‘and has a

top or cover with a hole in the center about the size of a very small nut, in
which are tei the eggs or spawn. These eggs are about the size of

poppy seeds, and of a bright yellow color, but as they approach life, they be-
come almost black. The nests are built of various v egctable substances, such
as very small pieces of straw or sticks the exact color of the eround at the
bottom of the water on which they are laid, so that it is almost impossible for
any one to discover the nest, unless they see the fish at work or find the eggs.

258
CRESTED TITMOUSE.

The Crested Titmouse is very noticeable on account of the tall plume on
its head, from which it takes its name. It is generally seen in little troops,
and is found in Europe. Its nest is usually found in the hole of some decay-
ing tree, the oak being best liked, and the eggs are eight or ten in number,
generally white, spotted with a few light red specks. Like the Long-tailed
‘Titmouse, this bird is black and white in its general coloring. The feathers
of the crest are black at the base and edged with a band of white; the back
and wings are soft brown; the under
surface of the body is very pale fawn,
and that of the wings and tail is a
pearly gray. The crested Titmouse
is a small bird, being only four inches
and a half long. It will be seen that
it is not so particular about its house
as the Long-tailed, and the eggs do
not reach so great a number. Its tail
is not as long and it has quite a differ-
ent look, taken all together. The
Bearded Titmouse is nearly as notice-
able a bird as the Crested, and takes
its name from the tuft of soft feathers
at the side of the face. It is often
found as a cage bird. This bird
chooses marshy spots for its home, and so is not very much seen eyen in the
localities where it is common. It does not rise to any great height, but flits
about a little way above the water-plants, where it finds its insect food. It
is a nimble bird, and when hunting its prey often hangs with its head down-
ward, clinging with its claws, and not at all troubled by the swinging of its -
perch. ‘The Bearded Titmouse has a low, musical voice, clear, and like the
sound of cymbals a great way off, and much softened. When not frightened
it utters this pretty note over and over as it flits about, but at the first warn-
ing of danger it drops to the ground and passes silently among the stalks to
a place of safety. The ground is always so wet and soft that none but the
lightest creatures could follow the Titmouse upon its way. In summer this
bird feeds mostly upon insects, spiders, etc. It also eats small shelled crea-
tures. In winter its chief food is the seeds of the reed. The Titmouse builds
a cup-shaped nest, soft and warm in the inside, and covered with dried leaves
and grasses. It is always placed near the ground in a thick tuft of grass or
dead reeds. There are usually five pinky white eggs, specked and streaked
with brown. Like the Long-tailed Titmouse, the Bearded Titmouse keeps
its little family together for some time, and they may be seen in little troops
as they flit over the tops of the tall water plants. This bird has very pretty
plumage. The head, neck, and portions around the ear are gray, looking
very pretty against the jet black beard. The upper surface of the body is a
pale fawn, trimmed with a little black. The tail is marked with black, white,
with a darker hue on the flanks. The bird is about six inches in total length.

204


BASS.

The fine fish known under the name of Bass or Sea-Perch, furnishes very
good sport for the anglers. It bites with readiness at a bait, butis a very dif-
ficult fish to secure on account of its tender mouth and its great strength.
When hooked, it leaps, plunges, and swims with such force and swiftness,
that the fisherman is forced to exercise the greatest skill in preventing it from
breaking away. One of its favorite ruses is to double back under the boat
in hopes of cutting the line against the keel, or gaining a fixed point by which
it may be able to drag the hook from its mouth. Even when fairly tired out
and drawn to the edge of the boat, it is by no means secured, for its scales
are so hard that a very sharp blow is needed to fix the hook jin its side, and
its gills and fins are so well armed that the fish cannot be grasped without
great care. ‘The spines of the back fin in particular are strong and sharp as
packing needles, and the various portions of the coverings of the gills are
edged with projecting teeth which cut like lances. Many a bold fisherman has
received very disagreeable wounds that have been inflicted by the sudden twist
and wriggle of the Bass, when grasped in a careless manner. When lifted
into the boat, the hook is not to be taken from the mouth without some risk,





as may be imagined when reference is made to the formidable mouthful of
teeth drawn in the illustration. It is a very greedy fish, and is sometimes
known as the “Lupus,” which means “wolf,” in consequence of its great ap-
petite. It feeds upon fish and various inhabitants of the sea. One of its
greatest daintics, however, consists of Wood-lice, and the Bass is*bold enough
to venture among the rocks in a tempest for the sake of snapping up these
creatures, as they are washed by the waves and beaten by the winds from
their places of concealment among the stones. The flesh of the Bass is very
excellent, and is thought to be in the best condition when the fish is small;
that is, when it measures about eighteen inches in length. The color of this
creature is a fine, dark, dusky blue on the back, and beautiful silvery white
on the lower part; the fins are brown. The Bass sometimes reaches a very
considerable size, and it has been known to weigh upwards of twenty pounds.
This is exceptionally large, however, as it seldom reaches that size, and
a specimen of fifteen pounds weight is thought to be a remarkably fine one.

255
WARBLERS.

The Lesser White throat, or Brake Warbler, is not a very great singer,
but it chatters so much that it has often been called the Chatterer. It flut-
ters about in the branches of the trees and in shrubs, but does not show itself
mach in the open ground, for it is a very shy bird. It is merry and happy
in its ways. The nest is .
open and like a saucer in
shape and is generally
lined with hair. The col-
or of the Lesser White-
throat is dark gray upon ZZ
the upper surface, with a Sat SEZ GE Ze : me
marking of dark brown 9 ==—= :
and grayish white. The
under surface is white
with just a tinge of the
shade of red called car-
mine. The bird is scarce-
ly ever more than five
inches in its entire length.
The Wood Warbler has
a more varied song than
the Brake Warbler, al-
though this song does not
change much.~* The little
singer perches upon a












branch and commences to SEEN Vip Noe.
trill forth its lay, pouring See : ANN
out the notes very rapidly SSA eee : JAN lec
and earnestly. Often three SEP eee Ne

or four of the Wood War-
blers try to see which can
sing the loudest and get
so interested in it that
they quiver and pant and strain their throats, as eager as any human singers
to do their best. “Twee-ee,” “twee-ee,” the Wood Warbler sings, drooping
its wings with the last note and making them quiver. Sometimes also it
sings while flying from one tree to another. ‘This bird is very pretty in shape
and strong of wing. It feeds on insects, mostly when they are in the cater-
pillar state, and is very fond of the leaf-rolling caterpillars, flying from tree to
tree in search of them, and snatching them up as they hang by the slender
threads which they swing from when frightened. Sometimes, too, the little
creature chases insects on the wing, and captures many. Its nest is placed
on the ground under some thick shrub or bush, and is like a dome in shape,
with a hole on the side for a door. It is made of long, dried grass, leaves,
fibers and moss, and is lined with hair and fine fibers, There are from four
to six eggs of a grayish white color, sprinkled with red and ash-colored spots,

256
COMMON LAND TORTOISE,

Perhaps the best known species of all tortoises is the Common Land
Tortoise, so frequently exposed for sale in our markets, and so favorite an
inhabitant of gardens. This appears to be the only species that inhabits
Europe, and even in that continent it is by no means widely spread, being
confined to those countries which border the Mediterranean. It is one of the
vegetable feeders, eating various plants, and being fond of lettuce leaves,
which it crops in a rather curious manner, biting them off sharply when fresh
and crisp, but dragging them asunder when stringy, by putting the fore feet
upon them, and pulling with the jaws. This Tortoise will drink milk, and
does so by opening its mouth, scooping up the milk in its lower jaw, as if with
a spoon, and then raising its head to let the liquid run down its throat. One
of these animals, which was kept for some time, displayed a remarkable
capacity for climbing, and was very fond of mounting upon various articles
of furniture, stools being its favorite resort. It revelled in warmth, and
could not be kept away from the hearth-rug, especially delighting to climb
upon a footstool that generally lay beside the fender. It used to clamber on



the stool in a rather ingenious manner. First it got on its hind legs, rearing
itself against the angle formed by the stool and fender. ‘Then it would slowly
raise one of its hind legs, hitch the claws into a hole in the fender, and raise
itself very gradually, until it could fix the claws of the other hind foot into
the thick carpet-work of the stool. A few such steps would bring it to the top
of the stool, when it would fall down flat, crawl close to the fender, and there
lie motionless. If it were taken off twenty times a day, and carried to the
other end of the room, it would always be found in its favorite resort in a few
minutes. This Tortoise had a curious kind of voice, not unlike the mewing
of a little kitten. The Common Tortoise is known to live to a great age.
The flesh of some Tortoises is very good, and is largely eaten, both fresh
and salted. Those who catch Tortoises cut a slitin the skin near the tail,
so as to show the fat under the carapace. Those in poor condition are let go free.

as 257
EYED TORPEDO.

This is one of the strangest and most interesting of all the finny tribe. It
is an electric battery able to swim about and eat and fight. The upper sur:
face of the fish serves for the copper plate of a battery and the lower surface
for the zinc plate. Needles have been magnetized by this fish, and it has
even given an electric spark. It would need a good many pages to tell all
about the strange creature which has such power in its body, but the study
would be a very interesting one. Only a little can be given here. The elec-
tricity is stored in little columns made up of discs, or flat pieces, with a mem-
brane, or thin skin, between them, holding some kind of fluid, and these
columns run all through the creature. In some of the largest specimens there
are more than eleven hundred of these columns. A good many blood-vessels
pass among them, and there are nerves in every direction. The shock from
the stroke of this fish is very strong, but there is one creature which
it does not injure at all; this is a certain little creature which feeds
upon the fish itself, clinging to it and sucking the juices from its body, with-



out in the least caring for its power to harm. ‘This parasite, or hanger-on,
generally measures from an inch to an inch and a half in length. The Eyed
Torpedo is found in the Mediterranean Sea, and in the Indian and Pacific
Oceans, and has sometimes been seen in other waters. It does not grow toa
very great size, one of the largest specimens being about four feet long, and
weighing sixty or seventy pounds. The shock of the Torpedo has been used
in some cases of fever, in place of an electric battery, it having been placed by
turns upon different parts of the body. This strange power cannot be fully
explained, but we know that all animals have more or less electricity about
them. If the muscle of a newly killed ox and another of a fish are touched
together, there will be a slight shock. This power is also present in human
beings, in some more than others, and it is a most wonderful thing. But
although people know so much more about electricity now than they did a
few years ago, even, there is still much to learn, and the future may show
great wonders which are only guessed at now. The power of the rattlesnake
to charm its victim, may only be another form of the same great power.

258
COW TROOPIAL.

The Cow Troopial, or Cow Bird, of America, like the cuckoo, does not
build its own nest, but steals into the nests of other birds and forces them to
care for its young. The mistake is often made of calling the American cuck-
oo the Cow Bird, because its call sounds like the words, ‘cow! cow!” The
American cuckoo, however, builds its own nest and takes care of its own
young with great affection, so it should not be charged with such lazy and
unkind habits. The Cow Bird reaches the Middle States about the end of
March or the beginning of April, and begins to leave again toward the middle
or end of October for its winter home in the south. This bird is social in its
tastes and goes in little parties, usually in company with the red-winged star-
ling. While in the north Troopials are generally seen near streams, perched
on the trees along rivers and creeks. During the months of July and August
they suddenly disappear and are not seen again until September, when they
come back in quite large numbers. It is not known just where they go at






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this time, whether to the depths of the forest or to some place farther away.
The Cow Birds care nothing for home or little ones. The female places her
eggs in the nest of some other bird and leaves them to be taken care of by
the little home-keeper, who has not been asked anything about the matter;
but both eggs and young usually fare very well indeed, the bird who has thus
been made a foster-mother taking even better care of them than of her own.
Indeed, she will often rear the young Cow Bird if she has to let her own little
ones die. These birds do not mate at all nor show any affection for each
other. The small birds which are generally chosen to rear the young of the
Cow Troopial are the Maryland yellow-throat, the ted-eyed flycatcher, the
white-eyed flycatcher, the blue-gray flycatcher, the bluebird, the chipping
sparrow and the golden-crown thrush. These birds are of very different
sizes and build very different nests, and it is hard to see why they should be
chosen to do the work of the Cow Bird. The Troopial is not known to drive
other birds from their nests, in order to place her eggs there instead,

259
POMERANIAN DOG.

This creature is a good deal like the Esquimaux Dog in some respects,
and within a few years has come to be a great favorite for a house dog or
companion. It is very handsome and also very intelligent. Its long white
fur and bushy tail are beautiful, and the animal itself is quite proud of them.
Sometimes the coat is a cream color, and in very rare cases it is deep black,
but the pure white is best liked. The Italian Greyhound is another dog
which is kept for a pet, but it is as unlike the Pomeranian Dog as it possibly
could be. It is small and slim, with a smooth coat and long, slender legs,
head and tail. It is generally taken from Spain and Italy to other countries,
but cannot live in a coldeclimate unless kept closely wrapped in warm cioth-
ing during the changeable months. It is a very pretty creature, active and
graceful, and is affectionate to those who can win its love. The Italian Grey-
hound is worthless as a hunter because, although it can run swiftly, it is not

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strong enough to hold a rabbit when it catches one. This little creature gen-
erally weighs about eight or ten pounds, sometimes not more than six or
seven. A very handsome dog of this kind was fourteen and a quarter inches
high, weighed eight pounds and three-quarters, and was black in color. A
great contrast to the little Italian Greyhound, both in looks and nature, is the
noble Persian Greyhound, which has been used as a hunting dog from earliest
times. It is quick and light of limb and strong of jaw, and is used in the
chase of the wild ass, the antelope and the wild boar. The wild ass is-very
hard indeed to catch, for it keeps to the rocky and mountainous regions,
which even the sure-footed Persian horse cannot reach, and so the Greyhound
is of the greatest service in driving it from its hiding place. But a single
wild ass will often escape a number of these swift dogs, it is so bold and tireless.
The Persian Greyhound is a powerful creature although it is a slender animal.

260

var
ORCHARD ORIOLE.

The Orchard Oriole, or Bob o’Link, is a great favorite in the countries
where it lives, and it is noted for the wonderful nest which it builds. This
nest is woven into a bag like a knitted purse in shape, long grasses being

“used for the purpose, and is made so firmly that it will stand a great deal of
rough treatment. It hardly
seems possible that the little
creature can weave with such
skill. Two, and sometimes
three threads are used together,
and these are carried over the
branch and then to the bottom
of the nest so as to hold it in
its place. The nest grows
thicker toward the foot where
the eggs are placed, and has a
soft lining of downy seeds.
These little homes are not al-
ways the same in size andform.
If hung from the stiff boughs of
the apple tree, they are shallow;
but when fastened to theslender
boughs of the weeping willow,
as they often are, they are
made longer. ‘The size of the
opening is the same, however.
Probably the nest is built deep-
er when placed in the willow,
because the boughs of that tree
swing more, and there is great-
er danger of the eggs or young
being tipped out. The long
nest is not as thick as the short
one, and the walls are made
thicker in colder regions than f .
in warmer. The Orchard a
Oriole is a great help to the farmer, as it feeds upon the bugs and caterpillars
that do so much damage to fruit trees in the spring and summer, and it never
harms the fruit itself. Its food is made up of a great number of insects, and
almost entirely of those which do the most harm to fruit. The Oriole is an
active, sprightly, and restless bird; he darts around from ground to tree,
from tree to ground, and from tree to tree, here and there and everywhere,
at a great rate, and all the time he is singing as gaily as may be. [iis notes
are shrill and lively, but flung together in some confusion and uttered so
rapidly that the ear cannot follow them perfectly. Between these hurried notes
he has a single note that is very pleasing. These birds have a habit of rising
on their legs, jerking the tail, and stretching the neck, as they seize their prey.

261










SPOTTED BOWER BIRD.

The Spotted Bower Bird is a kind of Starling, and is a very interesting
and beautiful creature. The Starlings are never large birds, and they have
bills which are pretty much alike, being straight nearly to the end, where
they curve suddenly downward; there is usually a little notch also. The
Spotted Bower Bird is a native of New South Wales, and lives in forests
away from the water. It is very shy and is not often seen by travelers, so
it is a hard bird to study in its own home. Its note is harsh, grating, and
scolding, and it utters this note when any creature comes near, thus leading
on the foe or friend as the case may be. ‘This bird is noted for the queer
bower which it builds. The bower is not a nest, but is used as a gathering-
place for the birds, which run inand out and through it in a very playful way. It
is built of twigs and lined with tall grasses, while great numbers of shells and

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bones are used for trimming it, being also placed in front as shown in the cut.
Little paths, too, are formed with these shells and bones, while some of them
are placed in such a way that they help in keeping the grasses with which
the bower is lined firmly in place. These bowers, or play-houses, are usually
built under the shelter of some overhanging tree in the depths of the forest,
and some of them are as much as three feet long and contain nearly a half
bushel of shells. The bower is usually placed on a platform of sticks, firmly
woven together. ‘The Bower Birds will steal anything that takes their fancy
for decorating, or trimming their bowers, stone tomahawks, bright colored
cotton rags, pipes, and in fact anything they happen to like, being used for
the purpose. The Spotted Bower Bird is rich brown in color, with buff spots,
and upon the back of the neck there is a band of longer feathers of a beautiful
rose pink, which glisten like satin, The bird feeds chiefly upon fruits and berries,

262
IBEX.

The Ibex, or Steinbock, is noted for the great size of its horns, which are
sometimes more than three feet in length, and of such great thickness that
they do not seem at all fitted to an animal which makes its home among moun-
tains and crags. The creature lives in Alpine regions, and some writers say
that its large horns are used to break the force of a fall, and that the animal
when leaping from a great height will alight upon these elastic horns, thus
saving itself from a shock that would otherwise kill it. The statement is not
proved, however, and is not much_ believed. The Ibex is as shy as
the chamois, and also as active; so it is not at all easy to catch it; besides
this, it sometimes turns on its pursuer, and making a sudden dash, strikes him
from the narrow, rocky pass over which he is forced to go, thus sending him
down to death, The creature can also get along without food or water for







































uite a length of time, and this makes the chase even more difficult. It lives
in little bands numbering five or ten, each band being under the command of
an old male, and there is the best of order. A sentinel, or guard, is always
on the watch, while at the slightest hint of danger, from sound, scent,
or sight, the warning whistle is given, and the whole troop fly off to the
highest possible point, their instinct leading them upward as soon as they are
frightened. The young Ibex gains its strength very rapidly, being able to
follow its parent a few hours after its pirth. In color this animal is a reddish
brown in summer and a gray brown in winter. Along the spine and over the face
passes a dark stripe, and the under parts of the body, as well as the inside of
the limbs, are washed with whitish gray. There are strongly-marked cross-
ridges on the horns, which are thought by some people to show the age of
the animal. In the female, the horns are not nearly so large or so deeply

ridged as in the male. Like the chamois, this creature is very interesting,
263
PHILIPPINE CROW.

This bird takes its name from the Philippine islands, where it has its
home. It has a fine crest, which adds much to its beauty, and its colors are
also handsome. Altogether it is a striking little creature, measuring about
eleven inches in length. The upper part of the body is a pale green, with a
touch of yellow here and there, and a black band running around the head so
as to take in the eye; this band is partly covered by the flowing crest-feathers.
There is also a mixture of brown, olive green and white. The bill and legs
are reddish in hue. The bird has a sprightly and pee or one is very

—— retty. The Scarlet Crow, or

i Choteh locke vocalifiealive ne

ff wie bird just described. It is larger,

| Aes being about seventeen inches long
and of a different color. The Couch

is black with a gloss of blue, while

the beak, legs and toes are of the
shade of red called vermilion. The
claws are black, and the eyes are
red and blue. This bird lives on
the coast and likes rocks and stones,
but does not care for grass or
hedges of any kind, When hunting
*\ for its food, it goes some distance
Si from the water, and sometimes fol-
S\ lows the ploughman at his work,















ES ey ie Sait picking up the grubs that are turned
ZW "il" out by the plow. It eats berries
4 BE LI eR EG y 1 yy P . .
AS \\ My #7 and grain, but likes insects better,
TSUN \ , and its long, curved beak is just the

7 thing for drawing its prey from the
¢ crevices among the rocks. This
sg crow is found in parts of Europe,
Asia and Africa. The Couch is a
oF very inquisitive bird, and when
tamed, always examines everything

“ which is new to it. It is fond of
being caressed, but if displeased, |
will make an attack with both bill
\ and claws. The natural food of the
bird is the smallest insects, which it searches for with the greatest patience.
It likes the common grasshopper, too, which it swallows whole. Worms it
does not care for, but flesh, raw or dressed, it eats with a relish; also bread
and sometimes barley, while it never fails to accept hempseed. When it has
finished a meal, it does not often hide what is left. The bird is naturally a
fighter, and even when tame, will not often allow itself to be lifted up in the
hand. ‘The Couch builds its nest quite near the sea, generally in a crevice of
a cliff or some ruin near the shore. The nest is always placed above ground.

264

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AMERICAN PIKE.

This is a very handsome fish, but it is not a true Pike at all. It takes its
name from the shape of its body, which is long and pike-like. ‘The teeth,
however, are not at all like those of the true Pike. The flesh of this fish is
liked for the table, and as the creature reaches a good size, it is a valuable
member of the finny tribe. It is found mostly on the Atlantic shores of
Tropical America. Some have been taken in the West Indies, and others
off the coast of Guiana and different shores. In general color the American
Pike is silvery white, tinged on the back with green, and changing to a pure
shining white below. The dorsal, or back fins, are two in number, the first
. having eight very strong and sharp spines. The Gray Mullet also has two
dorsal fins, the first having spines, but these are only four in number. ‘The
Gray Mullet is spread over all the sea-coasts and fresh waters of the temperate
and tropical regions. It seeks its food amongst the sea-weed and sand, living
chiefly upon the soft creatures which it finds there, and in swallowing its food
it takes quite an amount of sand into its mouth; but it is furnished with the
means of filtering this mass and throwing out the parts which are not suited
to it. The Gray Mullet is one of the most daring and cunning of the finny



tribe, and is very hardtocatch. It hasa strong instinct of freedom, and seeks
to regain its liberty, when once taken, in the most artful ways. If caught in
a net, it will at once dart to the side and try to leap over the head-rope into the
sea; and if one fish succeeds in this attempt, the rest follow their leader like
a flock of sheep. If the net is raised so high that this leap is impossible, the
fish tries to creep under it, and if this also fails, it examines every mesh, to
see if there is any chance of getting through. Some even swim away to the
greatest distance they can reach within the net, and then make a dash at the
meshes as though to break through, which they wish to do without doubt. The
Mullet likes a change from salt to fresh water, and often takes its way up
rivers for a short distance, returning with the tide. It has even grown well
in fresh water ponds where it has been placed, and has reached a large 31Ze
‘a such waters. While it is feeding, it roots in the mud in a swine-like
manner, and a bait of boiled meat or vegetables is pretty sure to catch it.
But it is not easily hooked, as it usually discovers the hard hook, and does
- not bite upon it, so that the lip only is caught, and this yields to the struggles,

265
i WHITE-FACED BARBET.

The Barbets, or Puff-Birds, are natives of South America. They look
some like the kingfishers and are none of them large birds. They live
mostly upon insects, which they hunt in much the same way that the wood-
pecker does, prying into the hollows of trees, and striking away the bark to
get at their prey. They can cling to the straight trunk of a tree, and hold
themselves up by pressing their short, stiff tails against the bark. They also
have some of the habits of the flycatcher, perching upon a twig to watch for
a passing insect, and then launching themselves after it, to come back again
to the very twig from which they started. ‘The Barbets look like dull and
heavy birds, and they do not seem fond of moving about; but perhaps they
enjoy the kind of life they live as much as do the merry and active little
creatures which always seem so happy. The Barbet has a queer habit of
puffing out its plumage when perching upon a branch, making itself look like



i SACRA

a ball of feathers. This odd practice has given it the name of Puff Bird.
The White-faced Barbet is not a very pretty bird, being quite sober in dress,
with a general coloring of black; the forehead and face are white, also the
chin, and the bird takes its name from the color of its face. The White-
backed Barbet has a different arrangement of the color which gives it its
name, a broad patch of white being placed upon its back. The wings and
some other portions, also, are trimmed with white, and these patches, or
trimmings, are set upon the sooty black of the other plumage in a very odd
manner. It is much smaller than the bird last described. Prettier than
either of these creatures, perhaps, is the Collared Barbet, so called from the
black collar, or band, which runs across the chest and over the shoulders.
The head and neck are a chestnut fawn, the chest white, and the under part
of the body is also chestnut fawn, but of a lighter tint. The wings and back
are darker than the head and covered with a number of small black bars.

266
COMMON MOUSE.

This little animal isa pretty creature, withits brown gray back, gray throat,
and under surface, soft, velvety fur, bright, black, bead-like eyes, and squirrel-
like paws. Like the rat, it is found in both town and country. In the country
it lives mostly in farmyards, where it makes its way into the ricks, or stacks,
and is not as easy to get out as is the larger rat. If the stack is kept covered,
however, the mice cannot stay in it very long at a time, as the cover keeps
out the rain, and they are forced to leave in search of water. ‘They are bold
little creatures, although easily startled, and if not disturbed, run about a room
without any regard to the people in it. They are odd little creatures, too,
and full of playfulness. It is interesting to watch their merry sport as they
run around, perfectly at home and happy. They look over every new piece
of furniture with the greatest care, and scamper here and there, stopping every
now and then to peep about, with a funny tilt of the head and a knowing look
of the eye, and they really seem to have a good deal of sense. They are




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easily tamed, and are most cleanly animals, so that their cages must be kept
perfectly fresh and sweet. Their bedding must be changed very often, and there
should be two floors to the cage, so that one can be washed and dried while
the other is in use. Hay, cotton, wool, or rags will do for bedding, but black
cotton wool, or “wadding,” as it is called, has been found to be very bad for
them. Mice are cunning animals, and when once they have learned that.a
trap is dangero