Citation
Child's history of the United States for little men and women

Material Information

Title:
Child's history of the United States for little men and women a thrilling account of the progress of our country told in a simple language of childhood ; the most interesting events in American history described in words of one syllable
Creator:
Hanson, John Wesley
W.B. Conkey Company
Place of Publication:
Chicago
Publisher:
W.B. Conkey Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
290 p. : ill. (some col.), plates, ports. ; 26 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Admirals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Battleships -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Presidents -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Leadership -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865 ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1898 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Pictorial cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
by John Wesley Hanson, Jr. ; profusely illustrated.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026627266 ( ALEPH )
ALG3884 ( NOTIS )
262615904 ( OCLC )

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Full Text






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WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE.





Child's History of she United States

FOR
Little Men and Women

A Thrilling Account of the Progress of Our Country
told in the Simple Language of Childhood

——_—__———

THE MOST INTERESTING EVENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
_ DESCRIBED IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE



By JOHN WESLEY HANSON, Jr.



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED



CHICAGO
. W. B. CONKEY COMPANY,
PUBLISHERS.



Copyright 1898, by W. B. Conkey Company



Chapter I,
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX.
Chapter X.
Chapter XI.
Chapter XII.
Chapter XIII.
Chapter XIV.
Chapter XV.
Chapter XVI.
Chapter XVII.

Chapter XVIII.

Chapter XIX,
Chapter XX.
Chapter XXI.
Chapter XXII.

Chapter XXIII.
Chapter XXIV.

Chapter XXV.

Chapter XXVI.

CONTENTS.



Columbus and His Voyages
Early Explorers.

Landing of the Pilgrims.
Settlements by the Dutch.
The Old Dominion.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Virginia Colony.

The End of the Dutch Rule.
Peril and Hardship.

The Settlement of Pennsylvania
Discoveries in the Northwest.
The French and Indian War.
The English Victorious.
Liberty or Death.

The Boston Tea Party.

First Blood.

Hard Times.

Crossing the Delaware.

Valley Forge.

Treason.

Victory at last.

From Washington to Lincoln.
The Civil War.

Unconditional Surrender.

The Monitor and the Merrimac.
Sinking the Alabama.



Chapter XXVII.

Chapter XXVIII.

Chapter XXIX.
Chapter XXX.
Chapter XXXI.

CONTEN TS—Continued,

The March to the Sea.

From Lincoln to McKinley.
The Destruction of the Maine.
The Hawaiian Islands.

The American-Spanish War.

APPENDIX.



Constitution of the United States.
Presidents of the United States.



ILLUSTRATIONS.
ie Page.
Washington Crossing the Delaware..........+++++ (Colored Frontispiece. )
President McKinley...... ec cece c cece ee eee ee rece en enn eee e eee eees 10
Columbus and his Son Begging 1.1... cece eee cece eee eee cence ee nees 12
Teaching a Young Indian How to Shoot.........-ss sees eee eee eens 13
Isabella and Columbus ......-. cece cece etree ee eect eee enee Sika. 14
The Three Caravels....cc cece cece eee cee tee eee e nena eee e nc es ae eonees 15
Columbus Frightening the Indians into Lending him Assistance .......16
De Soto on the March...... cc cece ce cece eee ee ee ene eees islegenenotNederenees 18
Sebastian Cabot at Labrador... ... ccc ete eee ee eee een eees 20
Bacal Rel CG SO LORE a cise aiia ey ero eteeace rates sta el Wi Sus fala cen state reUellatsteinialleloleze 21
Old Stone Mill at Newport 1.2.0... cece cece eee ee ee ee eee ences 23
An Indian Camp... ss cece cece cece eee cette ence ne eeenes mach iced evererey. 25
Meeting Between De Soto and the Indian Chieftainess..........+++++.- 26
INSP Uti tatl | GOl GUC Tete trte) os Greraiare cle eleteon diese opel svanel oneere acters cre scelledeinde sacle iefeieieleaere 28
Trading with Indians ........ eee eee eee eee teen eee tenet en eee 30
Dutchmen at an Inn .... cee ce cet cece er eee eee tee ee sence cenes 32
Going to Church... 0... cece cece eee eee eee eee eee e eee n eee 3S
Peter Stuyvesant Defiant......... 62sec ee eee eee eee tees Re eatin cts 34
Queen Elizabeth... 0... 6... cece ee ete eee eee e renee ag ees 36
First ‘‘Wash Day”’ of Pilgrim Mothers .........+e + eee sees eees eran Oo
Arrival of Sir Walter Raleigh... 00... ccc cee eee eee eee ene enee 200640
Charles II. of England 2.0.0.0... 6c eee cee eee eet eeee arte epereress 42
Captain John Smith........... eee eee nett ee ee ee ee eeees 44
Ave the Indians Coming? Geo Sees oases vias etwrcie ose hens eustarers Nea eaters 46
OLEATE TS HERO Clos Sina ect coe carers chen ae a ttras Meat Soremclevetoetebalel sebslete ss e%e\cis 47
Mary Dyer Going to Execution....... 0. se eee eee eee eee teen eee e ees 48
“The Children Soon Learned to Love Squanto” ....... ccc ee ee ee eee eee 5°
(AS Piaitam Giles cer ear his eerie uel cere er reese EM cticag el ean rg 51
A Friendly Indian. ... 0.0... cece cee eee cece eee eee arerensrsrerosetete 52
The Pipe of Peace 2.06... cece cece ence eect net e cere eee eens iisleieweroiente: 54
TEE EL ee tated rata seae tee ae ese ret i coe a neers curr ere UREA Sa acuny seatersiiowel eels BU re cave 56
OTN Fre eG Pretec tsk © ell seep oe ee crap c eeame lin ev seo eweremer ty arataloter sete lotaust ls 58
Attacking the Block House........ 6s. cece eect een eee eee e eee eees 60
A Patroon’s Manor House............. Fadi ene AR ratar Meaney ease Lenstveceys 2. 62
Puritans: Buildin somes Wyn. wus tessa secre oie Wan ee use yetencravev arson: 63
Siyvesant-at the Gute grec. oo. 6e yo ioe oot ee ieee aireieistnnleieralcrs ened
Aira PA aero woes ole a relay orccstate ole eh vo) Suse en exehoesbeseecncas avers ayonegn] “Uehefefesepeics ol: 66 -
Philip’s Monument, .... 6... ccc ee ce he ect en ence eens enna neees 67
@im HSE TAS Onn ee ae ey i ee epee eter ral cles saaroeted ea siedsre stcue) sietouele o1ei-evor 2. 68
Death of Montgomery... .. cece cece ee eee eee ene ene e ene eeeeees 7O
A Farmer’s Hut in Winter 2... 0. ccc ccc eee eee ee eee Sieloyerstoke 72
Unexplored Regions .. 1... 0. ccc eee cee eee enter eee eenes SOOn DOD 14
SCO tity ee aero are epee scene renaria atts) stay ial cusaeee) oi aegst Meester ofuereze state Heelies] 0
George Washington in his Vouth.......... cece eee e eee eee eens a ateerotectle
@methiesWiar Pat lie iaey less cicccreretee siete ers coor cr als ep ohentie sleveeneleeisyepelesstarenensherera/e\e 80
Pennvand Walker Wosts sein save eseorarel egeterecans) stevaieneroun ole re loheuete ver sfe(etelie/si ake! 82
OTE Ae eee ewer Oa ide eels ooo cere et ccs seeded seme nena teraaoieheoneofesy seen) oscil 84
William Penn’s House at Rickmansworth, England..........,...-0--05: 85

A Jesuit Missionary. 0.026. ss cece yc se reeset ce tee tensor reyes 86



Page
ene @ Ue rapper aaancelscits erie ha eee eer s Coal arnn a lic Lha Sma nin teal 88
pe meh ARTA OTS) ict Gice ork sileyn so frene atts oe cone came hu en eee la oa 89
PACPTAUG TAMURA LACK tao aiiioct a Wie Mica eesti ede eal gs au enya a aE go
Incident of the: Prenchvand indian Warts. 0,0.) yn en a g2
TrbOnten Wille Pn GSS oe yeretcatcea st cinerea sree tee vet ae oresu i ee Jalna tag 94
Quebec ra ae cae cues clement etne Pre Pete sy nes Ore ek pa ATA 95
Hae SEIS IO CILDY So auiclere lesa renter emi ar) Ba ing nee ope Crs AE cee ay Ue 96
Enel amg COODS yes satrerstea stcrairts soclaae Mere erie ere re pipes oar as aan Sia ecu 98
Braddock’s Defeat .............. Peeves ode neney sey aaa e Eero ian, tera en et ere Malioe srs goteee 99
Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga............... en iis ls acl CUR eee Veig 100
scene of thewlcarPlot wr iinnve nau nse nie cucnt any one tani taal oo Hee 102
Bunker Hall Mo mument gai sce cern ous pet eA a pe eee aie 104
Addressing thesPeOplew..vscnevics mente. weet eta’ engi te i le 106
Colontali Day su ies mst uicestte thee teu alate rey aunpenae oe Uae li 108
VOUTE MP ALI OLS Htc eiscMin cece a beens Py aNoku se eel api aeatew che sluice etme Un Uni IBS LAR IIo
House in Which the Declaration of Independence Was Sign eden ees 112
MarguisiDesWatayettermiemctat sotetracatien i vec e One eee uatoNetal os 1l4
General Putnam......... aisie'stejsieiets sie] aa ohare afeueter ersusveuet ous oy stedsvc(ecatas souerae ai 116
-A Hand to Hand Fight ........ fo) eae lelaievesstaie arty zentsl ste celeste oat nee ia 118
fudians Playing Ballionitheslcess. sss si swwiere lee oo ee ona seule oe 120
Crying the Stamps west urc serie ss Soe nia Ge cate tata feuresl 122
The Call tovArmsa wage ence: ee wae Tersg sede) ost ses weeps a eerteattsar am es 124
Durning the Stamips cis sane cl aye cue eter mean ern ae 126
ne mMoung Minutes Manic pean aoe oy os iiny oh ii i ae ne Ge 128
Independence Hall mamta neler acer ealnntan et kil aia a 130
Battle ofHarlemyEeights su, 0 ua wis wi eect ie We ata mg ca 132
Signing the Declaration of Independence ............................ 134
George sWashingtonum: tu. vars et arsains Cea et eee ae 136
FRG CHILI Oy Mere tencra ee siaeree cho ceiver rent ine Nauta Soa AMR, 138
Kings George tiles ie enc stcn neiiin uri eimns ale toa Wanner ied ees 140
Escape of Benedaet arnold: 2) ice as ees, on Sem ks 142
SU@RO Dre CEL recererrisr nye ents occ iene pln Hag ein ten 144
ADD eC tC at Must ten nce aiid seta nee ein eee Ce Tenet oe 146
he Washington lm cars ecb ecr ce ie eit oh t cene hen sine A 148
InaugurationofeWashington 1 ui) soci cou ce is inte sean 150
Old BeaconeHills Boston: snc da ees SR ie the UTS NE esti Stee 152
MVAIECT SPORES r/c ciis t/ha rn ways cule ae aira eau (al epee din 154
Pa ADISETICEN SCH OONy aianiaietac cate cies wire noes Utaieet alles geet cea terete) 156
peace till Davai sca else sss ee cence oo ea ae algo iD te gv, 158
The Surrender ......... s(eleliesoj}4neiat ciovaieleley oreertvaie sagas neat ons mee? oe fans 160
Capture Obr Andie. Tatras cma iae meet ac til ei aie aed keen mees 162
he ParowArm ys cscs seiner irre cad ee TONS air 164
Burning of the Gaspees anette ere A eo eae 166 ©
RS SPIEIOL 7G soos auntaten se Vee an ye ie thong ONC etna 168
Distening (ortheyGune: sv wu ih metas celta ear Wii enenieL a gh 170
DeMjaminsP ram ty ced sve cs halle Muh es i ed 172
The White House..... sal ecereteteledensicl sve lafevaseysteyatqoa ae) ayaiay ws eae my Sn read 173
Jehan Adams eee Mens Ao uier (line merle es gee we T74
pehomas etetsome en oe aie ticmnie SNs eua he gl it ee ele 176
Onithe Canalen ee eC eeae ceyec tetera es ae Uae eat ned 178



ILLUSTRATIONS—Continued.

Page.
Arabia min colic. cece eed. wissen ne ean ena ang 7 Sed sisiele eye OO
Uamves MAGS, for cian oats eyset re nance ocean (Ny eA Leah It 182
James Monroe..... Slehesspe feseears ets uelara) ofatsentdehel ecelearanati/auste Metre tarsaieninie eine epanays 184
Me NGun a PW. ORK ces tis ie mires nha eo ante tale RN UN «186
John Quincy Adams ............04, AEN teteVel ie onal seas e eae G Bi lsetkeroraetnane 188
Hederalyironv@ladiRiver Gua Boatue wit aye oe ae +2190
ENOCLRC WY JACKSON treo stevie wat (Ge MMM Milanese coro st Kaige 192
Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the Union Fleet............0005. oe L194
The ‘‘Merrimac’’ Sinking the ‘‘Cumberland”’ .............. ataratoterolenets -196
Martina Viaie RUCEM ne Netrr hanes Canta eros ca MON aaa ka 198
Monitor and sMernim acy sugia. cise su seriall eae isan ae el et) 200
Willian Hey ERATmISOM ste vege canenatine Witee tete tet es 4 ue dete ia 202
Lieutenant Cushing's Attack on the Albemarle.............cccccccee. 204
soln Ay Letters raiatts cate eretele ole eines ame eM tea ue AA gioipe Ota! elise UFR 206
AME Sten OxE ro lcs oes etc leet eMart ie Wnte iiie e ar eM aac a 208
Bahar yi ays Oise se a ices tae cect eee ae vip ee Ten ee elie Meee ian St 210
Barly Home of Abraham Bincoln) ccc cc oe eo ee 212
Millard iW ilmoretnrsn vnc aur eians Se rh once uc camer canine Cons na) 214
Franklin Pierce....... Paste percholetckagerne a7afet seu sich esterase area hiacer Wontar sist 216
NG mural WM aTrarit wane shen ier eee eae ar Ge nC oun TI. 218
Jamie sBuchan ami ye ao sles eo bee et ak today ee tae cia oer 220
General W. T. Sherman......... epsrop re ae ero cene rea nay yar Nese aber ure coven tas 222
iG RailroadyBattenyiee et ties aon iat ee ae nue Meceivece a erecersee’s 225
ANIC TE WAL OA NSOD atta sree Gelade a etna char Epa RNA oie ec ty Sr ik 226
Wi SiiGrantis tamer en sive. Me deteleralinfenes aria telotenen seas Mcrae cro ae Sapte cus etree: 228
Rutherford ab WEayesi aici cain iar eat nee an ence Je eee eK ica Nie 230
James A. Garfield........... Het ceo enet tetera cent Pt Ee ir ae a Bes pareuceeny tere als 232
Chester AU Alntniit stan cence seme ee Oui ol nee abr eens Bre cust van went ts 234
Grover Clevelandy sist sauna cit rani ln eee nts en oles pevere ts bust tyes ateeee 236
Benjamin CHagrisone, sammie atin ier st cee ek aa amen Lend pene nu 238
President Mc kKinleyrand Cabinetene ss. oe ee een a 240
Navy Officers............ SN olfeiislieralsie\erevecacenerar tien Seis atic) aera e cance 242
Ari OM Cencarann Geist penne Lie ee hah Meee ae Ba borhalaree Gace 244
Inean Adimital Dewey cts ee mts, un a tt ARN p ren ees 246
Rear AcmiraleWalliamivi: Ganipson. coos. silo oh ete mI 248
Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley.............. Se NON tenet ey eee per a hte 250
Bactleshapy Maine mercer tar lela ates sri ocean Ua Rarer tovercy acsre vs 252
Protected Cruiser Olympia................ i arsiare balan ole tetova) aca ensue feb teem 252
Battleship Ore cones asec eis Clete n teeta ace cere men ciple es 254
Atmoredi@ruiser New, Vorkites oc teecss sly hlae eae ue Bora be 254
Battleship Iowa.......... Sakale cots MtedeleleveteXetsraral seve oiey stebare aged stare e005 eo 250
ErorectediCriticer Boston amid ieee ae ea Glennie severe isin 25 0.
Battleship Indiana .......... malate lat ecelotslctar stearate SverReVee nee Ala ccteucvale chores 258
AImMored Cruiser: Brook yrs cosy oa ots sae se 0000 258
General Maximo Gomez.......... Shave st onei(azetslake execsilatsy cremeenneystpstedapetats oe2-260
Admirals Dewey cuvictory at Manila en cena uac le cle tian v genie 262
he Wighting Line at Santiago... si ee nee ie ens ee 264
The Destruction of Admiral Cervera’s Fleet .........0.0.0c0ee siofereecsrs 266
Cuban) Soldiers: going /to the Front, avs.) 3.10) Wee enn ela atl 268

HIWounded Volunteer ssh Cat te on ie me es ini na 268











CHILD'S HISTORY OF THE
UNITED STATES.

FOR LITTLE MEN AND WOMEN



CHAPTER I.

COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES.

In the year 1435 a son-was born to an Italian wool-carder by the name of
Co-lum-bus. The boy was called Chris-to-pher and grew to bea fine, handsome
lad. He was kind and obedient to his father, but like many boys he longed
to become a sailor. But he loved books almost as well as he loved the sea, and ©
so he spent his leisure moments in study. It was probably from reading the
works of old scholars that he conceived the idea that the world was round.
So it seemed natural that if it was a sphere it would be possible by sailing
westward to reach the rich countries of In-di-a, Tar-ta-ry and Cath-ay.

Co-lum-bus became so interested that he could think of nothing else but
the wonderful discoveries that would result if his plan could only be carried out.
But who could he get to help him? He went from one city to another seeking
aid from the great nobles. He even went to the King of Por-tu-gal and pic-
tured to him the wealth he would gain by furnishing ships for the dis-
covery of these far-away lands. But the King and every one else only laughed
at him.

In the midst of these disappointments the wife of Co-lum-bus died. Fora
year he and his boy, Di-e-go, wandered about the country hungry, destitute
and almost starving, but he endured his troubles with patience, believing the
time would come when he would realize the one dream of his life. It so hap































































































































































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COLUMBUS AND HIS SON BEGGING.



COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES 13

pened that one day he sought shelter in the Fran-cis-can Con-vent of San-ta
Ma-ri-a de la Ra-bi-da. He told the prior of his plan and through the influence
of the worthy priest he was enabled to obtain an audience with the King of
Spain. But it was five years before King Fer-di-nand would listen and then he
refused to place any confidence in his scheme. Unable to endure any longer the
ridicule of the courtiers who made fun of his visionary ideas, he left the court

Pre
ESSN IN



TEACH-ING A YOUNG IN-DIAN HOW TO SHOOT.

in rage and resolved to go to France. Queen Is-a-bel-la however sent a
messenger after Co-lum-bus and he was induced to return.

The Queen offered to fit out an expedition at her own expense, and in a
short time Co-lum-bus was ready to start out on his voyage into the unknown.
Before departing he secured from Fer-di-nand and Is-a-bel-la an agreement







COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES. 15

_ by which he was to receive one-eighth of the profits of the voyage and also
by which he was made High-Ad-mi-ral and Vice-roy of the lands he might
discover. On the third day of August, 1492, he set sail with three ships,
the San-ta Ma-ri-a, the Pin-ta, and the Ni-na. The voyage was long and
tedious and the sailors grew discontented, and at length plotted to throw
Co-lum-bus overboard. He quieted them by saying that he would turn back
if they did not discover land within three days. Fortunately on the morning

_ of the third day land was seen and they sailed toward it. It was night when
they finally came to anchor, but early on the following morning Co-lum-bus













































































































































































































































































































































































































































2 GA bi
THE THREE CARAVELS.
landed, magnificently dressed and attended by his officers and sailors all in,
gay attire. This was the fourteenth day of October, 1492. The land that
Co-lum-bus discovered was probably the island of San Sal-va-dor. On the
following day he sailed farther on and visited Cu-ba, Hay-ti, and other islands
of the West In-dies.

When Co-lum-bus returned to Spain he was received with much honor
by the King and Queen. When he made his second voyage he had seventeen
vessels and fifteen hundred men. On this journey he discovered Ja-mai-ca





4

» COLUMBUS. FRIGHTENS THE INDIANS INTO LEI

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































DING HIM ASSISTANCE BY FORETELLING AN
ECLIPSE OF THE MOON—ONE OF THEIR DEITIES.



COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES. 1%

and Por-to Ri-co and founded the colony of Hay-ti. In 1497 A-mer-i-go
Ves-puc-ci obtained ships and discovered the mainland of the new continent.
The same year, John Ca-bot, an English merchant, sailed to A-mer-i-ca and
,sanded upon the coast of Lab-ra-dor. In the following year, Se-bas-ti-an
Ca-bot sailed with two ships and three hundred men, and on a later voyage
discovered Hud-son’s Bay.

In the meantime Co-lum-bus had reached the mainland of South
A-mer-i-ca, which he explored and then returned to the colony of Hay-ti.
Here he was arrested by Bob-a-dil-la, a Spanish commissioner, and carried on
board the ship in chains, which he insisted on wearing until he reached Spain.
The King and Queen were ashamed when they saw their faithful servant so
humiliated and ordered him to be released. Co-lum-bus asked to be permitted
to return to A-mer-i-ca and the request was granted. He landed at Hon-
du-ras and attempted to form a colony. Finally, two of his ships were lost,
his crew rebelled, and, broken in spirit, he returned to Spain, where he died
May 2oth, 1506. History gives Co-lum-bus the credit of having discovered
A-mer-i-ca, although the first white man to’ set foot on this continent was
probably Leif E-rik-son, a viking, who landed at Mar-tha’s Vine-yard.































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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: DE SOTO ON THE MARCH,

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CHAPTER II.

EARLY EXPLORERS.

When Co-lum-bus made his second voyage there sailed with him a brajc
and gallant gentleman, named Ponce de Le-on, who determined, when the op-
portunity came, to organize an expedition himself. Accordingly, in 1513, he
set sail with three ships. Now, strange to say, the ambition of De Le-on was
not to discover lands or gold. Like a great many persons he did not like the.
idea.of growing old, and in some fable of the day he had read of the wonderful
fountain of youth, from which all who drank would remain forever young. He
became convinced that this fountain was in the New World. It was on Easter
Sunday when he first came in sight of land and in honor of the day, which the
Span-iards call “The Day of Flowers,” he named the new land Flor-i-da. He
had many adventures and in an encounter with the Indians was wounded by
a poisoned arrow. He returned to Spain, where he died soon afterward.
About this time, Vas-co Nu-nez de Bal-bo-a crossed the isthmus which
divides North and South A-mer-i-ca and beheld the Pa-cif-ic O-cean, which he
named the South Sea and which he took possession of in the name of the King
of Spain. In the meantime, Cor-tez had discovered Mex-i-co and Yuc-a-tan.
In 1519 the King of Por-tu-gal fitted out some ships and placed Ma-gel-lan,
a noted sailor, in command. Ma-gel-lan passed the In-dies, and sailing south-
ward explored the coast of South A-mer-i-ca and named the great body of
water, which Bal-bo-a had called the South Sea the Pa-cif-ic O-cean.
Her-nan-do de So-to had been given the province of Flor-i-da by the
King of Spain, and on May 30th, 1537, he landed in Tam-pa Bay. De So-to
was very ambitious and cruel. His sole desire in coming to A-mer-i-ca was
to found a great empire. His followers were dressed in magnificent costumes
and glittering armor. This gorgeous procession traversed the lakes and ever-
glades of Flor-i-da, but the men were obliged to live on water cresses, shoots
of In-di-an corn and palmetto leaves. The Span-iards seemed to be actuated
by a desire to exterminate the In-di-ans. They killed the defenseless natives

19
a



20 ; EARLY EXPLORERS.

and destroyed their wigwams. On one occasion they were met by an In-di-an
princess who came to them bearing gifts, and who seemed anxious to be friends
with the whites. Moving gracefully forward to meet the stern Span-ish com-
mander, she placed around his neck a string of pearls. But her friendliness was
not appreciated, for she was taken prisoner and her people used as slaves:























































































































































































































































































































































































SEBASTIAN CABOT AT LABRADOR.

De So-to continued his search for gold and robbing the In-di-ans of what
treasures they possessed. He explored the Mis-sis-sip-pi River and then travel-
ed westward almost to the Rock-y Mount-ains. Upon his return he was taken
sick, while in the swamps of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, and there died. His body was
placed in a hollow log and buried at night in the great river. Long afterwards























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BURIAL OF DE SOTO.



22 EARLY EXPLORERS. ‘ '

the remainder of his brilliant band of followers reached the Span-ish settlement
on the Gulf of Mex-i-co.

In the meantime wonderful stories had come to Mex-i-co of stately cities,
with silverand gold in rich profusion, on the coast of Cal-i-for-ni-a. An expedi-
tion was sent out, and although they found well-built cities, they discovered
but little silver or gold. A short time afterwards, Sir Fran-cis Drake, a famous
Eng-lish voyager, landed upon this coast, but the wonderful wealth of Cal-i-
for-ni.a remained practically unknown until two centuries later

_ The discoveries of the Eng-lish and Span-ish voyagers naturally attracted
the attention of the French. Early in the sixteenth century this nation sent
out Ver-az-za-no, who reached the shore of North Car-o-li-na where he
landed and treated with the In-di-ans and then returned home. Ver-az-za-no
was the first one to give an accurate description of the new continent. Some
years later France sent out Jac-ques Car-ti-er, who landed in New Found-land
but in 1535 he returned and sailed up the St. Law-rence River. The In-di-ans
received them kindly, but the French gave a poor return for their hospitality.
When he was about to return he seized a friendly chief and nine other In-di-ans
and carried them to France. It is said that these unfortunate natives died of
brokenhearts. TheFrenchbuilt two forts in 1540 when they returned to found
their colony, one at the mouth of the St. Law-rence, the other at the mouth
of the St. Croix.

At the time of the persecution of the Prot-es-tants in France many of
them fled to Hol-land, but later made up their mind to find shelter in the
New World. These people were called Hu-gue-nots and they founded a
colony at Port Roy-al, Ma-ry-land, which was commanded by Lau-don-ri-ere,
but John Ri-bault sailed with supplies and provisions. When the King of
Spain heard that the French had started a colony he sent one of his famous
generals, Me-nen-dez, against them, who landed in Flor-i-da and founded the
city of St. Au-gus-tine.

While Ri-bault was at sea his fleet became disabled ey a storm and he
was wrecked on the coast. In the meantime, Me-nen-dez made up his mind
that Ri-bault had not arrived at Port Roy-al, so marching overland he
surprised the French at the fort and massacred nearly every one of the
inhabitants. A few endeavored to make their escape, but were captured and
hanged. Over these Me-nen-dez put an inscription, which read: “I do not
this to Frenchmen, but to heretics,” Ri-bault and many of his companions











































































































































































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DLD STONE MILL AT NEWPORT.



24 EARLY EXPLORERS.

surrendered afterwards to Me-nen-dez and they were inhumanly killed. A few
preferred to take their chances with In-di-ans and wild beasts rather than with
the Span-iards, and so went south. About three years afterwards the French
sent over an expedition under the command of De Gour-gues, who attacked
the Span-iards and massacred nearly every one of them. The fugitives were
captured and hung, and, following the example of Me-nen-dez, he put over
them the following inscription: “I do not this as unto Span-iards, but as unto
traitors, robbers, and murderers.”

The Hu-gue-nots, who escaped these terrible massacres, fled to Eng-land
and the stories they told of the wonderful country from which they had come
induced Eng-lish navigators to make an attempt to secure the land. They
had frequently attempted to discover the northwest passage, which Cab-ot had
failed to find, and in 1578 Sir Fran-cis Drake sailed up the Pa-ci-fic coast as far
as Wash-ing-ton territory.

It was in 1576 that Mar-tin Fro-bish-er left Eng-land bent on making im-
portant discoveries. His first voyage did not amount to much, for about the
only things he brought back were a few black stones, which he gave to his
wife as keepsakes. She threw them in the fire, but they turned out to be gold.
Of course Fro-bish-er at once made up his mind that he only had to return in
order to find great wealth. He set sail with fifteen ships, which returned
filled with ore, but, unfortunately, there was no gold in the ore, so oe jour-
ney was a failure.

In 1583 Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert, a brave and gallant gentleman, with a
fleet of five ships and a company of two hundred and sixty men, left Eng-land.
He settled near the mouth of the St. John’s River, in New Found-land, and
attempted to form acolony. But discouraged at the failure to find wealth many
of Sir Humph-rey’s mén deserted, and some of them conspired to seize the ves-
sels. Finally, Sir Humph-rey was obliged to return to Eng-land, but on his
way the vessel foundered and all on board were drowned. ©





P,

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MEETING BETWEEN DF SOTO ANT? THE INDIAN CHIEFTAINESS.



CHAPTER III.

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.

_ When James the First was King, there lived in various parts of Eng-land
a religious sect called the Pu-ritans. For years they had been persecuted be-
cause they refused to submit to the tyranny of the Established Church of Eng-
lend. They preferredasimple gospel and desired only to worship God according
to their own belief. The Pu-ri-tans were plain, sturdy people and unaccus-
tomed to luxuries. But they had strong wills, and when they were unable any
longer to endure persecution, they fled to Hol-land.

Hearing of the New World, and believing that there they could find an
asylum, they sent two of their men to Eng-land to see if the King would give
them a grant of land. After some delay this was obtained, and on August 5th,
1620, two ships, the Speed-well and the May-flow-er set sail. The Speed-
well turned back, but the May-flow-er continued on her course. After a
stormy voyage they arrived at Cape Cod on the ninth day of November. Near-
ly a month was spent in looking for a spot where they might settle. |

In the meantime they had drawn up articles of agreement in which they
bound themselves into a political body to enact laws for the good of the colony.
All the profits in trading, fishing and farming were to go, for a period of seven
; years, into common stock. At the end of that time it was to be divided equally
among those who had contributed money to the enterprise.

The Captain of the May-flow-er was impatient to land his passengers and
return to Eng-land, so on the fifteenth day of December the May-flow-er
left her harbor at Cape Cod and anchored near Ply-mouth. But it was not until
the twenty-first of March that the entire company landed. The sufferings
of these people were terrible; there was little shelter and few provisions. When
spring came nearly one-half of the brave little band had perished. Miles
Stand-ish, the Captain, had lost his wife, as had many of the principal men
of the company. And, to add to their unfortunate condition, they lived in
constant fear of the In-di-ans. Truly, it was a perilous time.

> : ae



28 : LANDING OP THE PILGRIMS,

You can imagine their surprise when one day in the spring an In-di-an
came walking into the settlement. But he made offers of friendship to the
«white people and established good feeling between them and the In-di-an tribes
in that vicinity. This In-di-an’s name was Sam-o-set,and he introduced them to
Mas-sas-o-it, the chief of that region. As the fear of an attack from the savages
wore away and the spring came on the settlers made trips of exploration,
even going as far as Boston harbor. In November a ship arrived from Eng-



















































































































































































































































































































\ } 7
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Gos SHER» 2 4 MY Nir Ebay Wh ‘

A PURITAN SOLDIER.

land, bringing a patent issued by the Ply-mouth Company and which legally
established the Pu-ri-tans.

The people were very religious, and Governor Brad-ford refused to allow
them to have any amusement except a little quiet enjoyment. The Nar-ra-gan-
sett In-di-ans once sent a bundle of arrows tied together with the skin of a rat-
tlesnake, which was really a declaration of war. Captain Miles Stand-ish filled
the skin full of bullets and sent it back, so the In-di-ans left them undisturbed.



LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS. 29

In 1622 several ruffians, who had in sorne way been sent to the colony, were
guilty of several cruel acts against the In-di-ans, who decided to attack the
colonists. But Mas-sas-o-it happened to be sick at this time, and two delegates
from the Ply-mouth Company were sent to nurse him and give him medicine.
The chief recovered and in return for this kindness told the settlers of the plot
to attack them. Stand-ish went with only eight men and succeeded in per-
suading the In-di-ans to give up their plans.

Meanwhile the colony prospered and the days were spent in work, every
one going to bed soon after sundown. These people were very strict in re-
gard to church duties, and every one was obliged to attend service on Sunday
unless they were sick. The sermon was usually three or four hours long, but
no one, not even a little child,, was allowed to go to sleep, but was prevented
from doing so by officers with long sticks, who sharply tapped any one who
nodded. The men were well drilled and carried heavy matchlock muskets,
which were fired by a slow match. No one was allowed to wear finery unles:

they could well afford it. They were simple, industrious people. ,













TRADING WITH INDIANS.



CHAPTER IV.

SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH.

On the fourth day of August, 1609, a Dutch ship under the command of
Hen-ry Hud-son, an Englishman, came to anchor in the bay of New York
Hud-son had been sent out by the East In-di-a Com-pa-ny to discover a north.
’ west passage to Chi-na. But storms forced him to change his course and or
July 18th he anchored in Pe-nob-scot Bay. Then turning southward he con-
tinued cn his way until he reached Ches-a-peake Bay. Turning northward
again he sailed along the coast until he reached a beautiful harbor. Before him
lay the wooded shores of New York and like a broad silver band the noble
river that was to bear his name threaded its way among the High-lands.

Realizing that rich and fertile lands lay beyond, he resolved to explore
this beautiful stream.

The In-di-ans came in great crowds, bringing corn and tobacco as gifts.
Hud-son realized that the best policy was to make friends with the natives, wha
were willing to trade rich furs in exchange for glass beads and glittering trink-
ets. At length it was impossible to go farther up the river and Hud-son decided
to send a part of his crew in small boats. These went as far as the present site
of Albany. Before Hud-son left he gave a grand banquet to the In-di-an chiefs
who had befriended him and with whom he had traded. So when it came
time for him to go the In-di-ans were sorry to lose their white friend.

Unfortunately, however, they were unable to leave a good impression be-
hind them, for the cruel murder of two In-digans brought on a fight and Hud-
son set sail for Hol-land. He stopped at Dart-mouth Harbor in Eng-land and
afterwards entered the service of the Eng-lish government. In 1610 he made
his last voyage to the northwest when he reached Hud-son’s Bay. Here his

crew mutinied and he and several of his companions were deserted and left to
perish.



.

82 SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. :

The discoveries of Hud-son did not attract much attention in Hol-land,
but its merchants saw an opportunity to make money by trading with the In-
di-ans. A few buildings were erected on Man-hat-tan Island as a station for
their wares. It was not long, however, before others followed their example
and the merchants who had opened the trade, in order to protect their inter-
ests, obtained a Charter and the name of New Neth-er-lands was given to the
territory. In 1621 the West In-dia Company secured a charter which gave it



‘(f Mi : fi = SSE

DUTCHMEN AT AN INN.

the power to appoint all the officers in the Dutch territory in A-mer-i-ca and to
make the laws. In 1623, the first ship with settlers sailed from Hol-lana. They
settled onthepresentsite of Al-ba-ny, and at once began the erection of houses:
a few settled at Fort Or-ange, some went north of the Con-nec-i-cut River,
while others went to the western end of Long Island. A brisk trade sprang
up and the settlers began to prosper. The Eng-lish objected to the Dutch set-



SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. 83

tlements and claimed that they gave nothing in return for the products they
took to Hol-land. Pe-ter Min-u-et, the Governor, attempted to make friends
with the Eng-lish, but without avail. :

New Jer-sey was setteled by the Swedes in 1637 by a company called the
Swe-den West In-dia Company. Pe-ter Min-u-et, who had been discharged
from his post as Governor, was put in charge of the expedition. As soon as he
arrived he bought of the In-di-ans all the land on the west side of South River
from Cape Hen-lo-pen to where Trent-on now stands. The Dutch did not



GOING TO CHURCH.

like this and told Min-u-et that he was an intruder. But the Swedes made up
their minds to remain and began to build houses and till the soil. In the
meantime, more settlers came from Swe-den, and, as they were all industrious
people, the settlement prospered rapidly. Governor Min-u-et died and a
Swede named Hol-le-an-dare became Governor. Finally a number of New
Eng-land colonists came into this territory. Wil-liam the Testy, Governor









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PETER STUYVESANT DEFIANT.



SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. ._ 35

oi the Dutch, objected to this intrusion, and the Swedes joined with them and
together they forced the Englishmen to return to their homes.

When Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant became Governor he resolved to put an end
to Swe-dish rule and accordingly made preparations for attacking them. With
a fleet of seven vessels and over six hundred men he attacked them. But as
there were only about three hundred Swedes in the whole country they sur-
rendered at once. Stuy-ve-sant appointed Jo-hans Paul Ja-quet Governor of
the territory.

Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant, the Governor of New Neth-er-lands, was a very
peculiar man. He had been a very brave soldier and in one of his numerous
battles he had lost a leg, but in its place wore a wooden one bound with silver.
He wasa very tyrannical man, but ruled the country with firmness and wisdom.
He imposed heavy taxes upon the people and would not be dictated to by any-
one. Although he was assisted in the affairs of the colony by a board of nine
men, they could make no laws and give no orders without his approval. Gov-
ernor Stuy-ve-sant believed it was policy to keep on good terms with the
Eng-lish and objected to his people selling the In-di-ans arms and ammuni-
tion. This was the cause of frequent quarrels between him and the lords of
the different provinces, who were called patroons. One of the wealthiest
patroons of New Neth-er-lands was Van Rens-se-laer, who owned a vast ex-
tent of territory and who proposed to control his own lands. When Gover-
nor Stuy-ve-sant attempted to take stone and timber from the patroon’s land,
for the purpose of building a fort, the latter objected and drove the Gover-
nor’s men off by force. Some of the quarrels of those early Dutch settlers are
very amusing. But they prospered and were happy.





























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CHAPTER V.
THE OLD DOMINION.

The reign of Queen E-liz-a-beth was one of the most illustrious in Eng-
lish history. Among the many distinguished gentlemen that formed her court
no one was more graceful and gallant than Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, the half-
brother of Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert. His introduction to the notice of Queen
E-liz-a-beth was brought about in a very strange manner. Attended by a
magnificent retinue, she was walking through the gardens of her palace when
she came upon a muddy place in the path. She stopped and hesitated when
Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, taking off his cloak spread it upon the ground and the
great Queen passed over without soiling her dainty shoes. This act of gal-
lantry attracted her ‘attention and with a gracious nod to Sir Walter she
passed on.

But Ra-leigh was ambitious, as well as polite, and he resolved that the
Queen should not forget him if he could help it. A short time after this
encounter, Sir Wal-ter happened one day to observe the Queen coming toward
him, as he stood at one of the windows of the palace. Taking the diamond ring
from his finger he wrote upon the glass:

“Fain would I climb, but that I fear to fall.”

He then left the palace. On the following day he returned to the same
place and found that the Queen had written underneath:

“If thy heart fail thee, do not climb at all.”

Encouraged by this gentle hint, Sir Wal-ter sought the Queen’s favor
and in time became one of her most trusted counsellors.

He was eager that Eng-land should obtain a foot-hold in the New
World and he sent a great many ships to A-mer-i-ca at his own expense.
Finally he attempted to form a colony which he had named Vir-gin-ia in honor
of Queen E-liz-a-beth. This project was a failure. It is supposed the un-
fortunate people were all killed by the In-di-ans. Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, himself
was finally accused of treason by his enemies at the court and beheaded.

37



38 THE OLD DOMINION.

When James I. came to the throne he made up his mind to establish a
colony. He formed two companies, the Lon-don Com-pa-ny and the Ply-
mouth Com-pa-ny, but it remained for the former to make the first permanent
settlement. In this company there were one hundred and five men but no
women. On the seventh day of April, 1607, they sailed into Ches-a-peake Bay.

They selected a place for the colony which they named James-towa in honor





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FIRST “WASH DAY” OF PILGRIM MOTHERS.

of the king. One of the principal men in the colony was John Smith, who
endeavored to make friends with the In-di-ans and work for the good of the
settlement. Upon one of his journeys he was taken prisoner and conducted
to the chief of the tribe. He knew that his life depended upon his coolness and
skill. Finally he was taken before the great king, Pow-ha-tan, who received
him with great ceremony, but to Smith’s surprise he was dragged to a great
stone and where stood several In-di-an braves ready to beat out his brains
with their enormous war-clubs. Suddenly Po-ca-hon-tas rushed to his rescue
and threw herself upon his body. Pow-ha-tan was so touched by his daugh-
ter’s act that he at once pardoned Smith.



THE OLD DOMINION. 39

Po-ca-hon-tas afterwards became a very fine lady. She was baptized
and christened La-dy Re-bec-ca and married John Rolfe, an Eng-lish gentle-
man, who took her to his own country and presented her to the Queen.
When about to return to A-mer-i-ca she was taken sick and died.

- The colonists endured a great deal of suffering and in a short time had
been reduced to about forty persons, but men and provisions were sent from
Eng-land and finally. two women came, Mrs. For-rest and her maid, Ann Bur-
ras. But the people were too lazy to work and would neither hunt, fish, nor till
the soil, and gradually the colony began to fail. In 1609 a fleet of nine ships,
carrying five hundred people, left Eng-land. Seven of the ships reached the
settlement, one of them foundered at sea, and another was wrecked off the
Ber-mu-das, and the passengers and crew spent the winter on the island. The
following year they rejoined their friends in Vir-gin-ia.

They found the people in an almost starving condition. Sir Thom-as
Gates made up his mind to return to England, but they heard that Lord de la
Ware was coming with men and provisions. Upon his arrival he traded
with the In-di-ans, built two forts, but in a year, owing to sickness, he was
obliged to returnto Eng-land. Shortly afterwards Sir Thom-as Gates, who
in the meantime had gone to Eng-land, arrived with men and provisions.
Sir Thom-as decided that the success of the colony depended upon making
each man look out for himself. So he refused to allow them to live upon
the provisions that had been brought, and declared they must make their
own living or starve. In the meantime, laws were made and enforced,
which hada good effect. The colonists raised corn and tobacco, more men
came over from Eng-land and the colony prospered.

In 1619 a Dutch ship brought a cargo of negroes and introduced
slavery into A-mer-i-ca, Cap-tain Ar-gall, who was Gov-ern-or for a short
time, destroyed a colony of the French at Port Roy-al in the Bay of Fun-dy,
which was the beginning of the difficulties between the French and Eng-lish.

Lord de la Ware was appointed Gov-ern-or of the colony in place of
Ar-gall, but he died on his way to A-mer-i-ca. Then Sir George Yeard-ley
was put in charge, and by giving the colonists self-government, the settle-
ment began to improve. . On July 3oth, the first legislative assembly met in
this country. It had twenty-two representatives, a governor, and a council.
Finally one hundred Eng-lish maidens offered to come to the colony as
wives for the young men. Within a year over one thousand persons had
arrived.





wi ey Hy

LZ



ARRIVAL OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH.



THE OLD DOMINION. Al

On the twenty-second of March, 1692, James-town was attacked by the
In-di-ans and a large number of people were killed. But the settlers soon
recovered from this calamity and revenged themselves upon the In-di-ans
with great severity. Finally the king decided to send a royal governor, Sir
_ John Har-vey, who should administer such laws as were enacted by the Eng-
lish Gov-ern-ment.

In the meantime, Lord Bal-ti-more had visited the Vir-gin-ia colony
and afterwards Ches-a-peake Bay. Upon his return to Eng-land he asked
the king for a grant of land in this locality, but before the patent was
signed, Lord Bal-ti-more died. His son, however, carried out his plans and
named the country Ma-ry-land.

At the time this colony was formed the Cath-o-lics were greatly perse-
cuted in Eng-land and, as Lord Bal-ti-more was a member of that faith, he
resolved that Ma-ry-land should be a refuge for them. In dealing with the
In-di-ans they endeavored to treat them kindly, and in return the natives
taught them how to plant and hunt and a great many other things which were
of great benefit to the colonists. The Vir-gin-ians had lost their royal char-
ter, and knowing that Ma-ry-land had been founded with the authority of the
king, they became jealous of their Cath-o-lic neighbors. So they sent a
protest to Eng-land against the settlement of Ma-ry-land, but all the answer
they received was that they must be friendly to the Ma-ry-land colonists.

Meanwhile the colony had grown, brick houses were built, large grants
of land were made, and flour mills and other industries were started.’ In
fact, Ma-ry-land put the other colonists to shame. When the revolution
against the king came in England, it created some disturbance in this colony.
The Prot-es-tants who had settled there were in favor of the Par-lia-ment,
while the Cath-o-lics were for the king. Wil-liam Clay-borne, Sec-re-tary of
the Vir-gin-ia Council, endeavored to stir up discord between the Prot-es-
tants and the Cath-o-lics, and for a time there was trouble, but finally the
people saw that they were more prosperous under the government of Leon-
ard Cal-vert, Lord Bal-ti-more’s brother, so they drove out Clay-borne
and Ma-ry-land returned to its former condition of peace and prosperity.





CUA Maaseeeavasasisesmceadaasadiaacgnsseas tas 0cus9 oar ads ad agg sad cst aa aspae AADLRSLL uaaaaea cae

CHARLES II. OF ENGLAND,



CHAPTER VI.
THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.

In the month of June, 1629, six vessels containing four hundred and
six men, women, and children, one hundred and forty head of cattle, forty
goats and a large quantity of provisions, arms and various kinds of implements,
left Eng-land and arrived at Sa-lem, Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were Pur-i-tans
who had protested against the Church of Eng-land and who desired to worship.
God after their own custom. They had left Eng-land under the royal patent
of the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay Com-pa-ny. The Goy-ern-or of the colony was
John Endicott, a very strict man, and he started out to form an independent
colony. He did not think it right the settlers should be governed by an Eng-
lish council or by a corrupt court, so the colonists asked for a change of gov-
ernment and were given permission to make their own laws. John Win-throp
was made gov-ern-or with six men as council. At the time of his election he
was in Eng-land but he sailed at once and arrived at the colony where he
found the zeople in a very unfortunate condition. But in a short time over one
thousand peisons arrived and villages began to spring up along the coast.
On Bos-ton Com-mon they found a spring of water and a settlement was made
which was the beginning of that great city.

The people were not accustomed to the New Eng-land climate and there
was consequently a great deal of sickness. So many died that a day was set
apart for fasting and prayer. As if in answer to their appeal a ship appeared
with provisions and drugs which the people sadly needed. On this vessel came
a young man by the name of Ro-ger Wil-liams. He was a very well educated
person but very frank in expressing his opinion. He believed that the church
and state should be kept separate and openly declared that no magistrate had
any right to punish anyone for breaking the Sab-bath. He was chosen min-
ister of the Bos-ton church but En-di-cott would not allow him to preach, so
he was obliged to go to Ply-mouth. Although he had many followers, En-di-

43





CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH.



THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 45

cott and others accused him of being a heretic and finally he fled to the woods
and lived with the In-di-ans.

Ca-non-i-cus, Chief of the Nar-ra-gan-setts, gave him a tract of land
but Wil-liams gave away the land in order that those who were persecuted like
himself, might find a refuge. So he called the land Prov-i-dence because he
believed that God had delivered him from his enemies. Finally others joined
Wil-liams in his colony and among these was Ann Hutch-in-son, a very re-
markable woman and one who did not believe in the strict religious laws of
En-di-cott. Finally the new colony obtained a charter under the name of
Rhode Is-land and Prov-i-dence Plan-ta-tion.

The Pur-i-tans and the In-di-ans did not agree very well, however, and
a tribe who inhabited Block Is-land murdered a prominent man by the name
of Old-ham. En-di-cott with about one hundred men sailed from Bos-ton to
Block Is- land and killed nearly all of their number. This made the other tribes
very angry and had it not been for Ro-ger Wil-liams the In-di-ans would have
joined together to fight the Pur-i-tans. Then the Pe-quot In-di-ans murdered
one of the settlers and ninety men under the command of Captain John Ma-son
with a body of Mo-he-gan In-di-ans attacked the Pe-quot villages and killed
over one thousand savages. Then the Nar-ra-gan-setts and Mo-he-gans united
and in five months this great tribe was destroyed.

It was the people dwelling in the Con-nec-ti-cut valley who suffered the
most from these In-di-an wars so it was important that they should band
themselves together. They adopted a constitution which recognized no power
save their own, in which all were free and equal and entitled to the same
rights. The laws were strict, almost too strict, but Con-nec-ti-cut became a
powerful and independent colony. In 1643 the people of Mas-sa-chu-setts,
Ply-mouth, Con-nec-ti-cut and New Haven joined themselves together so that
in case of war they could defend themselves against their enemies. The name
of this Un-ion was the U-nit-ed Col-o-nies of New Eng-land. Strange as it
may seem although the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay colonists had come to A-mer-i-ca
in order that they might be allowed to worship God after their own manner,
they insisted that every one else should obey their own religious laws. Those
who did not believe as they did, or showed any disposition to be independent
were persecuted and driven from among them. Among others, Sam-u-el Gor-
ton had dared to defend a servant who had accidentally smiled in church and
‘who on that account was declared a heretic. Besides, Gor-ton himself had re-





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ARE THE INDIANS COMING?














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THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 47

gious theories of his own and this in the eyes of the good people of the colony
was rank rebellion, so the poor man was expelled to finally found his way to
the settlement of Ro-ger Wil-liams. Here he bought land and made prepara-

tions to remain.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FORE-FATH-ERS’ ROCK.

After a time trouble broke out between the followers of Gor-ton and his
neighbors which ended in a victory of the latter and Gor-ton and his friends
moved away in search of a new place. They settled about twelve miles south of
Proy-i-dence. Before leaving Gor-ton sent a letter to the magistrates at Bos-
ton which contained his teligious belief. The magistrates declared the letter to















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































MARY DYER GOING TO. EXECUTION.



THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 49

be blasphemous and Gor-ton and his followers were ordered to appear before
the court at Bos-ton, but they refused.

A band of soldiers and In-di-ans charged, upon their village, their
houses were destroyed, their cattle were driven off, their wives and children
were forced to seek shelter in the woods. Gor-ton and his men were finally
forced to yield and were taken captives to Bos-ton. For a long time they
were kept in prison but many who had already heard their doctrine, openly
expressed themselves in their favor and Governor Win-throp finally set them
free. Finally they succeeded in getting an order from King Charles which
secured them the land on which they had settled, and in 1644 a royal charter
was obtained by Ro-ger Wil-liams which covered the whole of the Prov-i-
dence Plan-ta-tion.

John Clark was the pastor of the Baptist Church at New- -port, Rhode
Is-land. The Baptists had also been exiled from Mas-sa-chu-setts but were
under the protection of Ro-ger Wil-liams. It so happened that Clark with two
other Baptist ministers named Holmes and Cran-dall went to visit one of
their faith who was old, sick and blind. They were arrested for daring to
preach their religion in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were sentenced to be whipped
or pay a fine. Clark and Cran-dall were released on payment of a fine but
Holmes was given thirty strokes with a three corded whip. When the sheriff
had finished his task Holmes turned to him and said: “You have struck me as
with roses.”

In.the meantime another sect had incurred the displeasure of the Bos-
ton church—the Qua-kers. They were the followers of George Fox, a man
whose life was above reproach. The doctrine of the Qua-kers or Friends, as
they were sometimes called, was to be at peace with all the worl, to put aside
earthly vanity, and to dress in plain garb of gray. They insisted upon in-
terrupting the preacher whenever they heard a remark that did not meet their
approval. They were opposed to war and bloodshed.

The first Qua-kers to arrive in Boston were Mary Fish-er and Ann
Aus-tin, who were imprisoned immediately upon their arrival. They were
searched and all of their books and tracts were taken from them. They were
_ examined for signs of witchcraft, but as no moles or freckles were found upon
them they were cleared of that charge, and sent back to the Bar-ba-does. An
old gentleman living in Bos-ton had given the jailer money to feed them while
they were confined and to punish him the judges ordered him arrested and































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“THE CHILD-REN SOON LEARNED TO

1





LOVE SQUAN-TO,”









THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 51
thrown into jail. Upon his release he was exiied and the poor old man was
obliged to live with the In-di-ans. In the meantime eight other Qua-kers had
arrived from Lon-don and these were arrested but afterward were forced to

_return. A law was afterwards passed which prohibited the master of any
ship from bringing Qua-kers to New England. :



































































































































































A PURITAN GIRL.

It hardly seems possible that people who had left their own courtry
and braved the perils of a life in the new world and who were themselves of
strict and religious habits, should treat those who differed from them in re-

ligious pe with more cruelty than they had endured in the old world,











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A FRIENDLY INDIAN,





THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 53

Law-rence and Cas-san-dra South-wick were banished from the colony and
their two children were left behind almost starving. Finally they were ordered
to be sold as slaves but no sea captain would take them away from Bos-ton,
so they were allowed to remain. :

A young girl named Ma-ry Dy-er was arrested and thrown into prison
for visiting some Qua-kers who were in jail. She was banished but returned
to Bos-ton again to visit the persecuted Friends and was ‘sentenced to be
hung. Just as the executioner had put the noose around her neck her son
arrived with a reprieve. She was again banished and in a few months re-
turned to Bos-ton. In spite of the appeal of her husband and her friends
she was led to the Com-mon and hung there, as the judges said, for others
to take example by. Finally the king of Eng-land put a stop to these cruelties
and the persecutions ceased for awhile but they were revived later and men
and women were frequently tied to the end of a cart and whipped from town
to town. The king finally issued an order that all persons living in Mas-sa-
chu-setts and Con-nec-ti-cut should be allowed to worship God as they
pleased. eet



































































CHAPTER VIL.
THE VIRGINIA COLONY.

Southern hospitality is famed the country over and Vir-gin-i-ans have a
law, which had been handed down to them from the early days, that a stranger
coming to a house is to be treated as a.guest. After King Charles I. had been
beheaded and Crom-well was ruler in his stead the followers of the king were
obliged to leave Eng-land, so they came to the new world and although their
clothes were ragged and their pockets were empty they still retained their
polite manners and lordly ways.

After Gov-er-nor Har-vey had een sent oy the king to govern Vir-
gin-i-a the colonists of Mary-land and Vir-gin-i-a continued to quarrel with
each other. Gov-er-nor Har-vey was succeeded by Sir Fran-cis Wy-at and he
in time by Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley, who came to James-town in 1642. Under
his wise and kindly rule the colony prospered but the In-di-ans were ignored
and treated as savages. It was even declared that it was right to shoot an
In-di-an ‘whenever he was seen. The In-di-ans failed to see the justice of
this law, and surprising the villages killed nearly five hundred colonists. . The’
Vir-gin-i-ans revenged the murder of their countrymen and the In-di-ans
were driven into the interior, many were killed or taken eee and their
chief was shot.

In the mean-time the colonists had seen that their prosperity depended
upon industry and in time they learned to raise tobacco, which was their chiet
export, and hemp, flax and cotton. They learned how to make indigo and
bricks and every ship that left port took large cargoes of native products and
brought back Eng-lish goods in return.

Vir-gin-i-a had denounced the execution of Charles I. so Crom-well
sent a regiment of soldiers to demand the surrender of the Vir-gin-i-a colonies.
A government was established and Wil-liam Clay-bourne and Rich-ard Ben-
nett were put in command. They were both very kind and their rule was

b5



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LITTLE PURITANS,

ih | a

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THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 57

gentle. Clay-bourne, however, did not forget his old troubles with Mary-land
and finally an order was issued which declared that Mary-land belonged to
Crom-well, so removing the Cath-o-lic officers a board of Pur-i-tan commis-
‘gioners was put in control. There were frequent encounters between the
Mary-land-ers and the Vir-gin-i-ans and at length Cromwell sent a letter for-
bidding the Vir-cin-ians to interfere with the affairs of the Cath-o-lic settle-
ment. Lord Bal-ti-more was given permission to send a deputy governor
and finally the laws of Mary-land were ratified by the Eng-lish government.
But there still remained two political parties in Vir-gin-i-a.

After the death of Crom-well the power of the Pur-i-tans began to
reign and when “the king came to his own again” and Charles II. ascended
his throne again the royalist party of Vir-gin-i-a became the ruling power and
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley was made governor. Gov-ern-or Berk-e-ley allowed
the Pur-i-tans to retain their offices and the colony of Vir-gin-i-a continued to

prosper.
Slaves were imported from Af-ri-ca and a law was made condemning

all children of mixed blood to remain slaves for life. ~The Church of Eng-land
became the established church of the colony and although the Pur-i-tans were
not persecuted they were not allowed to preach.

In 1670 there were 40,000 people living in Vir-gin-i-a; of these 40,000,
2,000 were slaves and 6,000 were white servants apprenticed for a number
of years. The colony did not increase rapidly in population because many
unused to the climate died soon after their arrival, although every year about
2,000 white servants were brought over from Eng-land. The planters made
very little money owing to the fact that the price of tobacco had been re-
duced in Eng-land and the goods sent in exchange had been placed at ex-
orbitant prices. In 1673 the colony was given as a present by the king, to two
of his favorites, Lord Cul-pep-per and the Earl of Ar-ling-ton. In the mean- :
time trouble with the In-di-ans broke out and a number of tribes united to
defend themselves against the whites. In Ma-ry-land and Vir-gin-i-a the plant-
ers lived in constant dread and finally formed an expedition to attack the In-
ditans. The old story of the inhumanity of the whites towards the natives
was repeated and the In-di-ans resolved upon revenge. Many of the colonists
were killed upon their plantations and there was never a moment when any one
felt safe. Finally a young man named Na-than-i-el Ba-con, who owned a
plantation near Rich-mond and whose overseer had been slain by the In-di-ans,





THE CHARTER OAK.



THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 59

resolved to put an end to these massacres. Governor Berk-e-ley, who did not
wish any war with the natives because he was afraid of injuring the trade,
ordered Ba-con, who had already set out on his expedition, to return. Ba-con
refused and in a short time he and his followers had exterminated one of the
principal tribes. Pleased with his success Ba-con marched to James-town at
the head of five hundred men, and demanded a commission to organize a
campaign against the In-di-ans. For a long time the governor was obstinate
but finally he consented.











After Ba-con had gone Berk-e-ley declared him to be a rebel and pro-
claimed him an outlaw. When Ba-con heard of this he promptly returned
only to find that the governor had fled. Ba-con at once organized a new
government, calling a convention for the revision of the laws. In the mean-
time Berk-e-ley had obtained possession of an armed fleet and as soon as the
royalists saw that he might be successful they joined his forces and James-
town was retaken. Ba-con assembled his army again and throwing up some



















ATTACKING THE BLOCK HOUSE



THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 61

. breastworks near the city he awaited the attack of the governor. But the
attack never came and on the following morning when Ba-con entered James-
town he found it deserted. He made up his mind that the indolent and proud
followers of Berk-e-ley should have no excuse for returning so he ordered the
city to be burnt.

Ba-con admitted his warfare against the In-di-ans but soon afterward -
died. When Berk-e-ley heard of this and no longer had anything to fear he
sent out an armed force which captured or killed most of Ba-con’s friends.
But the seeds sown by Ba-con had already borne good fruit for he had taught
the people to resist oppression and stand up for their own rights. Berk-e-ley
was ordered to return to Eng-land, where he shortly afterward died.

When Charles II. was restored to his throne he gave to certain gentle-
men of his court that tract of land which included the present states of
North and South Car-o-li-na. These dashing cavaliers at once made prepa-
rations to found a model settlement. The constitution was prepared by John
Locke, the famous philosopher and statesman. Eight proprietors were to be
made Lords of the province; the eldest to be called the -Pal-a-tie. There

were to be seven other officers, namely: Admiral, chamberlain, chancellor,
constable, chief-justice, high steward and treasurer. All the rights of property
were hereditary in the male line. There were orders of hereditary called land-
iories and every seigniory barony and colony contained 12,000 acres,
graves and cassiques. The domains of the proprietors were to be called seign-
while each colony contained four hundred and eighty thousand acres of which
three-fifths were to be owned by the people and two-fifths by the nobility. The
common people were prohibited from entering into the titled class, and the
highest dignity to which a man of the people might aspire was to become lord
of the manor. There were eight supreme courts and a parliament which was
regulated by very elaborate laws. The amusements, the fashions, even the
marriages and funerals were systematically arranged.
It took Locke three years to prepare this system of government, and
in the mean-time two colonies had been established in Car-o-li-na. In 1664
Sir John Yea-mans brought over the first expedition, and as the territory be-
came settled the people set to work to make more simple and practical laws
than those of the “Grand Model,” which were finally rejected in 1698.
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a formed a colony of Al-be-marle
and Wil-liam Sayle was commissioned governor of that part of Car-o-li-na









































































































































































































































































A PATROON’S MANOR HOUSE.



THE VIRGINIA COLONY, 63

lying south and west of cape Ro-maine, which was called Charles-ton. The
rule of Yea-mans was very unpopular and he was finally succeeded by Jo-seph
West, under whose management the colony began to prosper. Al-be-marle
was unfortunate in its governors, who could not manage the people. These

difficulties were finally overcome by the appointment of one governor for
=== = =




































































































































































































































North and South Car-o-li-na. Phil-lip Lud-well was the first general governor
but he was unequal to the task and so Thom-as Smith, a Car-o-lin-i-an,
succeeded him. But it was not until John Arch-dale, a Qua-ker, was put at the
head of the government, that the colony became fully established. Geor-gi-a
was settled in 1732 and in 1752 became a royal province.





in
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CHAPTER VIIL
THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.

Under the stern but kindly rule of Peter Stuy-ve-sant, New Am-ster-
dam prospered. But while the old one-legged governor was fighting with the
Swedes the In-di-ans fell upon the settlements of Pa-vo-ni-a and Ho-bo-ken,
killed the men and carried off the women and children as prisoners. These
In-di-an attacks occurred at frequent intervals till finally the easy-going
Dutchmen resolved to teach the savages a lesson, which they did and for a
time there was comparative quiet. é

For a time the Qua-kers were persecuted as in the New Eng-land
settlements and Governor Stuy-ve-sant was anxious that they should be ex-
pelled from the Dutch settlements. For this the directors in Hol-land re-
buked him and the Friends were no longer annoyed. In the mean-time slaves
were brought in large numbers to New Neth-er-land.

There was one fact which the Dutch observed with alarm and that
was that Eng-lish settlers were gradually encroaching on the land claimed by
the Dutch. Lord Bal-ti-more declared that a supposed south river region was
included in his patent and sent a delegation to Ma-ry-land demanding its sur-
render. John Win-throp obtained a grant of land from Charles II. which»
covered not only Long Is-land but the northern part of New Neth-er-land.
The Eng-lish bought land from the In-di-ans which the Dutch had already
purchased from them and the king gave grants of land which included the
territory occupied by the Dutch. In 1664 Colonel Rich-ard Nich-olls sailed
trom Eng-land with a force of four hundred men, to enforce the claims of the.
Duke of York, to whom the king had granted Long Is-land. He brought
his four ships up the bay before New Am-ster-dam, seized the block house on
Sta-ten Is-land and blockaded the harbor. He issued a proclamation stating
that no one would be harmed who declared allegiance to the King of Eng-land.
Stuy-ve-sant endeavored to persuade his people to resist but they could see
nothing except defeat and stubbornly refused to fight. On September 8, 1664,

65





















































KING PHILIP.





SCENE ON THE MISSISSIPPI,





THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 67

New Neth-er-land surrendered and was re-named New York, while Port
Orange was given its present name of Al-ba-ny.

The Duke of York gave many grants of land to Eng-lishmen. New
Neth-er-land was divided into two provinces, one of which was given to Lord
Berk-e-ley, the elder brother of Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a, and the

1







PHIL-IP’S MON-U-MENT,

other to Sir George Car-te-rett. Car-te-rett’s province was named New
Jer-sey.
Nich-olis ruled as governor for about three years and was then suc-
ceeded by Colonel Fran-cis Love-lace. In 1672 Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant died.
5















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































x ‘ . ON THE HUDSON. *



THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 69

On August 7, 1673, twenty-three Dutch ships carrying sixteen hundred
men arrived in the harbor of New York. The Dutch commander demanded
instant surrender and when the Eng-lish requested that they be allowed to
treat with him, he turned an hour- glass over and quietly told them that if they
did not surrender within half an hour, he would open fire. He did as he
promised and receiving no answer he fired on the fort, killing and wounding
many people. The fort then surrendered and the Dutch took possession.
Dutch names were restored to cities, rivers, forts and bays and An-tho-ny
Clove was chosen governor. Two ships were left him for protection and then
the fleet sailed away. Peace was made between Eng-land and Hol-land, who
had been at war for some time and the Dutch gave up their possessions in the
new world to the Eng- lish. Eng-lish names were restored and Ed-mund
An-dros was appointed governor.

Under Eng-lish tule New York took on a more rapid growth. Wheat
and tobacco were largely cultivated; while fish, peltry and lumber were ex-
ported abroad.

The affairs in the colonies were ey influenced by the situation in
the mother country. The Duke of York had become King of Eng-land, but
had been obliged to leave the kingdom and Wil-liam and Ma-ry, the Pro-tes-
tants had been proclaimed King and Queen. King James had been a Cath-o-
lic and the Eng-lish of New York were members of that faith. The Dutch in-
habitants of New York were in sympathy with Wil-liam and Ma-ry. Nich-
ol-son, the lieutenant governor, who ruled in place of Sir Ed-mund An-dros,
who had been deposed, did not like the situation so he resigned his position
. and sailed for Eng-land. Every one seemed to be afraid to assume command
at this time; but a man named Ja-cob Leis-ler, who was captain of the militia,
called his soldiers together and made them sign a declaration stating that they
held the fort for Wil-liam and Ma-ry and would protect the Prot-es-tant re-
ligion. The council were very much frightened and fled from New York
leaving Lais-ler in complete control. ;

Now when King James fled from Eng-land he went to France, where
he was the guest of Louis XIV. King Louis sent word to Fron-te-nac,
governor of Can-a-da, ordering him to search among the inhabitants of New

York and send all French Prot-es-tants to France and all Eng-lish Prot-es-
tants of New Eng-land or other places. The French Cath-o-lics were to be
allowed to remain. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1669, Fron-te-nac assembled a large body





DEATH OF MONTGOMERY.

Painting by Beniamin West,



THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 71

of men and divided them into three parties. His plan was to attack Al-ba-ny,
New Hamp-shire and Maine at the same time. A part of the force was com-
posed of Ir-o-quois and these were afraid to attack Al-ba-ny and induced the
French to march upon Sche-nec-ta-dy. It was a total surprise, for there
had been a merry making in the village and the entrance to the fort was un-
guarded save by two snow men which had been erected by the boys and girls
during the day. Nearly every one was slain and the village was burned.

The people in the other towns became alarmed at this and banded
themselves together to resist the French. On May 1, 1690, a colonial con-
verse met, when it was agreed that New York should provide four hundred
men; Mas-sa-chu-setts one hundred and sixty; Con-nec-ti-cut one hundred
and thirty-five; Ply-mouth sixty, and Ma-ry-land one hundred. Leis-ler
showed himself to be the right man in the right place. He rebuilt the fortifi-
cations of New York, he captured some French cruisers and succeeded in put-
ting the colonies in a state of security.

Then King Wil-liam sent’ over Colonel Hen-ry Slaught-er as governor.
Slought-er’s first act was to issue a warrant for the arrest of Leis-ler and
his council. The political enemies of this brave man saw in this a chance to

-ruin him so one day when Slought-er was under the influence of wine, he
was induced to sign the death warrant of Leis-ler. Slought-er’s rule lasted
only four months, when he was succeeded by Ben-ja-min Fletch-er, who at-
tempted to assume control over the New Eng-land colonies, as well as his

“own. Holding a charter from the home government they naturally protested
against this and even sent representatives to Eng-land to complain against
this tyranny. At one time Fletch-er went.to Hart-ford and ordered the militia
to assemble. Governor Treat refused to allow Fletch-er to take command of
the soldiers, but allowed them to muster at Hart-ford. Fletch-er gave orders
that his instructions from the King be read aloud to the troops. Captain
Wads-worth, who was in command, at once gave orders for the drums to be
beaten. They made such a noise that not a word could be heard. Fletch-er
grew very angry and insisted that the drums should cease, but Wads-worth
was master of the situation and finally Fletch-er had to retire, and return to
New York.

The rule of Fletch-er was dishonest and tyrannical, and he was finally
dismissed from office and the Earl of Bell-o-mont succeeded him. The new
governor succeeded in reforming the government, and during his administra-































































































Ek,

WINT

A FARMER'S HUT IN



THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. %

tion New York enjoyed a season of prosperity. He died in 1701, and Lord
Corn-bu-ry was appointed governor. Corn-bu-ry was a very worthless man.
He used the public funds for his own enjoyment and his administration was a
long series of debaucheries. He persecuted the Pres-by-te-ri-ans and insulted
the Qua-kers and abused every one. Finally he was recalled by Queen Anne,
who was then on the throne. Lord Love-lace was next appointed Governor,
but he lived only a short time, and was succeeded by Rob-ert Hunt-er. He in
turn was succeeded by Bur-net, who ruled until 1727, when he was removed.
The next governor died soon after his arrival, and finally in 1732 Colonel
Cos-by was sent over to take charge of the Colony.

It was during the rule of the Earl of Bell-o-mont that the famous
pirate, Captain Kidd, was the terror of the seas. During the administration of
Fletch-er commerce had become almost an impossibility, owing to these sea
rovers, who preyed upon defenseless ships. Bell-o-mont determined to get rid
of these men, and his plan was to form a stock company for thé purpose of
capturing pirate vessels. Several noblemen, and even the king himself, were to
share in the profits, and Captain Kidd’ was put in command. But Kidd was
unable to take any of these ships, so after many adventures he finally con-
cluded to become a pirate on his own account, which he did for many years.
To the surprise of everyone he sailed into New York harbor one day, but
Bell-o-mont did not arrest him because Captain Kidd told him that he was
innocent of all the crimes of which he had been accused. When he went to
Bos-ton, however, he was seized and thrown into jail, but he was afterwards
sent to Eng-land, where he was imprisoned for a year.’ Soon after this he was
“hanged for the murder of a gunner, whom he had accidentally killed. His life
had been full of adventure, but-he was probably not as bad a man as he has
been represented.

















































































































































































UNEXPLORED REGIONS.



CHAPTER IX.
PERIL AND HARDSHIP.

Charles, the First, tried to keep the Pur-i-tans from leaving Eng-land.
He even forced them to return to land, after they had taken passage in a ship,
which was to sail for Mas-sa-chu-setts. This turned out very unfortunately for
him, for one of the men who had taken-passage for the New World and who
was forced to return was Ol-i-ver Crom-well. Not long after this the king was
beheaded, and Crom-well became ruler,

Crom-well did everything in his power to help the people of Mas-sa-
chu-setts. When Charles II was restored to the throne, two men who had
been convicted of taking part in the death of his father made their escape to
A-mer-i-ca. The king demanded their immediate return, but the people
tefused. The king then demanded that the charter be returned, but the people
told him that they were loyal to the home government and all they wished was
that the king should confirm the charter. This was granted but some hard -
conditions were imposed upon them.

A few years later the king sent over commissioners to secure the con-
quest of New Neth-er-land and to force the obedience of the Mas-sa-chu-setts
Colony. The people of Mas-sa-chu-setts refused to swear allegiance to the
king except under the protection of the charter. In the meantime New
Hamp-shire and Maine were included in the government of Mas-sa-chu-setts.

The colony was loyal to the home government and did everything in
its power to show this. But there were may people who complained to the
king that the people of Mas-sa-chu-setts were tired of Eng-lish rule. In 1681
he issued an order that deputies should be sent to him to tender the submission
of the colony. In answer Mas-sa-chu-setts sent two men to Eng-land bearing
letters of such a character that the king issued a writ against the colony
practically claiming that it chad no legal charter.

When Charles IT. died his brother James became King of Eng-land and
by his command Sir Ed-mund An-dros was made governor of all New Eng-

75

















































































































































SCOUTS.



PERIL AND HARDSHIP. 77

land. An-dros was avery proud man who believed that obedience to the king
was the first duty of the people. They naturally were angry at the loss
of their charter but when the general court was abolished and Pur-i-tan
principles were ignored their rage knew no bounds. The new governor levied
heavy taxes. Forced the land owners to give up their title to him for
examination and even told them that deeds from the In-di-ans were not worth
a penny. In the same manner he tyrannized over the people of New Hamp-
shire and Maine and then turned his attention to Con-nec-ti-cut.

He demanded the charter but the people protested. Then a council was
held with the royal governor and while it was in progress the charter disap-
peared: It had been hidden in an oak tree on the grounds of one of the
magistrates. But like New York and New Jer-sey Con-nec-ti-cut became a
part of New Eng-land under the government of An-dros. When King James
fled from Eng-land and Wil-liam of Or-ange ascended the throne there was
great rejoicing. The power of the Stuarts was at an end and the people were
freed from royal rule. Sir Wil-liam Phips was made governor of New Eng-
land and although he was a good man he did not make a wise governor. He
was recalled to Eng-land, where he died in 1694.

The year 1692 was a memorable one in the history of New Eng-land,
for it was then that the peoplé were carried away by the delusion of witch-
craft. The craze originated with some children who had been listening to
stories from an old slave. The madness spread until finally many prominent
people were accused of being bewitched. All that it was necessary was some
peculiarity about a person’s appearance to arouse suspicions. People that had
moles upon them or any other mark would be accused and thrown into
prison. Finally one of the children confessed that they had been deceiving the
people, but her companions accused her of being a witch. The time came
at last when the people began to see that they had been imposed upon and the
craze came to a sudden end. But in the meantime several hundred people had
been imprisoned and about twenty had suffered death.

In reading the history of a colony one can hardly blame the In-di-ans
for being enemies of the white men. They were treated unjustly, even cruelly.
Their friendship was repaid with treachery and the simple savage was made
the victim of his own ignorance. When Mas-sas-o-it died he left two
sons, Al-ex-an-der and Phil-ip. A year later Al-ex-an-der was carried prisoner
to Ply-mouth because he was suspected of having conspired with the Nar-ra-



SN
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GEORGE WASHINGTON IN HIS YOUTH.

After the painting by C., W. Peale, and the engraving of J. W. Paradise.



PERIL AND HARDSHIP. - eo

gan-setts to attack the Eng-lish, but he died before reaching his destination,
His wife who was a queen among the In-di-ans always believed that her hus~
band had been poisoned, and when fourteen years later she heard that Phil-ip
was planning to attack the settlements she attempted to join him with three
hundred warriors. In less than a year nearly all of her braves had been
killed and the queen in attempting to swim a river was drowned.

Phil-ip was a man of noble character and had always treated the white
man with justice, but when he was forced to undergo humiliation his natural
love of justice asserted itself and he made preparations for war.

One beautiful June day in 1675 as the people of Swan-sea were return- |
ing home from church a man was killed by an In-di-an in ambush. This was
the beginning of what is known in history as King Phil-ip’s war. It was a
season of terror, desolation and death. Houses were burned, cattle were
driven away, men, women and children were murdered by the In-di-ans, and
yet in spite of the dangers that threatened the people it seemed as though God
kept them from being destroyed... At Brook-field men, women and children had
just time enough to rush into the strong house of the settlement when three
hundred savages rushed into the village and burned every house except the one
where the people had fled. Then followed a terrible battle. The In-di-ans
surrounded the house, firing from all sides. At night they built fires- against
the walls of the building and thrust torches through the cracks in the logs and
shot burning arrows on to the roof. But the desperate people put out the
fires and kept the savages at bay. On the morning of the third day the In-
di-ans piled a cart with hay and set it on fire, then pushed it up against the
building. The brave people inside prepared to die but deliverance was at hand.
Just as they had given up all hope there came a terrible storm and the rain
poured down in torrents extinguishing the blazing cart. In the afternoon re-
inforcements arrived from Bos-ton and the people were saved.

In the meantime the war continued with increasing severity and hun-
dreds of people were killed. Then the Eng-lish resolved to organize trained
band soldiers, and instead of waiting to be ambushed and shot down by waiting
savages to use the In-di-an’s method of warfare and adopt all his cunning and
stealthy methods of attack. Phil-ip was chased from point to point and twice
he barely escaped capture. Then an In-di-an betrayed his hiding place and a
band of Eng-lish-men surprised the great chief in the middle of the night and
killed him.



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ON THE WAR-PATH.



CHAPTER X.
THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA.

While these terrible In-di-an massacres were taking place, a man in
Eng-land was planning to found a colony in the New World. He was the son
of a famous admiral, and his name was Wil-li-am Penn. He is said to have
been a good-natured, happy boy when at school, fond of athletic sports, but at
the sate time a diligent student. When at Ox- ford, he heard a Qua-ker
preacher deliver a sermon and at once became a convert to the faith. Soon
after this, the students were ordered to wear a surplice, and. Penn refused.
For this he was expelled from school and his father banished him from home.
He relented, however, and sent him to Par-is, hoping that the boy would forget
his nonsense as he called it. But when Penn returned to Lon-don, he attended
the meetings of the Friends, and ever afterward was a consistent member. He
was confined for several months in the Tower of Lon-don, for writing a book
on the Qua-ker religion. Soon after this his father died, leaving his son
a large property, and Penn at once set about to start his colony.

In 1680 he obtained a grant of land from Charles II., including
forty thousand square miles of territory between Ma-ry-land and New York,
which the King called Penn-syl-va-ni-a. He determined that in his colony
there should be perfect,liberty of conscience and political freedom for all. Only
murder and treason were punishable by death, and it was against the law to
tell a lie. Every one, even an In-di-an, was to be treated with kindness and
justice. In 1682, he set sail and on the 27th of October of that year, he arrived
at the colony. He was pleased with everything he saw, and the beauty ofthe
woods and hills and the broad river on which he sailed were sources of con-
tinual wonder and delight.

He laid out a.city which was the beginning of Phil-a-del-phi-a. During
the first year after Penn’s arrival twenty-three ships filled with colonists
came to the province. He treated the In-di-ans with kindness and the red men
were struck with his simple and honest manner. He made a treaty with them

81







é
THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA 88

and won their hearts at once. Penn remained in A-mer-i-ca for two years,
during which time the colony prospered, school houses were built, a printing
press was set up, emigrants came from Eng-land and Penn-syl-va-ni-a began
to be looked upon as a model settlement. But Penn was obliged to return
to Eng-land where he remained for fifteen years. During his absence frequent
quarrels took place and false reports were sent to Eng-land and finally the’
government was taken away from Penn and given to a royal commissioner.
In 1694 Wil-liam and Ma-ry gave the colony back into Penn’s hands and five
year’s afterward he returned to A-mer-i-ca. You can judge his surprise that
instead of a little straggling village which he left he found a city of nearly two
thousand houses. Penn resided in a house which remained standing until the
year 1868. He was very kind and hospitable and although he lived in great
style, he showed as much courtesy to an In-di-an chief as he did to an Eng-lish
Duke. He was always a gentleman and did not drop:his courtly manners
when he sat in a savage wigwam and ate hominy and acorns. He never be-
lieved in slavery and although he owned a large number of slaves he gave them
all freedom when he died. In 1701 he left the colony and returned to Eng-land
where he became involved in much trouble. His son whom he had sent to
A-mer-i-ca, turned out to be a drunkard and was sent to Eng-land in disgrace.
The charter of the province was threatened and Penn was arrested and sent to
prison. The governor that Penn left in his place was deposed and Charles
Cook-in was put in charge. After him came Sir Wil-liam Keith.

Wil-li-am Penn died in 1718 and in 1732 Thom-as Penn, his second son
by his second marriage, moved to Phil-a-del-phia. He was never popular, but
his elder brother seemed to inherit some of his father’s ability and at once was
recognized as possessing the noble qualities of his father. Although Penn-
syl-va-ni-a was the youngest colony on the continent it had more inhabitants
than Vir-gin-i-a, Ma-ry-land and the Car-o-li-nas.

Phil-a-del-phi-a was the largest and finest city in A-mer-i-ca and second
in size. Pat-rick Gor-don was governor after Keith and was succeeded in 1736
by George Thom-as.

About five years after the death of Wil-liam Penn there wandered into
the city of Phil-a-del-phi-a a ragged, hungry, barefoot boy. For days he
roamed about the streets of the city looking for work. In some way he man-
aged to get into the good graces of Governor Keith, who sent him to Lon-don;

but after a time Ben-ja-min returned to Pennsylvania. He afterward be-
6























































TAC.

ONT

P

REA

SSS.





THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA. 85

came a very famous man and in 1728 he started a newspaper, called the Penn-
syl-va-ni-a Gazette. It was published for 120 years. For twenty-five years he
published “Poor Richard’s Almanac,” a collection of curious stories and wise
sayings, and he soon became known as the greatest scholar in A-mer-i-ca. To
him is due the credit of having discovered the fact that lightning and elec-
tricity are che same. Ben-ja-min Frank-lin rendered the colonies great service
during their struggle for independence and next to Wash-ing-ton his name is
che most renowned one in the history of those times.































































































“WILL-IAM PENN’S HOUSE.”





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A JESUIT MISSIONARY,



CHAPTER XT.
DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST.

To Jes-u-it missionaries is due the credit of leading the march of
civilization in the West. About thirty years after the settlement of Que-bec
in 1608, the Fathers Shau-mo-not and Bre-boeuf traversed the great lakes,
sailing along the northern shore of O-hi-o by way of Lake Erie and skirt-
‘ing the western shores of Lake Hur-on as far as the straits of Mack-i-nac. In
the summer of 1660, Father Mes-nard founded a mission on a point on the
southern shore of Lake Su-pe-ri-or called Shag-wam-e-gan. He lost his life in
some strange way and in 1665 Father All-ou-ez took up the mission, and
preached in the In-di-an language to the various tribes. In 1669 Father
A-lon-ey and another priest went as far as the Fox river.

In 1671 Jean Ta-lon, who had been appointed the over-seer of Can-a-da,
by the French Government, called a council of In-di-ans at the foot of lake
Su-pe-ri-or. The chiefs of the different tribes promised to be true and friendly
to the French king and two years later Lou-is Jo-li-et and Father Mar-quette
started on an expedition, when they discovered the source of the Mis-sis-sip-pi,
going as far south as the mouth of the Ar-kan-sas. They floated down the
Mis-sis-sip-pi river in their canoes, meeting with many In-di-ans who treated
them finely. They saw the passage from the Fox to the Wis-con-sin river and
from the St. Law-rence to the Mis-sis-sip-pi river. ‘They floated past the point

where the. Mis-sou-ri entered into the great river on which they sailed. When .

they reached the II-li-nois river they followed its course and made a portage
into lake Mich-i-gan. Mar-quette lived for two years among the Mi-am-i In-
di-ans, dying in 167%, while on his way to Mack-i-nac. Jo-li-et told wonderful
stories of the expedition when he arrived at Mon-tre-al, and La Salle, a Nor-
man gentleman, who had established a trading post near that city, fitted out an
expedition. With thirty men he marched to Lake On-ta-ri-o, made the portage
by Ni-ag-a-ra Falls to lake Er-ie, where he built a ship in which he sailed as far
as Green Bay. La Salle and his men walked to St. Jo-seph, where they waited

87





AN OLD TRAPPER



DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST. 89

for the ship to come up with them. It did not appear, so he went westward, ©
reaching the present La Salle county in II-li-nois, where he established a fort.
La Salle finally returned to Mon-tre-al, but in 1681 he set out upon another
expedition. He crossed lake Mich-i-gan and penetrated inland by way of the
Chi-ca-go river, which strange as it may seem, they named the “Divine River.”
La Salle made friends with the In-di-ans, and finally arrived at the Mis-sis-
sip-pi. He followed the river until after many adventures he arrived at the sea.
Soon after his return La Salle went to France, where he was given power to

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FRENCH TRADERS.

colonize the territory he had explored and which he had named Lou-is-i-an-a,
but which included the present state of Lou-is-i-an-a and all the territory north
of the line of Tex-as and west of the Mis-sis-sip-pi to the Rocky Moun-tains.
La Salle left France in 1684 with four vessels, but it was almost a year
beforé he arrived at the mouth of the Mis-sis-sip-pi. He passed beyond the
mouth of the river, landing farther west; thus it happened that Tex-as was the
first state to be settled after F lor-i-da. The captain deserted La Salle and re-.





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AN INDIAN ATTAC



DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST. 91

turned to France where he told unjust stories of the great discoverer. Al-
though they were kind to him, La Salle was very unfortunate in his explora-
tions and after many months spent in searching for the Mis-sis-sip-pi river he
finally met his death at the hands of one of his companions. About ten years
after La Salle’s death France made another effort to colonize the Mis-sis-sip-pi
valley. Le-moine Di-ber-ville was given the command of an expedition and
in 1699 he sailed from France io explore the territory which La Salle had dis-
covered and in which he had lost his life.

He entered the Gulf of Mex-i-co and sailed up the Mis-sis-sip-pi river.
He made a second voyage in 1700 and established a settlement about thirty
tniles below the present city of New Or-leans. Communication was estab-
lished between Louis-i-an-a and Can-a-da by way of the Mis-sis-sip-pi and
Lake Er-ie. An Eng-lish-man-by the name of Coxe was sent out by Charles
II of Eng-land to explore and take possession of the territory west of Flor-i-da.
Then John Law, an Eng-lish-man, formed his famous scheme for the coloni-
zation of Louis-i-an-a. Although this was the means of inducing many people
to come to A-mer-i-ca, it failed, and thousands of people. in Eng-land and
Trance who had invested money in the plan were ruined. Then Bi-en-ville was
made governor general in 1736. He led an expedition against the In-di-ans
but was defeated. In 1741 he returned to France. The French colony of
Louis-i-an-a was in many respects a failure. In the first place it was threat-
ened with invasions of the Eng-lish by sea and the In-di-ans by land. This
great territory was not conquered by force of ar ms but by the farmers who
developed its wonderful resources.





3

«\- \\ 3

INCIDENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

NY
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CHAPTER XII.
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

In the year 1749, a grant ona hundred thousand acres of land west of
the Al-le-gha-nies, on and near the O-hi-o River, was made to some Lon-don-
ers and Vir-gin-i-ans, under the name of the O-hi-o Company. As the French
considered this to be a part of their territory, they treated the Company’ Ss sur-
veyors as intruders, made them prisoners, and broke up the trading posts.
They acted with still greater vigor in 1753. In that year twelve hundred men
were sent to Mon-tre-al, who built a fort at Presque Isle, on the southern shore
of Lake Er-ie, now the present town of Er-ie. The same year they advanced
south from this, aad built two forts, one, Fort le Boeuf, at the present town of
Wat-er-ford, and Fort Ve-nan- go, on French Creek, which flows into the
Al-le-ghany River.

Din-wid-die, Lieu-ten-ant Gov-ern-or of Vir-gin-i-a, alarmed at the
movements of the French, sent a messenger to the French commander of these
posts, asking their removal. The person he chose to carry this message was
George Wash-ing-ton, a native of Vir- gin-i-a, then a young man of two-and-
twenty. On the 30th of Oc-to-ber, 1753, the very day on which he received
his credentials, he left Wil-liams-burg, and, pushing through the wilderness,
arrived at Fort Ve-nan-go De-cem-ber 4. At Le Boeuf he at last found St.
Pierre, the commandant, who received his letter, and treated him with marked
kindness. In the course of Wash-ing-ton’s stay the French officers talked with
great frankness, said that they were there by order of the king, and should
remain there so long as he commanded them to do so.

- St. Pierre’s reply to Din-wid-die was given to Wash-ing-ton, who at
once commenced his long and fearful journey of four hundred miles to
Wil-liams-burg. Snow had fallen; the rivers had risen, and were filled with
ice; the horses broke down ai the very commencement, and the journey had to
be made on foot. The In-di-ans were far from friendly, and once Wash-ing-ton
was shot at from a distance of not more than fifteen feet. Through all these

_ 98





INTO THE WILDERNESS.



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 95

dangers he made his way home unharmed, Jan-u-a-ry, 1754, and delivered St.
Pierre’s letter, which contained a polite but firm refusal to give up the posts.
Early in 1754, the O-hi-o Company sent out a small party to erect a fort
at the junction of the Al-le-gha-ny and Mo-non-ga-he-la Rivers, and Din-wid-
die dispatched a captain’s command to protect them. In addition to this, in
March, a regiment of six hundred men was raised in Vir-gin-i-a, of which Frye
was colonel, and Wash-ing-ton second. in command. They quickly com-
menced their march to the new fort, intending to occupy it. While on their
way, they learned that the French had surprised and driven off the Company's















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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men, and had then completed the work, naming it Fort du Quesne. Wash-ing- |
ton was sent'in advance to reconnoitre, and fell in with a small body of French ‘|
under Ju-mon-ville, at Great Mead-ows, about forty-five miles from Fort du
Quesne. Wash-ing-ton surprised this party on the night of May 28, and in the
attack Ju-mon-ville was slain, and nine of his men. This was the first blood
shed in the war. Frye died about this time, and Wash-ing-ton assumed the
command. The rest of the troops soon joined him at Great Mead-ows, where
he built a stockade, which he called Fort Ne-ces-si-ty.











SA. BRITISH SENTRY,



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 97

Here he was attacked in July by De Vil-tiers with 1,500 French and
In-di-ans. At the end of ten hours hard fighting, Wash-ing-ton surrendered
the fort on condition that his troops should be allowed the honors of war.
This expedition under Wash-ing-ton was the commencement of the great
_Struggle between the French and Eng-lish for the possession of the North
A-mer-i-can continent. All the previous-intercolonial wars sprang from dis-
putes in Eu-rope, which involved the French, Eng-lish, and Span-ish colonies.
This began in A-mer-i-ca itself about territory. There was, as yet, no formal
declaration of war between the two nations, nor was any made until nearly two
years later. :

The Eng-lish government was anxious that their colonies should take,
the most active part in the contest, and urged them to unite on some plan of
defense. While Wash-ing-ton was fighting in the wilds of Vir-gin-i-a, a con-
vention of delegates from seven of the colonies assembled at Al-ba-ny to see
what could be done. The first object they had in view was to secure the friend-
ship of the powerful Ir-o-quois on the northern borders. This they suc-
ceeded in doing, They then debated and adopted a plan of union for mutual
defense, subject to the approval of the colonies and the Eng-lish government.
The author of the plan was Ben-ja-min Frank-lin, a delegate from Pern-
syl-va-ni-a. It never went in force, because it pleased neither the king nor the
colonies. The king thought it gave the people too much power, the coionies
thought it gave the king too much. The probability is, therefore, that Frank-
lin’s plan was nearly correct.

The plan of union not having been adopted, the Eng-lish government
determined to carry on the war with such help as the colonies might feel in-
clined to furnish. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1755, Gen-er-al Brad-dock was sent out
from England to the Ches-a-peake, as commander-in-chief, with two regiments.
of Brit-ish troops. At Al-ex-an-dra, Brad-dock met a convention of Colonial
governors, and, with their advice, decided on the campaign for the year.
Brad-dock, in person, was to march against Fort du Quesne; Goy-ern-or Shir-
ley, of Mas-sa-chu-setts, to lead an- expedition against Fort Ni-ag-a-ra; and
Wil-liam Johnson, an influential man with the Ir-o-quois, was to attempt, with
their assistance, the capture of Crown Point.

Besides these three expeditions planned by Brad-dock; still another,
against the French settlements at the head of the Bay of Fun-dy, had been
previously arranged in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were defended by two French

3



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WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE.


Child's History of she United States

FOR
Little Men and Women

A Thrilling Account of the Progress of Our Country
told in the Simple Language of Childhood

——_—__———

THE MOST INTERESTING EVENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
_ DESCRIBED IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE



By JOHN WESLEY HANSON, Jr.



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED



CHICAGO
. W. B. CONKEY COMPANY,
PUBLISHERS.
Copyright 1898, by W. B. Conkey Company
Chapter I,
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX.
Chapter X.
Chapter XI.
Chapter XII.
Chapter XIII.
Chapter XIV.
Chapter XV.
Chapter XVI.
Chapter XVII.

Chapter XVIII.

Chapter XIX,
Chapter XX.
Chapter XXI.
Chapter XXII.

Chapter XXIII.
Chapter XXIV.

Chapter XXV.

Chapter XXVI.

CONTENTS.



Columbus and His Voyages
Early Explorers.

Landing of the Pilgrims.
Settlements by the Dutch.
The Old Dominion.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Virginia Colony.

The End of the Dutch Rule.
Peril and Hardship.

The Settlement of Pennsylvania
Discoveries in the Northwest.
The French and Indian War.
The English Victorious.
Liberty or Death.

The Boston Tea Party.

First Blood.

Hard Times.

Crossing the Delaware.

Valley Forge.

Treason.

Victory at last.

From Washington to Lincoln.
The Civil War.

Unconditional Surrender.

The Monitor and the Merrimac.
Sinking the Alabama.
Chapter XXVII.

Chapter XXVIII.

Chapter XXIX.
Chapter XXX.
Chapter XXXI.

CONTEN TS—Continued,

The March to the Sea.

From Lincoln to McKinley.
The Destruction of the Maine.
The Hawaiian Islands.

The American-Spanish War.

APPENDIX.



Constitution of the United States.
Presidents of the United States.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
ie Page.
Washington Crossing the Delaware..........+++++ (Colored Frontispiece. )
President McKinley...... ec cece c cece ee eee ee rece en enn eee e eee eees 10
Columbus and his Son Begging 1.1... cece eee cece eee eee cence ee nees 12
Teaching a Young Indian How to Shoot.........-ss sees eee eee eens 13
Isabella and Columbus ......-. cece cece etree ee eect eee enee Sika. 14
The Three Caravels....cc cece cece eee cee tee eee e nena eee e nc es ae eonees 15
Columbus Frightening the Indians into Lending him Assistance .......16
De Soto on the March...... cc cece ce cece eee ee ee ene eees islegenenotNederenees 18
Sebastian Cabot at Labrador... ... ccc ete eee ee eee een eees 20
Bacal Rel CG SO LORE a cise aiia ey ero eteeace rates sta el Wi Sus fala cen state reUellatsteinialleloleze 21
Old Stone Mill at Newport 1.2.0... cece cece eee ee ee ee eee ences 23
An Indian Camp... ss cece cece cece eee cette ence ne eeenes mach iced evererey. 25
Meeting Between De Soto and the Indian Chieftainess..........+++++.- 26
INSP Uti tatl | GOl GUC Tete trte) os Greraiare cle eleteon diese opel svanel oneere acters cre scelledeinde sacle iefeieieleaere 28
Trading with Indians ........ eee eee eee eee teen eee tenet en eee 30
Dutchmen at an Inn .... cee ce cet cece er eee eee tee ee sence cenes 32
Going to Church... 0... cece cece eee eee eee eee eee e eee n eee 3S
Peter Stuyvesant Defiant......... 62sec ee eee eee eee tees Re eatin cts 34
Queen Elizabeth... 0... 6... cece ee ete eee eee e renee ag ees 36
First ‘‘Wash Day”’ of Pilgrim Mothers .........+e + eee sees eees eran Oo
Arrival of Sir Walter Raleigh... 00... ccc cee eee eee eee ene enee 200640
Charles II. of England 2.0.0.0... 6c eee cee eee eet eeee arte epereress 42
Captain John Smith........... eee eee nett ee ee ee ee eeees 44
Ave the Indians Coming? Geo Sees oases vias etwrcie ose hens eustarers Nea eaters 46
OLEATE TS HERO Clos Sina ect coe carers chen ae a ttras Meat Soremclevetoetebalel sebslete ss e%e\cis 47
Mary Dyer Going to Execution....... 0. se eee eee eee eee teen eee e ees 48
“The Children Soon Learned to Love Squanto” ....... ccc ee ee ee eee eee 5°
(AS Piaitam Giles cer ear his eerie uel cere er reese EM cticag el ean rg 51
A Friendly Indian. ... 0.0... cece cee eee cece eee eee arerensrsrerosetete 52
The Pipe of Peace 2.06... cece cece ence eect net e cere eee eens iisleieweroiente: 54
TEE EL ee tated rata seae tee ae ese ret i coe a neers curr ere UREA Sa acuny seatersiiowel eels BU re cave 56
OTN Fre eG Pretec tsk © ell seep oe ee crap c eeame lin ev seo eweremer ty arataloter sete lotaust ls 58
Attacking the Block House........ 6s. cece eect een eee eee e eee eees 60
A Patroon’s Manor House............. Fadi ene AR ratar Meaney ease Lenstveceys 2. 62
Puritans: Buildin somes Wyn. wus tessa secre oie Wan ee use yetencravev arson: 63
Siyvesant-at the Gute grec. oo. 6e yo ioe oot ee ieee aireieistnnleieralcrs ened
Aira PA aero woes ole a relay orccstate ole eh vo) Suse en exehoesbeseecncas avers ayonegn] “Uehefefesepeics ol: 66 -
Philip’s Monument, .... 6... ccc ee ce he ect en ence eens enna neees 67
@im HSE TAS Onn ee ae ey i ee epee eter ral cles saaroeted ea siedsre stcue) sietouele o1ei-evor 2. 68
Death of Montgomery... .. cece cece ee eee eee ene ene e ene eeeeees 7O
A Farmer’s Hut in Winter 2... 0. ccc ccc eee eee ee eee Sieloyerstoke 72
Unexplored Regions .. 1... 0. ccc eee cee eee enter eee eenes SOOn DOD 14
SCO tity ee aero are epee scene renaria atts) stay ial cusaeee) oi aegst Meester ofuereze state Heelies] 0
George Washington in his Vouth.......... cece eee e eee eee eens a ateerotectle
@methiesWiar Pat lie iaey less cicccreretee siete ers coor cr als ep ohentie sleveeneleeisyepelesstarenensherera/e\e 80
Pennvand Walker Wosts sein save eseorarel egeterecans) stevaieneroun ole re loheuete ver sfe(etelie/si ake! 82
OTE Ae eee ewer Oa ide eels ooo cere et ccs seeded seme nena teraaoieheoneofesy seen) oscil 84
William Penn’s House at Rickmansworth, England..........,...-0--05: 85

A Jesuit Missionary. 0.026. ss cece yc se reeset ce tee tensor reyes 86
Page
ene @ Ue rapper aaancelscits erie ha eee eer s Coal arnn a lic Lha Sma nin teal 88
pe meh ARTA OTS) ict Gice ork sileyn so frene atts oe cone came hu en eee la oa 89
PACPTAUG TAMURA LACK tao aiiioct a Wie Mica eesti ede eal gs au enya a aE go
Incident of the: Prenchvand indian Warts. 0,0.) yn en a g2
TrbOnten Wille Pn GSS oe yeretcatcea st cinerea sree tee vet ae oresu i ee Jalna tag 94
Quebec ra ae cae cues clement etne Pre Pete sy nes Ore ek pa ATA 95
Hae SEIS IO CILDY So auiclere lesa renter emi ar) Ba ing nee ope Crs AE cee ay Ue 96
Enel amg COODS yes satrerstea stcrairts soclaae Mere erie ere re pipes oar as aan Sia ecu 98
Braddock’s Defeat .............. Peeves ode neney sey aaa e Eero ian, tera en et ere Malioe srs goteee 99
Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga............... en iis ls acl CUR eee Veig 100
scene of thewlcarPlot wr iinnve nau nse nie cucnt any one tani taal oo Hee 102
Bunker Hall Mo mument gai sce cern ous pet eA a pe eee aie 104
Addressing thesPeOplew..vscnevics mente. weet eta’ engi te i le 106
Colontali Day su ies mst uicestte thee teu alate rey aunpenae oe Uae li 108
VOUTE MP ALI OLS Htc eiscMin cece a beens Py aNoku se eel api aeatew che sluice etme Un Uni IBS LAR IIo
House in Which the Declaration of Independence Was Sign eden ees 112
MarguisiDesWatayettermiemctat sotetracatien i vec e One eee uatoNetal os 1l4
General Putnam......... aisie'stejsieiets sie] aa ohare afeueter ersusveuet ous oy stedsvc(ecatas souerae ai 116
-A Hand to Hand Fight ........ fo) eae lelaievesstaie arty zentsl ste celeste oat nee ia 118
fudians Playing Ballionitheslcess. sss si swwiere lee oo ee ona seule oe 120
Crying the Stamps west urc serie ss Soe nia Ge cate tata feuresl 122
The Call tovArmsa wage ence: ee wae Tersg sede) ost ses weeps a eerteattsar am es 124
Durning the Stamips cis sane cl aye cue eter mean ern ae 126
ne mMoung Minutes Manic pean aoe oy os iiny oh ii i ae ne Ge 128
Independence Hall mamta neler acer ealnntan et kil aia a 130
Battle ofHarlemyEeights su, 0 ua wis wi eect ie We ata mg ca 132
Signing the Declaration of Independence ............................ 134
George sWashingtonum: tu. vars et arsains Cea et eee ae 136
FRG CHILI Oy Mere tencra ee siaeree cho ceiver rent ine Nauta Soa AMR, 138
Kings George tiles ie enc stcn neiiin uri eimns ale toa Wanner ied ees 140
Escape of Benedaet arnold: 2) ice as ees, on Sem ks 142
SU@RO Dre CEL recererrisr nye ents occ iene pln Hag ein ten 144
ADD eC tC at Must ten nce aiid seta nee ein eee Ce Tenet oe 146
he Washington lm cars ecb ecr ce ie eit oh t cene hen sine A 148
InaugurationofeWashington 1 ui) soci cou ce is inte sean 150
Old BeaconeHills Boston: snc da ees SR ie the UTS NE esti Stee 152
MVAIECT SPORES r/c ciis t/ha rn ways cule ae aira eau (al epee din 154
Pa ADISETICEN SCH OONy aianiaietac cate cies wire noes Utaieet alles geet cea terete) 156
peace till Davai sca else sss ee cence oo ea ae algo iD te gv, 158
The Surrender ......... s(eleliesoj}4neiat ciovaieleley oreertvaie sagas neat ons mee? oe fans 160
Capture Obr Andie. Tatras cma iae meet ac til ei aie aed keen mees 162
he ParowArm ys cscs seiner irre cad ee TONS air 164
Burning of the Gaspees anette ere A eo eae 166 ©
RS SPIEIOL 7G soos auntaten se Vee an ye ie thong ONC etna 168
Distening (ortheyGune: sv wu ih metas celta ear Wii enenieL a gh 170
DeMjaminsP ram ty ced sve cs halle Muh es i ed 172
The White House..... sal ecereteteledensicl sve lafevaseysteyatqoa ae) ayaiay ws eae my Sn read 173
Jehan Adams eee Mens Ao uier (line merle es gee we T74
pehomas etetsome en oe aie ticmnie SNs eua he gl it ee ele 176
Onithe Canalen ee eC eeae ceyec tetera es ae Uae eat ned 178
ILLUSTRATIONS—Continued.

Page.
Arabia min colic. cece eed. wissen ne ean ena ang 7 Sed sisiele eye OO
Uamves MAGS, for cian oats eyset re nance ocean (Ny eA Leah It 182
James Monroe..... Slehesspe feseears ets uelara) ofatsentdehel ecelearanati/auste Metre tarsaieninie eine epanays 184
Me NGun a PW. ORK ces tis ie mires nha eo ante tale RN UN «186
John Quincy Adams ............04, AEN teteVel ie onal seas e eae G Bi lsetkeroraetnane 188
Hederalyironv@ladiRiver Gua Boatue wit aye oe ae +2190
ENOCLRC WY JACKSON treo stevie wat (Ge MMM Milanese coro st Kaige 192
Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the Union Fleet............0005. oe L194
The ‘‘Merrimac’’ Sinking the ‘‘Cumberland”’ .............. ataratoterolenets -196
Martina Viaie RUCEM ne Netrr hanes Canta eros ca MON aaa ka 198
Monitor and sMernim acy sugia. cise su seriall eae isan ae el et) 200
Willian Hey ERATmISOM ste vege canenatine Witee tete tet es 4 ue dete ia 202
Lieutenant Cushing's Attack on the Albemarle.............cccccccee. 204
soln Ay Letters raiatts cate eretele ole eines ame eM tea ue AA gioipe Ota! elise UFR 206
AME Sten OxE ro lcs oes etc leet eMart ie Wnte iiie e ar eM aac a 208
Bahar yi ays Oise se a ices tae cect eee ae vip ee Ten ee elie Meee ian St 210
Barly Home of Abraham Bincoln) ccc cc oe eo ee 212
Millard iW ilmoretnrsn vnc aur eians Se rh once uc camer canine Cons na) 214
Franklin Pierce....... Paste percholetckagerne a7afet seu sich esterase area hiacer Wontar sist 216
NG mural WM aTrarit wane shen ier eee eae ar Ge nC oun TI. 218
Jamie sBuchan ami ye ao sles eo bee et ak today ee tae cia oer 220
General W. T. Sherman......... epsrop re ae ero cene rea nay yar Nese aber ure coven tas 222
iG RailroadyBattenyiee et ties aon iat ee ae nue Meceivece a erecersee’s 225
ANIC TE WAL OA NSOD atta sree Gelade a etna char Epa RNA oie ec ty Sr ik 226
Wi SiiGrantis tamer en sive. Me deteleralinfenes aria telotenen seas Mcrae cro ae Sapte cus etree: 228
Rutherford ab WEayesi aici cain iar eat nee an ence Je eee eK ica Nie 230
James A. Garfield........... Het ceo enet tetera cent Pt Ee ir ae a Bes pareuceeny tere als 232
Chester AU Alntniit stan cence seme ee Oui ol nee abr eens Bre cust van went ts 234
Grover Clevelandy sist sauna cit rani ln eee nts en oles pevere ts bust tyes ateeee 236
Benjamin CHagrisone, sammie atin ier st cee ek aa amen Lend pene nu 238
President Mc kKinleyrand Cabinetene ss. oe ee een a 240
Navy Officers............ SN olfeiislieralsie\erevecacenerar tien Seis atic) aera e cance 242
Ari OM Cencarann Geist penne Lie ee hah Meee ae Ba borhalaree Gace 244
Inean Adimital Dewey cts ee mts, un a tt ARN p ren ees 246
Rear AcmiraleWalliamivi: Ganipson. coos. silo oh ete mI 248
Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley.............. Se NON tenet ey eee per a hte 250
Bactleshapy Maine mercer tar lela ates sri ocean Ua Rarer tovercy acsre vs 252
Protected Cruiser Olympia................ i arsiare balan ole tetova) aca ensue feb teem 252
Battleship Ore cones asec eis Clete n teeta ace cere men ciple es 254
Atmoredi@ruiser New, Vorkites oc teecss sly hlae eae ue Bora be 254
Battleship Iowa.......... Sakale cots MtedeleleveteXetsraral seve oiey stebare aged stare e005 eo 250
ErorectediCriticer Boston amid ieee ae ea Glennie severe isin 25 0.
Battleship Indiana .......... malate lat ecelotslctar stearate SverReVee nee Ala ccteucvale chores 258
AImMored Cruiser: Brook yrs cosy oa ots sae se 0000 258
General Maximo Gomez.......... Shave st onei(azetslake execsilatsy cremeenneystpstedapetats oe2-260
Admirals Dewey cuvictory at Manila en cena uac le cle tian v genie 262
he Wighting Line at Santiago... si ee nee ie ens ee 264
The Destruction of Admiral Cervera’s Fleet .........0.0.0c0ee siofereecsrs 266
Cuban) Soldiers: going /to the Front, avs.) 3.10) Wee enn ela atl 268

HIWounded Volunteer ssh Cat te on ie me es ini na 268





CHILD'S HISTORY OF THE
UNITED STATES.

FOR LITTLE MEN AND WOMEN



CHAPTER I.

COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES.

In the year 1435 a son-was born to an Italian wool-carder by the name of
Co-lum-bus. The boy was called Chris-to-pher and grew to bea fine, handsome
lad. He was kind and obedient to his father, but like many boys he longed
to become a sailor. But he loved books almost as well as he loved the sea, and ©
so he spent his leisure moments in study. It was probably from reading the
works of old scholars that he conceived the idea that the world was round.
So it seemed natural that if it was a sphere it would be possible by sailing
westward to reach the rich countries of In-di-a, Tar-ta-ry and Cath-ay.

Co-lum-bus became so interested that he could think of nothing else but
the wonderful discoveries that would result if his plan could only be carried out.
But who could he get to help him? He went from one city to another seeking
aid from the great nobles. He even went to the King of Por-tu-gal and pic-
tured to him the wealth he would gain by furnishing ships for the dis-
covery of these far-away lands. But the King and every one else only laughed
at him.

In the midst of these disappointments the wife of Co-lum-bus died. Fora
year he and his boy, Di-e-go, wandered about the country hungry, destitute
and almost starving, but he endured his troubles with patience, believing the
time would come when he would realize the one dream of his life. It so hap




























































































































































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COLUMBUS AND HIS SON BEGGING.
COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES 13

pened that one day he sought shelter in the Fran-cis-can Con-vent of San-ta
Ma-ri-a de la Ra-bi-da. He told the prior of his plan and through the influence
of the worthy priest he was enabled to obtain an audience with the King of
Spain. But it was five years before King Fer-di-nand would listen and then he
refused to place any confidence in his scheme. Unable to endure any longer the
ridicule of the courtiers who made fun of his visionary ideas, he left the court

Pre
ESSN IN



TEACH-ING A YOUNG IN-DIAN HOW TO SHOOT.

in rage and resolved to go to France. Queen Is-a-bel-la however sent a
messenger after Co-lum-bus and he was induced to return.

The Queen offered to fit out an expedition at her own expense, and in a
short time Co-lum-bus was ready to start out on his voyage into the unknown.
Before departing he secured from Fer-di-nand and Is-a-bel-la an agreement

COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES. 15

_ by which he was to receive one-eighth of the profits of the voyage and also
by which he was made High-Ad-mi-ral and Vice-roy of the lands he might
discover. On the third day of August, 1492, he set sail with three ships,
the San-ta Ma-ri-a, the Pin-ta, and the Ni-na. The voyage was long and
tedious and the sailors grew discontented, and at length plotted to throw
Co-lum-bus overboard. He quieted them by saying that he would turn back
if they did not discover land within three days. Fortunately on the morning

_ of the third day land was seen and they sailed toward it. It was night when
they finally came to anchor, but early on the following morning Co-lum-bus













































































































































































































































































































































































































































2 GA bi
THE THREE CARAVELS.
landed, magnificently dressed and attended by his officers and sailors all in,
gay attire. This was the fourteenth day of October, 1492. The land that
Co-lum-bus discovered was probably the island of San Sal-va-dor. On the
following day he sailed farther on and visited Cu-ba, Hay-ti, and other islands
of the West In-dies.

When Co-lum-bus returned to Spain he was received with much honor
by the King and Queen. When he made his second voyage he had seventeen
vessels and fifteen hundred men. On this journey he discovered Ja-mai-ca


4

» COLUMBUS. FRIGHTENS THE INDIANS INTO LEI

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































DING HIM ASSISTANCE BY FORETELLING AN
ECLIPSE OF THE MOON—ONE OF THEIR DEITIES.
COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES. 1%

and Por-to Ri-co and founded the colony of Hay-ti. In 1497 A-mer-i-go
Ves-puc-ci obtained ships and discovered the mainland of the new continent.
The same year, John Ca-bot, an English merchant, sailed to A-mer-i-ca and
,sanded upon the coast of Lab-ra-dor. In the following year, Se-bas-ti-an
Ca-bot sailed with two ships and three hundred men, and on a later voyage
discovered Hud-son’s Bay.

In the meantime Co-lum-bus had reached the mainland of South
A-mer-i-ca, which he explored and then returned to the colony of Hay-ti.
Here he was arrested by Bob-a-dil-la, a Spanish commissioner, and carried on
board the ship in chains, which he insisted on wearing until he reached Spain.
The King and Queen were ashamed when they saw their faithful servant so
humiliated and ordered him to be released. Co-lum-bus asked to be permitted
to return to A-mer-i-ca and the request was granted. He landed at Hon-
du-ras and attempted to form a colony. Finally, two of his ships were lost,
his crew rebelled, and, broken in spirit, he returned to Spain, where he died
May 2oth, 1506. History gives Co-lum-bus the credit of having discovered
A-mer-i-ca, although the first white man to’ set foot on this continent was
probably Leif E-rik-son, a viking, who landed at Mar-tha’s Vine-yard.




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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: DE SOTO ON THE MARCH,

'
CHAPTER II.

EARLY EXPLORERS.

When Co-lum-bus made his second voyage there sailed with him a brajc
and gallant gentleman, named Ponce de Le-on, who determined, when the op-
portunity came, to organize an expedition himself. Accordingly, in 1513, he
set sail with three ships. Now, strange to say, the ambition of De Le-on was
not to discover lands or gold. Like a great many persons he did not like the.
idea.of growing old, and in some fable of the day he had read of the wonderful
fountain of youth, from which all who drank would remain forever young. He
became convinced that this fountain was in the New World. It was on Easter
Sunday when he first came in sight of land and in honor of the day, which the
Span-iards call “The Day of Flowers,” he named the new land Flor-i-da. He
had many adventures and in an encounter with the Indians was wounded by
a poisoned arrow. He returned to Spain, where he died soon afterward.
About this time, Vas-co Nu-nez de Bal-bo-a crossed the isthmus which
divides North and South A-mer-i-ca and beheld the Pa-cif-ic O-cean, which he
named the South Sea and which he took possession of in the name of the King
of Spain. In the meantime, Cor-tez had discovered Mex-i-co and Yuc-a-tan.
In 1519 the King of Por-tu-gal fitted out some ships and placed Ma-gel-lan,
a noted sailor, in command. Ma-gel-lan passed the In-dies, and sailing south-
ward explored the coast of South A-mer-i-ca and named the great body of
water, which Bal-bo-a had called the South Sea the Pa-cif-ic O-cean.
Her-nan-do de So-to had been given the province of Flor-i-da by the
King of Spain, and on May 30th, 1537, he landed in Tam-pa Bay. De So-to
was very ambitious and cruel. His sole desire in coming to A-mer-i-ca was
to found a great empire. His followers were dressed in magnificent costumes
and glittering armor. This gorgeous procession traversed the lakes and ever-
glades of Flor-i-da, but the men were obliged to live on water cresses, shoots
of In-di-an corn and palmetto leaves. The Span-iards seemed to be actuated
by a desire to exterminate the In-di-ans. They killed the defenseless natives

19
a
20 ; EARLY EXPLORERS.

and destroyed their wigwams. On one occasion they were met by an In-di-an
princess who came to them bearing gifts, and who seemed anxious to be friends
with the whites. Moving gracefully forward to meet the stern Span-ish com-
mander, she placed around his neck a string of pearls. But her friendliness was
not appreciated, for she was taken prisoner and her people used as slaves:























































































































































































































































































































































































SEBASTIAN CABOT AT LABRADOR.

De So-to continued his search for gold and robbing the In-di-ans of what
treasures they possessed. He explored the Mis-sis-sip-pi River and then travel-
ed westward almost to the Rock-y Mount-ains. Upon his return he was taken
sick, while in the swamps of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, and there died. His body was
placed in a hollow log and buried at night in the great river. Long afterwards




















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BURIAL OF DE SOTO.
22 EARLY EXPLORERS. ‘ '

the remainder of his brilliant band of followers reached the Span-ish settlement
on the Gulf of Mex-i-co.

In the meantime wonderful stories had come to Mex-i-co of stately cities,
with silverand gold in rich profusion, on the coast of Cal-i-for-ni-a. An expedi-
tion was sent out, and although they found well-built cities, they discovered
but little silver or gold. A short time afterwards, Sir Fran-cis Drake, a famous
Eng-lish voyager, landed upon this coast, but the wonderful wealth of Cal-i-
for-ni.a remained practically unknown until two centuries later

_ The discoveries of the Eng-lish and Span-ish voyagers naturally attracted
the attention of the French. Early in the sixteenth century this nation sent
out Ver-az-za-no, who reached the shore of North Car-o-li-na where he
landed and treated with the In-di-ans and then returned home. Ver-az-za-no
was the first one to give an accurate description of the new continent. Some
years later France sent out Jac-ques Car-ti-er, who landed in New Found-land
but in 1535 he returned and sailed up the St. Law-rence River. The In-di-ans
received them kindly, but the French gave a poor return for their hospitality.
When he was about to return he seized a friendly chief and nine other In-di-ans
and carried them to France. It is said that these unfortunate natives died of
brokenhearts. TheFrenchbuilt two forts in 1540 when they returned to found
their colony, one at the mouth of the St. Law-rence, the other at the mouth
of the St. Croix.

At the time of the persecution of the Prot-es-tants in France many of
them fled to Hol-land, but later made up their mind to find shelter in the
New World. These people were called Hu-gue-nots and they founded a
colony at Port Roy-al, Ma-ry-land, which was commanded by Lau-don-ri-ere,
but John Ri-bault sailed with supplies and provisions. When the King of
Spain heard that the French had started a colony he sent one of his famous
generals, Me-nen-dez, against them, who landed in Flor-i-da and founded the
city of St. Au-gus-tine.

While Ri-bault was at sea his fleet became disabled ey a storm and he
was wrecked on the coast. In the meantime, Me-nen-dez made up his mind
that Ri-bault had not arrived at Port Roy-al, so marching overland he
surprised the French at the fort and massacred nearly every one of the
inhabitants. A few endeavored to make their escape, but were captured and
hanged. Over these Me-nen-dez put an inscription, which read: “I do not
this to Frenchmen, but to heretics,” Ri-bault and many of his companions








































































































































































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DLD STONE MILL AT NEWPORT.
24 EARLY EXPLORERS.

surrendered afterwards to Me-nen-dez and they were inhumanly killed. A few
preferred to take their chances with In-di-ans and wild beasts rather than with
the Span-iards, and so went south. About three years afterwards the French
sent over an expedition under the command of De Gour-gues, who attacked
the Span-iards and massacred nearly every one of them. The fugitives were
captured and hung, and, following the example of Me-nen-dez, he put over
them the following inscription: “I do not this as unto Span-iards, but as unto
traitors, robbers, and murderers.”

The Hu-gue-nots, who escaped these terrible massacres, fled to Eng-land
and the stories they told of the wonderful country from which they had come
induced Eng-lish navigators to make an attempt to secure the land. They
had frequently attempted to discover the northwest passage, which Cab-ot had
failed to find, and in 1578 Sir Fran-cis Drake sailed up the Pa-ci-fic coast as far
as Wash-ing-ton territory.

It was in 1576 that Mar-tin Fro-bish-er left Eng-land bent on making im-
portant discoveries. His first voyage did not amount to much, for about the
only things he brought back were a few black stones, which he gave to his
wife as keepsakes. She threw them in the fire, but they turned out to be gold.
Of course Fro-bish-er at once made up his mind that he only had to return in
order to find great wealth. He set sail with fifteen ships, which returned
filled with ore, but, unfortunately, there was no gold in the ore, so oe jour-
ney was a failure.

In 1583 Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert, a brave and gallant gentleman, with a
fleet of five ships and a company of two hundred and sixty men, left Eng-land.
He settled near the mouth of the St. John’s River, in New Found-land, and
attempted to form acolony. But discouraged at the failure to find wealth many
of Sir Humph-rey’s mén deserted, and some of them conspired to seize the ves-
sels. Finally, Sir Humph-rey was obliged to return to Eng-land, but on his
way the vessel foundered and all on board were drowned. ©


P,

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MEETING BETWEEN DF SOTO ANT? THE INDIAN CHIEFTAINESS.
CHAPTER III.

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.

_ When James the First was King, there lived in various parts of Eng-land
a religious sect called the Pu-ritans. For years they had been persecuted be-
cause they refused to submit to the tyranny of the Established Church of Eng-
lend. They preferredasimple gospel and desired only to worship God according
to their own belief. The Pu-ri-tans were plain, sturdy people and unaccus-
tomed to luxuries. But they had strong wills, and when they were unable any
longer to endure persecution, they fled to Hol-land.

Hearing of the New World, and believing that there they could find an
asylum, they sent two of their men to Eng-land to see if the King would give
them a grant of land. After some delay this was obtained, and on August 5th,
1620, two ships, the Speed-well and the May-flow-er set sail. The Speed-
well turned back, but the May-flow-er continued on her course. After a
stormy voyage they arrived at Cape Cod on the ninth day of November. Near-
ly a month was spent in looking for a spot where they might settle. |

In the meantime they had drawn up articles of agreement in which they
bound themselves into a political body to enact laws for the good of the colony.
All the profits in trading, fishing and farming were to go, for a period of seven
; years, into common stock. At the end of that time it was to be divided equally
among those who had contributed money to the enterprise.

The Captain of the May-flow-er was impatient to land his passengers and
return to Eng-land, so on the fifteenth day of December the May-flow-er
left her harbor at Cape Cod and anchored near Ply-mouth. But it was not until
the twenty-first of March that the entire company landed. The sufferings
of these people were terrible; there was little shelter and few provisions. When
spring came nearly one-half of the brave little band had perished. Miles
Stand-ish, the Captain, had lost his wife, as had many of the principal men
of the company. And, to add to their unfortunate condition, they lived in
constant fear of the In-di-ans. Truly, it was a perilous time.

> : ae
28 : LANDING OP THE PILGRIMS,

You can imagine their surprise when one day in the spring an In-di-an
came walking into the settlement. But he made offers of friendship to the
«white people and established good feeling between them and the In-di-an tribes
in that vicinity. This In-di-an’s name was Sam-o-set,and he introduced them to
Mas-sas-o-it, the chief of that region. As the fear of an attack from the savages
wore away and the spring came on the settlers made trips of exploration,
even going as far as Boston harbor. In November a ship arrived from Eng-



















































































































































































































































































































\ } 7
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Gos SHER» 2 4 MY Nir Ebay Wh ‘

A PURITAN SOLDIER.

land, bringing a patent issued by the Ply-mouth Company and which legally
established the Pu-ri-tans.

The people were very religious, and Governor Brad-ford refused to allow
them to have any amusement except a little quiet enjoyment. The Nar-ra-gan-
sett In-di-ans once sent a bundle of arrows tied together with the skin of a rat-
tlesnake, which was really a declaration of war. Captain Miles Stand-ish filled
the skin full of bullets and sent it back, so the In-di-ans left them undisturbed.
LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS. 29

In 1622 several ruffians, who had in sorne way been sent to the colony, were
guilty of several cruel acts against the In-di-ans, who decided to attack the
colonists. But Mas-sas-o-it happened to be sick at this time, and two delegates
from the Ply-mouth Company were sent to nurse him and give him medicine.
The chief recovered and in return for this kindness told the settlers of the plot
to attack them. Stand-ish went with only eight men and succeeded in per-
suading the In-di-ans to give up their plans.

Meanwhile the colony prospered and the days were spent in work, every
one going to bed soon after sundown. These people were very strict in re-
gard to church duties, and every one was obliged to attend service on Sunday
unless they were sick. The sermon was usually three or four hours long, but
no one, not even a little child,, was allowed to go to sleep, but was prevented
from doing so by officers with long sticks, who sharply tapped any one who
nodded. The men were well drilled and carried heavy matchlock muskets,
which were fired by a slow match. No one was allowed to wear finery unles:

they could well afford it. They were simple, industrious people. ,










TRADING WITH INDIANS.
CHAPTER IV.

SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH.

On the fourth day of August, 1609, a Dutch ship under the command of
Hen-ry Hud-son, an Englishman, came to anchor in the bay of New York
Hud-son had been sent out by the East In-di-a Com-pa-ny to discover a north.
’ west passage to Chi-na. But storms forced him to change his course and or
July 18th he anchored in Pe-nob-scot Bay. Then turning southward he con-
tinued cn his way until he reached Ches-a-peake Bay. Turning northward
again he sailed along the coast until he reached a beautiful harbor. Before him
lay the wooded shores of New York and like a broad silver band the noble
river that was to bear his name threaded its way among the High-lands.

Realizing that rich and fertile lands lay beyond, he resolved to explore
this beautiful stream.

The In-di-ans came in great crowds, bringing corn and tobacco as gifts.
Hud-son realized that the best policy was to make friends with the natives, wha
were willing to trade rich furs in exchange for glass beads and glittering trink-
ets. At length it was impossible to go farther up the river and Hud-son decided
to send a part of his crew in small boats. These went as far as the present site
of Albany. Before Hud-son left he gave a grand banquet to the In-di-an chiefs
who had befriended him and with whom he had traded. So when it came
time for him to go the In-di-ans were sorry to lose their white friend.

Unfortunately, however, they were unable to leave a good impression be-
hind them, for the cruel murder of two In-digans brought on a fight and Hud-
son set sail for Hol-land. He stopped at Dart-mouth Harbor in Eng-land and
afterwards entered the service of the Eng-lish government. In 1610 he made
his last voyage to the northwest when he reached Hud-son’s Bay. Here his

crew mutinied and he and several of his companions were deserted and left to
perish.
.

82 SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. :

The discoveries of Hud-son did not attract much attention in Hol-land,
but its merchants saw an opportunity to make money by trading with the In-
di-ans. A few buildings were erected on Man-hat-tan Island as a station for
their wares. It was not long, however, before others followed their example
and the merchants who had opened the trade, in order to protect their inter-
ests, obtained a Charter and the name of New Neth-er-lands was given to the
territory. In 1621 the West In-dia Company secured a charter which gave it



‘(f Mi : fi = SSE

DUTCHMEN AT AN INN.

the power to appoint all the officers in the Dutch territory in A-mer-i-ca and to
make the laws. In 1623, the first ship with settlers sailed from Hol-lana. They
settled onthepresentsite of Al-ba-ny, and at once began the erection of houses:
a few settled at Fort Or-ange, some went north of the Con-nec-i-cut River,
while others went to the western end of Long Island. A brisk trade sprang
up and the settlers began to prosper. The Eng-lish objected to the Dutch set-
SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. 83

tlements and claimed that they gave nothing in return for the products they
took to Hol-land. Pe-ter Min-u-et, the Governor, attempted to make friends
with the Eng-lish, but without avail. :

New Jer-sey was setteled by the Swedes in 1637 by a company called the
Swe-den West In-dia Company. Pe-ter Min-u-et, who had been discharged
from his post as Governor, was put in charge of the expedition. As soon as he
arrived he bought of the In-di-ans all the land on the west side of South River
from Cape Hen-lo-pen to where Trent-on now stands. The Dutch did not



GOING TO CHURCH.

like this and told Min-u-et that he was an intruder. But the Swedes made up
their minds to remain and began to build houses and till the soil. In the
meantime, more settlers came from Swe-den, and, as they were all industrious
people, the settlement prospered rapidly. Governor Min-u-et died and a
Swede named Hol-le-an-dare became Governor. Finally a number of New
Eng-land colonists came into this territory. Wil-liam the Testy, Governor






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PETER STUYVESANT DEFIANT.
SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH. ._ 35

oi the Dutch, objected to this intrusion, and the Swedes joined with them and
together they forced the Englishmen to return to their homes.

When Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant became Governor he resolved to put an end
to Swe-dish rule and accordingly made preparations for attacking them. With
a fleet of seven vessels and over six hundred men he attacked them. But as
there were only about three hundred Swedes in the whole country they sur-
rendered at once. Stuy-ve-sant appointed Jo-hans Paul Ja-quet Governor of
the territory.

Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant, the Governor of New Neth-er-lands, was a very
peculiar man. He had been a very brave soldier and in one of his numerous
battles he had lost a leg, but in its place wore a wooden one bound with silver.
He wasa very tyrannical man, but ruled the country with firmness and wisdom.
He imposed heavy taxes upon the people and would not be dictated to by any-
one. Although he was assisted in the affairs of the colony by a board of nine
men, they could make no laws and give no orders without his approval. Gov-
ernor Stuy-ve-sant believed it was policy to keep on good terms with the
Eng-lish and objected to his people selling the In-di-ans arms and ammuni-
tion. This was the cause of frequent quarrels between him and the lords of
the different provinces, who were called patroons. One of the wealthiest
patroons of New Neth-er-lands was Van Rens-se-laer, who owned a vast ex-
tent of territory and who proposed to control his own lands. When Gover-
nor Stuy-ve-sant attempted to take stone and timber from the patroon’s land,
for the purpose of building a fort, the latter objected and drove the Gover-
nor’s men off by force. Some of the quarrels of those early Dutch settlers are
very amusing. But they prospered and were happy.


























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CHAPTER V.
THE OLD DOMINION.

The reign of Queen E-liz-a-beth was one of the most illustrious in Eng-
lish history. Among the many distinguished gentlemen that formed her court
no one was more graceful and gallant than Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, the half-
brother of Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert. His introduction to the notice of Queen
E-liz-a-beth was brought about in a very strange manner. Attended by a
magnificent retinue, she was walking through the gardens of her palace when
she came upon a muddy place in the path. She stopped and hesitated when
Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, taking off his cloak spread it upon the ground and the
great Queen passed over without soiling her dainty shoes. This act of gal-
lantry attracted her ‘attention and with a gracious nod to Sir Walter she
passed on.

But Ra-leigh was ambitious, as well as polite, and he resolved that the
Queen should not forget him if he could help it. A short time after this
encounter, Sir Wal-ter happened one day to observe the Queen coming toward
him, as he stood at one of the windows of the palace. Taking the diamond ring
from his finger he wrote upon the glass:

“Fain would I climb, but that I fear to fall.”

He then left the palace. On the following day he returned to the same
place and found that the Queen had written underneath:

“If thy heart fail thee, do not climb at all.”

Encouraged by this gentle hint, Sir Wal-ter sought the Queen’s favor
and in time became one of her most trusted counsellors.

He was eager that Eng-land should obtain a foot-hold in the New
World and he sent a great many ships to A-mer-i-ca at his own expense.
Finally he attempted to form a colony which he had named Vir-gin-ia in honor
of Queen E-liz-a-beth. This project was a failure. It is supposed the un-
fortunate people were all killed by the In-di-ans. Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, himself
was finally accused of treason by his enemies at the court and beheaded.

37
38 THE OLD DOMINION.

When James I. came to the throne he made up his mind to establish a
colony. He formed two companies, the Lon-don Com-pa-ny and the Ply-
mouth Com-pa-ny, but it remained for the former to make the first permanent
settlement. In this company there were one hundred and five men but no
women. On the seventh day of April, 1607, they sailed into Ches-a-peake Bay.

They selected a place for the colony which they named James-towa in honor





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FIRST “WASH DAY” OF PILGRIM MOTHERS.

of the king. One of the principal men in the colony was John Smith, who
endeavored to make friends with the In-di-ans and work for the good of the
settlement. Upon one of his journeys he was taken prisoner and conducted
to the chief of the tribe. He knew that his life depended upon his coolness and
skill. Finally he was taken before the great king, Pow-ha-tan, who received
him with great ceremony, but to Smith’s surprise he was dragged to a great
stone and where stood several In-di-an braves ready to beat out his brains
with their enormous war-clubs. Suddenly Po-ca-hon-tas rushed to his rescue
and threw herself upon his body. Pow-ha-tan was so touched by his daugh-
ter’s act that he at once pardoned Smith.
THE OLD DOMINION. 39

Po-ca-hon-tas afterwards became a very fine lady. She was baptized
and christened La-dy Re-bec-ca and married John Rolfe, an Eng-lish gentle-
man, who took her to his own country and presented her to the Queen.
When about to return to A-mer-i-ca she was taken sick and died.

- The colonists endured a great deal of suffering and in a short time had
been reduced to about forty persons, but men and provisions were sent from
Eng-land and finally. two women came, Mrs. For-rest and her maid, Ann Bur-
ras. But the people were too lazy to work and would neither hunt, fish, nor till
the soil, and gradually the colony began to fail. In 1609 a fleet of nine ships,
carrying five hundred people, left Eng-land. Seven of the ships reached the
settlement, one of them foundered at sea, and another was wrecked off the
Ber-mu-das, and the passengers and crew spent the winter on the island. The
following year they rejoined their friends in Vir-gin-ia.

They found the people in an almost starving condition. Sir Thom-as
Gates made up his mind to return to England, but they heard that Lord de la
Ware was coming with men and provisions. Upon his arrival he traded
with the In-di-ans, built two forts, but in a year, owing to sickness, he was
obliged to returnto Eng-land. Shortly afterwards Sir Thom-as Gates, who
in the meantime had gone to Eng-land, arrived with men and provisions.
Sir Thom-as decided that the success of the colony depended upon making
each man look out for himself. So he refused to allow them to live upon
the provisions that had been brought, and declared they must make their
own living or starve. In the meantime, laws were made and enforced,
which hada good effect. The colonists raised corn and tobacco, more men
came over from Eng-land and the colony prospered.

In 1619 a Dutch ship brought a cargo of negroes and introduced
slavery into A-mer-i-ca, Cap-tain Ar-gall, who was Gov-ern-or for a short
time, destroyed a colony of the French at Port Roy-al in the Bay of Fun-dy,
which was the beginning of the difficulties between the French and Eng-lish.

Lord de la Ware was appointed Gov-ern-or of the colony in place of
Ar-gall, but he died on his way to A-mer-i-ca. Then Sir George Yeard-ley
was put in charge, and by giving the colonists self-government, the settle-
ment began to improve. . On July 3oth, the first legislative assembly met in
this country. It had twenty-two representatives, a governor, and a council.
Finally one hundred Eng-lish maidens offered to come to the colony as
wives for the young men. Within a year over one thousand persons had
arrived.


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ARRIVAL OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
THE OLD DOMINION. Al

On the twenty-second of March, 1692, James-town was attacked by the
In-di-ans and a large number of people were killed. But the settlers soon
recovered from this calamity and revenged themselves upon the In-di-ans
with great severity. Finally the king decided to send a royal governor, Sir
_ John Har-vey, who should administer such laws as were enacted by the Eng-
lish Gov-ern-ment.

In the meantime, Lord Bal-ti-more had visited the Vir-gin-ia colony
and afterwards Ches-a-peake Bay. Upon his return to Eng-land he asked
the king for a grant of land in this locality, but before the patent was
signed, Lord Bal-ti-more died. His son, however, carried out his plans and
named the country Ma-ry-land.

At the time this colony was formed the Cath-o-lics were greatly perse-
cuted in Eng-land and, as Lord Bal-ti-more was a member of that faith, he
resolved that Ma-ry-land should be a refuge for them. In dealing with the
In-di-ans they endeavored to treat them kindly, and in return the natives
taught them how to plant and hunt and a great many other things which were
of great benefit to the colonists. The Vir-gin-ians had lost their royal char-
ter, and knowing that Ma-ry-land had been founded with the authority of the
king, they became jealous of their Cath-o-lic neighbors. So they sent a
protest to Eng-land against the settlement of Ma-ry-land, but all the answer
they received was that they must be friendly to the Ma-ry-land colonists.

Meanwhile the colony had grown, brick houses were built, large grants
of land were made, and flour mills and other industries were started.’ In
fact, Ma-ry-land put the other colonists to shame. When the revolution
against the king came in England, it created some disturbance in this colony.
The Prot-es-tants who had settled there were in favor of the Par-lia-ment,
while the Cath-o-lics were for the king. Wil-liam Clay-borne, Sec-re-tary of
the Vir-gin-ia Council, endeavored to stir up discord between the Prot-es-
tants and the Cath-o-lics, and for a time there was trouble, but finally the
people saw that they were more prosperous under the government of Leon-
ard Cal-vert, Lord Bal-ti-more’s brother, so they drove out Clay-borne
and Ma-ry-land returned to its former condition of peace and prosperity.


CUA Maaseeeavasasisesmceadaasadiaacgnsseas tas 0cus9 oar ads ad agg sad cst aa aspae AADLRSLL uaaaaea cae

CHARLES II. OF ENGLAND,
CHAPTER VI.
THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.

In the month of June, 1629, six vessels containing four hundred and
six men, women, and children, one hundred and forty head of cattle, forty
goats and a large quantity of provisions, arms and various kinds of implements,
left Eng-land and arrived at Sa-lem, Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were Pur-i-tans
who had protested against the Church of Eng-land and who desired to worship.
God after their own custom. They had left Eng-land under the royal patent
of the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay Com-pa-ny. The Goy-ern-or of the colony was
John Endicott, a very strict man, and he started out to form an independent
colony. He did not think it right the settlers should be governed by an Eng-
lish council or by a corrupt court, so the colonists asked for a change of gov-
ernment and were given permission to make their own laws. John Win-throp
was made gov-ern-or with six men as council. At the time of his election he
was in Eng-land but he sailed at once and arrived at the colony where he
found the zeople in a very unfortunate condition. But in a short time over one
thousand peisons arrived and villages began to spring up along the coast.
On Bos-ton Com-mon they found a spring of water and a settlement was made
which was the beginning of that great city.

The people were not accustomed to the New Eng-land climate and there
was consequently a great deal of sickness. So many died that a day was set
apart for fasting and prayer. As if in answer to their appeal a ship appeared
with provisions and drugs which the people sadly needed. On this vessel came
a young man by the name of Ro-ger Wil-liams. He was a very well educated
person but very frank in expressing his opinion. He believed that the church
and state should be kept separate and openly declared that no magistrate had
any right to punish anyone for breaking the Sab-bath. He was chosen min-
ister of the Bos-ton church but En-di-cott would not allow him to preach, so
he was obliged to go to Ply-mouth. Although he had many followers, En-di-

43


CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH.
THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 45

cott and others accused him of being a heretic and finally he fled to the woods
and lived with the In-di-ans.

Ca-non-i-cus, Chief of the Nar-ra-gan-setts, gave him a tract of land
but Wil-liams gave away the land in order that those who were persecuted like
himself, might find a refuge. So he called the land Prov-i-dence because he
believed that God had delivered him from his enemies. Finally others joined
Wil-liams in his colony and among these was Ann Hutch-in-son, a very re-
markable woman and one who did not believe in the strict religious laws of
En-di-cott. Finally the new colony obtained a charter under the name of
Rhode Is-land and Prov-i-dence Plan-ta-tion.

The Pur-i-tans and the In-di-ans did not agree very well, however, and
a tribe who inhabited Block Is-land murdered a prominent man by the name
of Old-ham. En-di-cott with about one hundred men sailed from Bos-ton to
Block Is- land and killed nearly all of their number. This made the other tribes
very angry and had it not been for Ro-ger Wil-liams the In-di-ans would have
joined together to fight the Pur-i-tans. Then the Pe-quot In-di-ans murdered
one of the settlers and ninety men under the command of Captain John Ma-son
with a body of Mo-he-gan In-di-ans attacked the Pe-quot villages and killed
over one thousand savages. Then the Nar-ra-gan-setts and Mo-he-gans united
and in five months this great tribe was destroyed.

It was the people dwelling in the Con-nec-ti-cut valley who suffered the
most from these In-di-an wars so it was important that they should band
themselves together. They adopted a constitution which recognized no power
save their own, in which all were free and equal and entitled to the same
rights. The laws were strict, almost too strict, but Con-nec-ti-cut became a
powerful and independent colony. In 1643 the people of Mas-sa-chu-setts,
Ply-mouth, Con-nec-ti-cut and New Haven joined themselves together so that
in case of war they could defend themselves against their enemies. The name
of this Un-ion was the U-nit-ed Col-o-nies of New Eng-land. Strange as it
may seem although the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay colonists had come to A-mer-i-ca
in order that they might be allowed to worship God after their own manner,
they insisted that every one else should obey their own religious laws. Those
who did not believe as they did, or showed any disposition to be independent
were persecuted and driven from among them. Among others, Sam-u-el Gor-
ton had dared to defend a servant who had accidentally smiled in church and
‘who on that account was declared a heretic. Besides, Gor-ton himself had re-


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ARE THE INDIANS COMING?














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THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 47

gious theories of his own and this in the eyes of the good people of the colony
was rank rebellion, so the poor man was expelled to finally found his way to
the settlement of Ro-ger Wil-liams. Here he bought land and made prepara-

tions to remain.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FORE-FATH-ERS’ ROCK.

After a time trouble broke out between the followers of Gor-ton and his
neighbors which ended in a victory of the latter and Gor-ton and his friends
moved away in search of a new place. They settled about twelve miles south of
Proy-i-dence. Before leaving Gor-ton sent a letter to the magistrates at Bos-
ton which contained his teligious belief. The magistrates declared the letter to












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































MARY DYER GOING TO. EXECUTION.
THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 49

be blasphemous and Gor-ton and his followers were ordered to appear before
the court at Bos-ton, but they refused.

A band of soldiers and In-di-ans charged, upon their village, their
houses were destroyed, their cattle were driven off, their wives and children
were forced to seek shelter in the woods. Gor-ton and his men were finally
forced to yield and were taken captives to Bos-ton. For a long time they
were kept in prison but many who had already heard their doctrine, openly
expressed themselves in their favor and Governor Win-throp finally set them
free. Finally they succeeded in getting an order from King Charles which
secured them the land on which they had settled, and in 1644 a royal charter
was obtained by Ro-ger Wil-liams which covered the whole of the Prov-i-
dence Plan-ta-tion.

John Clark was the pastor of the Baptist Church at New- -port, Rhode
Is-land. The Baptists had also been exiled from Mas-sa-chu-setts but were
under the protection of Ro-ger Wil-liams. It so happened that Clark with two
other Baptist ministers named Holmes and Cran-dall went to visit one of
their faith who was old, sick and blind. They were arrested for daring to
preach their religion in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were sentenced to be whipped
or pay a fine. Clark and Cran-dall were released on payment of a fine but
Holmes was given thirty strokes with a three corded whip. When the sheriff
had finished his task Holmes turned to him and said: “You have struck me as
with roses.”

In.the meantime another sect had incurred the displeasure of the Bos-
ton church—the Qua-kers. They were the followers of George Fox, a man
whose life was above reproach. The doctrine of the Qua-kers or Friends, as
they were sometimes called, was to be at peace with all the worl, to put aside
earthly vanity, and to dress in plain garb of gray. They insisted upon in-
terrupting the preacher whenever they heard a remark that did not meet their
approval. They were opposed to war and bloodshed.

The first Qua-kers to arrive in Boston were Mary Fish-er and Ann
Aus-tin, who were imprisoned immediately upon their arrival. They were
searched and all of their books and tracts were taken from them. They were
_ examined for signs of witchcraft, but as no moles or freckles were found upon
them they were cleared of that charge, and sent back to the Bar-ba-does. An
old gentleman living in Bos-ton had given the jailer money to feed them while
they were confined and to punish him the judges ordered him arrested and




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“THE CHILD-REN SOON LEARNED TO

1





LOVE SQUAN-TO,”






THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 51
thrown into jail. Upon his release he was exiied and the poor old man was
obliged to live with the In-di-ans. In the meantime eight other Qua-kers had
arrived from Lon-don and these were arrested but afterward were forced to

_return. A law was afterwards passed which prohibited the master of any
ship from bringing Qua-kers to New England. :



































































































































































A PURITAN GIRL.

It hardly seems possible that people who had left their own courtry
and braved the perils of a life in the new world and who were themselves of
strict and religious habits, should treat those who differed from them in re-

ligious pe with more cruelty than they had endured in the old world,








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A FRIENDLY INDIAN,


THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. 53

Law-rence and Cas-san-dra South-wick were banished from the colony and
their two children were left behind almost starving. Finally they were ordered
to be sold as slaves but no sea captain would take them away from Bos-ton,
so they were allowed to remain. :

A young girl named Ma-ry Dy-er was arrested and thrown into prison
for visiting some Qua-kers who were in jail. She was banished but returned
to Bos-ton again to visit the persecuted Friends and was ‘sentenced to be
hung. Just as the executioner had put the noose around her neck her son
arrived with a reprieve. She was again banished and in a few months re-
turned to Bos-ton. In spite of the appeal of her husband and her friends
she was led to the Com-mon and hung there, as the judges said, for others
to take example by. Finally the king of Eng-land put a stop to these cruelties
and the persecutions ceased for awhile but they were revived later and men
and women were frequently tied to the end of a cart and whipped from town
to town. The king finally issued an order that all persons living in Mas-sa-
chu-setts and Con-nec-ti-cut should be allowed to worship God as they
pleased. eet





























































CHAPTER VIL.
THE VIRGINIA COLONY.

Southern hospitality is famed the country over and Vir-gin-i-ans have a
law, which had been handed down to them from the early days, that a stranger
coming to a house is to be treated as a.guest. After King Charles I. had been
beheaded and Crom-well was ruler in his stead the followers of the king were
obliged to leave Eng-land, so they came to the new world and although their
clothes were ragged and their pockets were empty they still retained their
polite manners and lordly ways.

After Gov-er-nor Har-vey had een sent oy the king to govern Vir-
gin-i-a the colonists of Mary-land and Vir-gin-i-a continued to quarrel with
each other. Gov-er-nor Har-vey was succeeded by Sir Fran-cis Wy-at and he
in time by Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley, who came to James-town in 1642. Under
his wise and kindly rule the colony prospered but the In-di-ans were ignored
and treated as savages. It was even declared that it was right to shoot an
In-di-an ‘whenever he was seen. The In-di-ans failed to see the justice of
this law, and surprising the villages killed nearly five hundred colonists. . The’
Vir-gin-i-ans revenged the murder of their countrymen and the In-di-ans
were driven into the interior, many were killed or taken eee and their
chief was shot.

In the mean-time the colonists had seen that their prosperity depended
upon industry and in time they learned to raise tobacco, which was their chiet
export, and hemp, flax and cotton. They learned how to make indigo and
bricks and every ship that left port took large cargoes of native products and
brought back Eng-lish goods in return.

Vir-gin-i-a had denounced the execution of Charles I. so Crom-well
sent a regiment of soldiers to demand the surrender of the Vir-gin-i-a colonies.
A government was established and Wil-liam Clay-bourne and Rich-ard Ben-
nett were put in command. They were both very kind and their rule was

b5
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LITTLE PURITANS,

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THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 57

gentle. Clay-bourne, however, did not forget his old troubles with Mary-land
and finally an order was issued which declared that Mary-land belonged to
Crom-well, so removing the Cath-o-lic officers a board of Pur-i-tan commis-
‘gioners was put in control. There were frequent encounters between the
Mary-land-ers and the Vir-gin-i-ans and at length Cromwell sent a letter for-
bidding the Vir-cin-ians to interfere with the affairs of the Cath-o-lic settle-
ment. Lord Bal-ti-more was given permission to send a deputy governor
and finally the laws of Mary-land were ratified by the Eng-lish government.
But there still remained two political parties in Vir-gin-i-a.

After the death of Crom-well the power of the Pur-i-tans began to
reign and when “the king came to his own again” and Charles II. ascended
his throne again the royalist party of Vir-gin-i-a became the ruling power and
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley was made governor. Gov-ern-or Berk-e-ley allowed
the Pur-i-tans to retain their offices and the colony of Vir-gin-i-a continued to

prosper.
Slaves were imported from Af-ri-ca and a law was made condemning

all children of mixed blood to remain slaves for life. ~The Church of Eng-land
became the established church of the colony and although the Pur-i-tans were
not persecuted they were not allowed to preach.

In 1670 there were 40,000 people living in Vir-gin-i-a; of these 40,000,
2,000 were slaves and 6,000 were white servants apprenticed for a number
of years. The colony did not increase rapidly in population because many
unused to the climate died soon after their arrival, although every year about
2,000 white servants were brought over from Eng-land. The planters made
very little money owing to the fact that the price of tobacco had been re-
duced in Eng-land and the goods sent in exchange had been placed at ex-
orbitant prices. In 1673 the colony was given as a present by the king, to two
of his favorites, Lord Cul-pep-per and the Earl of Ar-ling-ton. In the mean- :
time trouble with the In-di-ans broke out and a number of tribes united to
defend themselves against the whites. In Ma-ry-land and Vir-gin-i-a the plant-
ers lived in constant dread and finally formed an expedition to attack the In-
ditans. The old story of the inhumanity of the whites towards the natives
was repeated and the In-di-ans resolved upon revenge. Many of the colonists
were killed upon their plantations and there was never a moment when any one
felt safe. Finally a young man named Na-than-i-el Ba-con, who owned a
plantation near Rich-mond and whose overseer had been slain by the In-di-ans,


THE CHARTER OAK.
THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 59

resolved to put an end to these massacres. Governor Berk-e-ley, who did not
wish any war with the natives because he was afraid of injuring the trade,
ordered Ba-con, who had already set out on his expedition, to return. Ba-con
refused and in a short time he and his followers had exterminated one of the
principal tribes. Pleased with his success Ba-con marched to James-town at
the head of five hundred men, and demanded a commission to organize a
campaign against the In-di-ans. For a long time the governor was obstinate
but finally he consented.











After Ba-con had gone Berk-e-ley declared him to be a rebel and pro-
claimed him an outlaw. When Ba-con heard of this he promptly returned
only to find that the governor had fled. Ba-con at once organized a new
government, calling a convention for the revision of the laws. In the mean-
time Berk-e-ley had obtained possession of an armed fleet and as soon as the
royalists saw that he might be successful they joined his forces and James-
town was retaken. Ba-con assembled his army again and throwing up some
















ATTACKING THE BLOCK HOUSE
THE VIRGINIA COLONY. 61

. breastworks near the city he awaited the attack of the governor. But the
attack never came and on the following morning when Ba-con entered James-
town he found it deserted. He made up his mind that the indolent and proud
followers of Berk-e-ley should have no excuse for returning so he ordered the
city to be burnt.

Ba-con admitted his warfare against the In-di-ans but soon afterward -
died. When Berk-e-ley heard of this and no longer had anything to fear he
sent out an armed force which captured or killed most of Ba-con’s friends.
But the seeds sown by Ba-con had already borne good fruit for he had taught
the people to resist oppression and stand up for their own rights. Berk-e-ley
was ordered to return to Eng-land, where he shortly afterward died.

When Charles II. was restored to his throne he gave to certain gentle-
men of his court that tract of land which included the present states of
North and South Car-o-li-na. These dashing cavaliers at once made prepa-
rations to found a model settlement. The constitution was prepared by John
Locke, the famous philosopher and statesman. Eight proprietors were to be
made Lords of the province; the eldest to be called the -Pal-a-tie. There

were to be seven other officers, namely: Admiral, chamberlain, chancellor,
constable, chief-justice, high steward and treasurer. All the rights of property
were hereditary in the male line. There were orders of hereditary called land-
iories and every seigniory barony and colony contained 12,000 acres,
graves and cassiques. The domains of the proprietors were to be called seign-
while each colony contained four hundred and eighty thousand acres of which
three-fifths were to be owned by the people and two-fifths by the nobility. The
common people were prohibited from entering into the titled class, and the
highest dignity to which a man of the people might aspire was to become lord
of the manor. There were eight supreme courts and a parliament which was
regulated by very elaborate laws. The amusements, the fashions, even the
marriages and funerals were systematically arranged.
It took Locke three years to prepare this system of government, and
in the mean-time two colonies had been established in Car-o-li-na. In 1664
Sir John Yea-mans brought over the first expedition, and as the territory be-
came settled the people set to work to make more simple and practical laws
than those of the “Grand Model,” which were finally rejected in 1698.
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a formed a colony of Al-be-marle
and Wil-liam Sayle was commissioned governor of that part of Car-o-li-na






































































































































































































































































A PATROON’S MANOR HOUSE.
THE VIRGINIA COLONY, 63

lying south and west of cape Ro-maine, which was called Charles-ton. The
rule of Yea-mans was very unpopular and he was finally succeeded by Jo-seph
West, under whose management the colony began to prosper. Al-be-marle
was unfortunate in its governors, who could not manage the people. These

difficulties were finally overcome by the appointment of one governor for
=== = =




































































































































































































































North and South Car-o-li-na. Phil-lip Lud-well was the first general governor
but he was unequal to the task and so Thom-as Smith, a Car-o-lin-i-an,
succeeded him. But it was not until John Arch-dale, a Qua-ker, was put at the
head of the government, that the colony became fully established. Geor-gi-a
was settled in 1732 and in 1752 became a royal province.


in
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CHAPTER VIIL
THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.

Under the stern but kindly rule of Peter Stuy-ve-sant, New Am-ster-
dam prospered. But while the old one-legged governor was fighting with the
Swedes the In-di-ans fell upon the settlements of Pa-vo-ni-a and Ho-bo-ken,
killed the men and carried off the women and children as prisoners. These
In-di-an attacks occurred at frequent intervals till finally the easy-going
Dutchmen resolved to teach the savages a lesson, which they did and for a
time there was comparative quiet. é

For a time the Qua-kers were persecuted as in the New Eng-land
settlements and Governor Stuy-ve-sant was anxious that they should be ex-
pelled from the Dutch settlements. For this the directors in Hol-land re-
buked him and the Friends were no longer annoyed. In the mean-time slaves
were brought in large numbers to New Neth-er-land.

There was one fact which the Dutch observed with alarm and that
was that Eng-lish settlers were gradually encroaching on the land claimed by
the Dutch. Lord Bal-ti-more declared that a supposed south river region was
included in his patent and sent a delegation to Ma-ry-land demanding its sur-
render. John Win-throp obtained a grant of land from Charles II. which»
covered not only Long Is-land but the northern part of New Neth-er-land.
The Eng-lish bought land from the In-di-ans which the Dutch had already
purchased from them and the king gave grants of land which included the
territory occupied by the Dutch. In 1664 Colonel Rich-ard Nich-olls sailed
trom Eng-land with a force of four hundred men, to enforce the claims of the.
Duke of York, to whom the king had granted Long Is-land. He brought
his four ships up the bay before New Am-ster-dam, seized the block house on
Sta-ten Is-land and blockaded the harbor. He issued a proclamation stating
that no one would be harmed who declared allegiance to the King of Eng-land.
Stuy-ve-sant endeavored to persuade his people to resist but they could see
nothing except defeat and stubbornly refused to fight. On September 8, 1664,

65


















































KING PHILIP.


SCENE ON THE MISSISSIPPI,


THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 67

New Neth-er-land surrendered and was re-named New York, while Port
Orange was given its present name of Al-ba-ny.

The Duke of York gave many grants of land to Eng-lishmen. New
Neth-er-land was divided into two provinces, one of which was given to Lord
Berk-e-ley, the elder brother of Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a, and the

1







PHIL-IP’S MON-U-MENT,

other to Sir George Car-te-rett. Car-te-rett’s province was named New
Jer-sey.
Nich-olis ruled as governor for about three years and was then suc-
ceeded by Colonel Fran-cis Love-lace. In 1672 Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant died.
5












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































x ‘ . ON THE HUDSON. *
THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 69

On August 7, 1673, twenty-three Dutch ships carrying sixteen hundred
men arrived in the harbor of New York. The Dutch commander demanded
instant surrender and when the Eng-lish requested that they be allowed to
treat with him, he turned an hour- glass over and quietly told them that if they
did not surrender within half an hour, he would open fire. He did as he
promised and receiving no answer he fired on the fort, killing and wounding
many people. The fort then surrendered and the Dutch took possession.
Dutch names were restored to cities, rivers, forts and bays and An-tho-ny
Clove was chosen governor. Two ships were left him for protection and then
the fleet sailed away. Peace was made between Eng-land and Hol-land, who
had been at war for some time and the Dutch gave up their possessions in the
new world to the Eng- lish. Eng-lish names were restored and Ed-mund
An-dros was appointed governor.

Under Eng-lish tule New York took on a more rapid growth. Wheat
and tobacco were largely cultivated; while fish, peltry and lumber were ex-
ported abroad.

The affairs in the colonies were ey influenced by the situation in
the mother country. The Duke of York had become King of Eng-land, but
had been obliged to leave the kingdom and Wil-liam and Ma-ry, the Pro-tes-
tants had been proclaimed King and Queen. King James had been a Cath-o-
lic and the Eng-lish of New York were members of that faith. The Dutch in-
habitants of New York were in sympathy with Wil-liam and Ma-ry. Nich-
ol-son, the lieutenant governor, who ruled in place of Sir Ed-mund An-dros,
who had been deposed, did not like the situation so he resigned his position
. and sailed for Eng-land. Every one seemed to be afraid to assume command
at this time; but a man named Ja-cob Leis-ler, who was captain of the militia,
called his soldiers together and made them sign a declaration stating that they
held the fort for Wil-liam and Ma-ry and would protect the Prot-es-tant re-
ligion. The council were very much frightened and fled from New York
leaving Lais-ler in complete control. ;

Now when King James fled from Eng-land he went to France, where
he was the guest of Louis XIV. King Louis sent word to Fron-te-nac,
governor of Can-a-da, ordering him to search among the inhabitants of New

York and send all French Prot-es-tants to France and all Eng-lish Prot-es-
tants of New Eng-land or other places. The French Cath-o-lics were to be
allowed to remain. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1669, Fron-te-nac assembled a large body


DEATH OF MONTGOMERY.

Painting by Beniamin West,
THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 71

of men and divided them into three parties. His plan was to attack Al-ba-ny,
New Hamp-shire and Maine at the same time. A part of the force was com-
posed of Ir-o-quois and these were afraid to attack Al-ba-ny and induced the
French to march upon Sche-nec-ta-dy. It was a total surprise, for there
had been a merry making in the village and the entrance to the fort was un-
guarded save by two snow men which had been erected by the boys and girls
during the day. Nearly every one was slain and the village was burned.

The people in the other towns became alarmed at this and banded
themselves together to resist the French. On May 1, 1690, a colonial con-
verse met, when it was agreed that New York should provide four hundred
men; Mas-sa-chu-setts one hundred and sixty; Con-nec-ti-cut one hundred
and thirty-five; Ply-mouth sixty, and Ma-ry-land one hundred. Leis-ler
showed himself to be the right man in the right place. He rebuilt the fortifi-
cations of New York, he captured some French cruisers and succeeded in put-
ting the colonies in a state of security.

Then King Wil-liam sent’ over Colonel Hen-ry Slaught-er as governor.
Slought-er’s first act was to issue a warrant for the arrest of Leis-ler and
his council. The political enemies of this brave man saw in this a chance to

-ruin him so one day when Slought-er was under the influence of wine, he
was induced to sign the death warrant of Leis-ler. Slought-er’s rule lasted
only four months, when he was succeeded by Ben-ja-min Fletch-er, who at-
tempted to assume control over the New Eng-land colonies, as well as his

“own. Holding a charter from the home government they naturally protested
against this and even sent representatives to Eng-land to complain against
this tyranny. At one time Fletch-er went.to Hart-ford and ordered the militia
to assemble. Governor Treat refused to allow Fletch-er to take command of
the soldiers, but allowed them to muster at Hart-ford. Fletch-er gave orders
that his instructions from the King be read aloud to the troops. Captain
Wads-worth, who was in command, at once gave orders for the drums to be
beaten. They made such a noise that not a word could be heard. Fletch-er
grew very angry and insisted that the drums should cease, but Wads-worth
was master of the situation and finally Fletch-er had to retire, and return to
New York.

The rule of Fletch-er was dishonest and tyrannical, and he was finally
dismissed from office and the Earl of Bell-o-mont succeeded him. The new
governor succeeded in reforming the government, and during his administra-




























































































Ek,

WINT

A FARMER'S HUT IN
THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE. %

tion New York enjoyed a season of prosperity. He died in 1701, and Lord
Corn-bu-ry was appointed governor. Corn-bu-ry was a very worthless man.
He used the public funds for his own enjoyment and his administration was a
long series of debaucheries. He persecuted the Pres-by-te-ri-ans and insulted
the Qua-kers and abused every one. Finally he was recalled by Queen Anne,
who was then on the throne. Lord Love-lace was next appointed Governor,
but he lived only a short time, and was succeeded by Rob-ert Hunt-er. He in
turn was succeeded by Bur-net, who ruled until 1727, when he was removed.
The next governor died soon after his arrival, and finally in 1732 Colonel
Cos-by was sent over to take charge of the Colony.

It was during the rule of the Earl of Bell-o-mont that the famous
pirate, Captain Kidd, was the terror of the seas. During the administration of
Fletch-er commerce had become almost an impossibility, owing to these sea
rovers, who preyed upon defenseless ships. Bell-o-mont determined to get rid
of these men, and his plan was to form a stock company for thé purpose of
capturing pirate vessels. Several noblemen, and even the king himself, were to
share in the profits, and Captain Kidd’ was put in command. But Kidd was
unable to take any of these ships, so after many adventures he finally con-
cluded to become a pirate on his own account, which he did for many years.
To the surprise of everyone he sailed into New York harbor one day, but
Bell-o-mont did not arrest him because Captain Kidd told him that he was
innocent of all the crimes of which he had been accused. When he went to
Bos-ton, however, he was seized and thrown into jail, but he was afterwards
sent to Eng-land, where he was imprisoned for a year.’ Soon after this he was
“hanged for the murder of a gunner, whom he had accidentally killed. His life
had been full of adventure, but-he was probably not as bad a man as he has
been represented.














































































































































































UNEXPLORED REGIONS.
CHAPTER IX.
PERIL AND HARDSHIP.

Charles, the First, tried to keep the Pur-i-tans from leaving Eng-land.
He even forced them to return to land, after they had taken passage in a ship,
which was to sail for Mas-sa-chu-setts. This turned out very unfortunately for
him, for one of the men who had taken-passage for the New World and who
was forced to return was Ol-i-ver Crom-well. Not long after this the king was
beheaded, and Crom-well became ruler,

Crom-well did everything in his power to help the people of Mas-sa-
chu-setts. When Charles II was restored to the throne, two men who had
been convicted of taking part in the death of his father made their escape to
A-mer-i-ca. The king demanded their immediate return, but the people
tefused. The king then demanded that the charter be returned, but the people
told him that they were loyal to the home government and all they wished was
that the king should confirm the charter. This was granted but some hard -
conditions were imposed upon them.

A few years later the king sent over commissioners to secure the con-
quest of New Neth-er-land and to force the obedience of the Mas-sa-chu-setts
Colony. The people of Mas-sa-chu-setts refused to swear allegiance to the
king except under the protection of the charter. In the meantime New
Hamp-shire and Maine were included in the government of Mas-sa-chu-setts.

The colony was loyal to the home government and did everything in
its power to show this. But there were may people who complained to the
king that the people of Mas-sa-chu-setts were tired of Eng-lish rule. In 1681
he issued an order that deputies should be sent to him to tender the submission
of the colony. In answer Mas-sa-chu-setts sent two men to Eng-land bearing
letters of such a character that the king issued a writ against the colony
practically claiming that it chad no legal charter.

When Charles IT. died his brother James became King of Eng-land and
by his command Sir Ed-mund An-dros was made governor of all New Eng-

75














































































































































SCOUTS.
PERIL AND HARDSHIP. 77

land. An-dros was avery proud man who believed that obedience to the king
was the first duty of the people. They naturally were angry at the loss
of their charter but when the general court was abolished and Pur-i-tan
principles were ignored their rage knew no bounds. The new governor levied
heavy taxes. Forced the land owners to give up their title to him for
examination and even told them that deeds from the In-di-ans were not worth
a penny. In the same manner he tyrannized over the people of New Hamp-
shire and Maine and then turned his attention to Con-nec-ti-cut.

He demanded the charter but the people protested. Then a council was
held with the royal governor and while it was in progress the charter disap-
peared: It had been hidden in an oak tree on the grounds of one of the
magistrates. But like New York and New Jer-sey Con-nec-ti-cut became a
part of New Eng-land under the government of An-dros. When King James
fled from Eng-land and Wil-liam of Or-ange ascended the throne there was
great rejoicing. The power of the Stuarts was at an end and the people were
freed from royal rule. Sir Wil-liam Phips was made governor of New Eng-
land and although he was a good man he did not make a wise governor. He
was recalled to Eng-land, where he died in 1694.

The year 1692 was a memorable one in the history of New Eng-land,
for it was then that the peoplé were carried away by the delusion of witch-
craft. The craze originated with some children who had been listening to
stories from an old slave. The madness spread until finally many prominent
people were accused of being bewitched. All that it was necessary was some
peculiarity about a person’s appearance to arouse suspicions. People that had
moles upon them or any other mark would be accused and thrown into
prison. Finally one of the children confessed that they had been deceiving the
people, but her companions accused her of being a witch. The time came
at last when the people began to see that they had been imposed upon and the
craze came to a sudden end. But in the meantime several hundred people had
been imprisoned and about twenty had suffered death.

In reading the history of a colony one can hardly blame the In-di-ans
for being enemies of the white men. They were treated unjustly, even cruelly.
Their friendship was repaid with treachery and the simple savage was made
the victim of his own ignorance. When Mas-sas-o-it died he left two
sons, Al-ex-an-der and Phil-ip. A year later Al-ex-an-der was carried prisoner
to Ply-mouth because he was suspected of having conspired with the Nar-ra-
SN
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GEORGE WASHINGTON IN HIS YOUTH.

After the painting by C., W. Peale, and the engraving of J. W. Paradise.
PERIL AND HARDSHIP. - eo

gan-setts to attack the Eng-lish, but he died before reaching his destination,
His wife who was a queen among the In-di-ans always believed that her hus~
band had been poisoned, and when fourteen years later she heard that Phil-ip
was planning to attack the settlements she attempted to join him with three
hundred warriors. In less than a year nearly all of her braves had been
killed and the queen in attempting to swim a river was drowned.

Phil-ip was a man of noble character and had always treated the white
man with justice, but when he was forced to undergo humiliation his natural
love of justice asserted itself and he made preparations for war.

One beautiful June day in 1675 as the people of Swan-sea were return- |
ing home from church a man was killed by an In-di-an in ambush. This was
the beginning of what is known in history as King Phil-ip’s war. It was a
season of terror, desolation and death. Houses were burned, cattle were
driven away, men, women and children were murdered by the In-di-ans, and
yet in spite of the dangers that threatened the people it seemed as though God
kept them from being destroyed... At Brook-field men, women and children had
just time enough to rush into the strong house of the settlement when three
hundred savages rushed into the village and burned every house except the one
where the people had fled. Then followed a terrible battle. The In-di-ans
surrounded the house, firing from all sides. At night they built fires- against
the walls of the building and thrust torches through the cracks in the logs and
shot burning arrows on to the roof. But the desperate people put out the
fires and kept the savages at bay. On the morning of the third day the In-
di-ans piled a cart with hay and set it on fire, then pushed it up against the
building. The brave people inside prepared to die but deliverance was at hand.
Just as they had given up all hope there came a terrible storm and the rain
poured down in torrents extinguishing the blazing cart. In the afternoon re-
inforcements arrived from Bos-ton and the people were saved.

In the meantime the war continued with increasing severity and hun-
dreds of people were killed. Then the Eng-lish resolved to organize trained
band soldiers, and instead of waiting to be ambushed and shot down by waiting
savages to use the In-di-an’s method of warfare and adopt all his cunning and
stealthy methods of attack. Phil-ip was chased from point to point and twice
he barely escaped capture. Then an In-di-an betrayed his hiding place and a
band of Eng-lish-men surprised the great chief in the middle of the night and
killed him.
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ON THE WAR-PATH.
CHAPTER X.
THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA.

While these terrible In-di-an massacres were taking place, a man in
Eng-land was planning to found a colony in the New World. He was the son
of a famous admiral, and his name was Wil-li-am Penn. He is said to have
been a good-natured, happy boy when at school, fond of athletic sports, but at
the sate time a diligent student. When at Ox- ford, he heard a Qua-ker
preacher deliver a sermon and at once became a convert to the faith. Soon
after this, the students were ordered to wear a surplice, and. Penn refused.
For this he was expelled from school and his father banished him from home.
He relented, however, and sent him to Par-is, hoping that the boy would forget
his nonsense as he called it. But when Penn returned to Lon-don, he attended
the meetings of the Friends, and ever afterward was a consistent member. He
was confined for several months in the Tower of Lon-don, for writing a book
on the Qua-ker religion. Soon after this his father died, leaving his son
a large property, and Penn at once set about to start his colony.

In 1680 he obtained a grant of land from Charles II., including
forty thousand square miles of territory between Ma-ry-land and New York,
which the King called Penn-syl-va-ni-a. He determined that in his colony
there should be perfect,liberty of conscience and political freedom for all. Only
murder and treason were punishable by death, and it was against the law to
tell a lie. Every one, even an In-di-an, was to be treated with kindness and
justice. In 1682, he set sail and on the 27th of October of that year, he arrived
at the colony. He was pleased with everything he saw, and the beauty ofthe
woods and hills and the broad river on which he sailed were sources of con-
tinual wonder and delight.

He laid out a.city which was the beginning of Phil-a-del-phi-a. During
the first year after Penn’s arrival twenty-three ships filled with colonists
came to the province. He treated the In-di-ans with kindness and the red men
were struck with his simple and honest manner. He made a treaty with them

81

é
THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA 88

and won their hearts at once. Penn remained in A-mer-i-ca for two years,
during which time the colony prospered, school houses were built, a printing
press was set up, emigrants came from Eng-land and Penn-syl-va-ni-a began
to be looked upon as a model settlement. But Penn was obliged to return
to Eng-land where he remained for fifteen years. During his absence frequent
quarrels took place and false reports were sent to Eng-land and finally the’
government was taken away from Penn and given to a royal commissioner.
In 1694 Wil-liam and Ma-ry gave the colony back into Penn’s hands and five
year’s afterward he returned to A-mer-i-ca. You can judge his surprise that
instead of a little straggling village which he left he found a city of nearly two
thousand houses. Penn resided in a house which remained standing until the
year 1868. He was very kind and hospitable and although he lived in great
style, he showed as much courtesy to an In-di-an chief as he did to an Eng-lish
Duke. He was always a gentleman and did not drop:his courtly manners
when he sat in a savage wigwam and ate hominy and acorns. He never be-
lieved in slavery and although he owned a large number of slaves he gave them
all freedom when he died. In 1701 he left the colony and returned to Eng-land
where he became involved in much trouble. His son whom he had sent to
A-mer-i-ca, turned out to be a drunkard and was sent to Eng-land in disgrace.
The charter of the province was threatened and Penn was arrested and sent to
prison. The governor that Penn left in his place was deposed and Charles
Cook-in was put in charge. After him came Sir Wil-liam Keith.

Wil-li-am Penn died in 1718 and in 1732 Thom-as Penn, his second son
by his second marriage, moved to Phil-a-del-phia. He was never popular, but
his elder brother seemed to inherit some of his father’s ability and at once was
recognized as possessing the noble qualities of his father. Although Penn-
syl-va-ni-a was the youngest colony on the continent it had more inhabitants
than Vir-gin-i-a, Ma-ry-land and the Car-o-li-nas.

Phil-a-del-phi-a was the largest and finest city in A-mer-i-ca and second
in size. Pat-rick Gor-don was governor after Keith and was succeeded in 1736
by George Thom-as.

About five years after the death of Wil-liam Penn there wandered into
the city of Phil-a-del-phi-a a ragged, hungry, barefoot boy. For days he
roamed about the streets of the city looking for work. In some way he man-
aged to get into the good graces of Governor Keith, who sent him to Lon-don;

but after a time Ben-ja-min returned to Pennsylvania. He afterward be-
6




















































TAC.

ONT

P

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SSS.


THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA. 85

came a very famous man and in 1728 he started a newspaper, called the Penn-
syl-va-ni-a Gazette. It was published for 120 years. For twenty-five years he
published “Poor Richard’s Almanac,” a collection of curious stories and wise
sayings, and he soon became known as the greatest scholar in A-mer-i-ca. To
him is due the credit of having discovered the fact that lightning and elec-
tricity are che same. Ben-ja-min Frank-lin rendered the colonies great service
during their struggle for independence and next to Wash-ing-ton his name is
che most renowned one in the history of those times.































































































“WILL-IAM PENN’S HOUSE.”


































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A JESUIT MISSIONARY,
CHAPTER XT.
DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST.

To Jes-u-it missionaries is due the credit of leading the march of
civilization in the West. About thirty years after the settlement of Que-bec
in 1608, the Fathers Shau-mo-not and Bre-boeuf traversed the great lakes,
sailing along the northern shore of O-hi-o by way of Lake Erie and skirt-
‘ing the western shores of Lake Hur-on as far as the straits of Mack-i-nac. In
the summer of 1660, Father Mes-nard founded a mission on a point on the
southern shore of Lake Su-pe-ri-or called Shag-wam-e-gan. He lost his life in
some strange way and in 1665 Father All-ou-ez took up the mission, and
preached in the In-di-an language to the various tribes. In 1669 Father
A-lon-ey and another priest went as far as the Fox river.

In 1671 Jean Ta-lon, who had been appointed the over-seer of Can-a-da,
by the French Government, called a council of In-di-ans at the foot of lake
Su-pe-ri-or. The chiefs of the different tribes promised to be true and friendly
to the French king and two years later Lou-is Jo-li-et and Father Mar-quette
started on an expedition, when they discovered the source of the Mis-sis-sip-pi,
going as far south as the mouth of the Ar-kan-sas. They floated down the
Mis-sis-sip-pi river in their canoes, meeting with many In-di-ans who treated
them finely. They saw the passage from the Fox to the Wis-con-sin river and
from the St. Law-rence to the Mis-sis-sip-pi river. ‘They floated past the point

where the. Mis-sou-ri entered into the great river on which they sailed. When .

they reached the II-li-nois river they followed its course and made a portage
into lake Mich-i-gan. Mar-quette lived for two years among the Mi-am-i In-
di-ans, dying in 167%, while on his way to Mack-i-nac. Jo-li-et told wonderful
stories of the expedition when he arrived at Mon-tre-al, and La Salle, a Nor-
man gentleman, who had established a trading post near that city, fitted out an
expedition. With thirty men he marched to Lake On-ta-ri-o, made the portage
by Ni-ag-a-ra Falls to lake Er-ie, where he built a ship in which he sailed as far
as Green Bay. La Salle and his men walked to St. Jo-seph, where they waited

87


AN OLD TRAPPER
DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST. 89

for the ship to come up with them. It did not appear, so he went westward, ©
reaching the present La Salle county in II-li-nois, where he established a fort.
La Salle finally returned to Mon-tre-al, but in 1681 he set out upon another
expedition. He crossed lake Mich-i-gan and penetrated inland by way of the
Chi-ca-go river, which strange as it may seem, they named the “Divine River.”
La Salle made friends with the In-di-ans, and finally arrived at the Mis-sis-
sip-pi. He followed the river until after many adventures he arrived at the sea.
Soon after his return La Salle went to France, where he was given power to

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FRENCH TRADERS.

colonize the territory he had explored and which he had named Lou-is-i-an-a,
but which included the present state of Lou-is-i-an-a and all the territory north
of the line of Tex-as and west of the Mis-sis-sip-pi to the Rocky Moun-tains.
La Salle left France in 1684 with four vessels, but it was almost a year
beforé he arrived at the mouth of the Mis-sis-sip-pi. He passed beyond the
mouth of the river, landing farther west; thus it happened that Tex-as was the
first state to be settled after F lor-i-da. The captain deserted La Salle and re-.


sy













































































































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AN INDIAN ATTAC
DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST. 91

turned to France where he told unjust stories of the great discoverer. Al-
though they were kind to him, La Salle was very unfortunate in his explora-
tions and after many months spent in searching for the Mis-sis-sip-pi river he
finally met his death at the hands of one of his companions. About ten years
after La Salle’s death France made another effort to colonize the Mis-sis-sip-pi
valley. Le-moine Di-ber-ville was given the command of an expedition and
in 1699 he sailed from France io explore the territory which La Salle had dis-
covered and in which he had lost his life.

He entered the Gulf of Mex-i-co and sailed up the Mis-sis-sip-pi river.
He made a second voyage in 1700 and established a settlement about thirty
tniles below the present city of New Or-leans. Communication was estab-
lished between Louis-i-an-a and Can-a-da by way of the Mis-sis-sip-pi and
Lake Er-ie. An Eng-lish-man-by the name of Coxe was sent out by Charles
II of Eng-land to explore and take possession of the territory west of Flor-i-da.
Then John Law, an Eng-lish-man, formed his famous scheme for the coloni-
zation of Louis-i-an-a. Although this was the means of inducing many people
to come to A-mer-i-ca, it failed, and thousands of people. in Eng-land and
Trance who had invested money in the plan were ruined. Then Bi-en-ville was
made governor general in 1736. He led an expedition against the In-di-ans
but was defeated. In 1741 he returned to France. The French colony of
Louis-i-an-a was in many respects a failure. In the first place it was threat-
ened with invasions of the Eng-lish by sea and the In-di-ans by land. This
great territory was not conquered by force of ar ms but by the farmers who
developed its wonderful resources.


3

«\- \\ 3

INCIDENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

NY
AM, i
Wi


CHAPTER XII.
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

In the year 1749, a grant ona hundred thousand acres of land west of
the Al-le-gha-nies, on and near the O-hi-o River, was made to some Lon-don-
ers and Vir-gin-i-ans, under the name of the O-hi-o Company. As the French
considered this to be a part of their territory, they treated the Company’ Ss sur-
veyors as intruders, made them prisoners, and broke up the trading posts.
They acted with still greater vigor in 1753. In that year twelve hundred men
were sent to Mon-tre-al, who built a fort at Presque Isle, on the southern shore
of Lake Er-ie, now the present town of Er-ie. The same year they advanced
south from this, aad built two forts, one, Fort le Boeuf, at the present town of
Wat-er-ford, and Fort Ve-nan- go, on French Creek, which flows into the
Al-le-ghany River.

Din-wid-die, Lieu-ten-ant Gov-ern-or of Vir-gin-i-a, alarmed at the
movements of the French, sent a messenger to the French commander of these
posts, asking their removal. The person he chose to carry this message was
George Wash-ing-ton, a native of Vir- gin-i-a, then a young man of two-and-
twenty. On the 30th of Oc-to-ber, 1753, the very day on which he received
his credentials, he left Wil-liams-burg, and, pushing through the wilderness,
arrived at Fort Ve-nan-go De-cem-ber 4. At Le Boeuf he at last found St.
Pierre, the commandant, who received his letter, and treated him with marked
kindness. In the course of Wash-ing-ton’s stay the French officers talked with
great frankness, said that they were there by order of the king, and should
remain there so long as he commanded them to do so.

- St. Pierre’s reply to Din-wid-die was given to Wash-ing-ton, who at
once commenced his long and fearful journey of four hundred miles to
Wil-liams-burg. Snow had fallen; the rivers had risen, and were filled with
ice; the horses broke down ai the very commencement, and the journey had to
be made on foot. The In-di-ans were far from friendly, and once Wash-ing-ton
was shot at from a distance of not more than fifteen feet. Through all these

_ 98


INTO THE WILDERNESS.
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 95

dangers he made his way home unharmed, Jan-u-a-ry, 1754, and delivered St.
Pierre’s letter, which contained a polite but firm refusal to give up the posts.
Early in 1754, the O-hi-o Company sent out a small party to erect a fort
at the junction of the Al-le-gha-ny and Mo-non-ga-he-la Rivers, and Din-wid-
die dispatched a captain’s command to protect them. In addition to this, in
March, a regiment of six hundred men was raised in Vir-gin-i-a, of which Frye
was colonel, and Wash-ing-ton second. in command. They quickly com-
menced their march to the new fort, intending to occupy it. While on their
way, they learned that the French had surprised and driven off the Company's















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SSS8







men, and had then completed the work, naming it Fort du Quesne. Wash-ing- |
ton was sent'in advance to reconnoitre, and fell in with a small body of French ‘|
under Ju-mon-ville, at Great Mead-ows, about forty-five miles from Fort du
Quesne. Wash-ing-ton surprised this party on the night of May 28, and in the
attack Ju-mon-ville was slain, and nine of his men. This was the first blood
shed in the war. Frye died about this time, and Wash-ing-ton assumed the
command. The rest of the troops soon joined him at Great Mead-ows, where
he built a stockade, which he called Fort Ne-ces-si-ty.








SA. BRITISH SENTRY,
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 97

Here he was attacked in July by De Vil-tiers with 1,500 French and
In-di-ans. At the end of ten hours hard fighting, Wash-ing-ton surrendered
the fort on condition that his troops should be allowed the honors of war.
This expedition under Wash-ing-ton was the commencement of the great
_Struggle between the French and Eng-lish for the possession of the North
A-mer-i-can continent. All the previous-intercolonial wars sprang from dis-
putes in Eu-rope, which involved the French, Eng-lish, and Span-ish colonies.
This began in A-mer-i-ca itself about territory. There was, as yet, no formal
declaration of war between the two nations, nor was any made until nearly two
years later. :

The Eng-lish government was anxious that their colonies should take,
the most active part in the contest, and urged them to unite on some plan of
defense. While Wash-ing-ton was fighting in the wilds of Vir-gin-i-a, a con-
vention of delegates from seven of the colonies assembled at Al-ba-ny to see
what could be done. The first object they had in view was to secure the friend-
ship of the powerful Ir-o-quois on the northern borders. This they suc-
ceeded in doing, They then debated and adopted a plan of union for mutual
defense, subject to the approval of the colonies and the Eng-lish government.
The author of the plan was Ben-ja-min Frank-lin, a delegate from Pern-
syl-va-ni-a. It never went in force, because it pleased neither the king nor the
colonies. The king thought it gave the people too much power, the coionies
thought it gave the king too much. The probability is, therefore, that Frank-
lin’s plan was nearly correct.

The plan of union not having been adopted, the Eng-lish government
determined to carry on the war with such help as the colonies might feel in-
clined to furnish. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1755, Gen-er-al Brad-dock was sent out
from England to the Ches-a-peake, as commander-in-chief, with two regiments.
of Brit-ish troops. At Al-ex-an-dra, Brad-dock met a convention of Colonial
governors, and, with their advice, decided on the campaign for the year.
Brad-dock, in person, was to march against Fort du Quesne; Goy-ern-or Shir-
ley, of Mas-sa-chu-setts, to lead an- expedition against Fort Ni-ag-a-ra; and
Wil-liam Johnson, an influential man with the Ir-o-quois, was to attempt, with
their assistance, the capture of Crown Point.

Besides these three expeditions planned by Brad-dock; still another,
against the French settlements at the head of the Bay of Fun-dy, had been
previously arranged in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were defended by two French

3








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INDIAN TROAMRS,
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 99

forts, and were considered by the Eng-lish to be within the limits of No-va
Sco-tia. In the month of May, Colonel John Wins-low, at the head of three
thousand New Eng-land men, left Bos-ton to attack these posts: On his
arrival at the Bay of Fun-dy, Colonel Monck-ton, with three hundred Brit-ish
regulars, joined him, and assumed the command. The forts were soon taken
with little bloodshed, and the whole territory was now completely in the hands
of the Eng-lish.

The French settlers or A-ca-di-ans, twelve thousand or more in number,
were simple-hearted people, devoted to their farms and their country pleasures,





BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.

and attached to the French rule by language and religion. They would have
been glad to have seen the French authority established throughout the old
limits of A-ca-di-a, but they were far from being troublesome to the Eng-lish.
Under false pretenses, the A-ca-di-ans were induced to assemble in large
numbers at different points; and, without warning, with scarce an opportunity
of bidding farewell to their homes, seven thousand of them were thrust on
















































RUINS OF FORT. TICONDEROGA.
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 101

board of the Eng-lish vessels, and were scattered throughout the Eng-lish col-
onies. Wives were separated from husbands, children from parents, and, in
misery and wretched exile, this once happy people lingered out a weary life.
To add to this dreadful cruelty, the country was laid waste, the farm-houses
were burned; the growing crops were destroyed, in order to starve any who
might still be lurking in the woods, and this beautiful and fertile tract was for
a time reduced to desolation.

~ Brad-dock’s force at Al-ex-an-dra had been increased by the arrival of
Vir-gin-i-a troops, and, in the month of May, numbered 2,500 men. In the
beginning of June he left Fort Cum-ber-land, on the extreme frontiers of Vir-
gin-i-a, and, with his whole army, proceeded against Fort du Quesne. Im-
patient with the slowness of the march, he ordered General. Dun-bar to follow
him with the baggage and pushed on with 1,200 light troops. This was
done at the advice of Wash-ing-ton, who was one of the aids-de-camp.
Wash-ing-ton had already earnestly warned him of the In-di-an mode of
fighting; and Ben-ja-min Frank-lin, who visited the general at Fred-er-ick-ton,
did the same. But Brad-dock was a vain man, and held the provincial troops
and the In-di-ans in contempt. His self-confidence proved his ruin. When
he was less than seven miles from Fort du Quesne, he was suddenly attacked
on the 9th of July by about 800 In-di-ans and a few French-men, commanded
by an officer no higher than the rank of captain.

The enemy were posted chiefly behind trees. The Eng-lish were in
open ground, without shelter, exposed to a deadly fire: It was in vain that the
Eng-lish officers again and again led their men against their unseen foe. They
themselves were shot down. Brad-dock, after showing the greatest bravery,
was at last mortally wounded and carried from the field, and the troops fell into
confusion. Wash-ing-ton did everything in his power to restore order. He
was repeatedly shot at, and was the only mounted officer that escaped without
a wound. At last he was able to rally the Vir-gin-i-a troops, and in this way
cover the retreat of the regulars. The day had been most disastrous to Brad-
dock. Out of the 1,200 engaged, nearly 800 were killed or wounded, and of
these, 62 were officers. Dun-bar, who was coming on slowly with the bag-
gage and the rest of the army, on learning the disaster, destroyed his wagons
and made a hasty retreat, or rather flight, with the wreck of his army, first to |
Fort Cum-ber-land, and then to Phil-a-del-phi-a.






















































































































































































































































































































































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SCENE OF THE TEA PLOT.
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 103

The death of Brad-dock put Gov-er-nor Shir-ley in command of the
troops. In July, 1755, General Ly-man was in command of 6,000 provincial
troops, and the following month was joined by General Johnson. Learning
that 2,000 French and In-di-ans were on their way to attack him, he sent for-
ward a body of men. A sharp battle ensued, at Crown Point, which resulted
in the defeat of the French. In the following De-cem-ber, Shir-ley decided on
making three expeditions; one against Ni-ag-a-ra, the others against Fort du
Quesne and Crown Point. In June, 1756, General A-ber-crom-bie arrived
from Eng-land with fresh troops, and succeeded General Shir-ley in command.
Lord Lou-doun, the commander-in-chief arrived the following month, and
while he was making up his mind what to do, the Mar-quis of Mont-calm, at
the head of 5,000 Ca-na-di-ans and In-di-ans,. attacked the forts at Os-we-go,
capturing over 1,000 prisoners, and destroying the forts. Lou-doun had sent
out some troops under Colonel Webb, to Os-we-go, who, learning of
the disaster, returned to Al-ba-ny. Lou-doun’s expedition against Crown
Point, Fort du Quesne, and Ni-ag-a-ra were failures, and in Jan-u-a-ry, 1757,
it was decided that there should be one expedition sent out against Lou-is-
berg. Frontier posts were defended and George Wash-ing-ton, with
provincial troops, was employed to watch the outposts of Vir-gin-i-a. Lord
Lou-doun sailed from New York, but was so slow at moving that a large
French fleet entered Lou-is-berg, so there was nothing left for the Eng-lish to
do, but to- return to New York. In the meantime Mont-calm, who was a
very different man from Lou-doun, captured and destroyed Fort Wil-liam
Hen-ry, and the close of the year, 1757, found the French in possession of all
the territory they had before the war. The Eng-lish had suffered greatly and
the In-di-an allies of the French kept the settlements in constant alarm.

In the following year Wil-liam Pitt, afterward Lord Chat-ham, .was
made prime minister of Eng-land. He persuaded the colonists to raise 28,000
men, to these he added 22,000 regulars from Eng-land. He recalled Lou-doun
and made General A-ber-crom-bie commander-in-chief. In June, General
Am-herst captured Lou-is-berg, and was made commander-in-chief in place of
A-ber-crom-bie, who had been defeated at Ti-con-der-o-ga. A little later Fort
du Quesne was captured. ,










































































































































































































































== SS =

BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.
CHAPTER XIII.
THE ENGLISH VICTORIOUS,

The Eng-lish minister, Pitt, put forth fresh efforts in the year 1759.
Three expeditions were again planned, one against Que-bec, under Gen-e-ral
Wolfe; another, under Am-herst, against Forts Ti-con-der-o-ga. and Crown
Point; a third under General Prid-caux, by way of Os-we-go, against Fort
Ni-ag-a-ra. Am-herst and Prid-eaux, after capturing the forts assigned to
them, were to join Wolfe on the St. Law-rence, opposite Que-bec. General
Prid-eaux was killed soon after the siege of Fort Ni-ag-a-ra began, and Sir
Wil-liam John-son succeeded to the command. On July 23, the French sur-
rendered the fort; but John-son, encumbered by prisoners, was unable, from
want of provisions and of boats, to move down the St. Law-rence to the help of
Wolfe, as was originally arranged.

When General Am-herst and his army reached Ti-con-der-o-ga, they
found that this fort, and also Crown Point, had been abandoned by the French.
As was the case with John-son’s army, Am-herst’s troops could not co-operate
with Wolfe, because vessels had not been provided to carry them down Lake
Cham-plain. On the 26th of June, General Wolfe arrived in the St. Law-renée,
opposite the Isle of Or-leans. He had with him 8,000 troops and a fleet of 22
ships Cf the line, besides frigates and smaller vessels. This immense fleet had
entire command of the river; and Wolfe found it easy to erect batteries on
Point Le-vi, opposite Que-bec. The city was composed of two parts, the
upper and the lower town. Wolfe’s guns easily destroyed the houses along
the river, but could do no harm to the citadel in the upper town. For miles
above the city the rocks rose high above the river bank, and every landing
place at their foot seemed to be guarded by cannon or floating batteries.

The lower side of the city was protected by the rivers St. Charles and
Mont-mo-ren-ci, and between these the French had an intrenched camp. In
the month of July, Wolfe crossed the St. Law-rence with a portion of his

105
it







































































































































































































































































































































































































ak

ADDRESSING THE PEOPLE.
‘
THE ENGLISH VICTORIOUS. 107

army and attacked these intrenchments, but was repulsed with the loss of 500
men. To crown his disappcintment, no help came from the Ni-ag-a-ra ex-
pedition nor from Am-herst, and he himself, sick with a slow fever, was left,
with his diminished army, to gain Que-bec as he could. The Plains or
Heights of A-bra~ham lay west of the city, and there was a narrow path up
their face scarce wide enough for two men abreast, leading from a small
cove on the river. By this path, Wolfe, under the advice of his officers, de- ‘
termined to ascend with his army to the plains. He first sailed up the river
several miles above the landing place, now known as Wolfe’s Cove, Sep-~
tem-ber 12. That night, flat-bottomed boats, containing the soldiers, dropped
down the river and landed them at the cove. Slowly they climbed to the top,
and early in the morning they were there drawn up ready for battle. Mont-
calm saw that he was now compelled to fight, and at once moved against them.
The battle was hotly contested, and was decided in favor of the Bri-tish, but not
until Wolfe and Mont-calm were both mortally wounded.

Wolfe died on the field of battle just as the French had begun to retreat.
Mont-calm died the next morning in Que-bec. Five days after, on Sep-tem-ber
18, the city and garrison surrendered to General Town-send, the successor of
Wolfe.
‘In Ap-ril, 1760, De Le-vi left Mon-tre-al with 10,000 men to attack
Que-bec before the arrival of re-inforcements from England. Murray, who
was in command at Que-bec, marched out with scarce 3,000 men to give him
battle. A severe engagement followed; Ap-ril 26, in which Mur-ray lost 1,000
men, and fled back to the city, leaving all his artillery. CQue-bec was at once
besieged by the French, but, fortunately, the Eng-lish fleet arrived May 9, and
De Le-vi retreated in a few days to Mon-tre-al. The Eng-lish made extra-
ordinary efforts during the summer, and in Sep-tem-ber three powerful armies
were united under General Am-herst in front of Mon-tre-al. The force was so
great that the French governor at once surrendered, and with Mon-tre-al, all
the posts in Can-a-da were given up. There were no further hostilities in
A-mer-i-ca, but the war continued elsewhere until the year 1763.

On the toth of Feb-ru-a-ry, 1763, a treaty of peace’ was
signed in Pa-ris. By this treaty, Great Bri-tain obtained all the
French territory east of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, with the exception of the island of
New Or-leans, bounded on the north by the Rivers I-ber-ville and A-mi-te, and
Lakes Mau-re-pas and Pont-char-train. From Spain she received Flor-i-da in
































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COLONIAL DAYS.
: THE ENGLISH VICTORIOUS. 109
exchange for Ha-va-na. As some recompense to Spain, France ceded to her
the island of New Or-leans, and all Lou-is-i-an-a west of the Mis-sis-sip-pi.
Two nations now claimed the North A-mer-i-can continent, the Span-ish
and the Eng-lish. The French had not retained a foothold. The whole vast
region east of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, with the exception of the island of New Or-
leans, from the Gulf of Mex-i-co to the Arc-tic O-cean, was under the Bri-tish
flag. Flor-i-da was divided by the Eng-lish government into two provinces,
East and West Flor-i-da; and the River A-pa-la-chi-co-la was made the
dividing line. The Mis-sis-sip-pi formed the western boundary of West
Flor-i-da.

After the treaty of peace was concluded, the Bri-tish were not quietly
permitted to hold possession of the vast territory on the north and west. The
In-di-an tribes friendly to the French were unwilling to submit to the Eng-lish
rule, and organized a formidable league in 1763 under Pon-ti-ac, a famous
chief of the Ot-ta-was. Every post west of Fort Ni-ag-a-ra, with the exception
of De-troit and Fort Pitt, was captured or destroyed, and their garrisons made
prisoners or massacred; these two posts were closely blockaded, and only
saved by re-inforcements sent by Am-herst. Many settlers were killed, and
the rest fled eastward for protection. In 1764, the In-di-ans, overawed by the
preparations made to put them down, sued for peace. Thus ended what is
known as Pon-ti-ac’s War.
















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YOUNG ¥ATRIOTS.
CHAPTER XIV.
LIBERTY OR DEATH.

The treaty of Pa-ris secured to the An-glo-Sax-on race the control of
North A-mer-i-ca east of the Mis-sis-sip-pi; but Eng-land was not destined
long to remain mistress of this vast region. The treaty was scarcely ratified
when the renewed oppressions of the mother country brought on a struggle
with the colonies, which ended, twelve years later, in the War for In-de-
pen-dence.

The more remote causes of the A-mer-i-can Re-vo-lu-tion are to be
found in the oppressive enactments made by Eng-land at an early day to
cripple or destroy colonial commerce. The celebrated Nav-i-ga-tion Act of
1660 was passed for this purpose, and was felt severely throughout the colo-
nies, but particularly in commercial New Eng-land. It sought to keep the
A-mer-i-cans dependent on the mother country, making Eng-land the only
place where colonial products could be sent for a market, and whence the
colonists should wholly draw their supply of foreign merchandise.

From this it naturally followed that Eng-land earnestly strove to dis-
courage the manufacture in the colonies of all such goods as could be pro-
vided by her own manufacturers. We can judge what were the settled feelings
of the government and people of Eng-land on this point when, some year’s
after the French and In-di-an War, Lord Chat-ham, late Wil-liam Pitt, a friend
of the colonies, said in Par-li-a-ment that “the Brit-ish colonists of North
A-mer-i-ca had no right to manufacture even a nail for a horse-shoe.”
Even as early as the year 1691, the current Eng-lish idea was that the colonies
existed only for the consumption of Eng-lish commodities and the production
of merchantable articles for the Eng-lish trade.

The A-mer-i-cans, on the other hand, strove to encourage manufactures
within their own borders. Iron-works were established in Mas-sa-chu-setts as
early as 1643; and in 1721 there were in New Eng-land six furnaces and
‘nineteen forges. The production of iron was still greater in Penn-syl-va-ni-a,
111
112 LIBERTY OR DEATH.

whence it was exported to the other colonies. The Brit-ish iron-masters
the same year tried to prevent the production of iron in A-mer-i-ca,. but
failed at that time. In 1750 the A-mer-i-cans were prohibited by act of
Par-li-a-ment from sending pig-iron to Eng-land, and from manufacturing
steel and bar-iron for home use. This act shut up all such works, and any
built thereafter were liable to destruction as “nuisances.”

Par-li-a-ment in 1732 prohibited the transportaiton of A-mer-i-can
woolén goods from colony to colony; and hats, the making of which was al-
already a thriving business, were placed under the same restriction as woolen
goods. As an argument for this, it was asserted that, from the abundance of



ee

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=

. HOUSE IN WHICH THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE WAS SIGNED.

beaver and other furs in A-mer-i-ca, the colonists, unless restrained, would
soon supply all the world with hats. The act of 1732 was followed, in 1733, by
a law known as the “Molasses Act,” imposing a duty on rum, molasses, and
sugar imported from foreign- colonies into any of the Bri-tish plantations.
This was to protect the West In-di-a colonial productions at the expense of the
North A-mer-i-can colonies.

The various acts of trade brought in their train a large number of cus-
tom-house officers, who applied to the colonial courts in 1761 to grant them
“writs of assistance’—warrants to search when and where they pleased for
smuggled goods, and to call in others to assist them. " This was felt to be a
LIBERTY OR DEATH. 113

grievous and dangerous power, and the issue of the writs was opposed with so

much energy that, though they were granted, they were so unpopular as to be
seldom used.
Regardless of the state of feeling in A-mer-i-ca, the Eng-lish ministers

brought forward, in the year 1763, a proposition to tax the colonies. It was
claimed that the debt of Eng-land had been largely increased by defending
them, and that it was only right they should defray a share of the expense by
paying a tax to the Eng-lish government. In the month of March, 1764, the
House of Com-mons resolved “that Par-li-a-ment had a right to tax A-mey-i-
ca;” and in Ap-ril an act was passed levying duties on certain articles imported
into A-mer-i-ca, and adding iron and lumber to a list of articles which could
be exported only to Eng-land. The preamble of this act avowed the purpose

“of raising a revenue for the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing
his majesty’s domains in A-mer-i-ca.
The colonies protested against this as an attempt upon their liberties,

proclaiming that they had borne their fuill share in the various wars for their
defense, and were now able to protect themselves, and affirming that “taxation
without representation was tyranny.” But armed resistance was not yet hinted
at. Bos-ton, under-the leadership of Sam-u-el Ad-ams, was the first to move
against this new plan of taxation, and instructed her delegates in the Mas-sa-
chu-setts House of Rep-re-sent-a-tives to remonstrate against it.

This body resolved “that the imposition of duties and taxes by the
Par-li-a-ment of Great Bri-tain upon a people not represented in the House
of Com-mons is absolutely irreconcilable with their rights.” A letter was
sent to the agent of the colony in Lon-don, urging him to protest vigorously
against the scheme of taxation, in which letter were the remarkable words, “If
we are not represented we are slaves.” ‘The Mas-sa-chu-setts House also
ordered that a committee should correspond with the other colonies. Con-
nec-ti-cut, New York, Rhode Is-land and Vir-gin-i-a followed the example of
Mas-sa-chu-setts, and dispatched remonstrances to Eng-land. New York sent
ene so strongly expressed that no member of Par-li-a-ment could be found bold
enough to present it. All this produced no effect. The Stamp Act, the other
part of the taxation scheme, passed the House of Com-mons, March, 1765, by a

vote of five to one, and the House of Lords were so agreed that there was no
division. This act imposed a duty on all paper, vellum, and parchment used
in the colonies, and declared all writings on unstamped materials to be null
and void,
114 LIBERTY OR DEATH.

Another act passed by Par-li-a-ment was more irritating to the A-mer-i-
cans than the Stamp Act. This was known as “the Quar-ter-ing Act.” A
standing army was ordered for the colonies, and the people, wherever these
troops were stationed, were required by this enactment to find quarters, fire-
wood, bedding, drink, soap and candles for the soldiers. The Vir-gin-i-a assem-
bly was in session when the news of the passage of these acts arrived in May.
The aristocratic leaders of the House were afraid to take any action; but Pat-rick
Hen-ry, a young lawyer, presented a series of resolutions denouncing the acts
as*destructive to Bri-tish as well as A-mer-i-can liberty. The resolutions, sup-



Ve SN js
SON pe
MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE,

ported by Hen-ry’s wonderful eloquence, passed, notwithstanding great op-
position, and copies were sent at once to the different colonies. Before
the Vir-gin-i-a resolutions reached Mas-sa-chu-setts, her representatives had
recommended that committees from the several colonies should meet at New
York in Oc-to-ber, to consult on what was to be done.

The people seemed scarcely inclined to wait for this Colonial Congress,
but took matters into their own hands. In New York, as early as June, the
Stamp Act was hawked about the streets as “The Folly of Eng-land and the
LIBERTY OR DEATH. 115

Ruin of A-mer-i-ca.” In Bos-ton the citizens had frequent meetings under a
tree, which they named “Li-ber-ty Tree.” Upon this they hung in effigy those
persons who were supposed to favor the Eng-lish government. In Au-gust
a mob attacked the house of a stamp distributor and destroyed the furniture.
They also attacked the house of Lieu-ten-ant Gov-er-nor Hutch-in-son, and,
dragging out his furniture, made bonfires of it. Clubs, called “Sons of Lib-
erty,” sprang up all over the North, and spread south as far as New Jer-sey.

Such was the excitement when delegates from nine colonies met in
New York in Oc-to-ber, 1765, and appointed Ti-mo-thy Rug-gles, of Mas-sa-
chusetts, president. After a session of three weeks, they agreed on a “Decla-
ration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonies;” and a petition to the
king and memorials to each house of Par-li-a-ment were also prepared. In
the “Declaration of Rights,” they took the new ground that representation
of the colonies in Par-li-a-ment was impossible on account of distance, and
that the different colonies could only tax themselves.

When the Ist of No-vem-ber arrived, the day appointed for the Stanip
Act to go into operation, not a stamp was to be seen, and the stamp dis-
tributors, everywhere unpopular, had deemed it wise to resign. In New York
the Sons of Liberty burned Governor Cold-en in effigy, and so far frightened
him that he delivered the stamps to the mayor and corporation on the 5th of
No-vem-ber.

Next day No-vem-ber 6, at the same place, a committee drew up an
agreement to import no more goods until the Stamp Act was repealed. This
non-importation agreement was soon signed by the leading merchants in New
' York, Phil-a-del-phi-a, and Bos-ton. At the same time a combination was
entered into for the wearing of A-mer-i-can cloths. Business, interrupted for
a short time by the want of stamps, was presently resumed, and the courts
ere long ceased to regard the Stamp Act in their proceedings.

In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1766, Ben-ja-min Frank-lin, of Penn-syl-va-ni-a, agent
in Eng-land for some of the colonies, was summoned before the bar of the
House of Com-mons to answer questions regarding the condition of the col-
onies. In this trying position that great man displayed wonderful calmness,
readiness, and practical wisdom. His answers in relation to the operation of
the Stamp Act, and the temper of the A-mer-i-cans should it be enforced,
greatly surprised the officers of the crown and promoted the cause of his

countrymen.
8
116 LIBERTY OR DEATH.

The Eng-lish government showed signs of alarm. Pitt, who was the
friend of the A-mer-i-cans, nobly defended them in the House of Com-mons;
and in March, 1766, Par-li-a-ment repealed the Stamp Act by a decisive
majority. At the same time, the right to tax the colonies was asserted by a
bill which declared the right and power of Par-li-a-ment “to bind the colonies
in all cases whatsoever.” The Eng-lish rulers soon showed that they had not
yielded much. In Jan-u-a-ry, 1767, a new bill to tax the colonies was intro-
duced into Par-li-a~-ment, in which tea, paints, paper, glass, and lead were





















































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GENERAL PUTNAM.

made subject to duty. This was passed in June. A board of revenue com-
missioners. for A-mer-i-ca was also established, with its head-quarters at
Bos-ton.
On the receipt of this news, the excitement, which had been allayed
by the repeal of the Stamp Act, broke out with fresh fury. The colonial news-
papers, twenty-five in number, were filled with stirring and patriotic articles.
The non-importation agreement, which had for the time been forgotten, was
LIBERTY OR DEATH. 117

again adopted in Bos-ton, Prov-i-dence, New York and Phil-a-del-phi-a. The
Mas-sa-chu-setts General Court, in Feb-ru-a-ry, 1768, sent a circular letter to
the other Colonial Assemblies urging co-operation and consultation.

In June, 1768, the revenue officers at Bos-ton seized a sloop on the
charge of smuggling a cargo of wine, and a riot at once broke out. The
officers fled for protection to the barracks on Cas-tle Is-land, in the harbor.

_ To frighten the inhabitants, four regiments were ordered to Bos-ton
in Sep-tem-ber; but the authorities spurned the Quar-ter-ing Act, and refused
to provide for the troops. Some of them encamped on the Com-mon, and
Fan-eu-il Hall was used as a temporary barrack. General Gage, hastening
from New York, was compelled to hire for quarters some houses obtained with
great difficulty, and to provide for the men out of his own military stores;
Eos-ton would supply neither bedding nor fuel. In New York the Assembly
also refused to comply with the requisites of the Quar-ter-ing Act, and was
dissolved. -

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A HAND TO HAND FIGHT,
CHAPTER XV.
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY.

In Bos-ton, the ill feeling between the people and soldiers broke out
into open quarrels, and on March 5, 1770, a picket-guard of eight men, pro-
voked by the taunts of the crowd, fired, killing three persons and wounding
eight others. Next morning Fan-eu-il Hall was filled with an excited crowd;
the anger of the people rose throughout the day to a tremendous height, and
only the removal of the regiments from the city, in compliance of a positive
demand, appeased the citizens. The captain of the guard and the soldiers were
afterward tried for murder, but were acquitted on the ground of self-defense.

The non-importation of Bri-tish goods again began to influence public
feeling in Eng-land and a bill was passed by Par-li-a~-ment in May, 1773, re-
pealing the tax on all articles except tea, on which there was a nominal duty
if three-pence a pound. The spirit of the A-mer-i-cans was thoroughly aroused,
and they scorned this concession. It was not the amount of the tax, but the
attempt to tax them without their consent, of which they complained. The
non-importation agreement was so far modified as to apply only to tea, and
the merchants at the different ports were earnestly warned against receiving
it on consignment. ‘The first of the tea-ships arrived at Bos-ton No-vem-ber
25, 1773. A mass meeting of citizens at Fan-eu-il Hall ordered the vessel to
be moored at the wharf, and appointed a guard of 25 men to watch her, and
see that no tea was landed. Presently a committee, on which were the active
patriots John Han-cock, Sam-u-el Ad-ams, Jo-si-ah Quin-cy, and Jo-seph
War-ren, obtained a promise from the captain and the owner of the ship that
the tea should be carried back to Eng-land; but Governor Hutch-in-son would
not grant a permit, and without this, the vessel could not pass the fort and
ships of war in the harbor.

As soon as the refusal of the governor became known, some 40 or 50
men, dressed like Mo-hawks, on the night of De-cem-ber 16, boarded the tea-
vessels, two more of which had meanwhile arrived, and, in presence of a

119


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“IN-DIANS PLAY-ING BALL ON THE ICE.”
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. 121

great but orderly crowd, emptied, in two hours, 342 chests of tea into the
water. At New York and Phil-a-del-phi-a the people would not permit the tea
to be landed. That which arrived at Charles-ton was stored in damp cellars,
and soon became worthless.

When the news of the tea-riot reached Eng-land it produced much
angry feeling there, which showed itself in a determination to punish Bos-ton.
Par-li-a-ment thereupon passed the Bos-ton Port Bill, shutting up the harbor
-of the town, and removing the port of entry and the seat of government to
Sa-lem. In addition, some of the most tyrannous acts were passed; among
these, a new act for quartering troops on the people. Bos-ton was chiefly de-
pendent on commerce, and the destruction of her trade produced great distress
among her people. The inhabitants of Sa-lem and Mar-ble-head nobly came
to their assistance, and offered the use of their wharves to the merchants of
Bos-ton; and the colonies sent liberal contributions for her poorer citizens,

Vir-gin-i-a was among the first in expressing her sympathy for Mas-sa-
chu-setts. Her Assembly was dissolved by the governor in May, 1774, for
appointing the 1st of June—the day when the Bos-ton Port Bill was to go into
operation—as a fast day. It met, however, next day, notwithstanding his
opposition, and declared that an attack on one colony. was an attack upon all;
and advised calling a Congress to consider the grievances of the people. The
other colonies joined in this recommendation, and it was agreed that a Con-
gress should meet in Sep-tem-ber.

This second Col-o-ni-al Con-gress—the great Con-gress of the Rev-o-
lu-tion—composed of delegates from all the colonies except Geor-gi-a, met at
Phil-a-del-phi-a, Sep-tem-ber 5, 1774. Pey-ton Ran-dolph, of Vir-gin-i-a, was
appointed president, and Charles Thom-son, of Phil-a-del-phi-a, secretary.
The delegates passed a declaration of rights, together with addresses to the
king and people of Eng-land, and recommended the suspension of all com-
mercial intercourse with Great Bri-tain. It then adjourned, to meet May 10,
1775. Before Con-gress met in Sep-tem-ber, General Gage, now governor,
had begun to fortify Bos-ton Neck, the only approach by land to the town;
he had also seized some powder stored by the provincials at Cam-bridge. On
the other hand, the Mas-sa-chu-setts Assembly, which had been dissolved by
Gage, met in Oc-to-ber, 1774, as a Pro-vin-cial Congress, called out the
militia, ordered them to train and be ready at a minute’s notice—hence called
“Minute-men”—voted £20,000 for military expenses, and made preparations
for the worst.
















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CRYING THE STAMPS.
CHAPTER XVI.
FIRST BLOOD.

On April 18, 1775, General Gage, the Bri-tish commander, sent 800
troops under Colonel Smith, to destroy a quantity of ammunition that the:
A-mer-i-cans had collected at Con-cord. They had orders to capture, if
possible, John Han-cock and Sam-u-el Ad-ams, who lived in that town. The
movement was, however, discovered ; the alarm was swiftly given to the coun-
try, and when the Bri-tish arrived before sunrise at Lex-ing-ton, about six
miles from Con-cord, they found some 70 or 80 minute-men assembled on
the green. Major Pit-cairn, at the head of the Bri-tish column, advanced on
them rapidly,and called on them, as rebels, to throw down their arms and
disperse. Not being instantly obeyed, he ordered the troops to fire, and seven
of the minute-men were killed and several wounded. The Bri-tish then pro-
ceeded to Con-cord and commenced to destroy the stores, but were attacked
by fresh bodies of minute-men and compelled to retreat.

The country was now thoroughly aroused. Young and old, with such
arms as they could collect, flocked to the scene of action. From behind trees,
walls, and fences, they kept up such a galling fire on the enemy during their
retreat, that, had the latter not met at Lex-ing-ton a re-enforcement of 900
men and two field pieces under Lord Per-cy, sent by Gage to their assistance,
they would have been destroyed or captured to a man. The Bri-tish con-
tinued their retreat to Charles-ton, harassed by the A-mer-i-cans. When
they arrived here, utterly worn out, they had lost, in killed, wounded, and
missing, nearly 300 men. The loss of the provincials was about go. The skir-
mish at Lex-ing-ton, April 19, 1775, was the beginning of bloodshed in the
Rev-o-lu-tion-a-ry War.

General Gage soon found himself closely shut up in Bos-ton by an
army of 20,000 provincials, who hastened to that point on the news of the
battle of Lex-ing-ton. A line of entrenchments, extending nearly 20 miles,
was formed from Rox-bury to the River Mys-tic, and the greatest activity pre-

423
124 FIRST BLOOD.

vailed among the A-mer-i-cans. In May large re-enforcements arrived from
Eng-land, under Generals Howe, Bur-goyne, and Clin-ton; and the army of
Gage was now increased to more than 10,000 men. Thus strengthened, he
issued a proclamation declaring martial law, and offering a pardon to those
rebels who would lay down their arms. From this offer he excluded by name
John Han-cock and Sam-u-el Ad-ams, as persons whose crimes were too
great to be overlooked.

The provincials encamped around Bos-ton consisted of New Eng-land
men, chiefly from Mas-sa-chu-setts, commanded by General Ward. To blockade

| Ya Jj MEE
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THE CALL TO ARMS. -

the Bri-tish more completely in the town, Colonel Pres-cott was sent with 1,000
men, on the night of June 16, to fortify Bun-ker Hill, which commanded the
great northern road out of Bos-ton across the peninsula of Charles-ton. By
some mistake, Pres-cott passed by Bun-ker Hill, and went on to Breed’s Hill,
much nearer the town, and there threw up intrenchments. When the morhing
broke, the Bri-tish were surprised to see earth-works so near them, and from
the ships and a battery on Copp’s Hill opened fire, which did not disturb the
A-mer-i-cans. Gage then determined to carry the works by assault. About
FIRST BLOOD. 125

three o’clock in the afternoon, 3,000 picked Bri-tish troops left Bos-ton, under
Generals Howe and Pi-got, and, having landed, began to ascend .the hill,
while the cannon from the ships played on the A-mer-i-can works. From.the
~ neighboring heights, and from the roofs and steeples of Bos-ton, thousands of
spectators watched anxiously the approaching battle.

The A-mer-i-cans remained quiet until the Bri-tish were within 150
yards of the works, and then delivered their fire so steady and well directed
that the enemy fell back in disorder to the foot of the hill. A second time they
advanced, but with thé same result. It was some time before they could be
prepared for a third attack, and in the meantime they were re-enforced by 1,000
fresh troops from Bos-ton, under General Clin-ton. General Gage ordered the
houses of Charles-ton to be set on fire, and, under cover of the smoke, they
were again led up the hill. .The powder of the A-mer-i-cans had begun to
fail, and the royal troops pushed in at one end of the redoubt, and planted light
field pieces. These raked the breastworks from end to end, and at the same ~
time some Bri-tish grenadiers swept over the works at the point of the bayonet.
The A-mer-i-cans clubbed their muskets, and fell back fighting across Charles-
ton Neck to a place of safety.

The British had won the hill, but at a terrible sacrifice. They had lost
Over 1,000 in killed and wounded, more than a third of their troops engaged.
The provincial loss was 450, but among these was the young and ardent
patriot, General War-ren, a loss which the Bri-tish joyfully thought was
worth five hundred men. Meanwhile, on May 10, the day to which they had
adjourned, the delegates to the Con-ti-nen-tal Con-gress reassembled at
Phil-a-del-phi-a, John Han-cock being president, and Charles Thom-son, the
Qua-ker schoolmaster of Phil-a-del-phi-a, secretary. They resolved that Great
Bri-tain had begun hostilities; they also expressed a great desire for peace,
and declared that they had no wish to throw off their allegiance. At the same
time, they voted that the colonies should be prepared for war, and nothing
but superior force would compel them to submit to Bri-tish taxation. It was
as yet chiefly in New Eng-land that the idea of independence was freely
spoken of; it found little favor in the Middle and Southern Colonies.

On June 15, Con-gress unanimously appointed George Wash-ing-ton,
who was then present as a delegate from Vir-gin-i-a, commander-in-chief. He
accepted the appointment in a modest speech, in which he declined to receive
any compensation but the payment of his expenses. A fortnight after the
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THE STAMPS.

BURNING
FIRST BLOOD. 127

battle of Bun-ker Hill, Wash-ing-ton arrived at the A-mer-i-can camp, and
took command July 2. During the remainder of the year he was fully occu-
pied in bringing the army into a state of steady discipline, in providing for its
wants, and in watching the Bri-tish shut up in Bos-ton. The right of his line
was commanded by General Ward, and the left by General Charles Lee.
Wash-ing-ton himself commanded the centre. Lee was formerly a Bri-tish
_ officer, who had espoused the patriot cause, and was made a major-general by
Con-gress.

On the toth of May, the day on which Con-gress met, some Con-nec-ti-
cut militia, under E-than Al-len and Ben-e-dict Ar-nold, captured the Bri-tish
post at Ti-con-der-o-ga. Two days after, Crown Point was captured by
Colonel Seth War-ner, with 150 cannon and a large amount of ammunition
and stores, which proved of great service to the A-mer-i-cans. .

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THE YOUNG MINUTE MAN.
CHAPTER XVII.
HARD TIMES.

Early in the year of 1776, Wash-ing-ton learned that an expedition was
to be sent against New York, and sent General Lee to collect volunteers from
Con-nec-ti-cut and march to the defense of that city. It so happened that
General Lee entered New York just as Sir Hen-ry Clin-ton arrived, so Clin-ton
was obliged to sail away to Vir-gin-i-a.

During the winter, the Bri-tish army were shut up in Bos-ton and
watched closely by Wash-ing-ton, whose army, Jan-u-a-ry 1, did not amount
to 10,000 men. Gage had been superseded, on account of the battle of Bun-ker
Hill, by Sir Wil-liam Howe. Wash-ing-ton hoped to be able to make an
attack on the Bri-tish when the harbor was frozen, but the winter was a very
cpen one, and nothing could be done in that way. Resolute in his purpose to
drive the enemy from the city, Wash-ing-ton, on the night of the 4th of March,
marched to Dor-ches-ter Heights, and, before morning, threw up earth-works
which completely commanded Bos-ton. Howe, feeling that he must dislodge ©
the A-mer-i-cans from the heights or evacuate the city, made immediate
preparations for an assault; but a severe storm delayed him, and by the time
it subsided the works had been made too strong to be easily taken. Nothing
was left for the Bri-tish but to evacuate Bos-ton; and on March 17th they
embarked on board the fleet, taking with them some 1,500 royalists, and
sailed for Hal-i-fax. This bloodless victory was hailed with joy throughout
the colonies. Con-gress passed a unanimous vote of thanks to Wash-ing-ton,
and ordered a gold medal to be struck in remembrance of the event. Wash-
ing-ton being anxious about New York, sent-off the main body of his army
to that place.

The first point of attack proved to be, not New York, but Charles-ton,
South Car-o-li-na. A Bri-tish squadron, under Admiral Par-ker, came from
Ire-land, and was joined at Cape Fear by Clin-ton. After some delay, they
sailed to attack Charles-ton, and appeared off harbor June 4. The Car-o-li-na

129




















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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INDEPENDENCE HALL,
HARD TIMES. 131

patriots, notified of their danger, had thrown up some works on Sul-li-van’s
Is-land, and placed Colonel Mout-trie there with a regiment. When the
Bri-tish ships attempted to enter the harbor, June 28, they became entangled
in the shoals, and were met with so furious a fire from the fort that they
were compelled to retire with heavy loss. One of their vessels was abandoned.
The Bri-tish soon after sailed for New York, to join the troops that were as-
sembling in that neighborhood.

On the same day that Fort Moul-trie was attacked, General Howe
landed on Sta-ten Is-land from Hal-i-fax with the Bos-ton army and other
re-enforcements. Admiral Lord Howe, the brother of the general, arrived
from Eng-land shortly after-with more troops, raising the number to 30,000
men. A large part of these were Hes-sians, hired by the Eng-lish from the
Duke of Hes-se-Cas-sel in Ger-ma-ny. Wash-ing-ton in the meantime was not
idle, having fortified Man-hat-tan Is-land at several points. Defenses were
also thrown up on a range of hills on Long Is-land, south of Brook-lyn, and
here was an entrenched camp, at first under General Greene, and afterward
under General Put-nam. The A-mer-i-can forces in and around New York
were about 25,000, but scarcely 17,000 were fit for duty on account of sickness.

The Bri-tish crossed over Sta-ten Is-land to Long Is-land, and, on the
morning of the 27th of Au-gust, advanced in three divisions. Two of these
occupied the attention of the A-mer-i-cans in front, while Clinton, with the
other, marched by a wide circuit and struck the A-mer-i-cans in the rear. For
a time the latter fought well; but, finding themselves nearly surrounded, they
retreated with great loss within the intrenchments at Brook-lyn.

Wash-ing-ton crossed over to Brook-lyn during the action, and saw,
with indescribable agony, the destruction of his “brave fellows.” The A-mer-i-
cans had suffered severely. They had lost 2,000 out of 5,000 men engaged.
Had the Bri-tish followed up their success, and attacked the intrenched camp,
the A-mer-i-cans must have been utterly destroyed; but Howe waited till the
following morning. Fortunately for the A-mer-i-cans, the next day, the 28th,
was one of drenching rain, and the enemy did nothing but break ground for a
battery. On the 29th a dense fog covered the island, but news reached Wash-
ing-ton that the Bri-tish ships were preparing to move up into the East River
and thus cut off his retreat.

In this state of affairs, with the enemy so near his works that he could

hear them in their camp, he accomplished one of the most brilliant operations
9
132 | HARD TIMES.

of the war. On the 29th he collected what boats he could find on the East
and North Rivers, and during the night moved his whole army across to
New York. During all this time a heavy fog prevailed on Long Is-land, con-
cealing the movements of the A-mer-i-cans from the Bri-tish, while, at the

same time, the weather was quite clear on the New York side. Howe was
greatly chagrined to find that his enemy had escaped from Brook-lyn, and


















































































































































































































Ge Sa

A] ‘eal HEN

BATTLE OF HARLEM HEIGHTS.

secretly made preparations, with the assistance.of his ships, to surround Wash:
ing-ton in New York. ;

The A-mer-i-can officers, in a council of war, held Sep-tem-ber 12,
decided that the city could not be held, and the main body of the army was
withdrawn on the 14th to the northern part of the island, the most southern
point of defense being on Har-lem Heights. Wash-ing-ton was anxious to
learn what were the designs of the Bri-tish, and Na-than Hale, a young cap-
fain in a Con-nec-ti-cut regiment volunteered to ascertain them. He ac-
HARD TIMES. (33

cordingly crossed over to Long Is-land, and, having obtained the necessary
information, was on his way back, when he was arrested on suspicion and
taken to Howe's headquarters, now, Sep-tem-ber 21st, on New York Is-land.
Without even the form of a trial, he was next morning hanged as a spy,
Sep-tem-ber 22. He met his death with great firmness, regretting that he
had only one life to lose for his country.

On the 15th of Sep-tem-ber, the Bri-tish crossed in force from Long
Is-land, and landed, with trifling opposition, about three miles above the city.
They presently occupied a line stretching across New York Is-land from
Bloom-ing-dale to the East River. On the 16th a severe skirmish took place,
in which the Con-nec-ti-cut troops behaved with great valor, and drove back
the enemy. In the affair Colonel Knowl-ton was killed. This success raised the
spirits of the troops, which had been much depressed since the battle of Long
Is-land. Howe now tried to get to the rear of the A-mer-i-can army. Leav-
ing his own lines in front well guarded, he landed the main body in East
Ches-ter, while the fleet went up the North River on the west side. Wash-
ing-ton saw Howe’s plan, and, having left 3,000 men to defend Fort Wash-
ing-ton, on the heights overlooking the Hud-son, fell back to the line of the
River Bronx, with his head-quarters at White Plains. Here he was attacked
on Oc-to-ber 28, and compelled to retire to the heights of North Cas-tle.

Howe was unwilling to follow him farther, and returned with the main
body of his army to Dobb’s Fer-ry, on the Hud-son. Wash-ing-ton left Lee
at North Cas-tle, and, after providing for the defense of the High-lands, crossed
the river at King’s Fer-ry with a portion of his army, and entered New Jer-sey,
where he joined General Greene at Fort Lee, November 13. While he was
here, 5,000 Hes-sians, under General Kny-phau-sen, assisted by some Eng-
lish troops, attacked Fort Wash-ing-ton, defended by Colonel Ma-gaw. The
place was taken by storm, No-vem-ber 16, with a loss to the assailants of
nearly 1,000 men, chiefly Hes-sians. Over 2,000 A-mer-i-cans were made
prisoners.

Four days after, No-vem-ber 20, Lord Corn-wal-lis was sent across the
Hud-son into New Jer-sey, at the head of 6,000 men to follow Wash-ing-ton.
On his approach, Fort Lee was abandoned by the A-mer-i-cans, together with
all the baggage and military stores. Wash-ing-ton retreated across New Jer-sey
at a rapid rate, followed so closely by Corn-wal-lis that the vanguard of the
jatter was often within cannon-shot of the A-mer-i-cans,



























HARD TIMES, 185

The condition of the latter at this time was very distressing. Many
of the militia went quietly to their homes. Those that remained were wretched-
ly clothed, ill fed, and utterly worn out. On the 8th of De-cem-ber, with
scarcely 3,000 men, Wash-ing-ton crossed the Del-a-ware into Penn-syl-van-i-a
and Corn-wal-lis and his troops went into quarters on the New Jer-sey side
of the river. During this long and painful retreat, Wash-ing-ton sent repeated
and positive orders to Lee at North Cas-tle to cross the Hud-son and join him
with his troops. The latter hesitated, and moved so slowly to the support of
his commander that he was no farther than Mor-ris-town on the 8th of De-cem-
ber. On the 13th, while lying carelessly quartered apart from his troops, in
a small tavern at Bas-ken-ridge, he was surprised and made prisoner by a
- troop of Bri-tish cavalry. The command then devolved on General Sul-li-van,
who joined Wash-ing-ton a few days afterward.

The army was now considerably increased, and Wash-ing-ton deter-
mined to strike a sudden blow before the term of a large part of the troops
should expire. A body of 1,500 Hes-sians at Tren-ton was chosen as the object
of attack. On the night of De-cem-ber 25, Wash-ing-ton, with 2,400 of his best
men, crossed the Del-a-ware with great difficulty, nine miles above Tren-ton.
Two other divisions, crossing at different points, were to co-operate with
him, but were prevented by the floating ice. Amid a storm of rain and sleet,
Wash-ing-ton pushed on, and at eight o’clock in the morning fell suddenly
on the enemy. About thirty or forty Hes-sians were killed; about 500 escaped
to Bor-den-town; and the remainder, to the number of 1,000, threw down their
arms and surrendered. In the evening Wash-ing-ton re-entered Penn-syl-
va-ni-a with his prisoners.

The spirits of the people were raised to a very high pitch by this
successful movement, executed with so much energy and so little loss, at a
time, too, when their affairs seemed sunk to the lowest point. Several regi-
ments whose term of service was about to expire were persuaded to remain
six weeks longer, and Wash-ing-ton re-crossed the Del-a-ware on the 30th of
De-cem-ber and took post at Tren-ton. The Bri-tish, astonished and alarmed
at the activity of the A-mer-i-cans, broke up their scattered encampments on
the Del-a-ware, and assembled at Prince-ton; while, at the same time, Howe
ordered Corn-wal-lis, who was about to embark for Eng-land, to resume his
command in New Jer-sey.

CHAPTER XVIII.
CROSSING THE DELAWARE.

Wash-ing-ton, while encamped at Tren-ton, was informed that the Bri-
tish were assembling in the neighborhood of Prince-ton for a movement
toward the Del-a-ware. By his urgent order, Generals Mif-flin and Cad-wal-
la-der joined him on the ist of Jan-u-a-ry with 3,500 men. Toward sunset on
the 2nd, General Corn-wal-lis, with the van of the Bri-tish army, arrived at
Tren-ton, and made repeated attempts to pass the little stream that runs
_ through the town, but was often repulsed by the artillery of the A-mer-i-cans.
Corn-wal-lis therefore concluded to wait for his re-enforcements, and renew
the attack on the following day.

The situation of Wash-ing-ton was most critical. In front was an ap-
proaching army of 7,000 men; in the rear was the Del-a-ware, impassable by
reason of floating ice. From this position he determined to extricate his troops
by a bold and rapid maneuvre. During the night he sent his heavy baggage
down to Bur-ling-ton, and, leaving his camp-fires burning to deceive the
enemy, marched his little army by a round-about road toward the Bri-tish
post at Prince-ton. On the morning of the 3rd, his advance guard, under
General Mer-cer, met about 800 Bri-tish near that place on their way to join
Corn-wal-lis, and a sharp engagement followed. The A-mer-i-cans were at
first worsted; but Wash-ing-ton, coming up, routed the enemy with a loss of
100 killed and 300 prisoners. General Mer-cer was mortally wounded.

Corn-wal-lis, who heard the firing, came rapidly up from his camp at
Tren-ton; but he was too late to take part in the battle. Wash-ing-ton,
destroying the bridges behind him, fell back to the heights of Mor-ris-town,
while Corn-wal-lis, anxious for the safety of the stores at New Bruns-wick,
pushed swiftly to that point. Though Wash-ing-ton had but the shadow of
an army at Mor-ris-town during the winter, he displayed so much activity, and
so harassed the Bri-tish, that by the beginning of spring they had abandoned
every post in New Jer-sey except New Bruns-wick and Perth Am-boy.

137
without hindrance, and set fire to the town.

138 CROSSING THE DELAWARE.

Toward the end of A-pril, General Howe dispatched General Try-on,
ex-governor of New York, at the head of 2,000 men, to destroy a large quan-

tity of A-mer-i-can stores collected at Dan-bury, a small town in the western

part of Con-nec-ti-cut, 23 miles from the Sound. Try-on landed, A-pril 26,

between Fair-field and Nor-walk, marched to Dan-bury, destroyed the stores

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RECRUITING.

On his retreat, which commenced

before daylight on the 27th, and continued two days, he was attacked by the

militia, under the command of Generals Woos-ter and Sul-li-van, and also
Ben-e-dict Ar-nold, who volunteered as a leader. At length the Bri-tish were
able to reach their shipping with the loss of nearly 300 men. The A-mer-i-cans
CROSSING THE DELAWARE. 139

lost the brave General Woos-ter, a veteran in his sixty-eighth year. Ar-nold,
who had two horses shot under him, displayed so much daring gallantry that
he was made a major general by Con-gress.

The burning of Dan-bury was revenged by the Con-nec-ti-cut troops
in the following month. Colonel Meigs, with 120 men, in whale-boats, crossed
the Sound to the east end of Long Is-land on the 23rd of May, destroyed a
great quantity of stores and 12 vessels at Sag Har-bor, took go prisoners, and
returned in 25 hours without the loss of aman. An exploit still more daring,
and equally successful, was the capture of General Pres-cott, the commander
of the Bri-tish forces in Rhode Is-land, in the month of Ju-ly, by Colonel
Bar-ton and 40 men. In the silence of the night of the 1oth they crossed
Nar-ra-gan-sett Bay, passed by the Bri-tish guard ships unchallenged, landed,
and surprised Pres-cott at his own quarters in bed. Bar-ton then returned un-
molested with his prisoner to the main land. Wash-ing-ton had now in his
hands a general that could be exchanged for General Lee, captured very much
in the same way by the Bri-tish.

Through the efforts of the A-mer-i-can commissioners in France, there
arrived in 1776 and 1777 a large number of foreign military officers who offered
their services to Con-gress. Wash-ing-ton complained that they were so
numerous he did not know how to find employment for them; and he hinted
that their appointment by Con-gress to places of higher rank than those given
to faithful A-mer-i-can officers was producing very ill feeling in the army.
Several of these foreigners, who became afterward well known, were the
famous Kos-ci-us-ko and Count Pu-las-ki, two young Po-lish officers and
patriots; Con-way, an I-rish-man by birth, but 30 years in the French army, and
after entering the A-mer-i-can service, one of the most unprincipled of Wash-
ing-ton’s enemies; the young French Mar-quis de La-fay-ette, who purchased a
ship, and, in opposition to the wishes of the French government, came over
together with Bar-on de Kalb, and others. Later came Bar-on Steu-ben, a
Prus-sian general trained under Fred-er-ick the Great, who did great service
to the A-mer-i-can army in perfecting its discipline.

On the 12th of June, General Howe left New York and went to New
Bruns-wick. From that point he tried to.get to the rear of the A-mer-i-can
army and bring on a general engagement. Baffled in this, after several at-
tempts, he then, on the 30th of June, crossed over with his entire force to
Sta-ten Is-land, leaving no‘Bri-tish troops in New Jer-sey. At San-dy Hook
General Howe found his brother, Lord Howe, with his fleet. On board this

CROSSING THE DELAWARE. 141

he embarked 18,000 men, and sailed to the head of Ches-a-peake Bay, where
he landed his troops near Elk River, in Ma-ry-land, 60 miles south of Phil-a-
del-phi-a, Au-gust 25. Howe then advanced northward to the capital as far
as the Bran-dy-wine River.

Wash-ing-ton, who had not understood Howe’s object until he was well
on his way, by forced marches reached the Bran-dy-wine before the arrival of
the Bri-tish, and at Chad’s Ford was prepared to resist their crossing, Sep-
tem-ber 11. General Kny-phau-sen, at the head of the Hes-sians, was ordered
to make a feint as if he were about to try the ford. Meanwhile Corn-wal-lis.
with a large portion of the army, crossed higher up, and, falling ca Wash-
ing-ton’s flank, compelled him to retreat with the loss of 1,200 men. For his
bravery in this battle, Count Pu-las-ki was made a brigadier general. To com-
plete the disaster at the Bran-dy-wine, General Wayne, a few days after, while
watching the Bri-tish, was himself so suddenly surprised near Pa-o-li Ta-vern
that he lost 300 men. The loss of the enemy was only seven.

As the Bri-tish continued to advance, Wash-ing-ton gave up hope of
saving Phil-a-del-phi-a, and fell back to Potts-grove, on the Schuyl-kill. Con-
gress left the city, and, after a few days, assembled at York, Penn-syl-va-ni-a.
Howe entered Phil-a-del-phi-a Sep-tem-ber 26, and stationed the bulk of his

army in camp at Ger-man-town, at that time a small village about ten miles
distant. Wash-ing-ton, having received re-enforcements, on learning that two
detachments of Bri-tish had been sent away, left his camp on the Schuyl-kill, 14
miles above, marched all night, and at sunrise, Oc-to-ber 4, fell suddenly on
the Bri-tish at Ger-man-town. The enemy were taken by surprise, and at
first driven in disorder. Victory seemed within the grasp of Wash-ing-
ton; but, in the fog of the morning, the A-mer-i-can lines became broken and
separated by the stone fences that lay near the village. A portion of the Bri-
tish made a stand in a stone house; the rest of the army recovered from its
surprise, and in turn drove the A-mer-i-cans back, with the loss of 1,000 men.

Howe was in possession of Phil-a-del-phi-a, but the A-mer-i-cans still
held command of the Del-a-ware, principally by means of Fort Mif-flin on
Mud Is-land, and Fort Mer-cer at Red Bank, opposite; there were also ob-
structions placed in the channel of the river. These effectually prevented the
Bri-tish ships from bringing supplies to Phil-a-del-phi-a. On Oc-to-ber 22,
Count Do-nop, with 1,200 picked Hes-sians, attacked the fort at Red Bank,
held by Colonel Greene, while the Bri-tish ships opened fire on Fort Mif-flin.
Do-nop's attack was repulsed, and he himself killed, together with nearly 400
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Esc.
CROSSING THE DELAWARE. 148

of his men. Two Bri-tish ships were destroyed, and the rest retired, badly
injured by the fire of the A-mer-i-can guns.

The Bri-tish, soon after this repulse, erected batteries on a small island
in the river, and on No-vem-ber 10th opened a severe cannonade on Fort
Mif-flin. The bombardment, in which the fleet joined, continued until the
close of the 15th, when the works were nearly demolished; the garrison was
‘withdrawn during the following night. Two days after, the fort at Red Bank
was abandoned, and thus the river was open to the Bri-tish. Wash-ing-ton
established his winter quarters at Val-ley Forge, on the Schuyl-kill, 20 miles
from Phil-a-del-phi-a, while Howe kept his army within a strongly fortified
line extending from the Del-a-ware to the Schuyl-kill.

In the meantime General Bur-goyne had surrendered after making an
attempt to invade the country by way of Canada. This news was received with
great joy throughout the country, and many who before had sympathized with
the Eng-lish government, now saw that victory was possible. Consequently
many volunteers joined the A-mer-i-can army. -

BNE
IT


SIR ROBERT PEEL
' CHAPTER XIX.
VALLEY FORGE.

The A-mer-i-can army, in their huts at Val-ley Forge, spent a very
wretched winter amid the snow, many of them being without shoes, half clad,
and all of them suffering from want of provisions. The officers, as well as the
men, were without pay, and Con-gress had no means of paying them. The
distress of the army was so great that Wash-ing-ton was authorized to seize
provisions wherever he could, and give bills on Con-gress for the amount.
This was a harsh, though necessary measure; but it, in some degree, improved
the condition of the army. This period is considered‘ the gloomiest in the
war.

During the winter occurred the famous plot, known as the Con-way
Ca-bal. After the surrender of Bur-goyne, the reputation of Gates rose very
high. While this was at its height, a few officers of the army, headed by Gen-
erals Con-way and Mif-flin, to whom were joined some members of Con-gress,
formeda plan to destroy the military reputation of Wash-ing-ton by charging
him with want of energy and success. In this way they thought to compel
him to resign, and then to elevate Gates to the command of the army. The
plotting was very active and malignant while it continued, but Wash-ing-ton
lield too firm a place in the confidence of the people and the army to be easil:
shaken from it. The country was aroused; his enemies were baffled, and hx
popularity rose to a greater height than ever before.

The spring of 1778 opened with a more chcerial state of things in the
army and in Con-gress. The news of Bur-goyne’s surrender had produced
widely different feelings in France and Eng-land. The French court still re-
membered with bitterness the loss of its A-mer-i-can colonies a few years
before, and now saw with joy that Eng-land was likely to suffer in the same
way. By the Eng-lish government the news was received with astonishment
and alarm, which were increased by the knowledge that France was disposed
to assist the colonies. The Eng-lish ministry, therefore, felt the necessity of

: 145


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- ' VALLEY FORGE. 147

offering terms to the A-mer-i-cans; and, accordingly, in Jan-u-a-ry, 1778, two
~ bills were passed in Par-li-a-ment, one, renouncing all intention to levy taxes in
A-mer-i-ca; the other, appointing five commissioners, with full powers to treat
with the colonists for the restoration of the Eng-lish authority.

Fortunately, soon after the news of the offer of these. propositions in
Par-li-a-ment reached A-mer-i-ca in A-pril, there arrived, in a French frigate,
the intelligence that, in the month of Feb-ru-a-ry, France had agreed with the
A-mer-i-can commissioners on two treaties with the U-nit-ed States; one, of
friendship and commerce; and the other, of defensive alliance in case Great
Bri-tain should declare war against France. No peace was to be made without
mutual consent, and not until the independence of the U-nit-ed States had
Leen acknowledged by Eng-land. These treaties, speedily ratified by Con-
gress, strengthened the confidence of the A-mer-i-can patriots; and when the
Eng-lish commissioners arrived in June, Con-gress declined to treat with them
unless the independence of the colonies was first recognized, and the fleets and
armies of Eng-land were withdrawn.

In this determination Con-gress was still farther strengthened by
what was occurring at Phil-a-del-phi-a. Sir Hen-ry Clin-ton, on the 11th of
May, took command there in place of General Howe, who was recalled.
Orders were also received from Eng-land to withdraw the troops from Phil-a-
del-phi-a, and the Bri-tish fleet from the Del-a-ware, as a large French fleet for
the assistance of the A-mer-i-cans, might be expected on the coast at an early
moment.

Clin-ton, soon after his arrival, made active preparations for the evacua-
tion of the city, and, on the 18th of Juné, with his army of about 12,000 men,
he left Phil-a-del-phi-a, crossed the Del-a-ware, and commenced his march
through New Jer-sey to New York. Admiral Howe had already sailed with
his fleet from the Del-a-ware, and anchored inside of San-dy Hook, ready for
the arrival of Clin-ton. Wash-ing-ton, informed of Clin-ton’s movements,
crossed the Del-a-ware in pursuit on the 24th of June. Lee, who had been ex-
changed for General Pres-cott, was second in command. The progress of the
Bri-tish was hindered by the great quantity of baggage, and by the intense
heat of the weather. Wash-ing-ton,who moved more rapidly,came up with
Clin-ton, near Mon-mouth Court-house,; on the 27th of June, and determined
to give him battle.

On the 28th of June, Lee, with the advance body, moved forward to
the attack; but the enemy were in greater force than was supposed, and Lee

10


THE WASHINGTON ELM,
,

VALLEY FORGE. 149

fell back, in some disorder, to higher ground. Wash-ing-ton came up with
the main body, and prevented serious disaster ; and the day closed, after severe
fighting, without any positive advantage on either side. Wash-ing-ton in-
tended to resume the battle in the morning, but before sunrise Clin-ton’s army
was far on its way toward the High-lands of Nave-sink. The A-mer-i-cans
were so worn out with rapid marching, and the fatigue and intense heat of the
previous day, that it was decided to abandon the pursuit; and, after a day’s rest,
they went to New Bruns-wick, where they encamped. Arriving at San-dy
Hook, the Bri-tish were met by Lord Howe’s fleet, and were conveyed to
New York. Clin-ton’s retreat had cost him, in killed, wounded, and by deser-
tions, more than 2,000 men.

When Lee was falling back at the battle of Mon-mouth, Wash-ing-ton
rode up in great haste, and, being deeply irritated at what he saw, addressed
Lee in angry terms. The latter was greatly offended at Wash-ing-ton’s public
rebuke, and, after the battle, addressed two haughty and offensive letters to
his general, in which he demanded a speedy trial. Wash-ing-ton at once or-
dered him to be arrested and tried by court-martial for disobedience of orders;
for having made an unnecessary, shameful and disorderly retreat; and for
disrespect to his commander in the letters he had written. He was acquitted
of the most serious pert of the charges, but was sentenced to be suspended from
his command for one year.

He thereupon retired to his estate in Vir-gin-i-a, in the Shen-an-do-ah
Val-ley. , Shortly after the expiration of the period of his sentence, he ad-
‘dressed a hasty and insolent letter to Con-gress; and for this his name was
promptly ordered to be struck from the rolls of the army. Brave, able, and a
well-educated soldier, Lee’s chief faults seem to have been an excessive
opinion of his own abilities, and a too great readiness to criticize the military
conduct of Wash-ing-ton. But there is no evidence that he ever joined the
cabal of Gates, Con-way, and others, to ruin the commander-in-chief. The
French fleet, under D’Es-taing, with 4,000 troops on board, arrived too late to
find Admiral Howe in the Del-a-ware. The latter was safe in Rar-i-tan Bay, ,
where the heavy French ships could not reach him. A combined movement
against the Bri-tish army in Rhode Island, under General Pi-got, was ar-
ranged, in which the A-mer-i-can troops, under General Sul-li-van, were to be
assisted by the French fleet and army.

On the 29th of Ju-ly, D’Es-taing’s fleet arrived in Nar-ra-gan-sett Bay.
On the 8th of Au-gust it entered the harbor, and passed the Bri-tish batteries
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INAVJGURATION OF WASHINGTON.
-VALLEY FORGE 151

with little injury. This delay of a week was caused by the non-arrival of the
A-mer-i-can troops; but it proved fatal to the enterprise, because it gave the
brave and active Lord Howe time to arrive off the harbor of N ew-port, on the
gth, to the assistance of General Pi-got. D’Es-taing promptly sailed out on
the 1oth to give Lord Howe battle. Before the ships could engage, a terrible
storm scattered and disabled both fleets. Howe made his way back to New
York, and D’Es-taing’s fleet returned to the bay in a forlorn condition, but
soon sailed to Bos-ton to refit.

Sul-li-van, in command of the. A-mer-i-can forces, to the number of
10,000 men, performed his part of the plan by advancing toward the Bri-tish
lines at New-port. Here he waited for the co-operation of the French fleet and
army that were to unite with him in an attack on the Bri-tish works. When
D’Es-taing got back to New-port, he informed Sul-li-van that he was about
to sail to Bos-ton to repair damages. Sul-li-van remonstrated, and asked him
to remain two or three days, before the end of which time the place must fall;
but D’Es-taing remained firm to his purpose. Still again Sul-li-van asked that
the French troops might be left. This also was refused.

Thus left to his own recources, Sul-l%van was compelled to fall back
to the north end of the island, pursued by the Bri-tish. On the 29th, an ob-
stinate engagement was fought at Qua-ker Hill, but the advantage remained
with the A-mer-i-cans. Meanwhile rumors had reached Sul-li-van that as-
sistance to Pi-got was on the way from New York. There was no time for
delay. On the night of the 3oth, the A-mer-i-can army, with great skill and
without loss, was transported to the mainland. It was not too soon. Next
day Clin-ton arrived at New-port, in a light squadron, with a re-enforcement
of 4,000 men.

Clin-ton made use of the troops that had arrived a day too late in
sending them, under Major General Grey, to ravage the coasts to the eastward.
This was the same energetic but merciless officer that surprised General Wayne
at Pa-o-li Ta-vern, in Penn-syl-va-ni-a. Grey made terrible havoc among the
shipping on the coasts; laid waste New Bed-ford, Fair Ha-ven, and the island
of Mar-tha’s Vine-yard, and returned, with a great amount of plunder, to
New York. ;

The conduct had already been far surpassed in Penn-syl-va-ni-a. In
the beginning of Ju-ly, about 1,100 tories and In-di-ans, under Colonel John
But-ler and the In-di-an chief Brandt, entered the Val-ley of Wy-om-ing, on
the Sus-que-han-na. After defeating an armed body of settlers, they laid waste
152 VALLEY FORGE.

the fields, burned the houses, and murdered the inhabitants under circum-
stances of great cruelty. Nearly the same dreadful atrocities were perpetrated
at Cher-ry Val-ley in No-vem-ber following. The country for miles around
was a scene of murder and bloodshed.
Toward the end of the year, Clin-ton sent an expedition to Geor-gia,
under Colonel Camp-bell, to attack Sa-van-nah. This was fortified and held
by a garrison of about 1,000 men, under General Rob-ert Howe. After severe
fighting, the Bri-tish took possession of the city on the 29th of De-cem-ber.





























OLD BEACON HILL, BOSTON

During the winter the French fleet was in the West In-dies, whither Admiral
Howe had followed it.

The war had now lasted four years, and the Bri-tish, after tremendous
exertions, held, in the North, only New York Is-land and Nar-ra-gan-sett Bay.
In the South they had only gained a foothold in Geor-gia; while, on the other
hand, the A-mer-i-cans had become more formidable than ever by means of
the French alliance. Yet the A-mer-i-can cause -was still laboring under great
VALLEY FORGE 153

difficulties. Con-gress had very little specie, and had issued so much paper
money that it had become nearly worthless. Everything must have gone to
ruin had it not been for the exertions of Rob-ert Mor-ris, a member of Con-
gress from Phil-a-del-phi-a; in which city he was a leading merchant. He
borrowed large sums of money on his own credit, and lent them to the govern-
ment. This he continued to do until the the close of the war. Notwithstand-
ing all this, the army were still heavy sufferers from want, not only of their pay,
but of the necessaries of life.



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CHAPTER XX.
TREASON.

At the close of the year 1779 Clin-ton sailed south, with the main body
of his army, in the fleet of Admiral Ar-buth-not, leaving General K-ny-phau-
sen in command at New York. In the month of Feb-ru-a-ry, 1780, the Bri-
tish landed at St. John’s Is-land, 30 miles below Charles-ton; and, while Clin-
ton moved by land to the banks of the Ash-ley, opposite the city, the fleet
sailed around to enter Charles-ton Har-bor. The approach of the Bri-tish was
so slow and cautious that Lin-coln, the A-mer-i-can general at Charles-ton,
had time to strengthen his works, and to add to his garrison of regulars a num-
ber of militia from the surrounding country. It was not until A-pril that the
Bri-tish fleet, with little damage, passed the fire of Fort Moul-trie, on Sul-li-
van’s Is-land, and took a position off the city. A few days before, Clin-ton
had thrown up works, and commenced preparations for a regular siege.

At different points, some miles north of the city, there were stationed
bodies of A-mer-i-can militia to keep open the communications with the coun-
try. Against these posts active Bri-tish officers were sent soon after the siege
began. On the night of A-pril 14, Colonel Tar-le-ton fell suddenly on a body
of 1,400 A-mer-i-can cavalry, under General Hu-ger at Monk’s Corner, 30
miles north of Charles-ton, and defeated them with severe loss, capturing a
great quantity of military stores. Other A-mer-i-ican posts were also taken.

Clin-ton pressed the siege of Charles-ton with vigor, and Lin-coln’s sit-
uation became every day more and more distressing. His works were de-
stroyed by the enemy’s cannon, which approached very close; his communica-
tions with the country were cut off; and, seeing no hope of relief, he sur-
rendered the city and the garrison on the 12th of May. The prisoners, in-
cluding every male adult in the city, amounted to about 6,000.

After the surrender, Clin-ton sent off three expeditions to overrun and
subjugate South Car-o-li-na. One of these, commanded by Tar-le-ton, overtook
at Wax-haw Creek, May 29,.a regiment of Vir-gin-i-a troops, under Colonel
Bu-ford, which had retreated into North Car-o-li-na after the fall of Charles-

155
156 TREASON.

ton, and put nearly all of them to the sword. The other expeditions met with
no resistance. South Car-o-li-na was brought so completely under Bri-tish
rule, that Clin-ton set sail in the early part of June for New York, leaving,
Corn-wal-lis to secure its conquest. The Car-o-li-nas abounded in tories, who
now joined the Bri-tish forces in large numbers. On the other hand, there
were bands of A-mer-i-can patriots in those states, called partisan corps, who

were very active under such leaders as Ma-ri-on, Sum-ter and Pick-ens. At



A DISTRICT SCHOOL.

Hang-ing Rock, east of the Wa-te-ree River, Sum-ter defeated a large body
of regulars and tories, Au-gust 6th.

; To make a rallying point for the formation of a regular army, Wash.
ing-ton sent Baron De Kalb, with two regiments, to the South; and Con-
gress dispatched General Gates, the conqueror of Bur-goyne, to take command
of operations in the Car-o-li-nas. In a short time Gates was able to draw a
considerable force around him. With this he unexpectedly met the Bri-tish,
TREASON. 157

- under Corn-wal-lis, at San-der’s Creek, near Cam-den, Au-gust 16. The battle
was short and violent. At the first charge of the Bri-tish the A-mer-i-can mi-
litia fled; but the regulars under De Kalb, stood firm, although attacked in
front and flank. De Kalb-at last fell mortally wounded; and then the battle
became a disorderly retreat, the pursuit by the Bri-tish continuing for nearly
30 miles. The A-mer-i-can army was completely dispersed. Two or three
days after, Gates and a few of his officers rested at a point 80 miles distant from
the field of Cam-den.

To sum the disasters to the A-mer-i-can cause, Tar-le-ton meanwhile
had surprised Sum-ter on the 18th of Au-gist at Fish-ing Creek, on the west
bank of the Ca-taw-ba, and nearly destroyed his whole partisan: corps. All
united resistance to the Bri-tish in South Car-o-li-na was for a time at an end.
Gates, after several attempts, was unable to draw together more than 1,000
men; and Con-eress, dissatisfied with his management, removed him from the
command. On Wash-ing-ton’s recommendation, General Na-than-i-el Greene
was appointed in the place of Gates. Corn-wal-lis used his power with great
severity. He hanged some of the patriots and imprisoned great numbers.
This roused a feeling of vengeance among the people, and started partisan
warfare into new life. Ma-ri-on came from among the swamps, whither he
had retired, and Sum-ter raised a fresh band. \

In Sep-tem-ber Corn-wal-lis marched his main body into North Car-o-
li-na as far as Char-lotte, and dispatched Major Fer-gu-son to rally the tories
in the interior among the mountains. On his route Fer-gu-son was attacked
in camp at King’s Mour-tain, Oc-to-ber 7, by a large body of backwoods rifle-
men, under Colonel Campbell, and himself, with some 150, was killed; the re-
mainder were taken prisoners. The tories in Fer-gu-son’s band had been
guilty of great cruelties, and had deeply exasperated the inhabitants. After
the battle, the North Car-o-li-na backwoodsmen hanged a number of the tory
prisoners on the spot. Corn-wal-lis, when he heard the news of Fer-gu-son’s
defeat, fell back into South Car-o-li-na, between the Broad and Sa-lu-da
Rivers. Here he remained until the close of the year,

The suffering in the A-mer-i-can camp at Mor-ris-town continued to in-
crease as spring opened. In May there was absolute famine among the troops.
To such a point of desperation were the soldiers driven, that two regiments of
the Con-nec-ti-cut line avowed their purpose to march home or gain subsis-
tence at the point of the bayonet. It required all the influence of Wash-


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PEACEFUL DAYS.
TREASON, 159

ing-ton to restore order, and to obtain supplies of food for the soldiers. So
serious was the danger that Con-gress authorized him to declare martial law.

While Clin-ton was in the South, K-ny-phau-sen, hearing of the state
of things in the A-mer-i-can camp, determined to strike a blow. On the 6th
of June he landed with 5,000 men at E-liz-a-beth-town, and advanced toward
Spring-field. He experienced serious resistance; and, after burning the village
of Con-nec-ti-cut Farms, returned to E-liz-a-beth Town. Clinton arrived
with the fleet and part of the army from the South on June 7. K-ny-phau-sen
again moved forward toward Spring-field, and on the 23rd, attacked the
A-mer-i-cans, under General Greene, who, after a sharp fight, fell back in good
order to the heights. The Bri-tish, checked by Greene’s spirited resistance,
after burning Spring-field, marched back to E-liz-a-beth-town.

La-fay-ette, who had spent the winter in France, was successful in per-
suading the French court to send a new fleet and army to the help of the
A-mer-i-cans, and brought over the good news in A-pril. Accordingly, in
Ju-ly, the fleet, under Admiral De Tier-nay, arrived at New-port with an army
of nearly 7,000 men, under the command of Count De Ro-cham-beau. Great
expectations were formed from this assistance; but, unfortunately, the Bri-tish
fleet on the A-mer-i-can coast was heavily re-enforced. This prevented the
French ships from leaving Nar-ra-gan-sett Bay, and for a time banished the
hope of any combined operations with the fleet and army, that Wash-ing-ton
and the nation had deeply at heart.

At the very time that Wash-ing-ton was absent at Hart-ford, Con-
nec-ti-cut, consulting with De Tier-nay and De Ro-cham-beau on the best plan
to render useful the French fleet and army, treason was plotting to put into
the hands of the Bri-tish West Point, the strongest fortress in the country.
The traitor was Ben-e-dict Arn-old. The wounds he received before Que-bec
and at Sar-a-to-ga had rendered him unfit for active duty in the field, and
through the influence of Wash-ing-ton he was placed in military command of
Phil-a-del-phi-a after its evacuation by Clin-ton in 1778. Here he lived ex-
pensively and far beyond his means; Or, as was asserted, far from what befitted
a republican general. ; ,

In his command he was somewhat overbearing, and quarreled with the
Penn-syl-va-ni-a authorities, who made complaints to Con-gress against him
for abuse of his high position by embezzling or misusing public property. On
this charge he was tried, and sentenced to be reprimanded by Wash-ing-ton,
who, notwithstanding all this, still retained the highest confidence in his




« THE SURRENDER.”
TREASON. ott

personal honor and bravery. Ar-nold’s pride was, however, greatly wounded
by the sentence. In Au-gust, 1780, after earnest solicitation, he obtained from
-Wash-ing-ton the command of West Point, and at once entered into a cor-
respondence with Clin-ton at New York with reference to the surrender of that
important place to the Brit-ish. The person who conducted the correspondence
with Ar-nold on the part of Clin-ton was Major An-dre, under the assumed
name of John An-der-son.

When the affair had been sufficiently understood by letter, An-dre went
up the Hud-son in the sloop of war Vul-ture, and was met near Ha-ver-straw
on the west bank by Ar-nold, Sep-tem-ber 22. Here all the arrangements for
the surrender were completed. Meanwhile, the Vul-ture, commanded by the
A-mer-i-cans, had dropped lower down the river, and An-dre, with a pass from
Ar-nold under his assumed name, was compelled to return by land on the east
side. When he had ridden as far as Tar-ry-town, at a turn of the road his
horse’s reins were suddenly seized by one of three militiamen, and, being for
the moment surprised, he did not at first use his pass. He was searched, and
the plans of West Point were found concealed in his boots. He then offered
his purse, his watch—any reward, indeed, that they might demand, if they
would let him pass, but they refused. They took him to the nearest A-mer-i-
can post, and the commander thoughtlessly permitted An-dre to write to Ar-
nold telling him that An-der-son was taken. Immediately on receipt of this
letter, Ar-nold escaped in his own barge down the river, and was taken on
board the Vul-ture.

An-dre was tried by court-martial as a spy. When before the court,
he stated his connection with the, whole affair with the utmost frankness. On
these statements he was condemned to death, and was hung at Tap-pan, near
the Hud-son Oc-to-ber 2, 1780. Con-gress voted each of the militiamen,
—Pauld-ing, Van Wart and Williams, a pension of 200 dollars a year for life,
and a silver medal. Ar-nold received for his treachery the appointment of
brigadier general of the Bri-tish army, and £10,000 sterling; but his conduct
was detested by the great bulk of the Bri-tish officers nearly as much as by the
A-mer-i-can patriots. The A-mer-i-can cause had made a narrow and most
fortunate escape from disaster. The loss of West Point would have proved an
almost irreparable injury to the country. It would have given the Bri-tish
the command of the Hud-son, thereby separating the Mid-dle States from the
East-ern, and for a time would have completely disarranged all the plans of
Wash-ing-ton,


CAPTURE OF ANDRE.
CHAPTER XXI.
VICTORY AT LAST.

A large part of the A-mer-i-can army spent the winter of 1780-81 at
Mor-ris-town, under General Wayne. They were better provided with food
than in the previous winter, but they still suffered much from the want of pay
and clothing. The troops from Penn-syl-va-ni-a had an additional grievance.
Many of them had enlisted to serve for three years or the war. The three years
had ended, and their discharge was refused on the ground that by the war was
meant a longer time than three years, should fighting continue; whereas the
men contended that it meant a shorter time than three years, if the war ended
before that time.

On the ist of Jan-u-a-ry, the Penn-syl-va-ni-a line, to the number of
1,300, under arms, left the camp at Mor-ris-town and commenced their march
to Phil-a-del-phi-a, to demand redress from Con-gress. General Wayne inter-
posed, but they threatened to bayonet him if he used force, In an attempt on
the part: of the officers to repress the mutiny, several were wounded and a
captain was killed. They halted at Prince-ton, where Bri-tish agents from
Clin-ton met them with inducements to join the Bri-tish service. The Penn-
syl-va-ni-ans showed their patriotism by seizing these men and delivering them
up to General Wayne as spies. ‘

Con-gress was alarmed, and a committee of that body, and another
from the Penn-syl-va-ni-a Assembly, proceeded to meet the troops. An agree-
ment was entered into discharging those who had served three years, and
making provision for back pay and clothing. These concessions on the part of
Con-gress produced an injurious effect on the rest of the army. The troops
at Pomp-ton, New Jer-sey, mutinied on the 20th of Jan-u-a-ry, but Wash-ing-
ton sent a detachment from West Point which quickly reduced the mutineers to
obedience. Such disturbances showed plainly that extraordinary exertions were
demanded to relieve the sufferings of the troops, otherwise the cause would be
lost. Con-gress acted with vigor. Direct taxation was resorted to; money

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VICTORY AT LAST. 165

was obtained from Europe; a national bank was established ; and full power
was placed in the hands of Rob-ert Mor-ris to adopt what measures he deemed
best to restore the well nigh ruined finances of the country. These exertions
were partly successful.

In the beginning of Jan-u-a-ry, the traitor Ar-nold, now in the service ut
the Bri-tish, at the head of 1,500 men, principally tories, ascended the James
River, plundered the plantations, and burned many public and private buildings
in Rich-mond. Governor Thom-as Jef-fer-son called out the militia, and
Ar-nold fell back to Ports-mouth. A plan was laid by Wash-ing-ton for his
capture at this place. La-fay-ette was ordered to move with 1,200 men by land,
and the French fleet, sailing from New-port, was to prevent the escape of Ar-
nold from E-liz-a-beth River. The plan failed. Admiral Ar-buth-not, with
a Bri-tish fleet, followed, and defeated the French off the entrance to the
Ches-a-peake, compelling them to return to New-port. General Phil-lips pres-
ently arrived from New York with 2,000 Bri-tish troops, threw up works at
Ports-mouth, and assumed command. Ar-nold then returned to New York,
while Phil-lips proceeded to ravage the country.

Early in Jan-u-a-ry, Corn-wal-lis set his troops in motion toward North
Car-o-li-na. Tar-le-ton was dispatched with a cavalry force to get between
Greene and Mor-gan, who commanded a part of the A-mer-i-can army, and
came up with the latter at the Cow-pens, Jan-u-a-ry 17. Tar-le-ton, dashing
forward impetuously, as was his custom, at first swept everything before him;
but Mor-gan turned suddenly on the Bri-tish when they were disarranged in
pursuit, and defeated them with great loss. Corn-wal-lis, when he heard of this,
moved with great speed to cut off Mor-gan’s retreat into Vir-gin-i-a, but
reached the Ca-taw-ba River a few hours after the latter had érossed. Corn-
wal-lis waited until morning, and in the night the river became swollen with the
rain, and prevented his crossing for several days.

Determined on pursuit, he burned all his heavy baggage, and spared
nothing but what was absolutely necessary. Mor-gan pushed on the Yad-kin
River, and was there joined by General Greene, who took command and
crossed. Corn-wal-lis reached the western bank just in time to see Greene’s
troops marching away from the other side. Here again the rain raised the
water so high as to prevent the immediate crossing of the Bri-tish. The retreat
and pursuit was continued from the Yad-kin to the River Dan. Both armies
made the most unsparing exertions. The track of the A-mer-i-cans was marked




“BURN-ING OF THE GAS-PEE,”
VICTORY AT LAST, 167

by blood from their shoeless feet, but they were able to reach and cross the
Dan a few hours before Corn-wal-lis arrived. The Bri-tish general, dis-
heartened at his ill success, gave up the pursuit, and slowly made his way
back into North Car-o-li-na. Greene received great honor for his skillful
retreat.

Being re-enforced, he in a short time resumed the offensive, and advanced
into the Car-o-li-nas to watch Corn-wal-lis. On the 15th of March he made a
stand at Guil-ford Court-house, where he was attacked by Corn-wal-lis, and
driven back several miles. His defeat was nearly equal to a victory, for the
Bri-tish loss in the battle was so very heavy that they were compelled to fall
back to Wil-ming-tor, near the sea-coast. Greene then turned his attention
to the Bri-tish forces in South Car-o-li-na, under the command of Lord Raw-
don, at Cam-den, and encamped at Hob-kirk’s Hill, about a mile from the
Bri-tish camp. Here, on the 2 5th of A-pril, he was surprised and defeated. The
loss on both sides was nearly equal, and Greene was able to retire in good
order. The victory was of no value to Lord Raw-don ; for, being unable to
bring on another general engagement with Greene, and becoming anxious for
the safety of the posts between Cam-den and the coast, he retreated first to
_ Nel-son’s Fer-ry, on the San-tee, and then to Monk’s Cor-ner.

So active, meanwhile, were the A-mer-i-can partisan officers, Ma-ri-on,
Lee, and Pick-ens, that, by the month of June, 1781, only three important
strong-holds were held by the Bri-tish in South Car-o-li-na—Charles-ton,
Nel-son’s Fer-ry, and Fort Nine-ty-six, near the Sa-lu-da. In Geor-gia, Au-
gus-ta was surrendered on the 5th of June to Lee and Pick-ens, after a close
siege of seven days. Greene himself marched against Nine-ty-six, defended by
" Car-o-li-na loyalists; and Raw-don, on learning this, moved rapidly to their
relief. Greene received notice of his approach, and concluded to assault the
fort before he arrived, but was reptused, June 18th, with severe loss, and
abandoned the siege.

After the beginning of Ju-ly, the active movements of the two armies
were suspended for a time on account of the intense heat of the sultry season.
The partisan corps of tories and patriots still kept the field, rifling houses, killing
each other, and sometimes not sparing women and children. The unavoid=
able horrors of war were thus greatly increased; and the desire for vengeance
was rendered still more blood-thirsty by the execution of Colonel Hayne, a

distinguished citizen of Charles-ton.
































































































THE SPIRIT OF '%6,
VICTORY AT LAST. 169

When the city was surrendered, he had given his parole of honor that
he would not serve in the A-mer-i-can ranks. The Bri-tish commander,
greatly in need of re-enforcements, demanded his services in the army. Hayne
refused, alleging that this demand was not within the meaning of the parole.
He then headed a partisan corps, and was taken in arms and hanged, Au-gust
4, in spite of the earnest entreaties of his fellow-townsmen. In retaliation,
Greene felt compelled to execute as deserters all those prisoners who had
formerly served in his own army; and it was not always possible to prevent
the A-mer-i-can partisan troops from shooting the Bri-tish officers who fell
into their hands.

Raw-don went to Eng-land, and left the command of the troops to
Colonel Stew-art. Greene, now re-enforced, and having been joined by Ma-
ri-on and Pick-ens, marched with 2,500 men against him, and compelled him
to fall back to Eu-taw Springs. Here he was attacked by Greene on the 8th of
Sep-tem-ber; and, after severe fighting, Stew-art’s left wing was driven in
every direction. Unfortunately, the A-mer-i-can troops stopped to plunder the
Bri-tish camp; this gave the enemy time to recover from their confusion and
make a stand. Greene then drew off his troops, and left the field to the Bri-tish;
but the latter were unable to improve this advantage, because they had lost
nearly one-third of their force, and during the following night they retreated
in great haste.

Greene, after following them as far as Monk’s Cor-ner, returned with
his barefooted and half naked troops to the high hills of San-tee. The result of
the campaign in the Car-o-li-nas gave great satisfaction to Wash-ing-ton and
_ to Con-gress. With limited means, and under the most trying difficulties,
General Greene had repeatedly fought the enemy; and, although he never
gained a decisive victory, yet, even when defeated, he obtained, to a con-
siderable extent, the object for which he fought. In the end, he was able to
wrest South Car-o-li-na from the Bri-tish, and restore that state to the A-mer-
i-can Un-ion.

On the 2oth of A-pril Corn-wal-lis left Wil-ming-ton, and on the 2oth of
May arrived, with scarce any resistance, at Pe-ters-burg, Vir-gin-i-a. At this
point he was joined by Phil-ips and his troops, who had just been plundering
on the James River. Clin-ton, afraid that the combined French and A-mer-
i-can forces were about to attack New York, ordered Corn-wal-lis to move
near the coast, that the latter might the more easily help him if this attack
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LISTENING FOR THE GUNS,
VICTORY AT LAST. 171

should be made. Accordingly, Corn-wal-lis, in the month of Au-gust, chose
York-town and Glou-ces-ter Point, on opposite sides, at the mouth of York
River. Here he threw up fortifications, and occupied them with 8,000 men,
the main body of which was at York-town.

During the summer, Wash-i -ing-ton had been hoping, with the help of
the French fleet and army, now increased to 7,000 men, to make a combined
attack on New York; but he was unable to bring it about. Wash-ing-ton then
turned his attention to operations in Vir-gin-i-a, and persuaded Admiral De
Gras-se and General De:Ro-cham-beau to unite with him in an attack on Corn-
wal-lis. The plan was to block the Ches-a-peake with the fleet, and at the same -
time invest York-town with the army. Wash-ing-ton, who was in the neigh-
borhood of New York, moved with so much caution, and so completely
deceived Clin-ton as to his intentions, that, before the Bri-tish general under-
stood his plans, the army was well on its way to Vir-gin-i-a.

As soon as Clin-ton penetrated the designs of Wash-ing-ton, he saw
that it was useless to attempt to overtake him. Hoping to draw the latter
back for the defense of New Eng-land, he sent General Ar-nold, with a large
body of troops, to attack New Lon-don. On the 6th of Sep-tem-ber it was
captured, and the shipping, together with a large part of the town was burned.
Fort Trum-bull had been evacuated on his approach. He then assaulted and
teok Fort Gris-wold, on the opposite of the Thames, and basely massacred the
commander, Colonel Led-yard, and 60 of the garrison, after the surrender.
Ar-nold’s expedition failed in its great object. Wash-ing-ton kept on his
march toward the south, and left New Eng-land to defend itself. The militia
collected, and did this so well that-Ar-nold became alarmed for his own safety,
and made his way back to New York.

On the 28th of Sep-tem-ber, the allied army, to the number of 16,000
men, encamped before York-town, and the French fleet blocked up the Ches-
a-peake. Works were soon thrown up, and on the gth of Oc-to-ber the borh-
bardment began. Two advanced redoubts of the Bri-tish were stormed and
taken on the 14th. Additional batteries were erected by the allies, and the
ramparts of the enemy rapidy crumbled beneath the destructive fire; his guns
were dismounted; his ammunition failed him; and on the 15th he saw that
the place could be held only a short time longer.

On the night of the 16th he determined on the-desperate alternative of
attempting to cross over to Glou-ces-ter Point, and then, forcing his way


BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
VICTORY AT LAST. 173

through, to push for New York by rapid marches. His boats were actually
collecting for crossing ; but a violent storm came on suddenly, scattering the
‘boats, and compelling him to abandon his purpose. Nothing was left but to
capitulate; and on the 19th Corn-wal-lis surrendered his entire army of nearly
7,000 men prisoners of war. The ships and naval stores, together with 1,500
seamen, were given to the French. :

On the 25th of No-vem-ber, the last of the Bri-tish troops in the U-nit-ed
States evacuated the city of New York. General Wash-ing-ton immediately
entered and took possession. On the 2d of No-vem-ber, Wash-ing-ton issued
his farewell address to the army, and on De-cem-ber 4, took leave of his officers
at New York. He then went to An-na-po-lis, and on De-cem-ber 23, tinder
circumstances of great solemnity, resigned his commission to Con-gress, which
was assembled there. He immediately retired to his estate at Mount Ver-non,
on the bank of the Po-to-mac River, in Vir-gin-i-a,

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE WHITE. HOUSE,

CHAPTER XXII.
FROM WASHINGTON TO LINCOLN.

In May, 1787, delegates from all the states met in convention at Phil-
a-del-phi-a and George Wash-ing-ton was chosen President. After severa!
months of study and thought a Con-sti-tu-tion of the U-nit-ed States was
drawn up and it was decided that it should go into effect on March 4, 1789,
provided the thirteen original states agreed to it. In Sep-tem-ber, 1788, the
Con-ti-nen-tal Con-gress, then assembled at New York, appointed the first
Wed-nes-day of Jan-u-a-ry, 1789, for the choice of presidental electors by the
people, and New York as the capital of the new government. George
Wash-ing-ton was unanimously chosen President of the U-nit-ed States and
John Ad-ams, of Mas-sa-chu-setts, as Vice-President. Wash-ing-ton ap-
pointed Thom-as Jef-fer-son Sec-re-ta-ry of State, Al-ex-an-der Ham-il-ton
Sec-re-ta-ry of the Treas-u-ry, and Gen-er-al Knox Sec-re-ta-ry of the War
Department. John Jay was made Chief Jus-tice of the Su-preme Court, and
Ed-mund Ran-dolph At-tor-ney Gen-er-al.

In 1790 the seat of government was moved to Phil-a-del-phi-a. On the
4th of March, 1793, Wash-ing-ton was re-elected Pres-i-dent and John Adams
Vice-Pres-i-dent. He tefused to serve a third term and in 1797, he was
succeeded by john Ad-ams. In 1801 Thom-as Jef-fer-son became President and
Aar-on Burr Vice-Pres-i-dent. _ In 1805 he was re-elected and George Clin-ton
became Vice-Pres-i-dent.

The year 1807 was made memorable by the invention of a steam-boat,
by Rob-ert Ful-ton, which made a voyage from New York to Al-ba-ny, a dis-
tance of about 150 miles, in 36 hours. In 1809 James Mad-i-son was elected
Pres-i-dent. France and Eng-land were at war with each other at this time
and both these nations thought they had the right to: capture A-mer-i-can
vessels. This resulted in a war between U-nit-ed-States and Eng-land.

The war opened on the northwestern frontier Ju-ly 1812 by the invas-
ion of Can-a-da by the A-mer-i-can troops. This resulted in complete failure

175





FROM WASHINGTON TO LINCOLN. 177

and had it not been for the A-mer-i-can na-vy there is no knowing what would
have happened. The last land battle of the war, was fought at New Or-leans
and on the 14th of De-cem-ber, 1814, the treaty of Peace was signed at Ghent.
Pres-i-dent Mad-i-son remained in office for two terms. In the year 1817,
James Mon-roe beecame Pres-i-dent. During his administration two very
important measures were adopted: one the Mis-sou-ri Com-pro-mise which
prohibited slavery, north of a certain line; the other, the ‘““Mon-roe Doc-trine,”
Pres-i-dent Mon-roe announed in a message shortly after the formation of the .
South A-mer-i-can Re-pub-lic, that the A-mer-i-can continents are not to be
considered as ‘subjects for future colonization by any Eu-ro-pe-an powers. At
the close of Pres-i-dent Mon-roe’s second term, La-fay-ette visited this country
as the Na-tion’s guest.

The next Pres-i-dent of the U-nit-ed States was John Quin-cy Ad-ams,

_who was elected in 1825 and served one term. He was succeeded in 1829 by
Gen-er-al An-drew Jack-son, who served two terms. Mar-tin Van-Bu-ren was
elected Pres-i-dent in 1837 and served until 1841, when Gen-er-al Wil-liam
Hen-ry Har-ri-son was chosen his successor. Gen-er-al Har-ri-son died just
one month after he had entered the White House and John Ty-ler, the Vice-
Pres-i-dent became Pres-i-dent. In 1845 James K. Polk was-chosen Pres-i-
cent, as the candidate of the party that favored the admission of Tex-as to the
Un-ion. In the year 1844 a most important event in the scientific world took
place. This was the operation of the first electric telegraph line in the U-nit-ed .
States, the invention of Sam-uel F. B. Morse.

The most important occurrence in Pres-i-dent Polk’s administration
was the war with Mex-i-co over the northern boundary of Tex-as. Gen-er-al
Tay-lor was ordered to Téx-as in Ju-ly, 1845, and soon after his arrival a
severe battle took place on the Rio Grande and Con-gress at once declared
war. After several engagements the city of Mon-te-rey was captured and the
A-mer-i-can troops commenced their march into the interior of Mex-i-co,
but General Tay-lor granted an armistice to the Mex-i-can governor and Con-
gress offered terms of peace which were refused. Then Gen-er-al Win-field
Scott was ordered to carry the war to the City of Mex-i-co. In the mean
time Gen-er-al Tay-lor had defeated a large body of Mex-i-cans at Bu-e-na
Vis-ta. On the gth of March, 1847, Gen-er-al Scott landed near Vera Cruz,
and after a number of brilliant battles entered the City of Mex-i-co. On

Feb-ru-a-ry 2, 1848, a treaty was made by which the Rio Gran-de was con-
“ »
178 FROM WASHINGTON TO LINCOLN.

sidered the western boundary of Tex-as and the U-nit-ed States obtained New
Mex-i-co and Cal-i-for-ni-a.

In the election that followed Gen-er-al Zach-e-ry Tay-lor the hero
of the Mex-i-can War was chosen Pres-i-dent, but died the following year when
Vice-Pres-i-dent Mil-lard Fil-more assumed the office. In 1853 Frank-
lin Pearce was elected Pres-i-dent. When James Bu-chan-an was
chosen in 1857, the country was stirred up over the slavery question, and this





























was increased by some of the northern states which passed laws giving to

tugitive slaves the right of trial. In 1859 John Brown, who was a firm believer
in the freedom of the negroes, seized the U-nit-ed States arsenal at Har-per’s
Fer-ry, Vir-gin-i-a, hoping that the slaves would rise and follow him to the free
states. Brown was defeated, and afterward hung. The bitter feeling between
the North and the South increased after this and naturally this was the subject
uppermost in the minds of the people when the election took place in 1860.
The Republican party nominated A-bra-ham Lin-coln, of Il-kj-nois, and the
FROM WASHINGTON TO LINCOLN. - 179

South threatened to leave the Un-ion if he was lected. South Car-o-li-na was
the first southern state to secede, followed by Mis-sis-sip-pi, Flor-i-da, Al-a-
bam-a, Geor-gia, Louis-i-an-a and Tex-as. On the 4th of Jan-u-a-ry, 1861,
delegates from these states met and formed a separate government called
the Con-fed-er-ate States of A-mer-i-ca. Jef-fer-son Da-vis was chosen
Pres-i-dent, then followed the firing on Fort Sum-ter and the War of the

Re-bel-lion.



12





























































































CHAPTER XXIII.
THE CIVIL WAR.

The history of A-bra-ham Lin-coln, furnishes a striking proof of the fact
that, in the U-nit-ed States, poverty prevents no citizen from rising to the
highest position in the gift of the people. In the year 1818 his father moved
from Ken-tuck-y: into In-di-a-na, where, at the age of eight years, young
Lin-coln, axe in hand, assisted in clearing away the forest. His entire school
education, until manhood, did not amount to more than one year. At the age
of twenty-one he removed to [l-li-nois, where, while keeping a store, he
studied law, borrowing each evening the law books, and returning them in the
morning. He was chosen to the Legislature, became a lawyer, was sent as
representative to Con-gress, and, in a canvass for the position of U-nit-ed
States Sen-a-tor, was defeated by Judge Doug-las. It was this contest that —
brought him prominently before the country, and led the way to his nomination
as President.

When Lin-coln entered on his duties, March 4, 1861, Major An-der-son
was still in possession of Fort Sum-ter. The Con-fed-er-ates heard that the
U-nit-ed States government would re-enforce and provision the fort at all
risks; they therefore determined to capture it before this could be done. On
the morning of A-pril 12, they opened fire from the batteries, and the bom-
bardment was continued for 34 hours. At the end of that time many of the
guns in the fort were dismantled, and the handful of men composing the
garrison was so utterly worn out, that An-der-son was compelled to surrender.
No lives were lost on either side during the attack.

The telegraph published throughout the country the news of the bom-
bardment, and its result. In the South, and particularly in South Car-o-li-na,
the people were vild with joy. At the North the news was generally received
with astonishment and profound indignation. It was plain now that war had
begun. There was no longer any doubt as to what the South meant, and
75,000 volunteers for three months sprang to arms at the call of Pres-i-dent

181







THE CIVIL WAR. 183

Lin-coln, April 14. The attack on Fort Sum-ter united the South as well as
the North. States that had before hesitated soon joined the Con-fed-er-a-cy—
Vir-gin-i-a on the 17th of A-pril; Ar-kan-sas, May 6; North Car-o-li-na, May
20; andon the 2oth of June, Ten-nes-see, making the number of Con-fed-er-ate
States eleven, Mis-sou-ri and Ken-tuc-ky remained neutral.

Vir-gin-i-a had scarcely passed the act of secession when 250 of her
militia were sent to seize the U-nit-ed States Ar-se-nal at Har-per’s Fer-ry.
The officer in command, on their approach, A-pril 18, destroyed a portion of
the muskets, set fire to the buildings, and retreated north into Penn-syl-va-ni-a.
At the same time the Vir-gin-i-ans were planning to surprise the great navy
yard at Nor-folk. Hearing this, the officer in command, without waiting to
strike a blow for its defense, spiked the cannon, scuttled or burned the war-
ships, and set fire to the buildings. Notwithstanding this destruction, A-pril
20, the Con-fed-er-ates obtained nearly 2,000 cannon, besides a vast amount of
stores; and they afterward raised some of the vessels that had been sunk. The
U-nit-ed States property destroyed and captured here was valued at ten mil-
lions of dollars.

Wash-ing-ton was threatened by the Con-fed-er-ate troops, but help
was approaching from the North. On the 17th of A-pril, only two days after
the Pres-i-dent’s proclamation, the Sixth Mas-sa-chu-setts Regiment left
Bos-ton for the capital. On the 19th, while passing through the streets of Bal-
ti-more, it was attacked by a secession mob, and three soldiers were killed and
eight wounded. It made its way, however, to the capital, where it was soon
joined by other regiments from the Northern States. For the’ present the
capital was safe, and Pres-i-dent Lin-coln, May 3, made a call for 83,000 men
for the army and navy, to serve during the war. The troops were speedily
raised, ;

The U-nit-ed States government held possession of Fortress Mon-roe,
at the entrance to the Ches-a-peake. General B. F. But-ler, of Mas-sa-chu-
setts, was stationed here in May, with a force increased presently to 12,000
men. A detachment from General Ma-gru-der’s army of 8,000 Con-fed-er-ates
was encamped so near the fort that they became troublesome. In attempting
to dislodge them at Big Beth-el, a party of the Un-ion troops was defeated
June ioth.

A force, composed principally of O-hi-o and In-di-a-na men, was sent,
under General M’Clel-lan, into Western Vir-gin-i-a. He pushed the Con-

THE CIVIL WAR. 185

fed-er-ates so vigorously that they were beaten at Phil-ip-pi on June 3rd, and
again at Rich Mountain on the 11th of Ju-ly. A few days after at Car-rick’s
Ford, on Cheat River, General Gar-nett, the Con-fed-er-ate, made a stand,
but was himself killed, and his troops were compelled to flee. In the latter of
these battles M’Clel-lan was assisted by an able officer, Colonel Ro-se-crans.
On Au-gust 10, Ro-se-crans, now made a general, assaulted General Floyd,
the late Un-ion Secretary of War, now at the head of a Con-fed-er-ate force,
at Car-ni-fex Fer-ry, on the Gau-ley River, and compelled him to tetreat. At
Cheat Mountain, the Con-fed-er-ates, under General E. Lee, were repulsed
Sep-tem-ber Deh, and shortly the enemy retired from Western Vir-gin-i-a.

The Un-ion forces at Wash-ing-ton crossed the Po-to-mac and occu-
pied Al-ex-an-dri-a, nine miles below Wash-ing-ton, May 23, General M’Dow-
ell in command. The Con-fed-er-ate army, under General Beau-re-gard,
was encamped, toward the end of June, at Ma-nas-sas Junc-tion, 27 miles from
Al-ex-an-dri-a. As the Con-fed-er-ate government was about to assemble at
Rich-mond, the new capital, on the 2oth of Ju-ly, it was deemed necessary by
the U-nit-ed States government to make a forward movement. M’Dow-ell
accordingly advanced, and, on the 21st of Ju-ly, attacked Beau-re-gard at Bull
Run, a small stream in front of the-enemy. The force on each side was be-
tween 20,000 and 30,000.

The fighting in the forenoon was favorable to the Un-ion-ists. As the
day wore on, the enemy received re-inforcements under General Jo-seph John-
ston, and these turned the tide of battle. M’Dow-ell’s troops were siezed with
panic, and fled in great disorder, leaving behind them nearly 1,500 killed and
wounded, and as many more prisoners. Beau-re-gard did not pursue; had he
done so, he might have entered Wash-ing-ton, so great was the confusion. As
this was the first important battle between the two armies, the defeat at first
greatly depressed the spirits of the northern people. The disgrace was all the
harder to bear when it became known how the Con-fed-er-ates were re-
enforced at so fortunate a moment. General Pat-ter-son, with 20,000 men,
had been ordered to watch General Jo-seph E. John-ston, who had just been
forced to evacuate Har-per’s Fer-ry, and prevent him from joining Beau-re-
gard at Ma-nas-sas. Instead of this, he permitted John-ston to slip away from
him to Bull Run.

After the battle General M’Clel-lan was brought from Western Vir-gin-
i-a to take command at Wash-ing-ton. Con-gress ordered a levy of 500,000
men, and the spirit of the people was such that this force was soon raised,






















































































THE GUN AT WORK. :
THE CIVIL WAR. 187

M’Clel-lan was busy organizing and drilling these recruits during the fall
and winter. The only noticeable event in the Po-to-mac Army during the
fall was the disaster at Ball’s Bluff, on the Po-to-mac, near Lees-burg, Vir-
gin-i-a, Oc-to-ber 21st. Colonel Ba-ker, U-nit-ed States Senator from Or-e
gon, at the head of nearly 2,000 men, was sent by General Stone across the
river at Edward’s Ferry, to attack General Ev-ans at Lees-burg. Here he was
overpowered, himself killed, and his troops driven to the river side, where a
great number were drowned trying to cross to the Ma-ry-land side, sufficient
boats not having been provided in view of disaster. The loss was very severe;
only 1,100 out of 1,900 men returned.

Although Mis-sou-ri had not joined the Con-fed-er-ate States, the seces-
sionists were making powerful efforts to carry her out of the Un-ion. A se-
cession camp, named Camp Jaclk-son, was formed near St. Louis, in May, but
was broken by the activity of Captain Py-on, a U-nit-ed States officer. By

_ this prompt movement the arsenal at St. Louis was saved. Large bodies of
Con-fed-er-ates poured into Southwest Mis-sou-ri, where there were important
lead mines, very necessary to their armies. On the 17th of June, Ly-on, now
general, defeated Governor Jack-son at Boone-ville. The governor was again
beaten at Car-thage on the 5th of Ju-ly by Colonel Si-gel, after a severe
engagement.

On the ioth of Au-gust a heavy battle was fought by General Ly-on
at Wil-son’s Creek, near Spring-field, with a superior force of Con-fed-er-ates
under Generals M’Cul-lough and Price. "Ly-on was killed, but the enenry were
repulsed. After the battle the Un-ion troops fell back to Rol-la, near the center
of the state. General Price, in command of 20,000 Con-fed-er-ates, pushed
westward toward Lex-ing-ton, on the Mis-sou-ri River, held by General Mul-
li-gan with 2,600 men. After a brave defense, Mul-li-gan surrendered to Price
on the 2oth of Sep-tem-ber.

General John C. Fre-mont, appointed to the command of the Western
Army, now drove General Price before him south through the state. Fre-mont
reached Spring-field in Oc-to-ber, and was preparing to attack the enemy, when
he was removed from his command, No-vem-ber 2. General Hun-ter took
his place; and the Un-ion Army, instead of fighting, fell back to St. Louis,
General Price following. General Hal-leck superseded Hun-ter No-vem-ber
18, and pushed Price south toward Ar-kan-sas, the latter leaving his prisoners
and military stores on the way.


Fe Oe Ala
THE CIVIL WAR. 189

Ken-tuc-ky, like Mis-sou-ri, had chosen to remain neutral. The Con-
fed-er-ate government ordered General Polk to take military possession of the
state, without regard to the wishes of its people. Polk at once occupied and
fortified Co-lum-bus, thus blockading the Mis-sis-sip-pi. Opposite this, at
Bel-mont, Mis-sou-ri, was stationed a body of Con-fed-er-ate troops. On
the 7th of No-vem-ber, General U. S. Grant, having moved from Cai-ro,
Il-li-nois, with 3,000 men, attacked the camp at Bel-mont, and at first drove
the enemy with loss to the river. But delay occurred; Polk turned
the guns of Co-lum-bus on the Un-ion troops, and sent over re-enforcements,
Grant was then compelled to retreat.

Fort Pick-ens was situated on San-ta Ro-sa Is-land, opposite Pen-sa-

“co-la Navy Yard. The latter was disgracefully surrendered to the Con-fed-
er-ates when they were siezing forts and arsenals; but the fort was saved to the
Un-ion by the courage and patriotism of a Un-ion officer, Lieutenant Slem-
mer. He was succeeded in the command by Colonel Brown, who arrived with
re-enforcements. On a dark night, Oc-to-ber 9, the Con-fed-er-ates came
over in force from Pen-sa-co-la, and, after surprising and severely handling
a New York regiment, were driven off. Throughout the war, Fort Pick-ens
firmly held guard over the approaches to Pen-sa-co-la.

In 1861, the North suffered serious reverses in the loss of Nor-folk,
of Har-per’s Fer-ry, in the battle of Bull Run, and in the severe check at
Ball’s Bluff. Much, however, had been gained. Mis-sou-ri was saved to the
Un-ion after hard fighting. Western Vir-gin-i-a had been preserved in the same
way. The rapidly increasing navy had made the blockade effectual. The
army, augmented by numerous levies to a million of men, was being drilled for
future operations. The South was also active, and was straining every nerve
in preparation for the struggle of the next year.


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SSS = = ——



SS

FEDERAL IRON CLAD RIVER GUN BOAT.
CHAPTER XXIV.
UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER.

At the beginning of the year 1862 the war had assumed immense pro-
portions. It was no longer to be carried on by one or two small armies acting
without concert, but through a wide, yet connected series of naval and military
operations, some of them at points more than a thousand miles apart. The
great objects to be accomplished by these fleets and armies were chiefly, in the

_ West and extreme South, the opening of the Mis-sis-sip-pi River to the Union
armies; in the East the capture of Rich-mond, now the Con-fed-er-ate capital;
and the thorough blockade of the Southern coast.

In the West, General Bu-ell was in command of an army, the head-
quarters of which were at Louis-ville; General Hal-leck, with another army,
lay further west, with his headquarters at St. Louis. In addition to these, a
large fleet of river steamers and gun-boats, under Commodore Foote, was at.
Cai-ro, at the junction of the O-hi-o and Mis-sis-sip-pi, waiting to assist in the
impending military movements in that quarter. There were also operations in
progress against the extreme South. A combined naval and military expedi-
tion, under Captain Far-ra-gut and General B. F. But-ler, was preparing to
enter the Lower Mis-sis-sip-pi from its mouth and capture the city of New
Or-leans. The expedition was thus to form a part in the great plan for the
opening of that river

In the East, General M’Clel-lan lay along the Po-to-mac with more
than 150,000 men, getting ready to move against Rich-mond; and an expedi-
tion, under General Burn-side and Commodore Golds-bor-ough, was already
on its way to attack the forts on Ro-an-oke Is-land, on the coast of North
Car-o-li-na. The plan of military operations for the year, although on a great
scale, was very simple. By order of President Lin-coln, all the armies were
required to move forward on the 22d of Feb-ru-a-ry, and crush the Con-fed-
er-acy by their combined movements. Those in the West began a little in ad-
vance of this time.

191
Lior oe

re


UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER. 193

On the 9th of Jan-u-a-ry, Colonel Gar-field, after a brilliant engage-
ment, routed Hum-phrey Mar-shall, at the head of a Con-fed-er-ate force,
on the Big San-dy River, in Eastern Ken-tuc-ky. On the roth, General
Thom-as, with severe fighting, defeated and drove the Con-fed-er-ates from
Mill Spring, a strong place in the same state. This was in the department of
General Bu-ell.

In Western Ken-tuc-ky, in the department of General Hal-leck, the
énemy had forts at Co-lum-bus on the Mis-sis-sip-pi, and at Bow-ling Green
on the Big Bar-ren River. South of these, in West Ten-nes-see, there were
Fort Hen-ry on the Ten-nes-see, and Fort Don-el-son on the Cum-ber-land.
General Hal-leck determined to pierce this line by capturing Forts Hen-ry and
Don-el-son, which he could easily reach by water, on account of the peculiar
force of the Ten-nes-see and Cum-ber-land Rivers. If he proved successful in
this, he clearly saw that Nash-ville, the capital of the state, would fall into his
hands, and the Con-fed-er-ates would be forced to evacuate Bow-ling Green
and Co-lum-bus. The first point of attack was Fort Hen-ry.

Commodore Foote, with his gun-boats, was sent up the Ten-nes-see,
and General Grant, with the troops, was ordered to proceed by land. Before
the latter could get his-men near enough to surround the works, the com-
mander of the fort surrendered to Commodore Foote, after a heavy bombard-
ment by the gun-boats, Feb-ru-a-ry 6. Nearly all the garrison, to the number
of three thousand, escaped to Fort Don-el-son. Although the latter was only
twelve miles across the country to Fort Hen-ry, it was six days before Gen-
eral Grant could march his army to that post. Of this delay the enemy made
good use in re-enforcing the garrison and strengthening their works. Grant
was compelled to wait the movements of the gun-boats, which had to steam
down the Ten-nes-see, then up the Cum-ber-land, stopping on the way at
Cai-ro for supplies and re-enforcements for the army. The gun-boats did not
reach the neighborhood of Fort Don-el-son until the 14th.

It was a much stronger place than Fort Hen-ry, and had a garrison of
fourteen or fifteen thousand men. In the attack on the 14th the gun-boats
were severely injured and driven back by the Con-fed-er-ate batteries, Com-
modore Foote being seriously wounded. Grant’s army, increased to the num-
ber of 30,000, had, in the meantime, gradually surrounded the fort. Through
his lines the Con-fed-er-ates attempted to cut their way on the 15th; but
after a bloody battle they were repulsed, and a portion of their intrenchments

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER. 195

captured by the Un-ion troops. Gen-er-al Buck-ner attempted to parley but
the Un-ion leader demanded unconditional surrender and on the following
day Fott Don-el-son capitulated. This was by far the most brilliant victory
yet gained by the Un-ion arms.

The line of Con-fed-er-ate defense through Ten-nes-see and Ken-tuc-ky
was now shattered. Bow-ling Green was evacuated, and shortly after Co-lum-
bus. The way was now open to Nash-ville, which was immediately occupied
by the Un-ion troops. The national army, re-enforced, moved up the Ten-nes-
see as far as Pitts-burg Land-ing, where Grant again took command, and
General Bu-ell marched from Nash-ville to join him there.

On Sun-day morning, A-pril the 6th, before the arrival of Bu-ell, the
Con-fed-er-ate army, under General A. S. John-ston, Beau-re-gard being
second in command, suddenly fell on Grant’s troops, encamped at Shi-loh
Church, near Pitts-burg Land-ing, with the river in their rear. During a day’s
dreadful slaughter, in which John-ston was killed, the Un-ion troops were
driven back step by step to a small plateau near the edge of the Ten-nes-see,
protected by the fire of the gun-boats. The Un-ion army was saved that day
by the extraordinary efforts of Brigadier General W. T. Sher-man, who com-
manded a division. During the night Bu-ell’s troops arrived, and, on the
morning of A-pril 7th, Grant moved to the attack. Beau-re-gard was com-
pelled to fall back, and he slowly retreated to Cor-inth, Mis-sis-sip-pi, some
fifteen miles distant, commanding an important system of railroads.

General Hal-leck, made commander of the different Un-ion armies in
the West, brought them together, and, at the head of more than 100,000 men,
moved against Cor-inth. Beau-re-gard, seeing that he was greatly outnum-
bered, evacuated the place on the approach of Hal-leck, and on the 30th of
May it was entered by the Un-ion troops. While Grant was fighting the
battle of Shi-loh, events of great importance took place on the Mis-sis-sip-pi
River. When the Con-fed-er-ates left Co-lum-bus they fortified Is-land No. 10,
then miles below. The position was so strong by nature, and they had so
strengthened it by art, that they thought it could not be taken. But all these
preparations could not stop General Pope with his Western men, nor Com-
modore Foote and his gun-boats. After a bombardment of twenty-three days,
it was captured on the 7th of A-pril, with 5,000 prisoners, the same morning
that Grant repulsed Beau-re-gard at Shi-loh.

Fort Pil-low was the next strong point on the river, but before it

could be invested Pope’s army was withdrawn to join Hal-leck in his move-
13
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































=

THE ‘‘MERRIMAC’’? SINKING THE ‘CUMBERLAND.’ ‘
UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER, 197

ment against Cor-inth. Commodore Foote, disabled by the wound he had re-
ceived at Fort Don-el-son, was succeeded by Captain Da-vis, who, after a
severe battle, destroyed a part of the Con-fed-er-ate iron-clads near Fort
Pil-low, May 10. The Fort itself was abandoned on June 4, in consequence of
the evacuation of Cor-inth by Beau-re-gard. On the 6th of June Da-vis pushed
down to Mem-phis, where he destroyed the Con-fed-er-ate fleet, and that city
was immediately surrendered. The Un-ion troops now held a line from Mem-
phis, on the Mis-sis-sip-pi, through Cor-inth, nearly to Chat-ta-noo-ga. All of
Western Ken-tuc-ky and West Ten-nes-see were under their control.

The Con-fed-er-ates still held East Ten-nes-see, and determined to
make one powerful effort to restore their power in Ken-tuc-ky. An army in
two divisions, under Bragg and Kir-by Smith, was sent there to make the
attempt. Bragg, leaving Chat-ta-noo-ga, was to march northwestward, and
Smith, starting from Knox-ville, was to join him in the center of the state.
Smith moved in the month of Au-gust, and, after defeating the Un-ion troops
at Rich-mond, Ken-tuc-ky, Au-gust 30, entered Lex-ing-ton and Frank-fort.
He then moved toward the O-hi-o, threatening Cin-cin-na-ti; but the active
measures taken there by General Lew-is Wal-lace compelled him to fall back
and he joined Bragg at Frank-fort Oc-to-ber 4.

>

Bragg’s objective point was Louis-ville. On his march he captured,
after two slight engagements, 4,500 Un-ion troops at Mum-fords-ville, Sep-
terh-ber 17. General Bu-ell, who lay at Nash-ville, on discovering Brageg’s
purpose, moved by forced marches to the relief of Louis-ville, and reached it
only one day before the Con-fed-er-ates. Here he was shortly re-enforced to
the number of 100,000 men. Bragg then fell back, ravaging the country,
followed very slowly by Bu-ell, who came up with him at Per-ry-ville Oc-to-
ber 8. Here a battle was fought, which, after severe loss on both sides, ended
doubtfully. Brage continued his retreat so leisurely that he was able to take
out of Ken-tuc-ky a wagon train of plunder forty miles in length.

While Bragg was in Ken-tuc-ky, a Con-fed-er-ate army, under Gen-
erals Price and Van Dorn, threatened Grant at Cor-inth. General Hal-leck
had been called to Wash-ing-ton to act as general-in-chief, and Grant was
appointed to the command of the army of the Ten-nes-see. The latter, joined
by General Ro-se-crans, moved against Price, and defeated him at I-u-ka,
Sep-tem-ber 19. Grant then proceeded northward to Jack-son, Ten-nes-see,
leaving General Ro-se-crans to defend Cor-inth with 30,000 men.

UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER. 199

! fere the latter was attacked on the 4th of Oc-to-ber by Generals Van
Doiu and Price, at the head of 40,000 Con-fed-er-ates. After a bloody battle
they were driven back, with a loss of over 6,000 in killed and wounded, and
were afterward pursued for 40 miles. The Un-ion loss was only 315 killed.
For this brilliant victory Ro-se-crans was promoted to the command of the
Army of the Cum-ber-land in place of General Bu-ell.

Ro-se-crans soon gathered the bulk of his army round Nash-ville, and
niarched to attack the Con-fed-er-ate army under Bragg, which lay at Mur-
frees-bor-o’, 30 miles distant. At Stone River, near that place, he himself was
attacked and driven back, De-cem-ber 31. On the 2d of Jan-u-a-ry the battle
was renewed, and Bragg in turn was repulsed, but retreated in good order.
This was one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The loss on each side was
estimated at from 10,000 to 12,000.

Grant meanwhile arranged an expedition against Vicks-burg, a strongly
fortified position on the Mis-sis-sip-pi, 400 miles above New Or-leans. Gen-
eral Sher-man was to move down the river from Mem-phis with 40,000 men,
and the gun-boats under Por-ter; while Grant pushed forward by land from
Jack-son. At first the combined movements promised complete success; but,
unfortunately, Van Dorn was able to get into the rear of Grant, cutting off
his supplies at Hol-ly Springs, De-cem-ber 20, and the latter was ‘compelled
to abandon his purpose. Sher-man, unaware of what had happened to Grant,
started from Mem-phis on the day of this misfortune. Assisted by the gun-
boats, he landed on the Ya-zoo River, and attacked the works on the bluff
north of Vicks-burg, but was repulsed with considerable loss. This battle of
Chick-a-saw Ba-you, De-cem-ber 29, ended active operations in the Depart-
ment of Mis-sis-sip-pi for the year 1862.

In the spring an important battle was fought in the department of
General Hal-leck, on the northwest edge of Ar-kan-sas, at Pea Ridge, among.
the mountains. General Cur-tis pushed Price and M’Cul-loch out of Mis.
sou-ri in the early part of the year. General Van Dorn at the head of 20,000
fresh men, on the 7th of March attacked Cur-tis, who, with not more than
11,000, had taken post on the heights around Su-gar Creek. The battle lasted
two days, and ended in the repulse of Van Dorn. Cur-tis was greatly in-
debted to the skill and gallantry of General Si-gel for the victory of Pea Ridge.






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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MONITOR AND MERRIMAC.


CHAPTER XXV.
THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC.

In the expedition against New Or-leans, Captain Far-ra-gut was
chosen to command the powerful fleet of 45 vessels, including mortar-boats,
and General But-ler the land troops, amounting to 15,000. By the beginning
ot March, the entire expedition was assembled at Ship Is-land, near the mouth
of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, about 30 miles from the Gulf, and 70 miles below New
Or-leans. The river channel was guarded by strong forts, St. Phil-ip and Jack-
son, and by a chain which, resting on hulks, stretched across the river. During
a terrible bombardment of six days, from the 18th to the 24th of A-pril, Far-ra-
gut came to the conclusion that the fire of the mortar-boats could not reduce
the forts, and he determined to run past them.

On the 20th of A-pril the chain and barricades were, with great bravery,
cut through, so as to permit a free passage for his ships. At three o’clock on
the morning of the 24th he sailed up the river in the darkness, at the head of
17 vessels, carrying 294 guns. A dreadful battle ensued, but Far-ra-gut slowly
passed Fort Jack-son, and immediately attacked the Con-fed-er-ate fleet of
16 armed steamers, the steam battery Louis-i-an-a, and the iron-plated ram
Ma-nas-sas. When the morning sun had risen through the fog, Fort St.
Phil-ip had been passed, and the greater part of the Con-fed-er-ate fleet, in-
cluding the Louis-i-an-a and the Ma-nas-sas, had either been destroyed or cap-
tured.

Next day, the 25th, Far-ra-gut appeared in front of New Or-leans,
which lay helpless under his guns. On the 28th, Forts St. Phil-ip and Jack-son
surrendered to Captain Por-ter, who remained down the river in command of
the mortar fleet. On the rst of May, General But-ler entered the city, and took
Possession of it with his troops. A part of Far-ra-gut’s fleet was sent up the
tiver, and occupied Ba-ton Rouge, the capital of the state. The expedition of
Far-ra-gut and But-ler proved a complete success. The Lower Mis-sis-sip-pi
was opened, New Or-leans wrested from the Con-fed-er-ates, and’ their iron-

201

THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC. 208

clad fleet completely destroyed. Far-ra-gut pushed up the river, and, passing
the batteries at Vicks-burg without much injury, met the fleet of Da-vis at:
Mem-phis.

Two long inland seas, called Al-be-marle and Pam-li-co Sounds, stretch
from the coast far into the State of North Car-o-li-na. The object of General
Burn-side’s expedition was to obtain the control of these seas by the capture
of Ro-an-oke Is-land, which commanded the entrance to Al-be-marle Sound,
and was the key to all the rear defenses of Nor-folk. In addition, the cities and
towns on the main land were to be occupied, and the Con-fed-er-ate vessels
and iron clads building in these waters to be destroyed.

On the 11th of Jan-u-a-ry, 1862, the expedition left Hamp-ton Roads,
and, after encountering a severe storm, passed through Hat-ter-as In-let on
the 28th. The fleet came to anchor off Ro-an-oke Is-land on the 6th of Feb-
ru-a-ry, and on the 8th the army, assisted by the guns of the fleet, attacked
and captured the fort, with 2,500 prisoners. Two days after, the Con-fed-er-
ate fleet in the Sound was all either destroyed or captured. On the 14th of
March, New-bern, with 46 heavy guns and military stores fell into the hands of
Burn-side after a severely fought battle. The final and complete success of the
expedition was reached on the 25th of A-pril in the capture of Fort Ma-con,
which defended the harbor of Beau-fort, in North Car-o-li-na.

The withdrawal of troops from Flor-i-da for service in the Con-fed-er-
ate army permitted a Un-ion expedition from Port Roy-al, Feb-ru-a-ry 28, to
obtain easy possession of Fer-nan-di-na and Fort Clinch; of Jack-son-ville, on
the St. John’s River; of St. Au-gus-tine, with Fort Ma-ri-on; and in Geor-gia
of the important town of Bruns-wick, and also Da-ri-en, at the mouth of the
Al-ta-ma-ha. ‘These were all captured in the month of March.

When Nor-folk was surrendered to the Vir-gin-i-ans in 1861, the steam
frigate Mer-ri-mac was scuttled and sunk. The Con-fed-er-ates afterward
raised her, lowered her deck, covered it with a slate roof which they plated
with railroad iron, fitted her with a long iron prow to act as a ram, and named
her the Vir-gin-i-a. A fleet of Un-ion war-ships and smaller vessels lay off
Fortress Mon-roe, in Hamp-ton Roads, on the 8th of March, 1862. At noon
the Vir-gin-i-a, accompanied by two smaller vessels, steamed down to attack |
the fleet, and, utterly regardless of the shot and shell that rained harmlessly
on her sides, struck the sloop of war Cum-ber-land with her iron prow so
dreadful a blow that she sank in a few minutes. The captain of the frigate

t } )
2

204 THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC

Con-gress, fearful of the same fate, ran his vessel ashore, and was compelled
to surrender. At sunset the ram steamed back to. Nor-folk, having destroyed
two frigates and 250 officers and men, with a loss to herself of only two killed
and eight wounded.

During the night, the Mon-i-tor, an iron-plated vessel of a new con-
struction, invented by Captain John E-rics-son, and commanded by Lieutenant
Wor-den, arrived from the North at Fortress Mon-roe. Soon after sunrise







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ae —-
“LIEUTENANT CUSHING’S ATTACK ON THE ALBEMARLE.” ©

next morning, March 9, it-met and attacked the Vir-gin-i-a after she came out
from the E-liz-a-beth River. Although one-fifth of her antagonist’s size, she
compelled the Vir-gin-i-a, after an engagement of several hours, to return
disabled to Nor-folk. The latter did not again appear in the harbor. Never
had any arrival proved more fortunate. The little iron-clad Mon-i-tor had saved
the rest of the fleet. The battle opened a new era in naval warfare, ad was the
first contest in the world betwen iron-clad SHHD:
THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC. 205

An expedition against Fort Pu-las-ki, one of the chief defenses of the
city of Sa-van-nah, resulted in the surrender of the fort, A-pril 11, to General
Hun-ter, after a severe bombardment of 1 5 hours. By the fall of Pu-las-ki,
Sa-van-nah was thoroughly closed against a class of ships known as An-glo-
Con-fed-er-ate blockade-runners. The city itself was not captured until De
cem-ber, 1864.

General Banks, in command of the Un-ion troops in the Shen-an-do-ah
Val-ley, in accordance with the general forward movement ordered by the
President, had advanced as far south as Har-ri-son-burg toward the end of
March. There-upon that vigorous Con-fed-er-ate general, popularly known
as “Stone-wall Jack-son,” from the saying at Bull Run that his brigade “would
stand like a stone wall,” was sent into the Valley with a heavy force, and
Banks fell back 50 miles to Stras-burg.

Jack-son, moving rapidly, attacked a body of Un-ion troops at Front
Roy-al, May 23, capturing a large number of prisoners, guns, and military
stores. General Banks, hearing of this disaster to a portion of his command,
retreated rapidly from Stras-burg pursued by Jack-son, and, by tremendous
exertions, was able to cross the Po-to-mac in advance of the latter, and thus
save the bulk of his exhausted troops. In the entire pursuit Jack-son cap-
tured several guns, 9,000 small arms, and between 2,000 and 3,000 prisoners.

Generals Shields and Fre-mont were ordered into the Valley to inter-
sept Jack-son. The latter, learning this, moved south with the greatest
selerity, but was brought to bay at Cross Keys, June 8, where a battle was
fought which checked Fre-mont’s advance. Next day Jack-son struck Shield’s
division at Port Re-pub-lic, and compelled it to fall back with considerable
Icss. Here the pursuit ended, and Jack-son moved leisurely to join Lee’s army
in the battles for the defense of Rich-mond. He had performed a great
service. With only 20,000 men, he had, by the rapidity of his movements,
thoroughly alarmed the U-nit-ed States government for the safety of Wash-
ing-ton, and had succeeded in occupying the attention of more than 60,000
Un-ion troops, 40,000 of which, under the command of M’Dowell, were about
to join M’Clel-lan in the Pen-in-su-la. ;

The great army of nearly 200,000 men, under General M’Clellan which
lay along the Po-to-mac during the winter of 1861-62, began to move forward
toward Ma-nas-sas on the 10th of March, the enemy retiring as it advanced.
The Un-ion army presently returned to its camp near Wash-ing-ton, and it

THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC. 207

was determined in a council of war to move the bulk of the troops, amounting
to 121,000 men, to Fort-ress Mon-roe, which was accomplished Ap-ril 2.

From this point, A-pril 4, M’Clellan commenced his march against the
Con-fed-er-ate capital. York-town and its neighborhood, fortified and garri-
_soned by 10,000 Con-fed-er-ates under Ma-gru-der, lay in his way. M’Clel-lan,
deeming the Con-fed-er-ate works too strong to be taken by an immediate
assault, concluded to invest them. This occupied nearly a month, at the end of
which Ma-gru-der evacuated the place, which was entered by M’Clel-lan
May 4.
- His troops followed the enemy, and gained the battle of Wil-liams-burg
May 5, and that of West Point May 9. In less than three weeks from the time
he left York-town his advance was within seven miles of Rich-mond. There
was a great panic in the city; many persons left, and the Con-fed-er-ate Con-
gress adjourned in haste. M’Clel-lan, however, did not advance, but em-
ployed the army in the swamps of the Chick-a-hom-i-ny, building bridges and
constructing earth-works. His lines extended from Bot-tom’s Bridge on the
Chick-a-hom-i-ny, to Me-chan-ics-ville on the north. The base of his sup-
plies was at White House, on the Pa-mun-key River.

Nor-folk, threatened by a division of the Un-ion army, under General
Wool, from Fortress Mon-roe, was abandoned by the enemy May 3, who were
concentrating their troops for the defense of Rich-mond, and entered by the
' Un-ion-ists May 10. Before leaving Nor-folk, the enemy destroyed the stores
and burned the navy yard. On the 11th of May they blew up the famous ram
Vir-gin-i-a, which it had been hoped would defend James River. This was
now open to within eight miles of Rich-mond, and the gun-boats with the
little Mon-i-tor, went up on the 15th to force a passage, but were stopped by the
heavy guns of Fort Darl-ing, and driven back badly injured.

On the 31st of May, the Con-fed-er-ate troops, which had time to col-
lect in great numbers around Rich-mond attacked the south wing of the
Un-ion-army, which had advanced to Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, south of the
Chick-a-hom-i-ny. The battle continued next day, June 1, and the enemy
were finally repulsed after a severe battle, their general, Joseph E. John-ston,
being seriously wounded. The Un-ion army now lay within six miles of the
city of Rich-mond, and a portion of General Hook-er’s command went within
three and a half miles of it.

General Rob-ert E. Lee was appointed to the command of the Con-
fed-er-ate army after John-ston was disabled at Fair Oaks. While M’Clel-lan

THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC. 209

was on the point of marching on the defenses of Rich-mond, Lee, on the 25th
of June, feil suddenly on the Un-ion right, and at Me-chan-ics-ville next day,
the 26th, was repulsed with severe loss. On the following day, the 27th, the
Un-ion troops, who had fallen back, were attacked with great fury at Cold
Har-bor, or Gaines’s Mill. With difficulty the army saved itself by crossing
to the south side of the Chick-a-hom-i-ny, and destroying the bridges.

Already M’Clel-lan, finding himself in danger of being cut off from his
base of supplies at White House, had determined on a change of base to the

.James River; and the retreat began June 28, the wearied troops marching
during the greater part of the night, and fighting all day. On the 2oth, the rear
of the retreating army was attacked at Sav-age’s Sta-tion. On the 30th was
fought the bloody but indecisive battle of Fra-zier’s Farm.

Next morning, July Ist, the Un-ion troops reached Mal-vern Hill, near
the James. This had been hastily fortified with heavy guns, and was sup-
ported by gun-boats in the river. Late in the afternoon Lee hurled his troops
against the Un-ion batteries, but was driven back with dreadful slaughtet.
The. battle had scarcely closed when the Un-ion army was ordered to fal\
back to Har-ri-son’s Land-ing, farther down the river. The contest, generally
known as the “seven days’ battles,” had ended. From Me-chan-ics-ville to
Mal-vern Hill, M’Clel-lan had lost, in killed, wounded, and missing, more
than 15,000 men; the Con-fed-er-ate loss was nearly 20,000. Rich-mond was
saved, and the object for which the Army of the Po-to-mac had been so long
and so splendidly trained was entirely lost. The discouragement at the North,
after this retreat, was nearly as great as after the battle of Bull Run. President °
Lin-coln, on the very day of Mal-vern Hill, called for a fresh levy of 300,000
troops.

Lee had no longer anything to fear from M’Clel-lan’s crippled army.
After waiting a month, in which he recruited and reorganized his troops, he
marched north in the direction of Wash-ing-ton. In his way there was an
army of 40,000 men, under the command of General Pope, who had been sent
for from the West, and had united the various commands of Banks, Fre-mont,
and M’Dow-ell. Lee pressed on rapidly, and his advanced corps attacked a
portion of Pope’s army, under General Banks, at Ce-dar Moun-tain, Au-gust
gth, and, after a severe struggle, the latter was defeated.

Pope fell back, contesting every mile of the way, and expecting help
from M?’Clel-lan’s army, which had been ordered to join him; but re-enforce-
ments came up slowly. At Ma-nas-sas Junc-tion, Au-gust 26th, the Con-



UP THE HUDSON.


THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC. 211

fed-er-ates captured 8 guns, 10 locomotives, 7 trains, and immense quantities of
stores. On the 28th Pope turned upon the enemy and drove them from
Cen-tre-ville. Next day, the 29th, he attacked them successfully at Gaines-
ville, but on the following morning the battle was renewed, and Pope was
compelled to fall back to Cen-tre-ville. On Au- -gust 31st, he was attacked at
Chan-til-ly, where, after a bloody battle, the enemy was repulsed.

Overpowered by superior numbers, he withdrew his wearied trcops
within the defenses of Wash-i -ing-ton. He had lost, in the campaign, not less
than 30,000 men, and a large namber-of cannon and sinall arms, besides mn-
nitions and supplies. Pope was now relieved from the command at his ow
request, and M’Clel-lan was placed at the head of the Union army, which had
been, meanwhile, heavily re-enforced.

Lee turned into Ma-ry-land, hoping that he would find volunteers and
support there. In this he was greatly disappointed. He divided his army, and
sent a large part of it, under Jack-son, to capture Har-per’s Fer-ry, which
was held by Colonel Miles and 13,000 raw troops, principally militia. Miles
made a disgraceful surrender, after scarce any show of resistance, Sep-tem-
ber 15th.

Jack-son’s expedition well-nigh proved the ruin of Lee. M’Clel-lan
took the field Sep-tem-ber 7th, and pushed in between the two divisions of
Lee’s army at Tur-ner’s Gap. There he fought and gained the battle of South
Modun-tain, Sep-tem-ber 14th. Lee, being in a perilous situation, retreated
next day toward the Po-to-mac, and took a position at Sharps-burg, with the
An-tie-tam River in front.

M’Clel-lan delayed his attack until the 17th, and by that time Jack-son
had come up rapidly from Har-per’s Fer-ry. On the 17th the battle of Sharps-
burg, or An-tie-tam, was fought between 70,000 men under Lee, and 80,000
under M’Clel-lan. At the close of the battle the position of the two armies
was nearly the same as at the beginning; yet the Con-fed-er-ates had lost
10,000 in killed and wounded, the Un-ion troops about 11,500. M’Clel-lan did
not renew the attack next day. On the night of the 18th Lee quietly crossed
the Po-to-mac, and continued his march slowly through Vir-gin-i-a without
interruption. The Un-ion army did not reach the south side of the Po-to-mac
until the 2d of No-vem-ber, more than six weeks after the battle.

President Lin-coln and a great part of the North had become dis-

satisfied with General M’Clel-lan, and on the 7th of No-vem-ber General
14
212 THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC,

Burn-side was appointed to the command. He moved the army toward the
Rap-pa-han-nock, intending to proceed against Rich-mond. Fred-er-icks-
burg was chosen as the place of crossing. Lee had placed his men behind
strong earth-works and a stone wall on the other side, some distance from the
river. On the 11th and rath of De-cem-ber Burn-side crossed, and on the 13th
attacked the Con-fed-er-ate works. At the close of that short winter’s day he



EARLY HOME OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN,

found himself repulsed, with the terrible loss of nearly 11,000 in killed and
wounded. Of these there were left 6,500 in front of the stone wall alone. The
Army of the Po-to-mac was nearly demoralized by this dreadful defeat. It had
become greatly dissatisfied with its leader, and the year closed in gloom on the
trials of these brave but devoted troops.
CHAPTER XXXVI,
SINKING THE ALABAMA.

Before proceeding to trace the operations of the different armies during
the year 1864, the efforts of the Con-fed-er-ates on the ocean, which were
brought nearly to an end during this year, will first be noticed. The Con-
fed-er-ate government determined, at the very beginning of the war, to strike
where the U-nit-ed States were open to attack, by either destroying A-mer-
i-can merchant ships with armed vessels, or by driving them from the ocean.

The first step, as early as May, 1861, was the establishment of priva-
teering. This had only moderate success, because the Con-fed-er-ates had no
open ports into which the privateers could bring their prizes, and neutral
powers would not permit the use of their ports for that purpose. The first
privateer was the Sa-van-nah, fitted out at Charles- -ton, carrying only one gun,
and not much larger than an ordinary pilot boat. Her career was short; she
was captured the same day after she ran the blockade by the U-nit-ed
States brig Per-ry.

In the beginning of May, the Con-fed-er-ate cruiser Sum-ter, com-
manded by Captain Semmes, was prepared for sea at New Or-leans, and in
Ju-ly escaped to sea, and captured some A-mer-i-can vessels. She continued her
cruise until Feb-ru-a-ry, 1862, seizing and burning merchant ships, and was
then blockaded by the Tus-ca-ro-ra at Ca- diz, where she was sold by Semmes,
and the crew discharged. The Nash- ville, another of these early Con-fed-er-ate
cruisers, succeeded in escaping from Charles-ton to Eng-land in Oc-to-ber,
1861, and returned to the U-nit-ed States in 1862, running the blockade, and
bringing with her $3,000,000 worth of stores. One year afterward, March,
1863, she was destroyed by the iron-clads, near Fort M’AlI-lis-ter, on the Sa-
van-nah River.

The Con-fed-er-ates now turned to Bri-tish ship-yards for the supply of
armed cruisers. The Flor-i- da, originally named the O-re-to, built near Li-
ver-pool, sailed into Mo-bile Bay under Bri-tish colors, Au- -gust, Boe In

218

SINKING THE ALABAMA. 215

Jan-u-a-ry, 1863, she ran the blockade, and, after deceouines in three months
fifteen vessels, was finally seized in the harbor of Ba-hi-a, Bra-zil, and brought
to Hamp-ton Roads. Here she sank in an accidental collision with another
vessel. The Geor-gia, built at Glas-gow, Scot-land, after a short cruise, was
captured in 1863. The Chick-a-mau-ga burnt ships to the value of half a
million of dollars. The Tal-la-has-see destroyed in ten days thirty-three ves-
sels; and the O-lus-tee was also busy in the same work.

The most active and notorious of all the An-glo-Con-fed-er-ate cruisers
was the Al-a-ba-ma, built at Li-ver-pool, and allowed to escape to sea against
the earnest remonstrance of the A-mer-i-can minister in Eng-land. She was
commanded by Captain Semmes, formerly of the Sum-ter; but her crew was
Bri-tish, her guns were Bri-tish, and under the Bri-tish flag she approached
unsuspecting merchant vessels, and captured or destroyed them. After a long
career, during which she never entered a Con-fed-er-ate port, she sailed into
the harbor of Cher-bourg, France, where she was blockaded by the U-nit-ed
States war steamer Kear-sarge, Captain Wins-low.

Ordered by the French government to leave the harbor the Al-a-ba-ma
was attacked, June 19, 1864, by the Kear-sarge, five miles from shore, and sunk,
after an engagement of one hour and a quarter. Her commander, Semmes,
was rescued from the water by an Eng-lish yacht that hovered near during the
battle. The Al-a-ba-ma captured 65 merchant vessels, and destroyed property
worth ten millions of dollars. Her cruise rises to great importance, as forming
the ground of a claim by the U-nit-ed States against Eng-land for damages
to A-mer-i-can commerce—a claim still unsettled in 1870, and which has
already threatened serious difficulty between the two nations,

The Un-ion government, with immense armies and undiminished re-
sources, proceeded steadily in its work of crushing out the Con-fed-er-a-cy.
The plan of operations for the year 1864, in the spring, resolved itself into the
two simultaneous movements—one of Sherman eastward into Geor-gia with the
armies of the West; the other of Grant, with the Po-to-mac army, toward
Rich-mond—and the capture of the remaining sea-ports. A movement of sec-
ondary importance was made in the beginning of the year from Port Roy-al,
South Car-o-li-na, under General Sey-mour, to Flor-i-da. At O-lus-tee he
received a disastrous defeat, Feb-ru-a-ry 20, and was compelled to return.

General W. T. Sher-man left Vicks-burg Febru-a-ry 3, with the inten-
tion of destroying the railroads in northern Mis-sis-sip-pi,and thus breaking the
communications of that state with the rest of the Con-fed-er-a-cy. His plans


SN
SINKING THE ALABAMA. 217

were somewhat disarranged by General For-rest, who defeated a large cavalry
force from Mem-phis intended to join Sher-man at Me-ri-di-an, Mis-sis-sip-pi.
From this point, the intersection of two great railroads, Sher-man returned
to Vicks-burg, after destroying 150 miles of railroad, 67 bridges, 20 locomo- -
tives, 28 cars, thousands of bales of cotton, and 20,000 bushels of corn.

The Con-fed-er-ate For-est advanced north into Ten-nes-see, laying
waste the country, and captured Un-ion City, Ten-nes-see, March 24. Next
day he appeared before Pa-du-cah, Ken-tuc-ky, but was repulsed, with the loss
of 1,500 men. On the 12th of A-pril he attacked Fort Pil-low. The garrison,
principally negro troops, made a brave resistance, but were forced to surrender.
For-rest’s raid accomplished nothing for the Con-fed-er-ate cause.

In the beginning of March Grant was appointed lieutenant general
and commander of all the armies of the Un-ion. He immediately removed his
head-quarters to the Army of the Po-to-mac. At the same time Sher-man was
appointed to the command of the Military Division of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, which
embraced three great armies—that of the O-hi-o, the Cum-ber-land, and the
Ten-nes-see. This was a change of great importance, because the operations
in the East and West could now be made to assist each other. The two large
armies of the Con-fed-er-a-cy were under Lee and John-ston. That under Lee
guarded Rich-mond; the other, under John-ston, covered At-lan-ta, in Geor- gia,
Grant’s plan of campaigns for 1864 required that Sher-man should strike the
army of John-ston, while, at the same time, he himself, with the army of the
Po-to-mac, should crush Lee and capture Rich-mond.

Sher-man commenced to perform his part by leaving Chat-ta-noo-ga,
on the At-lan-ta campaign, May 7, with nearly 100,000 men. John-ston, at
the head of the Con-fed-er-ate army, numbering 70,000, disputed his advance.
Outflanked by Sher-man at Dal-ton, he fell back to Re-sa-ca, where a severe
battle was fought May 14 and 15. John-ston again outflanked, made a
stand at Dal-las, where he was defeated, and Al-la-too-na Pass turned,
May 25-28. At Lost Moun-tain there was heavy fighting June
75, 16, 17 and at Ken-e-saw Moun-tain June 22 to Ju-ly 3. By the 1oth of
Ju-ly John-ston had fallen back within the fortifications of At-lan-ta.

The Con-fed-er-ate government, dissatisfied with John-ston’s retreating
policy, ordered General Hood to supersede him; and Hood attacked Sher-man
three times during the month of Ju-ly, only to be defeated. The latter tightened
his hold on At-lan-ta, and at last, by a masterly movement, got in between
218 SINKING THE ALABAMA.

two parts of Hood’s army. This compelled Hood to evacuate the city, and
Sher-man’s advanced corps entered it Sep-tem-ber 2. His campaign from
Chat-ta-noo-ga had cost him 30,000 men. The Con-fed-er-ate loss probably
exceeded this. At-lan-ta had been a place of great importance to the Con-fed-



ADMIRAL FARRAGUT.

er-ates. Here was extensive manufactories of cannon and munitions of war,
and it was at the crossing of several railroads. Sher-man rested here to re-
cruit his army and to prepare for his famous march of 200 miles across Geor-
gia to the sea.
CHAPTER XXVII.
THE MARCH TO THE SEA.

While Hood was moving into Ten-nes-see, Sher-man cut his own rail-
road and telegraphic communications with Chat-ta-noo-ga, burned At-lan-ta,
and on the 14th of No-vem-ber commenced his march across Geor-gia to
Sa-van-nah with 60,000 men. He met with little resistance, and in four weeks
reached the neighborhood of Sa-van-nah. On the 13th of De-cem-ber he
stormed and took Fort M’AlI-lis-ter, which commanded the river. On the
2ist, five weeks from the time he left At-lan-ta, he entered the city, which had
been evacuated by the enemy, and sent the news of its capture, as “a Christmas
present,” to. President Lin-coln.

Grant’s part of the great forward movement began by crossing the
Rap-i-dan River, with 140,000 men, on the morning of the 4th of May, Gen-
eral Meade being in immediate command. This was only four days before
Sher-man left Chat-ta-noo-ga. Grant, after crossing the river, entered a tract
called the Wil-der-ness. Here Lee’s army, numbering about 100,000, attacked
him on the 5th, near the old battle-ground of Chan-cel-lors-ville. After three
days’ hard fighting, and terrible slaughter on both sides, Lee fell back to Spott-
syl-va-ni-a Court-house, where the battle was renewed. It was on the morning
of the 11th that Grant, after six days’ hard fighting, sent his famous dispatch to
Wash-ing-ton, containing those now historic words, “I propose to fight it out
on this line, if it takes all summer.”

The battle of the 12th of May was probably the most severe, the loss on
each side being not less than 10,000. -Finding that Lee could not be driven in
front, Grant moved to the enemy’s right flank, crossed the Pa-mun-key River at
Han-o-ver Town, and attacked Lee, strongly fortified, at Cold Har-bor, on the
Ist of June, but was repulsed with a loss of 2,000 men. On the 3d, a second
attack which lasted little more than half an hour, was made, in which Grant’s
loss was 7,000. The entire Un-ion loss in the Army of the Po-to-mac from the
5th of May to the 13th of June was 54,551 men in killed, wounded, and
missing. Lee’s was about 32,000.

219

THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 7 221

Before Grant reached Spott-syl-va-ni-a, he dispatched Sher-i-dan, May
7, with 10,000 cavalry, to break the railroad connection between Rich-mond
and the Shen-an-do-ah Val-ley and Lynch-burg. In this he met with con-
siderable success, and went within a few miles of the Con-fed-er-ate capital.
On the 25th of June he rejoined Grant. As a part also of Grant’s movement,
General But-ler moved in force from Fortress Mon-roe toward Rich-mond,
and occupied City Point and Ber-mu-da Hun-dred on the James May 5. On
the 16th he was attacked by the Con-fed-er-ates, and forced back between the
James and Ap-po-mat-tox Rivers at Ber-mu-da Hun-dred, where his force was
hemmed in, and rendered useless for an immediate advance on Rich-mond.

A movement was also made up the Shen-an-doah, to assist operations
on Lee’s flank and rear. On the 1st of May Si-gel moved up the Valley with
10,000 men, and was routed at New-mar-ket on the 15th by Breck-in-ridge
with considerable loss. Hun-ter succeeded Si-gel and defeated the enemy at
Pied-mont June 5. He then approached the important point of Lynch-burg.
Lee, becoming alarmed for his safety, sent a strong force to his relief, and
Hun-ter retreated into Western Vir-gin-i-a.

Grant began to move his army, re-enforced to 150,000 men, across the
James on the 15th.of June. On the 18th he assaulted Pe-ters-burg, which had
been hastily fortified by a part of Lee’s army. It was a place of great im-
portance, because it was the center of several railroads connecting Rich-mond
with the South. In four days Grant’s losses in the assault. were 9,000 men.
With his repulse at Pe-ters-burg the siege of that place and of Rich-mond
began. Grant’s movements had thus far cost him 64,000 men. ‘Lee had lost
about 38,000. The struggle was now a simple question of the resources of the
North against the exhausted energies of the South.

An attempt was presently made to break Lee’s lines by running a mine
under one of the enemy’s forts. On the morning of the 30th of July, four tons
of powder were exploded in it, and over the chasm that was made the Fed-er-al
soldiers charged. But the enemy turned their guns upon them, and drove
them back with the loss of 5,000 men. On Au-gust 18, 19, 20, Grant seized
and destroyed a part of the Wel-don Rail-road south of Pe-ters-burg. This
contest of three days cost Grant 4,500 troops. There was more severe fighting,
continuing as late as De-cem-ber; and throughout the winter the Un-ion army
was occupied in extending their entrenchments, and endeavoring to break the
enemy’s communications.


GENERAL W. T. SHERMAN,
THE MARCH TO THE SEA, 228

Mo-bile was one of the most strongly fortified cities in the Con-fed-er-
a-cy. Two strong fortifications, Gaines and Mor-gan, besides a number of
batteries, commanded the entrance to the bay. An expedition, consisting of a
powerful fleet, under Admiral Far-ra-gut, and a land force commanded by
General G. Gran-ger, was sent against Mo-bile in Ju-ly.

Far-ra-gut attacked the forts on the sth of Au-gust. To enable him to
see and direct the operations of the fleet, he had himself lashed to the main-top
of his own vessel, the Hart-ford. The fleet fought its way past the forts with
the loss of only one iron-clad. When it got above them, the iron-plated ram
Ten-nes-see attacked Far-ra-gut, but was disabled, and compelled to surrender
after a short but desperate fight. The forts were soon after given up to
General Gran-ger. . Mo-bile, as a port, was now effectually shut against
blockade-running; but the city was not taken until next year.

There remained north of the Gulf only one port of entrance open to the
Con-fed-er-ates—Wil-ming-ton, North Caro-li-na. This was commanded by
Fort Fish-er, a work of extraordinary strength. Admiral Por-ter, with a fleet,
and a land force of 8,oc0 men under General But-ler, were sent against it in
De-cem-ber. On the 24th the bombardment was begun with the heaviest fleet
that had been employed during the war. The troops landed above the fort
after the bombardment, but General But-ler decided that it was too strong to
be taken by assault. The expedition then returned to Fortress Mon-roe.

Notwithstanding the unfortunate issue of the attempt against Fort
Fish-er at the close of the previous year, Admiral Por-ter remained firm in the
conviction that it could be taken. Another expedition was accordingly sent
against it in Jan-u-a-ry, 1865. Por-ter commanded the fleet, and General
Ter-ry the land force. The,troops landed near the fort on the 12th, and the
fleet bombarded it with terrific power for the three following days. On the
15th, Ter-ry, after a bloody struggle, took the works by assault. On the 22d of
Feb-ru-a-ry Wil-ming-ton was occupied by the Un-ion troops.

The plan of the campaign had now become very simple. The Con-
fed-er-a-cy was in its last agony. Sher-man’s course lay northward through
North and South Car-o-li-na into Vir-gin-i-a, and Grant’s business was the
capture of Pe-ters-burg and Rich-mond. Both these movements were carried
through at a very early period in the year. ;

Sher-man allowed his army to rest a month in Sa-van-nah. Toward
the end of Jan-u-a-ry he pushed through South Car-o-li-na to Co-lum-bi-a. the
224 THE MARCH TO THE SEA.

capital, and entered it Feb-ru-a-ry 17th. On his way he cut the railroad north
of Charles-ton.. Har-dee, the Con-fed-er-ate general at that place, afraid of
being hemmed in, evacuated the city Feb-ru-a-ry 17th, and moved north to
join General John-ston in North Car-o-li-na. From Co-lum-bi-a, Sher-man
pressed toward Fay-ette-ville, North Car-o-li-na, which he entered March 2ist,
where he was joined by Generals Scho-field and Ter-ry, who had come up from
the coast with re-enforcements. General John-ston, with 40,000 men, lay at
Ra-leigh, the capital of the state.

All winter Grant’s army was encamped in front of Pe-ters-burg, stretch-
ing away around to the southwest. On the 27th of F eb-ru-a-ry Sher-i-dan was
sent from Win-ches-ter, with a cavalry force 10,000 strong, up the Shen-an-

-do-ah Valley, to destroy Lee’s communications by canal and railroad to the
north and east of Rich-mond. Ear-ly was entrenched at Waynes-boro, where
he was attacked by Sher-i-dan, and compelled to retreat, with the loss of 1,600
prisoners. After an almost continued career of success, Sher-i-dan joined the
army near Pe- ters- -burg March 26th.

Lee’s situation began to grow desperate. He tried to break the Un-ion
line at Fort Stead-man, but was repulsed with loss March 25. His only hope
now was to be able to join John-ston’s army in North Car-o-li-na, and prolong
the contest. On the 1st of A-pril, Sher-i-dan, with 30,000 men, attacked Lee’s
position at Five Forks, and gained it. Then followed Grant’s attack along the
whole front, and Lee’s lines were pierced in several places. On the 3d of
A-pril, Pe-ters-burg was entered by the Un-ion troops and Rich-mond a few
hours afterward. Lee fled westward, but was so closely followed that he was
compelled to surrender-his army to Grant at Ap- oe -mat-tox Court-house,
A-pril 9.

The j oy that filled the hearts of the loyal people of the North at the news
of Lee’s surrender was turned to sorrow five days afterward. President Lin-
coln was shot in the private box of the theater at Wash-ing-ton on the evening
of A-pril 14, by J. Wilkes Booth. On the morning of the 15th the President
died. Almost at the same time he was shot, another assassin broke into the
sick-chamber of Mr. Se-ward, Secretary of State, and, after wounding him and
his son severely, escaped. Booth, tracked into Ma-ry-land was captured in a
tobacco-house near Port Roy-al, and killed by his oe Four of his ac-
complices were tried and executed.

At the beginning of A-pril, the Con-fed-er-ate army under General
John-ston was at Ra-leigh, closely watched by Sher-man. On the 10th Sher-
THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 225

man began to press back, and on the 13th entered Ra-leigh. At this time news
reached John-ston of Lee’s surrender, and he at once made proposals to Sher-
man. On A-pril 26th, the terms of surrender were signed by both generals.
Da-vis, the Con-fed-er-ate president, was captured on the 1oth of May at Ir-



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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A RAILROAD BATTERY.

wins-ville, Geor-gia, while trying to escape to the sea-coast. He was sent
prisoner to Fortress Mon-roe. By the end of May all the Con-fed-er-ate
armies in the Southwest had.surrendered, and the Civil War was at an end.

CHAPTER XXVIII.
FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY.

In the fall of the year 1862, Pres-i-dent Lin-coln warned the Con-fed-
er-ate states that unless they returned to the Un-ion, he would declare every
slave within their borders free on the ist of Jan-u-a-ry, 1863. True to his word
he issued the famous “E-man-ci-pa-tion Pro-cla-ma-tion.” The principal
events of his administration have been told in the chapters devoted to the Civil
War. By his death, Vice-Pres-i-dent An-drew John-son became Pres-i-dent.
The most important enterprise during Pres-i-dent John-son’s administration
was the laying of the At-lan-tic cable. In 1869, Gen-er-al U-lys-ses S. Grant,
the hero of the Rebellion, was elected Pres-i-dent. Shortly before his inaugu-
ration both houses of Con-gress agreed to recommend to the legislatures of the
different states the passage of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution in
the following words: “the right of the citizens of the U-nit-ed States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the U-nit-ed States, or any state on account
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” During the first of Pres-i-
dent Grant’s administration the country was prosperous and the southern
states which now belong to the Un-ion, were beginning to get used to the new
condition of being without slaves. The year of 1871 was made remarkable for a
great fire which nearly destroyed the city of Chi-ca-go. It is said that this great
calamity, which resulted in the loss of property amounting to nearly two
hundred million dollars, was caused by a cow kicking over a lamp in a stable.
But the country continued to improve and many important events occurred.
One of these was the completion of the great railway connecting the Mis-sise
sip-pi Valley with the Pa-cif-ic coast, 1,776 miles long; another was the settle-
ment of the claims made by the U-nit-ed States against Eng-land, by which it
was decided to pay this country fifteen and a half million dollars in gold, for
losses sustained by Con-fed-er-ate cruisers during the civil war. The north-
western botindary question between Great Bri-tain and the U-nit-ed States was
settled by the Fim-ne-ror of Ger-ma-ny, to whose decision it had been left.

227

FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY. 229

In 1873, Gen-er-al Grant was re-elected by a large majority and soon after the
prosperity of the country came to a sudden stop and a period of depression fol-
lowed. This was one of the results of the civil war.

The discovery of gold in the Black Hills had drawn a large number of
settlers to that section of the country, and many of them took advantage of this
to overrun the In-di-an reservation of the Sioux, who declared for war. In an
engagement with the savages Gen-er-al George A. Cus-ter was killed, with 261
men, On May io, 1876, the great Cen-ten-ni-al Ex-hi-bi-tion was formally
opened by Pres-i-dent Grant. In 1877 Ru-ther-ford B. Hayes was elected Pres-
i-dent. Up to this time it had been thought necessary to keep armed troops
in some sections of the South but Pres-i-dent Hayes stated that he would with-
draw the soldiers from Louis-i-a-na and South Car-o-li-na, which he did,and the
southern people were allowed to manage their own affairs. The administration
of Pres-i-dent Hayes was very quiet for the country had entered upon a season
of prosperity. In 1881, Gen-er-al James A. Gar-field was chosen Pres-i-dent.
Shortly after his inauguration, however, the country was startled to learn that
he had been shot when about to start on a journey to the North. The wretch
who did this was probably insane, but it was a great shock to every one to know
that another Pres-i-dent had met his death by the assassin’s bullet. Vice-Pres-
i-dent Ches-ter A. Ar-thur succeeded to the presidency and gave an able
administration.

After twenty years of power the Re-pub-li-can party was defeated in the
election of 1884, and the nominee of the Dem-o-crat-ic party, Grover Cleve-
land, was elected Pres-i-dent. In 1885, the country was saddened to learn
Gen-er-al Grant was dying. A fatal uisease had seized the brave old warrior,
and although the hero struggled bravely against his fate he was obliged to
surrender at last to the enemy, who sooner or later, defeats us all. It was not
long before other noted generals passed away; Mc-Clel-lan, Han-cock and
Lo-gan soon joined the army in the skies. Although Pres-i-dent Cleve-land
had a great many difficulties to contend with, he endeavored to do his duty,
as he saw it.

In 1889, the Re-pub-li-cans were again victorious and elected Ben-
ja-min Har-ri-son. One of the first events of his administration was the opening
of the Ok-la-ho-ma Ter-ri-to-ry to settlers. On the evening before the day set
apart for the settlement of this tract of land, it is said that over 50,000 people
were waiting on its outskirts. When morning came they swarmed over the
territory, and before night every piece of farming land had been taken. On



FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY. 231

A-pril 30, 1889, the Cen-ten-ni-al An-ni-ver-sa-ry of George Wash-ing-ton’s in-
auguration was celebrated throughout the country. On the night of A-pril 28,
Pres-i-dent Har-ri-son left Wash-ing-ton for New York City and traversed the
same route that Wash-ing-ton had a hundred years before. When he arrived
in New York City, he was entertained with great ceremony. On the morning
of the 30th of A-pril he attended services at St. Paul’s Church, sitting in the
same pew that Wash-ing-ton had occupied. The Pres-i-dent was then escorted
to the Sub-Treas-u-ry building, where the exercises were to be held, and on the
spot where George Wash-ing-ton had taken his oath of office, he delivered a
short but eloquent address. The four years of his term were full of striking
events. “In 1889 the Pan-A-mer-i-can Con-gress of all A-mer-i-ca met in Wash-
ing-ton. In the spring of 1891 U-nit-ed States came very near having a war
with I-ta-ly, and later in the year with Chi-li, but the disputes were settled with-
out bloodshed.

The McKinley bill went into effect Au-gust 6, 1890, but the enactment
of the bill was probably the cause of the Re-pub-li-can defeat for many did not
believe in extreme protection. Several prominent people died during the first
months of 1893, and among them were Ex-Pres-i-dent Ru-ther-ford B. Hayes,
Ben-ja-min F, But-ler and James G. Blaine. ;

The inauguration of Pres-i-dent Cleve-land was celebrated March 4, 1893.
The installation of Vice-Pres-i-dent Ste-ven-son took place in the Sen-ate
chamber. On the following day Pres-i-dent Cleve-land announced his Cab-i-
net composed of the following men of note: Wai-ter Q. Gresh-am, of
T1-li-nois, Sec-re-ta-ry of State; John G. Car-lisle, of wen-tuck-y, Sec-re-ta-ry
of the Treas-ur-y; Dan-iel S. La-mont, of New York, Sec-re-ta-ry of War; Hoke
Smith, of Georg-ia, Sec-re-ta-ry of the In-te-ri-or; Hil-a-ry A. Her-bert, of
Al-a-ba-ma, Sec-re-ta-ry of the Na-vy; J. Ster-ling Mor-ton, of Ne-bras-ka,
Sec-re-ta-ry of Ag-ri-cul-ture; Rich-ard Ol-ney, of Mass-a-chu-setts, At-tor-
ney-Gen-er-al; and Wil-son S. Bis-sell, of New York, Post-mast-er-Gen-er-al.
Mr, Bis-sell afterward resigned and was succeeded in office by Will-iam L.
Wil-son, of West Vir-gin-ia. The death of Sec-re-ta-ry of State, Wal-ter
Q. Gresh-am, which occurred May 28, 1895, necessitated another change in
the Cabinet, Pres-i-dent Cleve-land placed Rich-ard Ol-ney at the head of
the State De-part-ment and Jud-son Har-mon was appointed At-tor-ney-
Gen-er-al.

After the provisions of the Wil-son tariff bill, which became a law on
August 15, were made public, the Ways and Means committee took under.

FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY, 233

consideration an income tax law. Chair-man Wil-son was personally
opposed to such a measure, but agreed to it when adopted by a majority
of the committee. He said:

“But despite these strong arguments in favor of an individual income
tax, and the unquestionable equity of its general theory, there are grave
counter reasons which rise up before a legislator who seeks to embody it in
our tax system. Aside from the very natural objection of those who might
have to pay such a tax, its administration is necessarily accompanied by
some exasperatingly demoralizing incidents. Our people have so long and
so generally been free from any public scrutiny into their personal incomes,
and even from any personal contact with Fed-er-al tax collectors, that they
resent the approach of either. Moreover, like the personal property tax,
which is so universally evaded, the personal income tax would easily lend

‘itself to fraud, concealment and perjury.”’

The income tax bill passed both Hous-es of Con-gress and approved by
the Pres-i-dent, became a law. The courts declared the law unconstitutional,

On March 29, 1894, Pres-i-dent Cleve-land vetoed the seigniorage bill,

‘tan act which directed the coinage of the silver bullion held in the Treas-
ur-y and for other purposes.’’

On Au-gust 13, 1894, the Sen-ate ratified a new treaty between the U- nit-
ed States and Chi-na, and on November 22, a treaty was signed between
this country and Ja-pan.

The years 1893 and 1894 were marked by industrial depression and finan-
cial stringency. The lat-ter year was made memorable by a series of most
disastrous labor disturbances.

On April 21, 1894, 152,000 miners left their work, and thereby closed
nearly all the Dinmeinons coal mines in the country. The miners asserted
that the causes of the strike were low wages and lack of steady employment.
The mine operators, on the other hand, claimed that the ‘‘hard times’’ had
lowered the price of labor and decreased the consumption of coal over 2 5
per cent. In less than a month after the outbreak, 175,000 miners had
joined the strike, and the bituminous coal region was the scene of unre-
strained violence. Desperate battles took place between the strikers and
armed deputies. Order was finally restored, and on June 8, a conference
of miners and operators was called to meet at Co-lum: bus, O- hi: o, to arrange
a scale of prices. An agreement was reached and the strike ended.

The most unique effort to aid the long-suffering cause of labor was
au cried by J. S. Cox-ey, of Mass-il-lon, O. He proposed to organize

“industrial armies’’ at different parts of the country, which were to simul-
taneously march to Wash-ing-ton. These organizations were formed for
the purpose of urging upon Con-gress the necessity of legislation in the
interest of labor. According to Mr. Cox-ey and his followers, a law ought
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FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY. 2385

to be passed providing for the issue of $50,000,000 in legal tender notes to
be expended by the Sec-re-ta-ry of War at the rate of $20,000,000 a month for
building roads throughout the country. Another law was to be urged
which would give every state, city or village the right to deposit in the
Na-tion-al Treas-ur-y non-interest-bearing bonds to an amount not exceed-
ing one-half the assumed valuation of its property; the Sec-re-ta-ry of the
Treas-ur-y would then be obliged to issue legal tender notes to an amount
equal to the face of the bonds. On March 24 Cox-ey and his army of roo
men left Mas-sil-lon, O., for Wash-ing-ton. At the same time other
industrial armies were formed in other parts of the country. The Cox-ey
contingent reached Wash-ing-ton, where the leader and two of his lieuten-
ants were arrested, tried and imprisoned. Other armies which had assem-
bled at various points were disbanded and the movement ended in complete
failure.

The business depression which affected all departments of trade and in-
dustry, had made it necessary for the Pull-man Palace Car Com-pa-ny to
reduce the wages of its employes. The workmen became dissatisfied and
a strike was threatened if wages were not advanced. The grievances of
the workmen were investigated, although no increase of wages was ordered.
When the company learned that the men had decided to strike, notice was
given that the works would be closed indefinitely. This occurred May 12, 1894.

The A-mer-i-can Rail-way Un-ion held its national convention in Chi-.
ca-go on June 1, with Eu-gene V. Debs as president. A committee was
appointed to confer with the officials of the Pull-man company. ‘The re-
fusal of the company to recognize the A-mer-i-can Rail-way Un-ion was
followed by an order to boycott all Pull-man cars, with instructions to begin
on the Il-li-nois Cen-tral road and: to extend to all others in the country
using these cars. On the evening of June 26, the St. Louis express, on the
Il-li-nois Central Rail-road was stopped at Grand Cross-ing where it was
surrounded by a crowd of excited strikers. The engineer and fireman
were forced to leave the train because it contained Pull-man coaches.
One hour afterward nine trains were blocked at Grand Cross-ing and traffic
was finally suspended. The following day the strike extended to other
toads and the transportation of mails was abandoned. The situation
rapidly became more serious and the tracks on many roads were blocked by
overturned freight cars. Disturbances were of frequent occurrence in
and about Chi-ca go, and the sheriff was called upon to furnish armed
deputies. On July 2, a Cab-i-net council was held at Wash-ing-ton and
on the following day the regulars at Fort Sher-i-dan were ordered out for
duty at Chi-ca-go. The southwestern portion of the city was in the
hands of the mob and there were frequent skirmishes between the rioters
and the soldiers.


Ze Cz. Kcesief

w
FROM LINCOLN TO McKINLEY. 237

On July 6, the mob set fire to 775 ‘freight cars in the yards of the Pan
Handle road, a loss of $500,000. At Haw-thorne 211 freight cars, loaded
with merchandise valued at $80,000 were destroyed. On the same day
five regiments of State troops were ordered to Chi-ca-go.

On July 7, a conflict took place in Chi-ca-go between the mob and Com-
pa-ny C, of the Sec-ond Il-li-nois Reg-i-ment. The soldiers were forced to
fire, killing two persons and fatally injuring several others. During the
day 690 cars and engines were burned or wrecked, 96 cars were over-
turned, 9 buildings were burned and 26 men were either killed or injured.
On the following day martial law in Chi-ca-go was declared, by a formal
proclamation issued by Pres-i-dent Cleve-land.

On the same day an encounter took place at Ham-mond, Ind., between
the rioters and regulars, in which one of the mob was killed and seven
were wounded. On the gth the Sec-ond Bri-gade of State troops was or-
dered to Chi-ca-go. Wrecking trains were sent out to clear the tracks of
overturned cars and wreckage. On the roth Debs was arrested on a bench °
warrant, issued by Judge Gross-cup, of the U-ni-ted States Dis-trict Court,
charging him with conspiracy. An unsuccesful effort was then made to pro-
long the strike by calling out the Knights of La-bor. This was practically
the last day of the strike. Order was gradually restored and the regular
business of the railroads was resumed. The actual cost of the strike is
unknown. ‘The loss in Chi-ca-go alone is estimated at $7,000,000.

The presidential election of 1896 was one of the most memorable political
struggles in A-mer-i-can His-to-ry, the currency question being the main
issue. The free coinage of silver was advocated by many on the grounds
that the prevailing financial depression was a direct result of the demone-
tization of silver in 1873. On the other hand, it was urged that a reversal
of the former monetary system which recognized gold as the standard of
value would result in retarding the return of the country to business activ-
ity. The battle was practically waged between the forces of silver under
the leadership of Will-iam Jen-nitigs Bry-an, of Ne-bras-ka, and those who
believed in the principles of the gold standard. The result was the election
of the Republican candidate, Will-iam McKin-ley, of O-hi-o, as President
of the U-ni-ted States, 4


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CHAPTER XXIX.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE.

Mr. McKin-ley’s Inauguration followed with rather more than the usual
pomp and ceremony, March 4, 1897.

Soon after his inauguration Pres-i-dent McKin-ley announced his Cabi-
net as follows: Sec-re-ta-ry of State, John Sher-man; Sec-re-ta-ry of the
Treas-ur-y, Ly-man J. Gage; Sec-re-ta-ry of War, Rus-sel A. Al-ger; Sec-
re-ta-ry of the Na-vy, John D. Long; Sec-re-ta-ry of the In-te-ri-or, Cor-ne-
li-us N. Bliss; Post-master Gen-er-al, James A. Ga-ry; At-tor-ney Gen-er-
al, Jo-seph B. Mc-Ken-na; Sec-re-ta-ry of Ag-ri-cul-ture, James Wil-son.
Later, William R. Day,-was appointed to succeed Mr. Sher-man as Sec-
re-ta-ry of State, Em-or-y H. Smith in place of Mr. Ga-ry, and John W.
Griggs in place of Mr. Mc-Ken-na.

One of the first problems which confronted the president was the duty of
the U-ni-ted States toward Spain and the Cu-ban insurgents,

But while this grave question was being discussed by A-mer-i-can citizens
everywhere, the whole world was startled by a terrible disaster. On the
night of February 15, 1898, the battleship Maine, which had been sent to
Cu-ba on a friendly mission, was blown to pieces in the harbor of Ha-va-na

Lieu-ten-ant Blan-din, an eye-witness, gives the following description of
the incident:

“T was on watch, and when the men had been piped below, I looked
down the main hatches and over the side of the ship. Everything was
absolutely normal. I walked aft to the quarter deck, behind the rear turret,
as is allowed after 8 o’clock in the evening, and sat down on the port side,
where I remained a few minutes. Then, for some reason I cannot explain
to myself now, I moved to the starboard side and sat down there. I was
feeling a bit glum, and in fact was so quiet that Lieu-ten-ant Hood came
up and asked, laughingly, if I was asleep. I said, ‘No; I am on watch.’

““Scarcely had I spoken when there came a dull, sullen roar. Would to
God that I could blot out the scenes that followed! Then came a sharp ex-
plosion, some say numerous detonations. J remember only one. It seemed
to me that the sound came from the port side forward. Then came a per-
fect rain of missiles of all descriptions, from huge pieces of cement to

239
5



PRESIDENT AND CABINET.
x. President McKinley.

Secretary of the Treasury Gage. 6. Secretary of the Navy Long.
Attorney-General Griggs. %. Postmaster-General Smith.
Secretary of Agriculture Wilson, 8 Secretary of State Day.

Secretary of War Alger, q Secretary of the Interior Bliss.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 241

_ blocks of wood, steel railings, fragments of gratings, and all the debris that
would be detachable in an explosion.

““T was struck on the head by a piece of cement and knocked down, but I
was not hurt and got on my feet ina moment. Lieu-ten-ant Hood had run
to the poop, and I supposed, as I followed, he was dazed by the shock and
about to jump overboard. I halted him, and he answered that he had run
to the poop to help lower the boats.

“When I got there, though scarce a moment could have elapsed, I had to
wade in water to my knees, and almost immediately the quarter deck was
awash. On the poop I found Cap-tain Sigs-bee, as cool as if at a ball, and
soon all the officers except Mer-ritt and Jen-kins joined us. The poop was
above water after the Maine sunk to the bottom.

“‘Cap-tain Sigs-bee ordered the launch and gig lowered, and the officers
and men, who by this time had assembled, got the boats out and rescued a
number in the water. Cap-tain Sigs-bee ordered Lieu-ten-ant Com-mand-
er Wain-wright forward to see the extent of the damage, and if anything
could be done to rescue those forward or to extinguish the flames, which
followed close upon the explosion and burned fiercely as long as there were
any combustibles above water to feed them.

“‘Lieu-ten-ant-Com-man-der Wain-wright on his return reported the total
and awful character of the calamity, and Cap-tain Sigs-bee gave his last
sea order, ‘Abandon Ship,’ to men overwhelmed with grief indeed, but
calm and apparently unexcited.

“Meantime four boats from the Span-ish cruiser Al-fon-so XII., arrived
to be followed soon by the Ward line steamer Ci-ty of Wash-ing-ton. The
two boats lowered from the Ci-ty of Wash-ing-ton were found to be riddled
with flying debris from the Maine and unfit for use. Cap-tain Sigs-bee
was the last to leave his vessel and left in his own gig.

‘I have no theories as to the cause of the explosion. I cannot form any.
An examination by divers may tell something to a court of inquiry. I, with
others, had heard that the Ha-va-na Har-bor was full of torpedoes but the
officers whose duty it was to examine into that reported that they had
found no signs of any. Personally, I do not believe that the Span-iards
had anything to do with the d’saster. Time may tell. I hope so.

‘““We were in a delicate position on the Maine, so far as taking any pre-
caution was concerned. We were friends in a friendly, or alleged friendly,
port and could not fire upon or challenge the report of any boat boarding
us unless convinced that her intention was hostile.

“I wish to heaven I could forget. I have been in two wrecks now and
have had my share But the reverberations of that sullen, yet resonant
Toar, as if the bottom of the sea were groaning in torture, will haunt me
San Sw

NAVY OFFICERS.

Admiral Dewey.

I.
Rear Admiral McNair.
Rear Admiral Sampson.
Rear Admiral Schley.
Rear Admiral Norton.
Captain Evans.
Captain Craig.

14.

Captain Sigsbee.

8.
9.
10.
IL
I2.

13.



Rear Admiral Howell.
Captain Wilde.

Rear Admiral Sicard.
Commander M’Collum,
Captain Chadwick.
Commander Pendleton.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 243

for many a day, and the reflection of that pillar of flame comes tu me even
when I close my eyes.”’

The funeral of twenty-seven of the victims occurred in Havana on the
17th of Feb-ru-a-ry. During that day the bodies lay in state in Mu-nic-i-pal
Hall, the funeral services being conducted in part by the local clergy, in-
cluding the Bishop of Ha-va-na. The procession was composed of the
best families of Ha-va-na in carriages, government officials, delegations
from the Span-ish men-of-war, and supervisors of the Maine, who moved
to the cemetery in the afternoon to pay the last sad rites to our untimely
dead.

A court of inquiry was appointed by the U-ni-ted States government,
which court consisted of Cap-tains Samp-son and Chad-wick and Lieu-ten-
ant-Com-man-ders Ma-rix and Pot-ter, and immediately went into session.
The board of inquiry, after about six weeks’ investigaion, was unable to
fix the responsibility, although it was found that the explosion was due to
exterior causes. The officers and crew of the Maine were exonerated from
all blame in the matter, for the report showed clearly that the catastrophe
was not due to any carelessness on their part, the greatest diligence having
been exercised at all times.

Soon after the reception of this report the Pres-i-dent sent a message to
Con-gress, declaring that armed intervention in Cu-ba on the part of the
U-ni-ted States, was the only step that would be in keeping with the bar-
barities practiced by Spain. The Maine incident was put aside to be settled
by diplomatic measures.

An appropriation of $50,000,000 for coast defenses and for the purchase
of war vessels, was voted at this time, and negotiations were at once
entered into with several foreign powers, while a number of armed cruisers
were purchased for the United States Navy. Several passenger and mail
steamers were also purchased or leased as auxiliary cruisers, and were at
_ once manned and put in commission.

The next step was the drawing up by Con-gress of the following resolu-
tions, which received the Pres-i-dent’s signature on April 2o:

‘Whereas, the abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than
three years in the island of Cu-ba, so near our own borders, have shocked
the moral sense of the people of the U-ni-ted States, have been a disgrace
to Christ-ian civilization, culminating, as they have in the destruction of a
U-ni-ted States battleship with two hundred and sixty of its officers and
crow, while on a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, and cannot longet
be endured, as has been set forth by the Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States
in his message to Con-gress of April 11, 1898, upon which the action of
Con-gress was invited: therefore, be it resolved:

16
3
4
5
6.
7

ARMY OFFICERS.

I.
Major-General Brooke.
Major-General Merritt. _
Major-General Breckenridge.
Major-General Merriam.
Major-General Coppinger.
Major-General Sewell.

Major-General Miles.

Q.
Io.
Il.
12.

13.



Major-General Graham.
Major-General Wade.
Major-General Wheeler.
Major-General Shafter.
Major-General Lee.
Major-General Otis,
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 245

“First—That the people of the island of Cu-ba are, and of right ought
to be, free and independent.

‘‘Second—That it is the duty of the U-ni-ted States to demand that the
government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in ~
the island of Cu-ba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cu-ba and
Cu-ban waters. i

‘“Third—That the Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States be, and he hereby
is, directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the
U-ni-ted States, and to call into actual service of the U-ni-ted States, the
militia of the several states to such an extent as may seem necessary to
carry these resolutions into effect.

‘‘Fourth—That the U-ni-ted States hereby disclaims any disposition or in-
tention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, ex-
cept for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is
accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its
people.’’ 8

An ultimatum, quoting the resolutions passed*by Con-gress, and demand-
ing that Spain’s army and navy be withdrawn from Cu-ba by noon of
April 23, was sent by the Pres-i-dent immediately after he signed these
resolutions. ,

Diplomatic relations between the two countries being now broken off by
the action of Spain, the U-ni-ted States ‘deemed it proper that hostilities
should begin at once. To this end the Pres-i-dent issued the following
proclamation:

“Whereas by a joint resolution passed by the Congress and approved
April 20, 1898, and communicated to the government of Spain it was de-
manded that said government at once relinquish its authority and government
of the island of Cu-ba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cu-ba and
Cu-ban waters; and the Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States was directed and
empowered to use the land and naval forces of the U-ni-ted States, and to
call into the actual service of the U-ni-ted States the militia of the several
states to such extent as might be necessary to carry said resolutions into
effect; and,

“Whereas, In carrying into effect said resolution the Pres-i-dent of the
U-ni-ted States deems it necessary to set on foot and maintain a blockade
of the north coast of Cu-ba, including all ports between Car-de-nas and
Ba-hi-a Hon-da and the port of Ci-en-fue-gos on the south coast of Cu-ba_
now, therefore, I, Will-iam Mc-Kin-ley, Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States,
in order to enforce the said resolution do hereby declare and proclaim that
the United States of A-mer-i-ca have inStituted and will maintain a block-
ade of the north coast of Cu-ba, including ports on the said coast between
Car-de-nas and Ba-hi-a Hon-da and the port of Ci-en-fue-gos on the south




EY,

ADMIRAL DEW
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 247

coast of Cu-ba aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of the U-ni-ted States
and the law of the nations applicable to such cases.

‘* An efficient force will be posted so as to prevent the entrance and exit
of vessels from the ports aforesaid. Any neutral vessel approaching any
of said ports, or attempting to leave the same without notice or knowledge
of the establishment of such blockade, will be duly warned by the com-
mander of the blockading forces, who will endorse on her register the fact
and the date, of such warning, where such endorsement was made, and if
the same vessel shall again attempt to enter any blockaded port she will
be captured and sent to the nearest convenient port for such proceedings
against her and her cargo as prize, as may be deemed advisable.

‘* Neutral vessels lying in any of said ports at the time of said establish-
ment of such blockade will be allowed thirty days to issue therefrom. In
witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the
U-ni-ted States to be affixed.

‘Done at the city of Wash-ing-ton, this 22nd day of A-pril, A. D. 1898,
and of the independence of the U-ni-ted States the one hundred and
twenty-second.”’

By the Pres-i-dent, ;
Will-iam McKin-ley.”’
John Sher-man, Sec-re-ta-ry of State.

The call for 125,000 volunteers, issued April 22, received an enthusiastic
response from all parts of the country. A response that came like a reve-
lation of patriotism. It was to be expected, of course, that A-mer-i-ca’s
sons would uphold their government; but that they would fling themselves
heart and soul into the service as they had done in 1861 when the warfare
was within our own borders and against our very capital itself, was a blow
to those pessimists who are fond of crying national deterioration.

And we not only gave freely, but we gave our noblest for this cause of
humanity, as we have always given for the great causes that shake us into
aggressive action. From North and South and East and West came the
regiments of gallant young manhood—from farm and college and office—
the flower of the land, eager to take up arms for the weak and oppressed—
to raise the standard of civilization over a country darkened by the shadows
of barbarism.

And in all this soul-stirring response there was nothing that touched the
heart more than the united devotion of those who were once at variance,
ready to forget the claims of kindred for the still higher claim of principle.
Through all the devastation of this later conflict and above the still forms
brought back to desolated homes, was heard the soft rustle of wings—it
was the angel of reconciliation heralding fully a restored brotherhood.


REAR ADMIRAL WM. T. SAMPSON.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 249

On April 25th, the following proclamation was issued by the Pres-i-dent:

“To the Sen-ate and House of Rep-re-sen-ta-tives of the U-ni-ted States
of A-mer-i-ca: I transmit to the Con-gress for its consideration and appro-
priate action copies of correspondence recently had with the representative
of Spain in the U-ni-ted States, with the U-ni-ted States minister at Ma-
drid, and, through the latter, with the government of Spain, showing the
action taken under the joint resolution approved April 20th, 1898, * For the
recognition of the independence of the people of Cu-ba, demanding that the
government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the island
of Cu-ba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cu-ba and Cu-ban
waters, and directing the Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States to use the land
and naval forces of the U-ni-ted States to carry these resolutions into
effect.’

Upon communicating to the Span-ish minister in Wash-ing-ton the de-
mand which it became the duty of the executive to address to the govern-
ment of Spain in obedience to said resolution, the minister asked for his
passports and withdrew.

“The U-ni-ted States minister at Ma-drid was in turn notified by the
Span-ish minister for foreign affairs that the withdrawal of the Span-ish
representative from the U-ni-ted States had terminated diplomatic relations
between the two countries, and all official communications between their
respective representatives ceased therewith.

‘“T commend to your special attention the note addressed to the U-ni-ted
States minister at Ma-drid by the Span-ish minister of foreign affairs of
the 21st, inst. whereby the foreign communication was conveyed.

‘““Tt will be perceived therefrom that the government of Spain having
cognizance of the joint resolution of the U-ni-ted States Con-gress, and in
view of the things which the Pres-i-dent had thereby been required and
authorized to do, responds by treating the reasonable demands of this gov-
ernment as measures of hostility, following with that instant and com-
plete severance of relations by its action which by the usage of nations
accompanies an existent state of war between sovereign powers.

“The position of Spain being thus made known, and the demands of the
U-ni-ted States being denied, with a complete rupture of intercourse by the
act of Spain, I have been constrained, in exercise of the power and author-
ity conferred upon me by the joint resolution aforesaid, to proclaim, under
date of A-pril 22, 1898, a blockade of certain ports of the north coast of
Cu-ba, lying between Car-de-nas and Ba-hi-a Hon-da and of the port of
Ci-en-fue-gos on the south coast of Cu-ba; and further, in exercise of my
constitutional powers, and using the authority conferred upon me by the
act of Con-gress approved A-pril 20, 1898, to issue my proclamation, dated _
A-pril 23, 1898, calling forth volunteers, in order to carry into effect the


REAR ADMIRAL WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY,
ke

THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. . 251
said resolution of A-pril 20, 1898. Copies of these proclamations are hereto
appended.

‘In view of the measure so taken, and with a view to the adoption of
such other measures as may be necessary to enable me to carry out the ex-
pressed will of the Con-gress of the U-ni-ted States in the premises, I now
recommend to your honorable body the adoption of a joint resolution de-
claring that a state of war exists between the U-ni-ted States of A-mer-i-ca
and the King-dom of Spain, and I urge speedy action thereon to the end
that the definition of the international status of the U-ni-ted States asa
belligerent power may be known, and the assertion of all its rights and the
' maintenance of allits duties in the conduct of a public war may be assured,

; Will-iam Mc-Kin-ley.

Ex-ec-u-tive Man-sion, Wash-ing-ton, A-pril 25, 1898.”

Upon the reception of-the proclamation the following bill was reported
by Rep-re-sent-a-tive Ad-ams, of the house committee on foreign affairs.

‘““A bill declaring that a state of war exists between the U-ni-ted States
of A-mer-i-ca and the King-dom of Spain:

“Be it resolved by the Sen-ate and House of Representatives of the
U-ni-ted States of A-mer-i-ca, in Con-gress assembled:

‘‘First—That war be, and the same is, hereby declared to exist, and that
war has existed since the 21st day of April, A. D. 1898, including said day,
between the U-ni-ted States of A-mer-i-ca and the King-dom of Spain.

Second—the Pres-i-dent of the U-ni-ted States be, and he hereby is di-
rected and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the U-ni-
ted States, and to call into the actual service of the U-ni-ted States the
militia of the several states, to such an extent as may be necessary to
carry this act into effect.’’

The bill received a unanimous vote and was adopted amidst great
applause.

Thus began a war for humanity and justice, for the upholding of princi-
ple and the overthrow of a tyranny which was an anachronism in the history
of the world at the end of the 19th century.

From the first superiority of our arms and our soldiers was plainly dem-
onstrated and it was clearly shown that, however trying and terrible the
conflict might prove, its outcome was a matter of absolute certainty.

The patriotism of our people has been spoken of before, and their re-
sponse to our country’s call, but there are individual examples of self-denial
so noble as to be deserving of special mention. Their chivalrous love for
Co-lum-bi-a and her honor as well as for the honor of civilization and a
Christ-ian. manhood, are written upon the hearts of the people to be held
by future generations as a treasure priceless to all who believe in the value
of heredity for a country or an individual.






U. S. BATTLESHIP MAINE.







PROTECTED CRUISER OLYMPIA,

.S

U
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE. 253
' With such material in our army and navy, such a man at the helm of our

state, and such a cause to support, victory was as certain as that tight must
conquer wrong in the great warfare of Time.

ats


ARMORED CRUISER NEW


. CHAPTER XXX.
THE HA-WAI-IAN ISL-ANDS.

Out in the middle of the Pa-cif-ic ocean, 2,100 miles west of San Fran-
cis-co, is a group of islands of volcanic origin that in the latter'days of
the administration of Pres-i-dent Har-ri-son have made a great stir in the
world. They are named the Sand-wich islands, or in the language of
the natives, the Ha-wai-ian islands. In the month of Jan-u-ar-y, 1893, the
people of the islands decided that they would like to become members of
Uncle Sam’s big family of states, and so, in just about as much time as it
takes to tell it, they threw off the rule of the queen who was their monarch,
and sent a commission of prominent citizens to Wash-ing-ton to cans appli-
cation to the U-ni-ted States government for that favor.

It is necessary to know something of the history of the islands to under-
stand the conditions that existed there, and why the people wanted to lose
their position as an independent government to become a very small and
unimportant portion of our big one. They were discovered by Cap-tain
Cook, the celebrated navigator, Jan-u-ar-y 18, 1778, and a year later he
was murdered at the same place by the natives. At that time, and always
before, there had been a host of petty chiefs, who divided the rule among
themselves, and were very oppressive in their government. Butin
1782, a great warrior, Ka-me-ha-me-ha I, conquered all the chiefs, and
made himself king of the islands. He founded the realm that continued
until this revolution, though there have been, at times, small rebellions
against the reigning monarchs. Some years ago a constitution was granted
by the king, and since then the islands have been governed as a limited
monarchy. They have become more and more civilized of late years, un-
til at the time of the revolution the influential men were almost all of
A-mer-i-can birth or descent. Many A-mer-i-cans and Eu-ro-pe-ans have
gone there and have engaged in business that was of advantage to the
islands as wellas to themselves. The wealth, as well as the brains, were
mostly intheir possession. So when the queen, Li-li-u-ok-a-la-ni, endeavored
to force upon the people a new constitution taking away from them many of
the dearest rights they had, and practically disfranchising the foreign-born
citizens, they: naturally objected. Inasmuch as almost every one was on
the same side, there was no one to oppose the revolution, and so it was

255


U.S. PROTECTED CRUISER BOSTON,
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 257

over in afew hours. The queen was deposed, and leading citizens formed
a provisional government to hold power until a permanent one could be
formed. There was no blood shed, and no rioting or confusion. What a
wonderful thing it would have been if the revolution that freed the col-
onies from Eng-land in ’76 could have been accomplished as easily. There
happened to be a ship of the U-ni-ted States navy in the harbor of Hon-o-
lu-lu, the capital city, and sailors were landed from her to assist in the
preservation of order.

The history of the trouble is as follows: On Jan-u-ar-y 12th, the Leg-is-
la-ture passed a bill granting a right toa lottery, and it is said that the
great Lou-is-i-an-a Lot-ter-y Co. was interested in it. The queen’s cabinet
objected to this, but the queen gave notice that she intended to control
matters. Indeed, for some months the queen had shown a disposition to
ignore her cabinet. The ministers were not in accord with her, and sev-
eral cabinets had been formed in quick succession. The queen showed a
desire to rule absolutely, and this tendency was noticed by the Ha-wai-ians
with alarm. Finally, on Jan-u-ar-y 14th, the queen started the revolution
by attempting to abrogate the constitution and promulgate a new one
framed in the lines of her own policy of absolute power. The Leg-is-la-
ture was in session, and the cabinet, immediately on the queen promul-
gating her new constitution, took charge of the government, and the Leg-
is-la-ture acted without friction, proclaiming a provisional government and
selecting Judge W. B. Dole as Pres-i-dent. Immediately, all the powers,
save Eng-land, recognized the new administration. The final completion
of the revolution was on the 17th of Jan-u-ar-y. The four men who con-
stituted the head of the provisional government were of the highest char-
acter, one having resigned his place in the Su-preme Court to assume the
position.

Immediately upon installing the new Pres-i-dent, a commission was
appointed to proceed to Wash-ing-ton and begin negotiations for annexation
with the U-ni-ted States. While the commission is speeding across the
twenty-one hundred miles of ocean, and three thousand miles of land that
separate Hon-o-lu-lu from our own capital at Wash-ing-ton, let us go back
to the islands for a still more definite understanding of their relations with
the U-ni-ted States.

The pres-i-dent of Ha-wai-i is a native of the islands, and is the son of a
female missionary. He is well known and popular, having served in the
Leg-is-la-ture many times and in other offices. Heis inclined to be radical,
and at the time of his appointment as president, was second associate
justice of the Su-preme Court of Ha-wai-i. He was about forty-five yeats
of age and well capable of ruling. He was educated in an A-mer-i-can
college and married an A-mer-i-can girl, Miss Cate, of Maine.


U. S. BATTLESHIP INDIANA.



VU, S, ARMORED CRUISER BROOKLYN,
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 259

Just before the revolution the relations between the islands and the
U-ni-ted States had not been entirely satisfactory to the Ha-wai-i-ans, for
the reason that the enactment of the Mc-Kin-ley bill, putting raw sugar on
the free list and placing a bounty on A-mer-i-can sugar, had a very disas-
trous effect on the sugar planters. Before the enactment of the Mc-Kin-ley
law, the Ha-wai-i-ans were by special treaty put on-exactly the same basis
as growers of sugar in the U-ni-ted States, and their product was admitted
free of all duty. The Mc-Kin-ley bill put the Ha-wai-i-an sugar growers
on the same basis as all other foreign growers of sugar, and gave those in
the U-ni-ted States the advantage of the bounty. The result was that
many of the sugar plantations have ceased to pay, and a number of the
planters have tried other tropical products with good success. Annexation
would therefore help the islands.

Before the revolution it had been intended to send a delegation here to’
ask for certain privileges. It was decided, to offer the U-ni-ted States the
perpetual cession of the harbor. of Pearl river as a coaling station and a
navy yard for the U-ni-ted States. This was a gift that the navy department
officials of the U-ni-ted States had been exceedingly anxious to secure. In
return for this it was decided to ask that the U-ni-ted States allow the
entrance of canned pineapples and certain other products of the islands
free of duty. But the revolution changed the mission of the delegation
and made them wish for entire annexation.

As soon as the news of the revolution reached A-mer-i-ca, which was not
until ten days after it occurred, owing to the fact that there is no cable
communication with the islands, our country was all excitement. Citizens
eagerly discussed the advisahility of granting annexation to our island
neighbors. It was thought that the establishment of a protectorate might
be better than entire annexation, but the opinion of the country seemed
almost unanimous that some arrangements should be made which would
retain for us commercial supremacy in the islands.

With no loss of time, the envoys hastened from steamer to train at San
Fran-cis-co. They boarded the ‘‘Overland”’ flyer, and continued their way
_to Wash-ing-ton. At every city through which they passed they were met

and warmly welcomed by prominent citizens. The press and people were
with them. At Chi-ca-go, an effort was made to induce them to wait over
for a public meeting and a banquet, but they were unwilling to lose time
and refused the cordial invitation.

‘The five commissioners were Chair-man Lo-rin A. Thurs-ton, and
Messrs. Charles L. Car-ter, Jo-seph Mars-den, W. C. Wil-der, and Will-iam
P. Castle. They were accompanied by Mr. Thurs-ton’s niece, Miss Mabel
Andrews, and phe secretary of the commission, Charles Petersen.




MO GOMEZ

GENERAL MAXI
' THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. oe 261

Once in Wash-ing-ton the commission lost no time in presenting creden-
tials to Sec-re-ta-ry of State Fos-ter and in securing introductions at the
state department. .

‘The first art of diplomacy is silence.’’ This is the sentence which the
Sec-re-ta-ry of State is credited as having uttered to the commissioners. °
This meant that time would be required and careful consideration needed
before a decision could be reached in this country; and it also meant that
during this period of delay it would be wise that they should not take the
general public into their confidence as to their methods of procedure.
Nevertheless the commissioners were cordially welcomed by the officials at
Wash-ing-ton.

The first impression to circulate through the country was that Pres-i-dent
Har-ri-son and his cabinet advisers favored a protectorate as a prelminary
step to annexation rather than an immediate annexation. This hesitancy
was in no small part caused by the belief that a movement for an
immediate annexation would involve in.the first place an extension of the
bounty for A-mer-i-can sugar to the Ha-wai-i-an islands, and in the next.
place a long discussion in Con-gress as to the treatment of the franchise in.
the new territory and the abrogation of existing contracts for A-si-atic:
labor. ae

The form of the administration which the leaders of the bloodless revolu-
tion most desire was formulated by the commission. They said that some-
thing similar to the government of the. District of Co-lum-bia would be:
acceptable, that is to say a board of commissioners appointed by the presi-
dent, having full control of the levying and collection of taxes, the control
of police, and the management of the courts. ;

The idea of a protectorate was obnoxious to the commissioners, and
nothing except a treaty of annexation would be pleasing to them. They
declared that many of the natives, as well as the population of white blood,
are strongly in favor of annexation.

Many papers in Great Bri-tain and Can-a-da made strong protest against.
permitting the islands to be annexed to the U-ni-ted States, but the Brit-ish
government seemed to take little interest in the matter, and none to the
extent of endeavoring to prevent a union.

At the time when this history closes the commissioners were still in
Wash-ing-ton endeavoring to attain their desired union, with great prospect
that they would be successful and that before many weeks there would be
another territory added to our sisterhood of states, these island gems of the
Pa-cif-ic. =

The distance from San Fran-cis-co to Hon-o-lu-lu, the capital and chief
city of the Ha-wai-i-an islands, is twenty-one hundted miles. There is.
fortnightly communication between the cities by means of the steamers of


ADMIRAL DEWEY'’S VICTORY AT MANILA.
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, | 263

the Oceanic Line, and seven days are required for the passage. Once in
the island kingdom, there is much to interest the tourist. Everything is
so different from what we in the U-ni-ted States have been accustomed to
that the contrasts are very remarkable. The islands were discovered by
Cap-tain Cook, the great navigator, in 1778, and one year later he was
killed by the natives on the spot where he first landed. At that time and
until 1782, the islands had been divided among many petty chieftains, but
in the latter year Ka-me-ha-me-ha I. conquered the islands, organized the
government and founded the monarchy that has remained up to this day.
He continued to rule for thirty-seven years, and died in 1819, in the eighty-
second year of hisage. After him came five succeeding rulers of the same
family and the same name. And in 1872 the line became extinct with the
exception of one heir, Mrs. Bish-op, who refused the crown. Thereupon
an election was held and a new branch of royalty was created. The queen,
who was deposed in the recent revolution, was named Li-li-u-ok-al-ani,
and she is the third of the new royal family. Her predecessor was King
Kal-ak-aua, who died in San Fran-cis-co, in January, 1891, while on a
voyage for the benefit of his health. The queen has not been popular in
her realm. Her residence, a beautiful palace known as “ Tolani,’’ is situ-
ated in beautiful grounds adorned with trees and shrubbery. Her reign
has not been a peaceful one, for the people have been restless under her
rule and have incited several rebellions,

There are eight islands in the group, and they lie midway in the
Pacific ocean just over the border line of the tropics. Five only of the
islands are important—Ha-wai-i, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai. Three are
indifferent and devoted principally to sheep grazing—Lanai, Niihau, and
Kahoolawe. The aggregate acreage of all of them is about 4,000,000, of
which Hawaii embraces five-eighths; in point of population, however,
Oahu ranks first, containing more than a third of all the inhabitants of the
kingdom. The city of Hon-o-lu-lu is on this island. The climate of the
islands is simply perfection; the heat is not excessive and frost never
occurs. The rainfall on the east side of the islands is plentiful, but on the
other side irrigation is necessary for purposes of agriculture. The agere-.
gate amount of exports from the kingdom for the year of 1890 was about
$13,000,000, of which more than $12,000,000 was in sugar, 130,000 tons,
and more than $500,000 in rice. All of the exports of the country went to
the U-ni-ted States except five tons of sugar and one hundred pounds of
coffee. This illustrates in a striking manner how closely their business
and industrial interests have been allied to us.

The largest sugar plantation of the island is at Sprecklesville on the
island of Maui, the Ha-wai-i-an Com-mer-cial Com-pa-ny, otherwise Claus
Spreckles, proprietor. It is located on an arable plain at the foot of the


Se BS ahs

é Mm THE FIGHTING LINE AT SANTIAGO, ;
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 265

mountain slopes, close to the sea, and was. formerly an arid waste. The
capital stock of the company is $10,000,000, and the outlay of enormous
sums of money in irrigation and of energy and labor has brought it into
great fertility. Twenty-five thousand acres of it is suitable for cane, and one
can travel for fifteen miles in one direction through the sweet growing
crop and yet not exceed the limits of the plantation. The mill on the
premises is capable of producing one hundred tons of sugar per day.
There are thirty-eight incorporated companies and thirty other companies
engaged in sugar production in the islands, with an aggregate capital of
$32,000,000, of which $26,000,000 are American. The labor of the
plantation is Chinese, Japanese and Portuguese.

The Sandwich islands have been more noted for their volcanoes than for
anything else. And they to-day possess the largest of the active volcanoes
of the world—the crater of Kilauea on the island of Hawaii; on the same
island are also Maunaloa and Maunakea. © Another scourge that has given
the islands fame is that of leprosy, which until a few years ago was widely
prevalent throughout the kingdom. At that time a certain district was
reserved for the lepers on the island of Molokai, and all who were suffering
from that disease were sequestered there. Now as soon as any one
becomes a victim to it, he is immediately sent to Molokai to join the sad
colony.. The exiles now number about twelve hundred. They are given
every comfort of life except health. The location is all that could be
desired and the climate salubrious and healthful. The average life of a
leper is five years. Ten per cent. of all the revenues of the kingdom ig
annually devoted to the amelioration of their unhappy state. They are
provided with churches, hospitals and neat homes, and a hundred horses
are kept for their use and pleasure.

The natural attractions of the islands are unsurpassed anywhere. There
are no dangerous animals, and no reptiles of any kind. Vegetation is lux-
uriant; tropical fruits of all kinds grow in abundance, and the birds are
musical of note and gorgeous of plumage.

The people themselves, or rather the thoroughbred Hawaiians, are of
dark, copper-colored complexion, and ordinarily of fine physical develop-
ment. The hair is jet black, thick and straight, and the eyes dark. The
men are, usually, rather good-looking, but the women, as a rule, are
coarse, slipshod, and lacking in personal charms. Some of the half and
quarter castes and later dilutions, however, are beautiful. The race is of
a happy-go-lucky disposition, passionately fond of everything that affords
amusement, and enthusiastically averse to any kind of toil. The love of
music and dancing is one of ‘the strongest proclivities of the race. The
people are honest, generous, and possess an abiding faith and confidence in
man. The quality that they have appeared most to lack is personal




>
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. — 267

morality and modesty, but one is inclined to believe that their taint in this.
direction comes from the rascally sailors who have made a rendezvous of the:
islands since the time of their discovery. This is rapidly being corrected,
and the country may now be said to be improving in this as well as in
every other phase of its life. There seemed to be no reason why annexa-
tion and the receiving of the Ha-wai-i-ans into close relations as a part of
our country should not be desired by every A-mer-i-can.

Early in June, 1898, the U-ni-ted States Sen-ate debated the question of
Ha-wai-i; and from June 30, to Ju-ly 5, the members continued to discuss~
the resolution in favor of annexation. On the following day, Ju-ly 6, the
resolution was carried by 42 votes against 21. Pres-i-dent Mc-Kin-ley, who:
had always strongly advocated the annexation of Ha-wai-i, promptly
attached his signature to the resolution on July 7. The cruiser Phil-a-del-
phia was then ordered to Hon-o-lu-lu to raise the A-mer-i-can flag over the
islands,


Wii Py wor SE
sign ya 0 :



ae
of 7

WY ly Zh co 7
Zl Ua ie ph

‘A WOUNDED VOLUNTEER.


CHAPTER XXXI.
THE A-MER-I-CAN-SPAN-ISH WAR.

On the 24th of A-pril, 1898, Pres-i-dent Mc-Kin-ley sent the following
order to Com-mo-dore Dew-ey, commander of the A-si-atic squadron then at
Hong Kong:

‘‘ War has commenced between the U-ni-ted States and Spain. Proceed
at once to the Phil-ip-pine islands. Commence operations at once, particu-
larly against the Span-ish fleet. You must capture vessels or destroy them.
Use utmost endeavors.’’

The result of this order was the great victory at Ma-ni-la, one of the
most wonderful naval actions in the history of the world. It was summed
up by Com-mo-dore Dew-ey then acting Rear-Ad-mir-al in his Teper to the
Pres-i-dent as follows:

‘‘Ma-ni-la, May r1st.—Squadron arrived at Ma-ni-la at daybreak this
morning. Immediately engaged the enemy and destroyed the following
Spanish vessels: Re-i-na Crist-i-na, Cas-til-la; Don An-ton-i-o de Ul-lo-a,
Is-la de Lu-zon, Is-la de Cu-ba, Gen-er-al Le-zo, Mar-ques del Du-e-ro, Cor-re
(El Ca- no?), Ve-las-co, Is-la de Min-da-na-o, a transport, and water battery
at Ca-vi-te. The codon is uninjured, and only a few men are slightly
wounded. Only means of telegraphing is to A-mer-i-can consul at Hong
Kong. I shall communicate with him.

‘““Dew-ey.”’

This signal victory in the Phil-ip-pines thrilled the world. It awakened
enthusiasm, but it did more than that—it created an impression of wonder
and awe. It was almost incredible that the Span-ish fleet should have
been destroyed without the loss of a single one of our men, but such proved
to be the case, although, the cable having been cut at Ad-mir-al Dew-ey’s
orders, we waited some days in suspense, fearful that later reports would
put a more somber coloring upon events in the far east. But time con-
firmed the first accounts and the question of naval supremacy between the
U-ni-ted States and Spain in the Pa-cif-ic was settled.

Immediately after the victory at Ma-nil-a, Spain sent a fleet consisting of
the powerful warships the Viz-ca-ya, Cris-to-bal Co-lon, Al-mi-ran-te
-O-quen-do, and In-fan-ta Mar-i-a Te-re-sa, ostensibly for the purpose of

269
270: THE AMERICAN-SPANISH WAR.

preying on our commerce, forcing the blockade, destroying our ships, and.
bombarding our coast cities.

Rear-Ad-mir-al Samp-son with a powerful squadron consisting of the
magnificent warships I-o-wa and In-di-an-a, the huge monitors Ter-ror and
Am-phi-trite, and the cruisers New York, De-troit, and Mont-gom-er-y,
was searching for the Span-ish fleet. But although this squadron was
most formidable for fighting or bombarding, it was slow in movement and
thus handicapped in the pursuit. The result was a considerable period of
uncertainty as to the developments, ending the latter part of May with
the information that Cer-ve-ra’s fleet was located in the harbor of San-ti-
a-go. Thereupon, Ad-mi-ral Samp-son and Com-mo-dore Schley, the.
latter with his fleet of swift, but unarmored and light-armed cruisers,
joined forces to guard the mouth of the harbor, which was so narrow that
only one vessel could pass out at a time.

Some hard fighting had been in progress in the vicinity of Por-to Ri-co,
Samp-son’s fleet having shelled the batteries and forts at San Juan on.
May 12th, but in view of the more important duty at hand in the capture:
of the imprisoned fleet and the taking of San-ti-a-go, Por-to Ri-co was left
for a future engagement.

It having been determined that the Span-ish fleet was really in the har-
bor of San-ti-a-go, the work narrowed into the prevention of its escape.
The harbor was so nearly blocked that egress through it would not have:
been an easy undertaking, and to make it impossible it was deemed advis-
able to sink a vessel directly across the mouth. This was a most difficult:
and dangerous feat, but our navy was ready for the test, and Lieu-ten-ant.
Rich-mond P. Hob-son, of the New York, a naval constructor, with six
other men, all volunteering for the work, conveyed the collier Mer-ri-mac.
to the desired position, in the face of almost certain death, and notwith-
standing the heavy fire of the Span-ish forts, sank her almost directly
across the channel. The heroic men escaped upon a raft, reaching the:
shore in safety, but were captured by the Span-iards.. On account of the:
bravery of their deed, however, they were treated as prisoners of war and
were afterwards exchanged for Span-ish prisoners taken at San-ti-a-go,

Soon after this bottling up of the Span-ish fleet in the harbor of San-ti-
a-go, about 16,000 troops under Ma-jor-Gen-er-al Will-iam R. Shaf-ter em-
barked to act in combination with the ships and insurgents for the complete:
subjugation of San-ti-a-go. The first landing was at Gu-an-ta-na-mo,
where a fierce engagement occurred, the Cu-bans joining the A-mer-i-can
forces in the action against the Span-iards, who were repulsed with great
loss. Sixteen thousand troops were put on shore at Bai-qui-ri, the second.
landing, and not a life was lost. The village of Bai-qui-ri was evacuated
by the enemy, who set fire to a portion of it, blowing up two magazines.
THE AMERICAN-SPANISH WAR. 271

of the garrison. The railroad roundhouse and repair shops west of the
village were also destroyed by fire. The loss included several locomotives.

On June 24th, there was an action at A-gua-do-res between the enemy
and a detachment from Bai-qui-ri. The Rough Riders, technically the
First Vol-un-teer Cav-al-ry, Lieu-ten-ant-Colonel Roose-velt, displayed
great courage, in this fight. Gen-er-al Young had een sent out with
troops in advance, and the Rough Riders were on his flank, inland several
miles. Their business was to guard him from a surprise. Several troops
of the First and Tenth Cav-al-ry, and eight battalions of the Rough Riders
were in the expedition. They numbered less than 1,200 men, but they
succeeded in dislodging from a thicket and driving back to town 2,000 of
the foe. The Span-ish made their last resistance at a block-house which
our men stormed and carried. Four regiments of infantry, including the
seventy-first of New York and some of the Ninth Cav-al-ry, were sent for-
ward in haste as a reinforcement.

Eight miles from San-ti-a-go, the troopers dismounted after a forced
march. ‘They received orders to march upon the enemy, whom they could
hear at work felling trees at a short distance from them.

As the A-mer-i-cans moved forward, they were met by a fierce fire from
the Span-iards, a strong force of whom had found an ambush in the high
grass and chap-arral.

The charge was led by Colonel Leon-ard Wood and Lieu-ten-ant-Colonel
Roose-velt, both displaying the highest courage. They came out openly
before the fire of the enemy, scorning to hide themselves, and made a most
gallant attack, driving them back with heavy losses, toward San-ti-a-go.
Roose-velt, on horseback, led the first charge, which was a rush of thirty
yards and above all the din of the battle his voice could be heard encourag-
ing his men.

The famous charge of the Six Hundred at Ba-la-kla-va finds its parallel
in the bold dash made by Ad-mir-al Cer-ve-ra, when, in obedience to the
orders of his government, he attempted to run the A-mer-i-can blockade
and escape from the harbor of San-ti-a-go. This event occurred on the
third of Ju-ly, 1898.

It had been feared that Cer-ve-ra might attempt to escape by taking ad-
vantage of the darkness and fog upon some stormy night when our ships
could not safely lie close to shore and their search lights would be unavail-
ing, and so Hob-son’s bold move was decided upon; but owing to the fact
that the Mer-ri-mac’s rudder was shot away, the gallant undertaking had
fallen a little short of complete success in obstructing the mouth of the
harbor, and there was still a possibility of exit. The blockade was there-
fore maintained.
72 THE AMERICAN-SPANISH WAR.

But the Span-ish Admiral received his orders and obeyed them. At
about 9:40 0’clock the first-class armored cruisers the In-fan-ta Mar-i-a
Te-re-s-a, the flagship, the Viz-ca-ya, the Cris-to-bal Co-lon, and the
Al-mi-ran-te O-quen-do, came out of the harbor in the order given, opening
fire upon the blockading vessels as they came, followed by two torpedo-boat
destroyers. The armored cruisers turned westward and proceeded at the
greatest possible speed, while the torpedo boats headed straight for the
Brook-lyn, Com-mo-dore Schley's flagship.

The Brook-lyn, Tex-as, O-re-gon, I-o-wa, and In-di-an-a started after the
Span-ish warships, firing rapidly, while the Gloucester headed for the
torpedo-boats, opening fire upon them as she advanced. The Viz-ca-ya,
and In-fan-ta Ma-ri-a-Te-re-sa were repeatedly struck by the guns from our
warships, but they would not stop, returning the fire as they ran. The lat-
ter, however, soon headed in for the beach, her commander evidently intend-
ing to destroy her rather than submit to capture. She ran ashore about six
miles and a half west of San-ti-a-go Har-bor, the O-quen-do following her,
while the Viz-ca-ya went on for about two miles beyond them and blew up
directly upon landing. This left us to direct our attention to the Co-lon,
which was the fastest vessel of the whole Span-ish fleet. But it was not
a question of speed alone; solid shot and shell were beating against her and
she found escape hopeless. At a point about sixty miles west of San-ti-a-go
she ran ashore, lowering her colors as she went.

Although heavy firing was kept up on both sides, the marksmanship of
the Span-iards was very poor, and the A-mer-i-can ships remained. unin-
jured; one man on board the Brook-lyn, however, was killed by an
exploding shell. :

Ad-mi-ral Cer-ve-ra and his staff were captured, together with other pris-
oners numbering in all three hundred men. There has been a great
slaughter on the torpedo-boat destroyers.

This brilliant achievement of our squadron, commanded by able and
intrepid officers, struck consternation to the hearts of the Span-ish at San-
ti-a-go, as indeed of Span-iards throughout the enemy’s domain, both on
this side the At-lan-tic and in Spain itself, and heralded the fall of San-
ti-a-go and the end of the war. és

The bombardment of the city which followed lasted two days and com-
pleted the triumph of our forces. The enemy’s strongholds in Cu-ba were
now in our hands, and the next move was upon Por-to Ri-co.

Although our brilliant victories on land and sea proclaimed a final cessa-
tion of hostilities as near at hand, Pres-i-dent Mc-Kin-ley’s policy was to
push the war virorously until such time as Spain should see fit to give up
her forlorn hope.
THE AMERICAN-SPANISH WAR. ; 273:

With this end in view an expedition was fitted out under the command
of Com-mo-dore Wat-son for a visit to the Ca-na-ries and the Span-ish
coast, while Gen-er-al Miles made active preparations to move upon
Por-to Ri-co and embarked for that island from the vicinity of San-ti-a-go
with a command of several thousand men. Added to this, reinforcements
had been sent to strengthen the position of Ad-mi-ral Dew-ey in the:
Phil-ip-pines.

On Ju-ly 26th, Spain asked for a cessation of hostilities, her petition.
being presented to Pres-i-dent Mc-Kin-ley by the noted French. states-:
man, M. Jules Cam-bon.

The terms of peace dictated by the U-ni-ted States and accepted by the
Sa-gas-ta government, were as follows:

1. Withdrawal by Spain of her forces and sovereignity from Cu-ba; the:
U-ni-ted States to exercise control until a stable government can be:
established.

2. Withdrawal of her forces and sovereignity from Por-to Ri-co and the
absolute cessation from this and the minor West In-dies to the U-ni-ted.
States.

3. Acquiescence by Spain in the permanent occupation by the U-ni-ted
States of Gu-am Is-iand, in the La-drones, already in the possession of the
U-ni-ted States. :

4. The U-ni-ted States to exercise control over the city and bay of Ma-
nil-a and the immediate surrounding territory, including Ca-vi-te, until
such time as the commissioners appointed respectively by the two countries
determine upon the future disposition and government of the Phil-ip-pines,
which receives the ratification of the two governments, the U-ni-ted States.
neither waving claim to the whole of the Phil-ip-pines nor specifying the
exact boundary limit of the territory she desires to hold permanently.

By these terms the U-ni-ted States comes into possession of valuable:
territory honorably acquired and at the same time shows justice and mag-
nanimity toward her conquered foe.

Scarcely more than one hundred days after the declaration of the war,
Spain acknowledg=d her defeat.

This government expended over $100,000,000 and nearly. six hundred
lives for the victory, but both were freely given for a cause that was deeper ©
than any question of financial gain or military glory.

The beginning of the war found us with an army and navy most inade-
quate in size for any condition save peace; by the masterly action of
Pre-si-dent Mc-Kin-ley and the ready response of the whole A-mer-i-can
people we are now in a position to command the respect of the world in.
both directions.
214 THE AMERICAN-SPANISH WAR.

The war developed a type of solid A-mer-i-can-ism, and it thrilled us
~with the knowledge that the type was a heroic one. It uplifted cur gov-
‘ernment and our people in the eyes of other nations, and it gave sucha
broad example of Christ-ian humanity as the world has never before
witnessed. Thus resulted a well-earned peace with the consciousness of
civilization advanced and principle upheld.


CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.

SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and
House of Representatives.

SEC. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem-
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and
the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for
electors of the most numerous branches of the State legislature,

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to
the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when-elected, be an inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the
whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a
term of years, and, excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths ofall other
persons. ‘The actual enumeration shall be made within three years
after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States and within
every subsequent term of ten years, in such a manner as they shall by
law direct. ‘The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for
every thirty thousand, but each shall have at least one Representative;
and, until such enumeration shalt be made, the State of New Hamp-
shire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode
Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York
six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six,
Wirginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia
three,

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the

18 ~ 275
276 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,

executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Src. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of twa
Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years,
and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes.
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expi-
ration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the
fourth year, and.of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year,
so that one-third may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies
happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature
of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments
until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such
vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age
* of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

T’he Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president
pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall
exercise the office as President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall
preside, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of
two-thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to
removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor,
trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall,
nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and
punishment according to law.

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for
Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the
legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make
or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 277

The Congress shall assemble at least once every year; and such meet-
ing shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law
appoint a different day.

Sc. 5. Each house shall be the judge of elections, returns and
qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day
to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent
members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may
provide. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings,
punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence
of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time
to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judg- »
ment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either
house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present,
be entered on the journal.

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

Src. 6. ‘The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen-
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the
Treasury of the United States. ‘They shall, in all cases except treason,
felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and
returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house,
they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he
was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of
the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments
whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person
holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either
house during his continuance in office.

Src. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amend-
ments, as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and
the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President
of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the objections at large on'their journal, and
278 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of
that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with
the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be recon-
sidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a
law. But, in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be