Citation
Rambles among the wild flowers

Material Information

Title:
Rambles among the wild flowers a book for the young
Added title page title:
Down the lane and back
Added title page title:
Through the copse
Added title page title:
Stroll on a marsh
Added title page title:
Across the common
Added title page title:
Around the cornfield
Creator:
Cooke, M. C ( Mordecai Cubitt ), b. 1825
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London ;
Edinburgh ;
New York
Publisher:
T. Nelson and Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
114, 103, 94, 98, 98 p., [10] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wild flowers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Flowers -- Morphology -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Flowers -- Color -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Plants -- Classification -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Plants -- Composition -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Uncles -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Nieces -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Outdoor life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Juvenile fiction -- Great Britain ( lcsh )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1898 ( rbprov )
Juvenile literature -- 1898 ( rbgenr )
Textbooks -- 1898 ( rbgenr )
Dialogues -- 1898 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre:
Prize books (Provenance) ( rbprov )
Children's literature ( fast )
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
Dialogues ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
"The five parts in one volume."
General Note:
Factual information in a fictional format.
General Note:
Pictorial front cover and spine.
General Note:
Includes indexes.
General Note:
Title page printed in red and black colors.
General Note:
Each part contains a preface, table of content and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by M.C. Cooke (Uncle Matt) ; with 10 coloured plates illustrating 42 wild flowers and 296 engravings.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026652552 ( ALEPH )
ALG4961 ( NOTIS )
32523488 ( OCLC )

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Full Text














Kendal High School,
(Church Schools Company).

—— to

PRIZE AWARDED TO

Fle lem) loyens = Honda,

FOR

S Cisiee) And, SAnith me tes

Date Dégpirne (ren 9

The Baldwin Library

RmB

usenet

Florida















4. PILEWORT.

ANDELION

>

n

ERCUP

ADIES



JMBLES AMONG

Witp Lowers

FA Wook for the Woung

BY

M. G COOKE, M.A.) LL.D

(Uncitr Mart)

THE FIVE PARTS IN ONE VOLUME

WITH IO COLOURED PLATES ILLUSTRATING
42 WILD FLOWERS. AND 206 ENGRAVINGS

See Nebel S: ONeecACN; Ds SiO) NES

London, Edinburgh, and New Vork

1898





1,

Il.

Ill.

Iv.

GENERAL CONTENTS
OF THE COMBINED VOLUME.

DOWN THE LANE AND BACK IN SEARCH OF WILD FLOWERS.
THROUGH THE COPSE,

A STROLL ON A MARSIL IN SEARCH OF WILD FLOWERS.
ACROSS THE COMMON AFTER WILD FLOWERS.

AROUND A CORNFIELD IN A RAMBLE AFTER WILD FLOWERS,



Rambles Hmong the Wild Flowers,



L,
DOWN THE LANE AND BACK.



PREFACE.



DEAR CHILDREN, this book is for you. I have writ-
ten it for you, to help you to learn a little more about
wild flowers than you know, and yet not to trouble
you with any more hard words than I can help.
You love flowers, and so do I; and the more you
know of them the better you will love them. I have
pointed out the way to Cissy how she was to find
out their little secrets, and what I have said to her I
say also to you. If you will follow her to do as she
did, you may learn, as she learned, that the most
common weed has a story to tell, which may be told
to a child; that nothing, to Him who made it, is
common or unclean; and that wayside weeds have
their place to fill, and their duty to do in the world,
if only—
“To comfort man—to whisper hope
Whene’er his faith is dim ;
For Who so careth for the flowers

Will much more care for him.”
M. C. COOKE.



CONTENTS.



BUTTERCUPS, .... ee ne ae ony i
VIOLETS, be i aa ae ne 29
DANDELIONS, .... Ms Bes =a ae 42
LORDS: AND LADIES, ae ae Ne an 59
RED CAMPION, ae a oe ae 66
ST. JOHN’S WORT, as a ee a 78
MALLOW, ong ese S000 a ae 87

GREAT BINDWEED, aac ease eoes seve 100



“DOWN THE LANE AND BACK.”



BUTTERCUPS.

“ Buttercups and daisies,
Oh, the pretty flowers,
Coming in the spring-time

To tell of sunny hours.”

“| HUS sang Cissy, as her uncle waited for
her to take the usual morning stroll down
the lane.

“ Buttercups are running in your head with
the sunshine,” said he, “and we must try to find
them.”

“T love buttercups,” she added, “and I love
butter, and the sunshine is so nice.”

_ “ And the spring-time, when ‘ children are let
loose in the fields and gardens. They hold butter-



12 BUTTERCUPS.

cups under each other’s chins to see if they love

butter.’
‘The flowers

Children hold beneath their chins,
So to learn who ‘tis that sins

When the butter wastes by night ;
And whose chin looks yellow bright,

That’s the rogue.’”

“Js that the reason they are called ‘ butter-
cups’ ?” inquired Cissy.

“Tt may be so, and partly because it was a
belief amongst country people that when these
flowers are plentiful in pastures the cows eat
them, and it gives the yellow colour to the butter.”

“Do they?”

“No, Cissy ; the cows leave the buttercups
alone, and do not eat them, because they are not
pleasant.”

“ And are all buttercups alike ?”

“There are about a dozen different flowers
which are called ‘ buttercups,’ and all very much
alike to look at, only that some are smaller than
others.”





Fig. 1.—Mzapow Crowroor.
1, 2, Plant reduced ; 8, Section of Flower; 4, Petal; 5, Anther; 6, Cluster of

Fruits ; 7, Single Carpel; 8, Section.






BUTTERCUPS. 15

“ And what is the ‘ crowfoot’ ?” ;
“Only another name for ‘buttercup.’. Chil-
dren call them all buttercups, because they think
them all alike.”
_ “J suppose there is a meadow buttercup and
a field buttercup ; is there, uncle ?”

“Well, there are two ‘meadow buttercups’—
one of them with a swollen root, like a bulb, but
it is not a bulb, like that of the wild hyacinth ;
and the other one has no swelling at the root.
Some of the others, too, are now and then found
in meadows.”

“ And in the fields 2?” -

“The ‘corn crowfoot, and another one with
small flowers.”

“That does not make up the dozen,” added
Cissy.

“‘T suppose not, because, besides the water
crowfoot, there are two sorts of ‘spearwort’
that love ditches, and the ‘goldylocks’ which
grows in woods.”

« And the others ?”

“Not of much consequence to you or me,



16 BUTTERCUPS.

except the one we are going to find, which is
the ‘creeping buttercup, that grows in lanes
as well as in the meadows, for it loves damp
places.”

“Ts that the only one we should find in the
lane ?”

“Not the only one, for another of the meadow
kinds, without the bulbous root, is mostly found
in dry places; and there is the pretty ‘celan-
dine,’ which I should hardly call a ‘ buttercup,’
and that is dreadfully common in lanes, on banks,
and under trees.”

“What a lot!”

“Too many for our poor brains, Cissy, and so
we will leave most of them to take care of them-
selves.”

“And only talk about those we can find.
See, there are some; I know by their yellow
colour, it is so bright.”

“ Just as I expected, that is the celandine;
but we shall soon find another in yonder damp
corner by the ditch.”

“Oh yes. And what a lot of big leaves!”

(497)



BUTTERCUPS. 17

“The roots are a bunch of rooting threads,
not thickened as in the celandine. But you must
try to find out why it is called the creeping
buttercup.” *

“Tt is like the strawberry plant, with ‘run-
ners’ growing out from amongst the leaves, and
they poke themselves into the ground, and make
roots,” said Cissy.

“That's a funny way of putting it; but I
know your meaning—that runners shoot out from
the old tufts, and these runners soon thrust their
ends into the ground, and make roots, while a
tuft of leaves grows upwards into a young plant.”

“ That’s it.”

“ And so these broad patches of plants keep
growing bigger and bigger, and creep further
and further over the ground, until they may be
a yard or two across, and include hundreds of
plants.”

“With such dull, dark-green, hairy leaves,
pale on the under side, and woolly as well as
the stalks.”

* Ranunculus repens,
(497) 9



18 BUTTERCUPS.

“The leaves are large, and so deeply divided
that it is not easy to call them by any shape
that is known, or to explain clearly what their
shape is.”

“T should call them ‘trinity leaves,” said



Fic. 2.—LEAF OF CREEPING BUTTERCUP.
(Reduced.)

Cissy, ‘‘because they are like three leaves in
one.”

“Or triple leaves, or three-leaved leaves, or
three-bladed leaves, whichever you please, for they

are like three leaves joined into one. The middle



BUTTERCUPS. 19

leaflet is stalked, and each side leatlet is without
a stalk. Then each leaflet is cut down deeply
with a broad notch into three lobes, and each
lobe is notched again at the edge. It is so hard
to describe in words a leaf so much divided.”

“Well, uncle, I could only call it a trinity
leaf, and each one of the three is three-parted
again, and then I stop.”

“Perhaps you would like to taste a leaf, Cissy,
because you may if you like. Nearly all the
buttercup leaves would bite your tongue, and I
would not tell you to taste them, but this one
is not unpleasant.”

“ Not even the celandine 2”

“Not even that. The stalks to the leaves
you have gathered are quite long—four or five
inches—and downy ; but they do not all rise from
the root, as the flower-stem is also long and
branched, bearing smaller leaves, which have
shorter stalks.”

“ And the flowers are not like the rising sun.”

“But more like a ‘ buttercup’ as it should be.
Let us pull one of the flowers in pieces, that we



20 BUTTERCUPS.

may compare them with those of the celandine.
You will notice at once that the petals are
broader and round at the ends, not pointed as
in the celandine; and there are not so many—
only five. Then the outer circle, or calyx, has
five sepals, and these are hairy, like the stem
and leaves. So you see that there is a great
difference in the flowers of the two plants, al-
though both of them are yellow and have a large
number of stamens, said to be indefinite, or more
than ten.

“JT think, Cissy, that it is quite time for us
to turn back and take a last fond look at the
little ‘ celandine.’

‘In the lane—there’s not a place,
Howsoever mean it be,

But ’tis good enough for thee.’ ”

“What a lot of it, and how different it looks

74”

from the ‘ buttercup’!” said Cissy, as she began
to root up some of the plants.
“The creeping roots are very useful to the

plant, because, although so common, it seldom



BUTTERCUPS. 21

bears ripe seeds, but spreads itself by means of
its roots.”

“Then these are both of them ‘creeping
buttercups' in the lane?” inquired Cissy.

“Yes, dear; but, as I told you before, this is
not a proper buttercup, and we will call it either
the ‘celandine’ or the ‘ pilewort,’ whichever you
please.”

“ And is ‘pilewort’ one of its names?”

“Yes; and an old one too, But you must
look at the roots well, and see how different they
are from the roots of the ‘creeping buttercup,’
for they are thick and club-shaped, like little
tubers.”

“Tubers, uncle! what do you mean by
‘tubers’ ?”

“What we call a ‘potato’ is a tuber; not a
bulb, but an underground swelling or knob,
which if planted would bud and grow into a
new plant. But it is not an underground bud,
such as a bulb is, only a thickened root, which
may bud in two or three places. single bud, and only grows from the crown.”



22 BUTTERCUPS.

“T shall know better by-and-by-; but I can
see how different itis, and I know it is not a
bulb, like the onion and hyacinth.”

“Now for the shining, glossy, bright green
leaves, they are very different too. You see
that, as well as being small, they are regular,

Fie. 8,.—LEAF oF PILEWORT.

and not divided at the edges with deep notches.
So that they are heart-shaped, and not more
than an inch long, or seldom longer; and the
edge all round is a little toothed with blunt,
rounded teeth.”

“Yes, I can see that; and they are rather
thick and stiff and shining, something like a



BUTTERCUPS. 23

violet leaf in shape, but thicker, and so
smooth.”

“ And they have long stalks, which come up
from the roots, so that there is no stem except
the flower-stalks.”

“The leaves all grow close to the ground, and
the flower-stalks rise up in the middle.”

“You are quite sure that you would know the
leaves again if there were no flowers ?”

“J think so. They are so shining, and such
a lot of them grow together.”

“The flower-stalks are longer than your finger,
and a little longer than mine, some of them with
one or two little leaves growing out of them,
and a single flower on the top.”

“JT see that, and the star-shaped flowers.”

“True: the flowers are more star-shaped
than in the buttercups, with eight or nine
flower-leaves, of a bright, shining yellow colour,
standing out all round and forming a golden
star.”

“What are the flower-leaves called ?”

“ Petals. Pet-als.”



24 BUTTERCUPS.

“T can’t think of that, it is such a funny
word.” ;

“Indeed you will think of. it, because I shall
say it over so often that you cannot forget.
Did you ever read the song to the small celan-
dine, where it is supposed to have taught the
painter of sign-boards how to paint the rising
sun ?”

“T do not think so.”

“Then here it is :—

‘T have not a doubt but he,

Whosoe’er the man might be

Who the first with pointed rays
(Workman worthy to be sainted)

Set the sign-board in a blaze,
When the rising sun he painted,

Took the fancy from a glance

At thy glittering countenance.’ ”

“JT did not think of the sun,” said Cissy; “I
only thought of a star.”

“ But when evening comes, instead of coming
out, as the stars do, the celandine closes up its



BUTTERCUPS. 25

petals, and then it can be seen how they are
tinged and striped with green beneath, as if to
conceal them.”

“What time do they open in the morning
and close at night ?”

“JT think that depends so much on the weather ;
for the petals close at the coming of rain, what-
ever the hour. The celandine is almost the
earliest flower to blossom with us, even as early
as February.

‘Ere a leaf is on the bush,
In the time before the thrush
Has a thought about her nest,
~ Thou wilt come with half a call,
Spreading out thy glossy breast
Like a careless prodigal ;
Telling tales about the sun,

When we've little warmth, or none.’

“ Perhaps in the average of years we should
say that the celandine flowers in March.”
“ And before any of the real buttercups ?”
“Yes; but when the petals close you will see



26 BUTTERCUPS.

three smaller green leaves beneath the flowers,
which enclose them in the bud.”

“Tn the middle of the open flower there is a
tuft of threads, but I always forget the name of
them.”

“ Stamens,”

“O uncle, why can’t we call them something
that we can't forget? Flowers are so pretty,
but they have so many hard names.”

“Well then, Cissy, sit down and count the
stamens, and you may call them what you please.”

“T find twenty-four in this flower. Is that
the right number ?”



lic. 4.—SEction or FLower or Butrercur.
a, Sepal ; b, Petal.

“That will do. Then there are the Aoaer:
leaves or petals.”



BUTTERCUPS. 97

“Yes; twelve.”

“Not exactly. There are twelve altogether ;
but there are three outside ones, which we call
the sepals, and nine inner ones, which are the
petals. In many flowers the sepals are green,
but in some they are coloured, as in the little
celandine.”

“Then how shall I know them?”

“Call the outer circle sepals, and the inner
petals, and you will usually be right.



Fic. 5.—SEED-VESSELS OF BUTTERCUP.

1, Petal; 2, Ovary; 3, 4, Sections; 5, Section cut through a cluster of ovaries
“Tn all the buttercups, when the flower-leaves

fall, the seed-vessels will be seen remaining on
the stem in a roundish cluster of about twelve.



28 BUTTERCUPS.

Some other wild flowers have only one seed-
vessel, it may be a berry, or a pod, or a capsule,
which keeps on growing after the petals fall
away; so you see that it is of importance al-
ways to find out, if we can, what kind of seed-
vessel any wild flower has, and if it is single, or
whether several of them grow in a cluster.”



Fic. 6.—Burrercurs.



VIOLETS:

: HERE, Cissy, in that quiet little nook

you should find the March violets ; but
you must use both eyes and nose, and what
you cannot see you must smell.”

“Oh, they are lovely; I hope I shall find
some.”

“ And whilst you are looking I will tell you
a short story of them. You have read in your
history of Napoleon the Great, the Emperor of
France ?”

“ How he fought many battles, and was then
taken to Elba, and escaped, and came back to
France.”

“Right; but you have not said that his
friends welcomed him in on his return, on the
20th of March, by wearing bunches of violets.”



30 VIOLETS.

“T did not know that.”

“Nor that whilst he was away, before his
return, his friends used the violet as a token.
If any one was asked, ‘ Do you like the violet?’
and the answer was ‘ Well!’ he was hailed as
a friend, and was told, ‘It will appear again in
spring.”

“The violet was used as a token, because it
comes in March, to tell all his friends that he
would come back in the spring, as the violets do.”

“Yes; but after the battle of Waterloo he
did not come back, and no one was allowed
to wear violets in France: so that when the
Frenchmen could no longer make war upon
men, they made war upon the violets.”

“ Now, uncle, as I have found two or three, I
shall make war upon them, and capture them
too!”

“You have no doubt that you have found the
right flower ?” *

“T should think not ; just smell of it.”

** And what does it smell like ?”

* Viola odorata.



VIOLETS. 31

“ Why, violets, of course !”

“Yes; but that’s a girl’s answer. I want you
to tell me, as if I had never seen one, what the
scent of the violet is like.”

“ But I can’t tell you; it is like violets, and
nothing else.”

“T suppose you are right, and that there is
no other scent exactly like it.

‘A lowly flower, in secret bower,
Invisible I dwell ;
For blessing made, without parade,
Known only by my smell.’”

“Do the sweet-violets appear first? because
there are some violets without scent.”

“Yes, the sweet ones come first, for a short
time, and then comes the dog-violet.”

‘“ And they are shams!”

“No, Cissy, not exactly shams, because they
are true to their nature, and make no pretension
to be what they are not.”

“ But they mimic the true violet in colour
and shape, without scent.”



382 VIOLETS.

“You might as well say that they are
naughty violets, that have done some wrong,
and lost the virtue of sweetness.”

“T don’t care, I don’t like them, for they
deceive me.”

“ Although the fault may be your own, for
not knowing them better. We shall see. Now
you must get a plant up by the roots. Never
forget the roots!”

“Oh, they are just the same as many other
roots—little bunches of threads or fibres.”

“ Just so; and you may as well call it a fibrous
root as a bunch of fibres. You are sure it is not
a creeping root ?”

‘“ Look, uncle, here is something like a runner
which joins two plants together !”

“T thought you were too hasty, and that
you would find, in a large patch like this, some
of the plants made runners. Do not hurry so
much to say whether the plant has a stem or
not.” ;

“ There are flower-stalks coming up from the
root, but I cannot find one with a stem.”



VIOLETS. 33

“Then you think we may say that it has no
stem, because the dog-violet has a stem ?”

“That is another difference besides the scent.”

“ And now as to the shape of the leaves.”

“ They are nearly heart-shaped, are they not,
with long foot-stalks ?”

“« And the edges are not quite even?”



Fic. 7.--LEAF oF SwEET- VIOLET.

“T hardly know what to call them, but the
edge is toothed all round with blunt rounded
teeth.”

“ And the upper surface is smooth, but the
under side is sometimes a little downy, with
very fine hairs. If you lay one side by side’

with a leaf of the little celandine, you will soon
(497) 3



4 VIOLETS.

see the difference, though they are nearly the
same in size and shape.”

“Yes: the violet is thinner, and not shining,
or of so bright a green colour.”

“T suppose you would say that the flower-
stalk is as long as your finger?”

“Yes, and bent over at the top.”

“Well, Cissy, how would you explain to
Lotty what the flower is like if you had not
one to show her ?”

“T should say it was of a deep violet-blue
colour.”

“Don’t you think purple would be better than
to say violet, when you are speaking of a violet?”

“ Ts it not bluish-purple then ?”

“Yes; but you are not to forget that some-
times it is pinkish or white.”

“ Not often, as none of these are white.”

“ But all are paler at the centre, or eye.”

“ And each flower has five separate leaves—
two standing up at the top, one on each side,
and one at the bottom, and all nearly of the
same size and shape.”



VIOLETS. 35

“Perhaps the bottom one is a very little
broadest ; but turn it over and look at the back
of the flower.”

“ There is a curious little horn sticking out at
the bottom, almost like a spur. Are all violet
flowers spurred like that ?”

“Yes; and the bottom leaf, or petal, of the
flower is narrowed behind and forms the spur,
which pushes aside two of the little outer green
leaves of the flower, called the calyx or cup.”

“ And I see the little threads inside the eye
of the flower. It looks like an eye, doesn’t it?”

“Tf you will count the outside little green
leaves of the cup, you will find five; the purple
leaves are five, and the threads inside the flower
are also five—all fives.”

“ And where are the seeds ?”

“When the flowers die and fall off, they leave
behind them a little green swelling; this grows
into a capsule or seed-box, which splits into
three parts, and allows the seeds to fall out.”

“ And that is called the fruit?”

“Yes, that is the regular and proper fruit.



36 VIOLETS.

In the violets and some other plants there is
another contrivance for growing seeds that
sometimes puzzles little people, and not very —
long ago puzzled older people also.”

“What is that?”

“T don’t think we shall find any to-day; but
there are little secret flowers—I cannot tell you
the long name they are called by—yet these
little flowers have no pretty purple leaves, and
they. only look like little green buds, growing
hidden, in out-of-the-way places, about the
plant.” ; :
“ And they don’t look pretty or smell nice?”

“No; they are for use, not beauty.”

“ And for what use?”

“They become at last changed into seed.
boxes, or capsules, containing more seeds.”

“Then if little girls were to gather all the
violet flowers they could find, there would be
no seed from the proper flowers left on the
plant ?”

“No; so that by-and-by, as the old plants
died, there would be Jess and less, and at length



VIOLETS. 87

no violet plants at all, unless young plants were
born in other ways.”

“ By the seeds in the secret flowers?”

“Ay, and by the runners from the old
plants ; for you must not forget the use of the
runners.”

“ Has the dog-violet secret flowers as well ?”

“Yes, and several other violets, but not
pansies.”

“And are pansies a kind of violet ?”

“Indeed they are, for the wild pansy is the
common field heart’s-ease.”

“‘T should like to find the secret flowers. Do
they grow on any other plants except violets?”

“There is another pretty little plant that we
must seek some day in the woods. It is called
the wood-sorrel, with trefoil leaves, like clover
leaves, and such pretty flowers. Secret flowers
are to be found on that plant, and also upon
some few others. 3
' “T suppose, as you are such a lover of violets,
that you will think they have need of no other

virtue than their odour and their humility.”



38 VIOLETS.

“What else do they need, uncle ?”
“Then you will agree that—

‘ Long as there are violets

They will have a place in story.’ ”

“ Yes; but what other virtues have they ?”

“Well, the flowers were at one time given as
medicine to children, and the roots of many
species contain an active substance still used by
doctors.”

“ Never mind; I won't be set against them.”

“Not even because violet is not really an
English name, but imitated from viola, which
was the Latin name of some fragrant flower
which might not have been a violet at all.”

“J think they deserve to be found all the
world over.”

“‘ And they are nearly so, but not often sweet-
scented ; and so there are many countries where
the sweet-violet and the little English daisy are
unknown.”

Cissy and her uncle found no “ dog-violets” on
that day, and not until two or three weeks later,



VIOLETS. 39

when their gossip on violets was taken up again
and made more complete.

“Now that we have found the ‘ dog-violet,’”
said Cissy, “I still think the other is best, because
the colour is deeper, to say nothing of the scent.”



Fia. 8.—Lear or Doc-VI0.et.

“That is not the point,” said uncle: “you
called the ‘dog-violet’ a sham, and you must see
that it is not.”

“ And what must I look at?”

“ Firstly, the stem. Now the sweet-violet has
no stem at all, and this has a stem with leaves

upon it.”



"40 VIOLETS.

“So it has, but that is not much.”

“Well, then, compare the leaves.”

“Oh, they are a little different, but not
much.”

“‘ And the flowers ?”

“Not so pretty, and with no scent. Why
was it called the dog-violet ?”

“ Possibly the animal’s name, attached - to
flowers, was meant to point them out as be-
ing less good than some other flower or plant
which was something like them. We have
dog-rose to set against the rose; dog-violet to
place against the violet; horse-chestnut against
the chestnut ; cow-parsnip against the pars-
nip; and horse-mushroom against the mush-
room.”

“So we have three kinds of wild violet in this
country ; and is that all?”

“By no means; there may be eight British
violets. But the bog-violet and the mountain-
violet are not likely to come in our way; and,
after all, you care most for the sweet-violet, and
very little for any other.



VIOLETS. 41

‘Smell at my violets! I found them where
The liquid south stole o'er them, on a bank
That leaned to running water. There’s to me
A daintiness about these early flowers

a9

That touches one like poetry.

“Can you tell me no other story of the
violet ?”

“Only a short one about Io, who was the
daughter of Atlas. One day she was being pur-
sued by Apollo, who was the sun, you know,
and she fled from him into a wood, where
Diana changed her into a violet. Perhaps this
is only another way of saying that violets grow
in the woods to escape the sun.

‘The trembling violet, which eyes

29

The sun but once, and unrepining dies.



DANDELIONS.*

UNCLE, mamma says we should not
pick ‘the nasty dandelions. But they
are not nasty, are they ?”

“Well, Cissy, some people call them nasty,
but I don’t.”

‘Why do they call them nasty?”

“ Perhaps, my dear, because they do not smell
very nice, and perhaps because they have a
sticky juice, which makes the hands dirty.”

“Ts that all the reason, uncle? for Lotty says
that country children will not pick dandelions,
and some of them aren’t afraid of making them-
selves dirty.”

“Indeed, Cissy, I have heard the warning

not to smell the dandelions; but I fancy the

* Taraxacum officinale.

























































































































































i

)
)

e

HUI

i on
KU Hf

Tig. 9.—DANDELIONS,

}
i









DANDELIONS. 45

young urchins always do it all the same, and no
harm comes of it.”

“Why are they called ‘dandelions,’ uncle?”

“Well, my child, I think we had better walk
down the lane, and find the plant growing, when
I can show you the cause for the name.”

No sooner was this plan agreed to than Cissy
and her uncle, hand in hand, were strolling
along a quiet country lane, in quest of the
humble and common plant of which they had
just been talking. Some of the leaves may be
found all the year round, but the flowers only in
summer and autumn. In some places the chil-
dren call all the yellow flowers which have the
star shape by the name of dandelidn, but there
is only one kind of plant and flower which has
the right to be so called, and that is the one
which Cissy is looking after and her uncle has
already found.

“ Here is one, Cissy, without any flower ; but
we must dig it up by the root.”

After digging for some time in silence and

loosening the soil all round, Cissy complained



46 DANDELIONS.

that the root was so long and so deep that she
could not tear it up.

“JT am glad that you have found what a
strong and long root the dandelion has,” replied
the uncle, “and how difficult it is to pull it
up. Some people think, when dandelions grow
amongst the grass on a lawn, that it needs
only a weed-‘spud’ and a push to clear them
all away; but the diggers only break off the
top of the root, and then they find, soon after,
that the rest of the root, still in the ground,
grows again stronger than ever.”

“Oh, never mind the root, uncle; I am in
such a hurry to know the meaning of the name.”

“All in good time, Cissy. I only want the
leaves for the present; but they must be whole
leaves, and not bitten by the slugs or gnawed
by the rabbits.”

“T can soon find some beautiful leaves, and
we need not have been digging at the roots
at all.”

“My dear Cissy, your labour has not been in
vain ; because you will not forget that if this



DANDELIONS. 47

weed has no stem, it has plenty of root. Now
you must smooth out five or six leaves and lay
them flat on this book, so as to see their
shape.”

“Yes, uncle. They are long leaves with such



Fic. 10.—DANDELION LEAF.
(Reduced.)

a funny zigzagey edge that they look as if the
slugs had been biting pieces out of them all the
way down.”

‘Just so: the edges of the leaves are toothed,
and by that I mean that sharp points stick out



48 DANDELIONS.

all the way along each side, like teeth in a large
saw. Some of these teeth are large and some
are small, but all are sharp pointed, with the
points curved backwards towards the bottom of
the leaf.”

“Ah yes; I see all of them are hooked
downwards like a cat’s claw.”

“Not quite the best likeness, Cissy. I should
have said, perhaps, like a lion’s tooth; but you
never saw a lion’s tooth, did you?”

“No, uncle ; lions don’t grow in our woods.”

“Did you ever see pussy’s teeth? When the
cat opens her mouth do you watch her teeth—
sharp pointed, with all the points curved back-
wards, just as the lion’s teeth are; only the
lion’s are so much the largest.”

“T see now—‘ dandy-lion.’”

“Not exactly, Cissy. It was at one time
‘ dent-de-leon, which means ‘tooth of lion’ or
‘lion’s teeth,’ but has fallen to ‘dandelion,’
which means the same thing ; because the points
of the leaf are curved backwards, ending in a
sharp point like lion’s teeth.”



DANDELIONS. 49

“Yes; but lions do not always show their
teeth.”

“True, my dear; but you remember on the
village green at Wickham what we saw as we
rode past one day. Outside the public-house
there was a large board upon which was painted a
red lion, standing on his hind legs, and pawing
with his fore feet in the air, his mouth wide
open, showing his large teeth. He always
shows his teeth. I could show you a book in
which it is written, ‘The jagged edges of the
leaf are like the rows of teeth that garnish the
jaws of the red lion which announces the head
inn of some village or town.’ ”

“ But, uncle, would lions dance on their hind
legs, like dancing-bears ?”

“Perhaps not, Cissy, unless they are red
lions. Could you count how many leaves there
are on this dandelion plant, all bent back to
the ground and lapping each other, spreading
like rays, making a rosette of green leaves ?”

“T don’t think I know what a rosette is.”

“Well, dear, a rosette is an imitation of a
(497) 4



50 DANDELIONS.

rose, or supposed to be, in which a great num-
ber of leaves have their lower ends all joined
together in the centre and the other ends spread-
ing out all round, as they do in a marigold
flower, or a plant of houseleek, or London pride,
or a dandelion.”

“T like a rose better than a rosette.”

“ But each one is useful in its place.”

“O uncle, what can be the use of the dande-
lion rosette? it is only a common weed.”

“Cissy, call nothing common or unclean,
until you know it well, and can find no good
in it.”

“ But I do know the dandelion !”

“ Not yet, my child ; you have not even tasted
it,” :

“O uncle!”

“You like lettuce, and celery, and water-cress,
and other green leaves, and call them ‘salad.’”

“Yes, I like salad; but I don’t think I shall
like this, because it tastes bitter.”

“ And so does endive, until it is blanched.”

‘* Blanched ! what is that ?”



DANDELIONS. 51

“ Blanched simply means bleached-—losing its
green colour. Suppose we place a piece of tile
or slate on this dandelion plant, and leave it
there for a week or two, and then look at it
again. The leaves will be there, just as before ;
but instead of being green in colour, they will
be turned sickly white. They will be blanched,
and, if you taste them again, no longer bitter.
By shutting off the light the green colour will
not be formed in the leaves, nor will the bitter
taste, both of which require the light. So that
by blanching them these leaves become more
pleasant to eat. In this state dandelion leaves
are as good in salads as endive, and are con-
stantly eaten in that way by some people,
without being blanched at all.”

“Then shutting out the light makes them
better. Why don’t they always grow in the
dark ?”

“Yes, Cissy, shutting off the light makes
them better for eating, because more tender and
less bitter; but at the same time they are made

what we should call sickly, unhealthy, and



52 DANDELIONS.

would be killed at last. Celery, endive, sea-kale,
etc., are all treated in a like manner for the
same purpose. So you see they cannot always
grow in the dark, and, like most little girls, do
not like to be in the dark.”

“T didn’t think that the dandelion was useful
to any one but slugs and rabbits.”

“And you were mistaken, because those
troublesome large roots are useful also.”

“What! to ‘people’ ?”

“Certainly to ‘people, as you call them.
The roots are dug out of the ground and washed
clean. Then they are cut in pieces and dried
in the sun, in the air, or in heated rooms.
When quite dry and hard they may be grated
or pounded, and the powdet made into pills,
which are useful as a medicine.”

“Dandelion pills ?”

“Yes, Cissy ; and even something more than
that, because when the dried roots are roasted
until they are crisp, they can be ground and
made into coffee.”

“ Not real coffee, uncle ?”



DANDELIONS. 53

“Not real coffee, of course, but dandelion.
coffee, which some people like as well as they
do real coffee ; and it is sold in the shops, some-
times pure and sometimes mixed with real coffee,
and either way makes a very pleasant, cheap,
and sober drink.”

“ But I wish you to tell me something about
the flowers, they look so curious.”

“Let us spread your white handkerchief on
the grass and pull one of the flowers in pieces,
gently and carefully pulling off every one of the
yellow leaves, so that we may count them and
not lose one of them.”

“See the little tuft of white hairs at the bot-
tom of all of them.”

“Yes, but do ‘you know that they are not
simple leaves, such as they are in many common
flowers, but each one of those yellow florets, as
they are called, is a perfect flower ; so that there
are a great number of very little flowers, grow-
ing together into a compound or . composite
flower. Just you count them and see how
many there are.”



54 DANDELIONS.

“JT find a hundred and fifty florets in my
flower.”
‘« And in mine there are one hundred and



Dandelion Clock. Pappus and Fruit. Floret.

Fig. 11.— DANDELION.

sixty ; so that we cannot call it a single flower,
but a cluster of florets, or a flower-head.”

‘“‘ And is every one of these a perfect flower ?”



DANDELIONS. 55

“Certainly it is; of which I will convince you
directly. They are all alike, too, in the dande-
lion, but they are not all alike in the daisy,
which has yellow florets in the middle, and
white ones all around them.”

“Then the daisy and the dandelion are both
of them what you call compound flowers ¢”

“Yes; but the daisy has a disc of yellow
flowers, with a ray of strap-shaped white
flowers.”

“ And are these florets of the dandelion all of
them strap-shaped flowers ?”

“See, the bottom of the floret is a tiny tube
with a long, yellow, strap-shaped flower-leaf on
one side, nearly the same width all the way,
and little notches at the top end.”

“Oh, what a funny little yellow column stands
up in the middle of each floret, which is split at
the top, and each half of it curls outwards!
what is that ?”

“Tt is the style, and the five stamens are
around it, but so closely glued to the column

that you cannot see them with the naked eye.”



56 DANDELIONS.

«« And where will the seeds come ?”

“The ovary, or young seed-vessel, is at the
bottom of the floret, just a little swelling, and
then it is narrowed above a little way, and then
swells again, just where the fringe of white
hairs stand up all around it.”

‘What are the hairs for?”

“That is the pappus. When the florets die
off and the seed-vessel grows ripe, the narrow
part above it gets longer and longer, and carries
up with it the tuft of white hairs, which spread
all round, so that when the seeds are ripe the
pappus at the top is like a parachute, which
floats in the air.”

« And then we blow it off to see what o’clock
it is!”

“Certainly. - What you do is just what is
written in the book:—‘ The little girls adorn
themselves with chains and curls of dandelions,
pull out the yellow leaves to see if the schoolboy
loves them, and blow the down from the leafless
stalk to find out if their mothers want them at

»”

home.’



DANDELIONS. 57

“We call them ‘ dandelion clocks.’”

“But, Cissy, we are forgetting the flower-
stalk, after plucking off the florets. You must
look at it, and see that the top of the stem forms
a little cushion upon which stand the florets,
packed closely side by side; and by-and-by as
the seeds ripen they stand upon the cushion,
until they are blown away by the wind.”

“ And form a pretty globe of down.”

‘You remember that in most flowers there
is a cup or a ring of small green leaves just
beneath the flower, called the calyx, which is
another word for cup. In the dandelion and
other compound flowers there is also a circle,
or two or three rings, of small scaly green leaves
just beneath the flower-head.”

“There are two rings of leaves in the dande-
lion.”

“ And the outer circle bend backwards. But
these green bracts are not a calyx or cup, but
a general involucre. Every floret has a substi-
tute for the calyx in the fringe of white hairs
or pappus. The involucre protects the young



58 DANDELIONS.

flowers in the bud, and as the seeds ripen the
whole of the leaflets bend backwards, close to
the stem.”

“Can we find a ‘dandelion clock’ with ripe
seeds 2”

“JT am afraid not; but you will remember
them, and I can remind you of one or two
things. When all the fruits of the composite
flowers of the dandelion are ripe, they have a
long stiff bristle at the top which supports the
parachute or flattened pappus of white hairs.
All the combined parachutes of one receptacle
form a delicate round ball, but the fruits are
attached so slightly to the cushion that a puff
of wind will blow them away. The use of the
downy head is to cause the seeds to be floated
in the air, and thus easily scattered. When a
suitable place is reached, the seed settles and

begins to grow; and this completes our history.”



LORDS AND LADIES.*

“CC HARP eyes, Cissy, in the hedge-bank, for

the flower of ‘lords and ladies.’ I can
see plenty of the glossy green leaves, but not
a flower as yet.”

«“ Show me the leaves, uncle; | am not sure
that I know them.”

«There they are, scores of them, rising out of
the ground without any stem—bright, shining,
arrow-shaped leaves, many of them spotted with
blackish spots.”

orl

“That’s the ‘wake-robin,’” exclaimed Cissy ;
‘“T know the horrid leaves.”

“Why call them horrid leaves? for I think
them handsome leaves.”

“Yes, uncle, to look at; but I bit one of

* Arum maculatum.



60 LORDS AND LADIES.

them one’ day, and, oh, it was horrid! it al-
most blistered my lips and tongue.”

“You were foolish, Cissy. I do not know
any leaf that would punish you so much for
ene and you will never wish to taste it

again.’
“That I shan’t. But why ‘lords and ladies’ ?”
“ And why ‘ wake-robin,’ or ‘ cuckoo-pint,’ or

‘calves’ foot,’ or ‘ starch-wort All are names
for the same plant.”

“Perhaps ‘cuckoo-pint’ because it comes
with the cuckoo.”

“Perhaps ‘starch-wort’ because starch was
made from the roots, to starch the big ruffles
which were worn in the reign of Queen Eliza-
beth.”

“ Let’s dig up the roots.”

“They are almost like a bulb, but solid, and
not with one coat over another as in the onion.”

“Hach root has three, four, or five leaves on
long stalks rising from it.”

“ And in the autumn a new root grows beside
the old root, and as the berries ripen the old



LORDS AND LADIES. 61

root dies and rots, and the new root rests through
the winter, to send up green leaves and flowers
in the spring.”

“ And I know it flowers in a hood.”

“There is one at last! See, this round,
greenish, spotted stalk comes up from the root
amongst the leaves, and on the top of the stalk
stands a long hollow husk or sheath, very pale
green, puffed out like a bladder, sharp-pointed
at the top, and split down on one side nearly to
the bottom.”

“The hood, or sheath, must be six inches
long.”

“Yes, Cissy, quite as much as that, and an
inch thick in the middle.”

“ And is that sheath the flower ?”

“No, not the flower.”

“Nor yet the flower-cup ?”

“No; it is like nothing that we have seen.
It isa sheath or hood, sometimes called a spathe ;
but it is only a wrapper, or sheath, to protect
the flowers that are inside.”

“Then we may cut it off?”



62 LORDS AND LADIES.



Fic. 12.—SpatHE AND LEAF.

“Yes, and lay bare the flowers hidden within.
The upper part, for more than half its length,

is a purple club, like a pestle or clapper, rounded



LORDS AND LADIES. 68

at the top and narrowed downwards, and paler
below. Then again it becomes thicker, and around
it a ring of little knobs with hairs at the top.
Below this is a ring of male flowers,
and lower still a broader band of female
flowers, and then follows the flower-stem,
which runs down to the root.”

“Then it is not one flower, but a host
of flowers shut up in a sheath ?”

“Yes: passing upwards from the bot-
tom there is a band of female flowers,
then a band of male flowers, then a ring of
barren flowers, and above all these the up-
right purple club, and all enclosed inalong \~
sheath which is split down on one side.” Fue. 13.—

SPADIX
“The flowers must be very small.” or Lorps

“And so they are, and as simple as they Lapins.
canbe. The male flowers are only pollen-boxes,
and the female flowers are only seed-cells, or
young fruits, containing the minute egg-like or

bud-like seeds.”
“ Flow many flowers are there in one of the



sheaths 2?”



64 LORDS AND LADIES.

“TI know not, but perhaps scores. Only a
few, or not more than a dozen, of the fruits
ripen. Later in the season, clusters of the red
fruits, of the size of red currants, are to be seen
crowded together on a stem amongst the leaves,
quite naked—the club and all above the ring of
female flowers, and every shred of the sheath,
dead and gone.” .

“They must be easily seen.”

“Indeed they are. And it is said that phea-
sants eat them, and perhaps other birds also ;
but I do not wish you to try them.”

“Thank you; I had rather not. I have no
wish to taste again.”

“You had enough with tasting the leaves.
I am told that if the fresh leaves are bruised
and laid on the skin they will raise a blis-
ter.”

“Do you think they were called ‘ cuckoo-pint’
because they come with the cuckoo 4”

“T have read that it was called ‘pint’ because
the sheath was like a drinking-cup, and ‘ cuckoo-
pint’ because it cometh with the cuckoo in the







LORDS AND LADIES. 65

spring ; ‘friar’s cowl,’ because the sheath is like
a friar’s hood or cowl.”

“Veg; and ‘lords and ladies’ ?”

“Tt was fancied that the hood of the flowers
resembled the ruffs in which lords and ladies
buried their heads in olden times.”

“Did the plant make wonderful cures, like
some other wild flowers ?”

“Well, it has been said that it will do a great
many things; but I should not like to try it, if
it can blister the skin and scorch the tongue.

‘« You will love it, and ride away!”

“Yes; I will be content to remember
How sweet it used to be when April first
Unclosed the arum leaves, and into view
Its ear-like, spindling flowers their cases burst,

9

Betinged with yellowish white or lushy hue.
Or at other times—

‘Oft under trees we nestled in a ring,

2929099

Culling our “lords and ladies.

(497) 5



RED CAMPION.*

‘ HEN I was a boy, Cissy, that red
flower was always called ‘bachelor’s

- buttons’ in Norfolk, but I have since learned
that in other places some other wild flower is
the ‘ bachelor’s buttons.’ ”

“ And what is this one called ?”

“Sometimes ‘red campion’ and sometimes
‘red robin;’ but I never forget the old name.”

“Tt is almost like a ‘ pink.’”

“Of course it is a wild pink, and so is the
‘ragged robin,’ which grows in meadows.”

“A spring nosegay is dull without the cam-
pion.”

“So I think. Although it is straggling, it
is a pretty object in the lanes at spring-time.

* Lychnis diurna,







RED CAMPION. 67

The long, thin stems are often more than half
a yard high, and velvety.”

“The roots are rather tough and stringy.”

“ And do not die in the winter, but remain
in the ground, and send up a tuft of green
leaves in the spring.”

“The leaves are long, and broadest in the
middle, narrowed to each end, almost like a
boy’s ‘ tip-cat.’”

“We should call them lance-shaped, because
they are like the head of a lance, only that they
are rather too blunt at the tip.”

“ And a little hairy or velvety, without any
proper foot-stalks.”

“The stems are quite round, with swollen
joints, rather wide apart, so that there is a long
naked space between one joint and the next.
The stems will break more easily at the joints.”

“There is always a cluster of root-leaves on
the ground at the bottom of the stem.”

“And not many leaves on the stem; but
these always grow at the joints, and in pairs,

one leaf opposite to another.”



68. RED CAMPION.

“And the branches come from the joints
too.”

“Yes: the stem divides into two branches
at the joint, and then each branch divides again
into two at the next joint, like a two-pronged
fork ; so that it goes on forking up to the top,
each branch becoming shorter and shorter the
further it is from the root.”

“See, the last branch, with the flower at the
top, is quite short. Is that campion with quite
white flowers the same ?”

‘No, Cissy; that is the white campion, or
the evening campion, which is different, but
very much like the red campion, and the flowers
smell sweet in the evening.”

“The leaves look almost the same, and the
flowers nearly of the same size and shape, only
that they are quite white.”

“True; but the flowers of the white campion
are sometimes pinkish, and those of the red
campion nearly white. You must not be guided
wholly by the colour of the flowers.”

“Then what must be the guide?”



RED CAMPION. 69

“The shape of the capsule, as we shall see
by-and-by. But we have still to look at the
flowers, ‘each of them standing in a large green-
striped hairy husk, large and round below, next
to the stalk.’ You will remember. the ‘ flower-
cup’ in other flowers, but in these it is more
distinct.” ;

“Oh yes; the green flower-cup, with its
toothed edge, is very plain to be seen.”

“Tn the red campion the teeth of the cup are
very short; in the white campion they are
longer, and with a broader notch.”

“T see the difference now; but it is such a
little one, and the teeth are always small.” .

“We must pull the flower in pieces, as [
have to show you something here which we
have not seen. before; but before I do so, we
must see the coloured leaves, the true flower-
leaves.”

“There are five of them again.”

“ Five, deeply notched at the outer edge, and
lengthened out into a long: claw at the bottom.
Pull out the pink leaves and find the claw.”



70 RED CAMPION.

‘“‘ Here it is: nearly white, and as long as the
blade, sharply bent in the middle.”

““Of course you can see the reason. When
the flowers are open the top is quite flat, like
} a button, with the five spreading
pink leaves ; but the long claw
must be bent sharp downwards to
pass into the flower-cup, making a
sort of elbow joint at the bend.
All the family of Pinks have these
aN hoes clawed petals,’ as they are called.”

Crawep Petar. “ Yes, I see—the pink part quite
flat, and the white claw bent sharp downwards
into the cup.”

“Now I must tell you of the ‘something’ which
we have not met with before in other flowers.
Some of the plants of the campion have only
male flowers,and others have only female flowers.”

“‘ And are both sorts of flowers just the same
to look at?”

“Exactly the same; and you could not tell
the one from the other by just looking at them
outside, only by pulling them in pieces.”



RED CAMPION. 71

“QO uncle, show me the difference; I should
like to know the puzzle.”

“Yes, dear; but you must have patience,
because you will hardly understand the puzzle
all at once. I have told you that the first set
of parts in a flower is the outside set of green —
leaves, which we have agreed to call the flower-
cup; then the next set are the true coloured
flower-leaves, which are pink, with a long spur
or claw in these flowers; but the third set are
the threads in the middle, called stamens, and
the column in the centre, with the young seed-
vessel at the bottom.”

“T recollect all that.”

“We have always found, up to now, both the
stamens—you call them threads—and the centre
piece all in one flower; but we shall see in
these flowers, as in this one, that there are ten
stamens or threads, but no column in the centre.
Here is another just the same—only the ten
stamens, and no column. ‘These, then, are
male flowers.”

“Ts the column of so much use?”



72 RED CAMPION.

- “Certainly it is; for the young seed-capsule
grows at the bottom of the column, and if there
is no centre piece (people call it a pistil) the
plant will have no seeds.”

“Then these male flowers have no seeds ?”

“That is just the point; we must hunt in
other flowers for the centre piece or pistil. All
the flowers on this one plant are male flowers,
so we must find the plant which bears female
flowers.”

“Do they grow together ?”

“Yes, Let us try this one. No; it is just
the same, and all male flowers. We will try
them on the other side of the road.”

“‘Here’s a nice one, uncle—all a-blowing, all
a-growing.”

“ Ah, that will do; it is a female plant.”

“Tt looks just like the others.”

“But it is not the same. See here: there
are no stamens, only a column, with a swelling
at. the bottom, which is the young seed-vessel,
and holds the very little dots which one day

will grow into seeds.”



RED CAMPION. 73

“The column is split into five at the top; and
these female flowers will have seeds, while the
male flowers will have none. So the male
flowers are of no use, only to look at?”

“T did not say that, Cissy; but your ques-
tion makes me tell you something more.”

“What! about the male flowers?”

“Yes; we must go back to them again. You
saw the thick tops of the threads or stamens ?”

“ All powdery like.”

“These tops split lengthwise, and scatter
very fine yellow powder—the pollen; and this
pollen, if it settles on the top of the centre
column, grows, and thrusts a very fine tube
down the inside of the column into the seed-
vessel, so that the liquor that was in the pollen
grain passes down this tube into the space at
the bottom of the column, and helps the little
dots to grow into perfect seeds.”

“Wouldn't they grow into perfect seeds
without the help of the pollen grains ?”

“They would not grow, but shrivel up.”

“Then how do the pollen grains get from the



74 RED CAMPION.

male flowers into the female flowers, that may
be growing a long way off?”

“Perhaps in more ways than one; but I will
tell you one way in which they travel. You
have seen bees and flies hovering about flowers
and sucking their juice ?”

“Very often.”

“Little fly goes to a male flower, and pushes
about and gets into it as far as he can. Doing
this, he knocks off the pollen powder, which
sprinkles all over his head and back. By-and-
by he goes into a female flower, and there he
rubs the powder from his head and back upon
the sticky top of the column, and so the pollen
travels from the male to the female flower.”

“What happens after ?”

“The male flowers die, and nothing is left;
the female flowers die, but the swelling at the
bottom of the centre column remains, and grows
bigger and bigger, until it becomes a large seed-
vessel or capsule, open at the top, with ten teeth
round the edge, so that when the seeds are ripe
they shake in the inside and fall out.”



RED CAMPION. (oee

“Then they are all female plants which have
capsules ?”

“Only female plants; and in the red campion
the capsules are nearly round, with the teeth
bent back; in the white campion the capsules
are longer and almost pear-shaped, with the
teeth straight. Thus you may know the red

©
e

Fig. 15.—CApsuLe oF Fic. 16.—CAPSuLE OF
RED CAMPION. WHITE CAMPION.

from the white campion when the flowers are
all dead and gone.”

“Suppose the fly carries the powder on his
head into another sort of plant, such as a
stitchwort, and leaves it behind him, what will
happen ?”

“Nothing will happen. The tubes will not
grow, and the powder will wither and dry up.”

“Have all the pinks, and such like plants,



76 RED CAMPION.

male flowers on one plant and female flowers on
another ?” |

“Oh no; only a few kinds.”

“They are very pretty flowers, and some of
the garden pinks smell so sweet; but are they
of any use?”

“T am afraid that very few of them are of
any use to man, except for his pleasure; but
some of them may be as useful to smaller ani-
mals as ‘ chickweed’ is to the little birds.”

“T know the chickweed ; it has such miser-
able little white flowers.”

“The flowers are small, but rather pretty if
you see them through a glass. I would advise
you to watch the leaves of this little plant, and
that you can do easily, for it grows in every
garden. At night the upper leaves draw to-
wards each other in pairs, so that they close
over the young shoots, and protect them during
the night. This has been called ‘going to
sleep ;’ but it is rather more than that, for the
leaves rise upwards and cover up the buds, to
shelter them from cold or harm. In some other



RED CAMPION. 77

plants the leaves either rise or fall, but only to
protect themselves, and they look as if they
were going to sleep. It is not generally known
that the young plants may be boiled as a vege-
table, and are something like spinach. You
must not despise the chickweed, for it may
remind you that little things are not mean or
miserable because they are small.”



ST. JOHN’S WORT.*

xs ANY old customs, Cissy, have to do

with flowers; but some of them have
gone out of use, and others out of thought—
mistletoe at Christmas, hawthorn on Mayday,
willow on Palm Sunday, and St. John’s wort on
Midsummer Eve. We must find the St. John’s
wort, and learn its story.”

“Shall we find it in the lane?”

“Tt grows on hedge-banks and by roadsides,
as well as in woods, and is in flower in July and
August.”

‘“‘ What is the story ?”

“Not a long one. A Welshman says that
.in Wales they have the custom of sticking St.
John’s wort over the doors on the eve of St.

* Hypericum perforatum.



ST. JOHN’S WORT. 79

John Baptist; and, without naming this plant, a
bishop wrote of olden times, when men of the
country brought into London on Midsummer
Eve branches of trees from Bishop’s Wood, and
flowers from the field, to array the houses and
make them gay.”

“Do you know why this flower should have
been called St. John’s wort, or why it should
have been chosen for that purpose ?”

“Perhaps because it is a showy plant, and
flowers at this time of year. It is a large plant,
and we cannot miss it.”

“ And the colour ?”

“There are at least ten kinds of St. John’s
wort found in this country, and all of them have
yellow flowers. Our St. John’s wort, which is
probably the true species, grows more than half
a yard high, and can be seen a long way off.”

“T hope we shall find it.” }

“ There’s a plant, with golden yellow flowers,
just in sight. It may be a ‘ragwort,’ but it is
the more likely to be St. John’s wort. You
had better run and look at it.”



80 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

“ How shall I know it ?”

“ You will know if it is the ragwort, because
the ragwort is something like the dandelion:
the flower-head, which looks to be one flower, is
made up of a host of little flowers packed close
together in the middle, and rows of strap-shaped
flowers round the edge, like the rays in a dande-
lion or daisy.”

“Yes, a composite flower; but if it is St.
John’s wort?”

“Then it is a simple flower, and in the middle
of it a very great number of golden threads
which we call stamens.”



Fic. 17.—Srction oF Frower or St. Jony’s Wort.
At length Cissy called out, “ Here it is, and
they are simple flowers.”
“You see that it is quite half a yard high, and





ST. JOHN’S WORT. 81

grows so stiff and upright that you should know
‘it again a long way off.”

“And such a number of golden yellow
flowers.”

“The stem, you can see, is distinctly two-
edged, and bright reddish brown, so slender that
if it were not tough and woody it would soon be
blown down.”

“ And such a number of branches.”

“ Mostly in pairs, one on each side of the stem,
and opposite to each other; not spreading much,
but pointing upwards.”

“« And what little leaves.”

“ Yes ;.the leaves are small for the size of the
plant. Oblong, three times as long as they are
broad, with quite a smooth edge; and I don’t
think you will find hairs upon them anywhere.”

“They are rather tough, aren’t they ?”

“Yes; but what is more strange is that they
are pricked with little dots, and you must use
your best eyes to see them.”

“‘ And the leaves grow in pairs, too, on oppo-
site sides of the stem.”

(497) 6



82 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

‘“ All the branches grow out from the corner
which the leaf makes with the stem; that is to
say, the branches grow from the stem, or larger
branches, just over and close to the bottom of
the leaf, and are said to grow in the awils of the
leaves.”

“The leaves are all smaller at the top of the
plant than they are at the bottom, and smaller
on the branches than they are on the stem.”

“ That is usually the case with herbs.”

“ The flowers look very different from butter-
cups.”

“ And yet the flowers of both have five yellow
floral leaves, and a great number of threads, or
stamens, in the middle of the flower.”

“ With five little green cup-leaves close to the
outside of the flower.”

“ Now then, Cissy, you must pull one flower
in pieces, very carefully, over this sheet of paper,
and be very careful with the stamens.”

“One, two, three! Such a lot of stamens—
sixty or seventy—but all grown together into
two or three tufts or bundles.”



ST. JOHN’S WORT. 83

“Exactly. That is just what I wished you
to be quite sure of, because that is how you may
always know St. John’s wort from any other
yellow wild flower. The stamens are always
joined in bundles. You can remember ?”

“Yes;

I don’t think I can forget it now

Q Q 5
\q D



Fic. 18.—F Lower or St. JoHn’s Wort.

1, Flower; 2, Bundle of Stamens ; 8, Pistil; 4, Section of Ovary ; 5, Fruit;
6, Seed ; 7, Section.

that I have seen it. And there is a large
knob in the middle where the stamens are
pulled off.”

“ That is the ovary, which grows into a fruit
and contains the seed. You will notice that not
only the stems, and sometimes the large veins



84, - §T. JOHN’S WORT.

of the leaves, but the tips of the flower buds,
before they open, are tinged with red.”

« And the plant is smooth all over.”

“You have been pulling the plant about,
breaking and rubbing it, so that I want to know
if you can smell any scent on your fingers.”

“Yes; I think I smell something like lemons.”

“There is a yellow juice in the plant which
perhaps contains the scent, but sometimes it is
better to be seen than at others. Suppose we
carry some of the plant home, and put it in
water in a glass bottle: then we shall see, after
it has been standing a little while, that the
water becomes yellowish.”

“See, it stains my fingers, but not yellow.”

“ Tf you press some of them between blotting
paper, the juice will stain the paper yellow.”

“Ts the yellow colour of any use?”

“T have been told that when mixed with
alum and boiled the dried plant will dye wool
a yellow colour, but I have never tried it.”

“ And yet you say that all things have their
uses.”



ST. JOHN’S WORT. 85

“Yes; but I did not tell you that I knew the
uses of all things. The St. John’s wort was
gathered in the country, when I was a boy, by
many old people, who believed it to be so useful
as a medicine that they dried it and kept some
of it always in the house.”

“ And what was it good for?”

“It was supposed to cure the ague, and to be
good for jaundice, and I think useful for wounds
and for internal bleeding, and perhaps for many
things besides, for it was a plant of many vir-
tues.”

“ And not all of them true ?”

“ You will think so when I tell you that in
France and Germany the common people gather
the plant on St. John’s Day, and hang it up in
their windows as a charm to protect them from
harm by storms, thunder, or evil spirits. Even
in North Wales there was at one time a similar
belief. I may tell you that there is a St. John’s
wort, with large yellow flowers, as big as half-a-
crown, often grown in gardens and shrubberies ;
but it is not one of our wild flowers. One name



86 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

for it is ‘ Aaron’s beard,’ on account of the great
number of stamens. As the flowers are so large,
you will be able to see the bundles of stamens
better than you can do in the common St. John’s
wort; so that you had better look for it, as it
grows close to the ground in large patches, and
the large flowers stand singly, and not in bunches.
It grows in some places like a wild plant, but it
is a native of Southern Europe, and was intro-
duced into this country, therefore we cannot call
it a true British wild flower.”



MALLOW.*

OU should know the mallow, Cissy, with
the pink flowers close at your feet.
But what do you call it?”

“Oh! ‘cheeses.’ Yes, I know.”

“ Cheeses? why do you call it ‘ cheeses’ ?”

“ Because little cheeses grow all over it, and
so we play with them, and call them ‘ cheeses.’ ”

““« Pick-cheeses’ they are called in some places,
and are the round, flat fruits of the mallow.”

“What a sprawling plant! too lazy to grow
straight.”

“ As some people are too lazy to walk straight.
It is a strong, tough plant; so you may grasp
it firmly, and pull with all your might to drag
it up by the root.”

* Malva sylvestris.



88 MALLOW.

“T can’t; it sticks so hard.”

“Then I will help you. Now, pull all to-
gether, and up it comes.”

“ But the end of the root is broken off.”

“Never mind; there is enough for you to see
what a large, tough root it has, thicker than
your finger ; and if you rub it where it is broken,
you will find that it has a clammy juice.”

“Tt is almost like liquorice root, but not so
nice, is it?”

“Not so sweet, but nearly as useful.”

“Good to eat ?”

“ Not exactly ; but all kinds of mallow roots
are whitish and full of a slimy juice, and when
laid in water the juice runs out, and makes the
water thick and clammy. It is said that the
old Romans used mallow roots as a vegetable.”

“ But it is not used now-a-days?”

“Yes, it is, but not in the same way. Mallows
are one of the few common plants still used in
proper medicine, and more abroad, in Europe,
than with us.”

“ How is it used?”





Fic. 19.—Common Mattow.

1, Part of Plant, reduced ; 2; Root; 3, Section of Flower ; 4, 5, Fruits; 6, Carpel.
7, Seed; 8, Stamen.







MALLOW. 91

“The water in which it is soaked is sweetened
with sugar and drunk, or it is used outside for
bathing inflamed limbs, or made into a kind of
poultice.”

“Only the roots?”

« All parts of the plant more or less, especially
the marsh-mallow, which is made into a syrup
or lozenges. French chemists sell the dried
flowers and roots under the name of ‘ guimauve.’”

“The stem is tough like the root, and strag-
gling.”

“The common mallow is not a neat-growing
plant, but the flowers are pretty; sometimes it
is half-a-yard high, and often less.”

“It seems to be soft and velvety all over.”

“Yes; but the marsh-mallow is much softer
and more velvety. Let us try to name the
shape of the leaves.”

“That is not so easy. They would be rather
rounded if they were not so deeply notched at
the edge.”

“T should call them kidney-shaped, and
notched at the edge so as to have from five to



92 MALLOW.

seven broad and almost three-cornered teeth:
too large for teeth, we might almost call them
lobes. The dwarf mallow is nearly as common,
but the leaves are more kidney-shaped, and
scarcely lobed.”

“ Lobes! what are they 2”

“The lower flap of the ear is the lobe of the
ear; and so these are lobes, or flaps, if you like.”

\



Vg

IY
[/
Se
Sy
77 | a
AN

Fic. 20.—Dwarr Matitow Lear.

_ “Never mind what we call them, so long as
we know what it is that we mean.”

“You are right, Cissy: names mean little
until we give some meaning to them, and it is
seldom easy to state the forms of leaves in words.”

« And these plants have lobed leaves.”



MALLOW. - 98

“Yes; which are not opposite to each other
in pairs, but grow singly and scattered. The
lower leaves, in most plants, are the most per-
fect in their form.”

“ And there are tiny leaves at the bottom of
the foot-stalks upon the stems.”

“You will see that there are a great many
flowers, or flower-buds, which have short stalks,
and spring from the inner corner or axil where
the leaf-stalk is joined to the stem or the
branches.”

“Some are only buds, some are open flowers,
and some almost like buds, only that the flowers
have opened and fallen off.”

“ T wish you to look carefully at these flowers.
I should tell you that in all flowers there are
three things you should always look for. You
should look for the outer green leaves close up
to the flower, and which close over and cover
the young bud: these are the flower-cup or
calyx. Then there are the coloured leaves, which
form the proper flower. And lastly, there are the
thread-like stamens in the middle of the flower.”



94, MALLOW.

“ And should we always find all these three
parts ?”

“Yes,—we should in all perfect flowers; but
sometimes one of the parts becomes very small.”

“ But in the mallow the green leaves of the
flower-cup are very large.”

“They are in all the Mallow family; and
not only large, but double. The inner cup has
five divisions, and the outer one three. It is
not usual for the green flower-cup, or calyx
(which means cup), to be double, as it is in
mallows.”

“T must not forget that.”

“Not even when you see hollyhocks grow-
ing in the garden, for they are big mallows.
Now, look at the second set of parts in the
flowers.”

“Yes, the coloured flower-leaves; and there
are five, broadest towards the outer end, and
notched. Very pretty pink with purple lines.”

“Do you smell anything ?”

“No; I don’t think they are scented.”

“ There is a ‘musk-mallow,’ which is not so



MALLOW. 95

common, and that is supposed to smell faintly
of musk in the evening, but I never could smell
musk during the daytime in the flowers.”

“ Now for the third set of parts in the flower.”

“Yes, Cissy; and curious they are too, for
you see they form a big bundle in the middle of
the flower, which stands up boldly.”

“And such a lot of stamens! That’s the
name,”

“ See, all of them joined together at the bot-
tom, ina sort of tube, around the column that
stands up in the middle.”

“ More than five?”

“More than five—more than ten—dquite a
bunch of them, with large nodding heads. You
will not forget that in the mallow flowers the
first set and the third set of parts are different
from what they are in most flowers.”

“T shall not forget. And see how the flowers
are twisted round before they open, almost as
they are in the bindweed. But the ‘cheeses ’—
I want to know about them.”

“Of course you do; and here is a young one



96 MALLOW,

at the bottom of the plant, where the flower has
fallen off and the cup-leaves have closed over
again.”
“Oh yes; there’s a little cheese inside.”
“That is the fruit, like a thick round button,
with marks all round the edge ; and when quite
ripe all these little seed-vessels will break off



Fic. 21.—Frvuit or Mattow.

from the core in the centre and part: into sepa-
rate pieces, with a seed in each piece.”

“T eat them sometimes,” said Cissy.

“When they are green and juicy, but not
when they are dry. If we are to believe all the
good things which the mallow is said to do, we
would call it the most wonderful of plants.”

“‘T suppose some people have believed ?”

“ Hardly so much as Pliny did, who wrote



MALLOW. 97

nearly at the time of Christ, that ‘whosoever
shall take a spoonful of any of the mallows,
shall that day be free from all diseases that may
come unto him.’”

“That would be a useful medicine.”

“ Another says that the leaves bruised or
rubbed upon the place stung with bees, wasps,
or the like, presently take away the pains, red-
ness, and swellings that arise therefrom.”

“Mallows must have been known thousands
of years ago.”

“Even in the time of Job, when they were a
famine food. As he says, ‘For want and fam-
ine they were solitary; fleeing into the wilder-
ness in former time desolate and waste: who
cut up mallows by the bushes’ (xxx. 8, 4). The
Greeks and Romans ate it boiled, or raw in
salads.”

“ And are they ever eaten now?”

“T believe that the poor inhabitants of Syria,
especially the Armenians, subsist for weeks on
herbs, of which the marsh-mallow is one of the
most common. When boiled first and then

(497) 7



98 MALLOW.

fried with onions and butter, they are said to
form a palatable dish.”

“T should not think we could eat them like
cabbage.”

“Well, Cissy, I am not so sure of that, but I
never tried them ; yet there are plants in India
very nearly the same as mallows, the leaves of
which are used every day as a common pot-herb.”

“ Any way, if the mallow is a weed it is not
quite a useless one.”

“The neatest use I ever saw for the mallow
was a pretty lace collar for a little girl, made
from the stems of the common mallow.”

“Do tell me how it was done, uncle.”

“The bark was stripped off the stems, soaked
so that it could be beaten, and stripped into
very fine threads, and these threads were spun
into something like flax thread. This thread
was worked up and made into lace by some
ladies in Ireland, and sent to a great exhibition—
it might have been in 1851—and no one could
have known that it was not lace made in the

”

usual way.



Pie et.

MALLOW. 99

«“ What was it done for ?”

“To prove that common things have their
uses, and that the common wayside mallow
could be made into lace that was fit to decorate
the finest lady in the land.”

“To deck the living and the dead.”

“Truly so; for the ancients used them as
funeral flowers, and it was customary to plant
them round the graves and tombs of dead

friends.”



Full Text











Kendal High School,
(Church Schools Company).

—— to

PRIZE AWARDED TO

Fle lem) loyens = Honda,

FOR

S Cisiee) And, SAnith me tes

Date Dégpirne (ren 9

The Baldwin Library

RmB

usenet

Florida






4. PILEWORT.

ANDELION

>

n

ERCUP

ADIES
JMBLES AMONG

Witp Lowers

FA Wook for the Woung

BY

M. G COOKE, M.A.) LL.D

(Uncitr Mart)

THE FIVE PARTS IN ONE VOLUME

WITH IO COLOURED PLATES ILLUSTRATING
42 WILD FLOWERS. AND 206 ENGRAVINGS

See Nebel S: ONeecACN; Ds SiO) NES

London, Edinburgh, and New Vork

1898


1,

Il.

Ill.

Iv.

GENERAL CONTENTS
OF THE COMBINED VOLUME.

DOWN THE LANE AND BACK IN SEARCH OF WILD FLOWERS.
THROUGH THE COPSE,

A STROLL ON A MARSIL IN SEARCH OF WILD FLOWERS.
ACROSS THE COMMON AFTER WILD FLOWERS.

AROUND A CORNFIELD IN A RAMBLE AFTER WILD FLOWERS,
Rambles Hmong the Wild Flowers,



L,
DOWN THE LANE AND BACK.
PREFACE.



DEAR CHILDREN, this book is for you. I have writ-
ten it for you, to help you to learn a little more about
wild flowers than you know, and yet not to trouble
you with any more hard words than I can help.
You love flowers, and so do I; and the more you
know of them the better you will love them. I have
pointed out the way to Cissy how she was to find
out their little secrets, and what I have said to her I
say also to you. If you will follow her to do as she
did, you may learn, as she learned, that the most
common weed has a story to tell, which may be told
to a child; that nothing, to Him who made it, is
common or unclean; and that wayside weeds have
their place to fill, and their duty to do in the world,
if only—
“To comfort man—to whisper hope
Whene’er his faith is dim ;
For Who so careth for the flowers

Will much more care for him.”
M. C. COOKE.
CONTENTS.



BUTTERCUPS, .... ee ne ae ony i
VIOLETS, be i aa ae ne 29
DANDELIONS, .... Ms Bes =a ae 42
LORDS: AND LADIES, ae ae Ne an 59
RED CAMPION, ae a oe ae 66
ST. JOHN’S WORT, as a ee a 78
MALLOW, ong ese S000 a ae 87

GREAT BINDWEED, aac ease eoes seve 100
“DOWN THE LANE AND BACK.”



BUTTERCUPS.

“ Buttercups and daisies,
Oh, the pretty flowers,
Coming in the spring-time

To tell of sunny hours.”

“| HUS sang Cissy, as her uncle waited for
her to take the usual morning stroll down
the lane.

“ Buttercups are running in your head with
the sunshine,” said he, “and we must try to find
them.”

“T love buttercups,” she added, “and I love
butter, and the sunshine is so nice.”

_ “ And the spring-time, when ‘ children are let
loose in the fields and gardens. They hold butter-
12 BUTTERCUPS.

cups under each other’s chins to see if they love

butter.’
‘The flowers

Children hold beneath their chins,
So to learn who ‘tis that sins

When the butter wastes by night ;
And whose chin looks yellow bright,

That’s the rogue.’”

“Js that the reason they are called ‘ butter-
cups’ ?” inquired Cissy.

“Tt may be so, and partly because it was a
belief amongst country people that when these
flowers are plentiful in pastures the cows eat
them, and it gives the yellow colour to the butter.”

“Do they?”

“No, Cissy ; the cows leave the buttercups
alone, and do not eat them, because they are not
pleasant.”

“ And are all buttercups alike ?”

“There are about a dozen different flowers
which are called ‘ buttercups,’ and all very much
alike to look at, only that some are smaller than
others.”


Fig. 1.—Mzapow Crowroor.
1, 2, Plant reduced ; 8, Section of Flower; 4, Petal; 5, Anther; 6, Cluster of

Fruits ; 7, Single Carpel; 8, Section.
BUTTERCUPS. 15

“ And what is the ‘ crowfoot’ ?” ;
“Only another name for ‘buttercup.’. Chil-
dren call them all buttercups, because they think
them all alike.”
_ “J suppose there is a meadow buttercup and
a field buttercup ; is there, uncle ?”

“Well, there are two ‘meadow buttercups’—
one of them with a swollen root, like a bulb, but
it is not a bulb, like that of the wild hyacinth ;
and the other one has no swelling at the root.
Some of the others, too, are now and then found
in meadows.”

“ And in the fields 2?” -

“The ‘corn crowfoot, and another one with
small flowers.”

“That does not make up the dozen,” added
Cissy.

“‘T suppose not, because, besides the water
crowfoot, there are two sorts of ‘spearwort’
that love ditches, and the ‘goldylocks’ which
grows in woods.”

« And the others ?”

“Not of much consequence to you or me,
16 BUTTERCUPS.

except the one we are going to find, which is
the ‘creeping buttercup, that grows in lanes
as well as in the meadows, for it loves damp
places.”

“Ts that the only one we should find in the
lane ?”

“Not the only one, for another of the meadow
kinds, without the bulbous root, is mostly found
in dry places; and there is the pretty ‘celan-
dine,’ which I should hardly call a ‘ buttercup,’
and that is dreadfully common in lanes, on banks,
and under trees.”

“What a lot!”

“Too many for our poor brains, Cissy, and so
we will leave most of them to take care of them-
selves.”

“And only talk about those we can find.
See, there are some; I know by their yellow
colour, it is so bright.”

“ Just as I expected, that is the celandine;
but we shall soon find another in yonder damp
corner by the ditch.”

“Oh yes. And what a lot of big leaves!”

(497)
BUTTERCUPS. 17

“The roots are a bunch of rooting threads,
not thickened as in the celandine. But you must
try to find out why it is called the creeping
buttercup.” *

“Tt is like the strawberry plant, with ‘run-
ners’ growing out from amongst the leaves, and
they poke themselves into the ground, and make
roots,” said Cissy.

“That's a funny way of putting it; but I
know your meaning—that runners shoot out from
the old tufts, and these runners soon thrust their
ends into the ground, and make roots, while a
tuft of leaves grows upwards into a young plant.”

“ That’s it.”

“ And so these broad patches of plants keep
growing bigger and bigger, and creep further
and further over the ground, until they may be
a yard or two across, and include hundreds of
plants.”

“With such dull, dark-green, hairy leaves,
pale on the under side, and woolly as well as
the stalks.”

* Ranunculus repens,
(497) 9
18 BUTTERCUPS.

“The leaves are large, and so deeply divided
that it is not easy to call them by any shape
that is known, or to explain clearly what their
shape is.”

“T should call them ‘trinity leaves,” said



Fic. 2.—LEAF OF CREEPING BUTTERCUP.
(Reduced.)

Cissy, ‘‘because they are like three leaves in
one.”

“Or triple leaves, or three-leaved leaves, or
three-bladed leaves, whichever you please, for they

are like three leaves joined into one. The middle
BUTTERCUPS. 19

leaflet is stalked, and each side leatlet is without
a stalk. Then each leaflet is cut down deeply
with a broad notch into three lobes, and each
lobe is notched again at the edge. It is so hard
to describe in words a leaf so much divided.”

“Well, uncle, I could only call it a trinity
leaf, and each one of the three is three-parted
again, and then I stop.”

“Perhaps you would like to taste a leaf, Cissy,
because you may if you like. Nearly all the
buttercup leaves would bite your tongue, and I
would not tell you to taste them, but this one
is not unpleasant.”

“ Not even the celandine 2”

“Not even that. The stalks to the leaves
you have gathered are quite long—four or five
inches—and downy ; but they do not all rise from
the root, as the flower-stem is also long and
branched, bearing smaller leaves, which have
shorter stalks.”

“ And the flowers are not like the rising sun.”

“But more like a ‘ buttercup’ as it should be.
Let us pull one of the flowers in pieces, that we
20 BUTTERCUPS.

may compare them with those of the celandine.
You will notice at once that the petals are
broader and round at the ends, not pointed as
in the celandine; and there are not so many—
only five. Then the outer circle, or calyx, has
five sepals, and these are hairy, like the stem
and leaves. So you see that there is a great
difference in the flowers of the two plants, al-
though both of them are yellow and have a large
number of stamens, said to be indefinite, or more
than ten.

“JT think, Cissy, that it is quite time for us
to turn back and take a last fond look at the
little ‘ celandine.’

‘In the lane—there’s not a place,
Howsoever mean it be,

But ’tis good enough for thee.’ ”

“What a lot of it, and how different it looks

74”

from the ‘ buttercup’!” said Cissy, as she began
to root up some of the plants.
“The creeping roots are very useful to the

plant, because, although so common, it seldom
BUTTERCUPS. 21

bears ripe seeds, but spreads itself by means of
its roots.”

“Then these are both of them ‘creeping
buttercups' in the lane?” inquired Cissy.

“Yes, dear; but, as I told you before, this is
not a proper buttercup, and we will call it either
the ‘celandine’ or the ‘ pilewort,’ whichever you
please.”

“ And is ‘pilewort’ one of its names?”

“Yes; and an old one too, But you must
look at the roots well, and see how different they
are from the roots of the ‘creeping buttercup,’
for they are thick and club-shaped, like little
tubers.”

“Tubers, uncle! what do you mean by
‘tubers’ ?”

“What we call a ‘potato’ is a tuber; not a
bulb, but an underground swelling or knob,
which if planted would bud and grow into a
new plant. But it is not an underground bud,
such as a bulb is, only a thickened root, which
may bud in two or three places. single bud, and only grows from the crown.”
22 BUTTERCUPS.

“T shall know better by-and-by-; but I can
see how different itis, and I know it is not a
bulb, like the onion and hyacinth.”

“Now for the shining, glossy, bright green
leaves, they are very different too. You see
that, as well as being small, they are regular,

Fie. 8,.—LEAF oF PILEWORT.

and not divided at the edges with deep notches.
So that they are heart-shaped, and not more
than an inch long, or seldom longer; and the
edge all round is a little toothed with blunt,
rounded teeth.”

“Yes, I can see that; and they are rather
thick and stiff and shining, something like a
BUTTERCUPS. 23

violet leaf in shape, but thicker, and so
smooth.”

“ And they have long stalks, which come up
from the roots, so that there is no stem except
the flower-stalks.”

“The leaves all grow close to the ground, and
the flower-stalks rise up in the middle.”

“You are quite sure that you would know the
leaves again if there were no flowers ?”

“J think so. They are so shining, and such
a lot of them grow together.”

“The flower-stalks are longer than your finger,
and a little longer than mine, some of them with
one or two little leaves growing out of them,
and a single flower on the top.”

“JT see that, and the star-shaped flowers.”

“True: the flowers are more star-shaped
than in the buttercups, with eight or nine
flower-leaves, of a bright, shining yellow colour,
standing out all round and forming a golden
star.”

“What are the flower-leaves called ?”

“ Petals. Pet-als.”
24 BUTTERCUPS.

“T can’t think of that, it is such a funny
word.” ;

“Indeed you will think of. it, because I shall
say it over so often that you cannot forget.
Did you ever read the song to the small celan-
dine, where it is supposed to have taught the
painter of sign-boards how to paint the rising
sun ?”

“T do not think so.”

“Then here it is :—

‘T have not a doubt but he,

Whosoe’er the man might be

Who the first with pointed rays
(Workman worthy to be sainted)

Set the sign-board in a blaze,
When the rising sun he painted,

Took the fancy from a glance

At thy glittering countenance.’ ”

“JT did not think of the sun,” said Cissy; “I
only thought of a star.”

“ But when evening comes, instead of coming
out, as the stars do, the celandine closes up its
BUTTERCUPS. 25

petals, and then it can be seen how they are
tinged and striped with green beneath, as if to
conceal them.”

“What time do they open in the morning
and close at night ?”

“JT think that depends so much on the weather ;
for the petals close at the coming of rain, what-
ever the hour. The celandine is almost the
earliest flower to blossom with us, even as early
as February.

‘Ere a leaf is on the bush,
In the time before the thrush
Has a thought about her nest,
~ Thou wilt come with half a call,
Spreading out thy glossy breast
Like a careless prodigal ;
Telling tales about the sun,

When we've little warmth, or none.’

“ Perhaps in the average of years we should
say that the celandine flowers in March.”
“ And before any of the real buttercups ?”
“Yes; but when the petals close you will see
26 BUTTERCUPS.

three smaller green leaves beneath the flowers,
which enclose them in the bud.”

“Tn the middle of the open flower there is a
tuft of threads, but I always forget the name of
them.”

“ Stamens,”

“O uncle, why can’t we call them something
that we can't forget? Flowers are so pretty,
but they have so many hard names.”

“Well then, Cissy, sit down and count the
stamens, and you may call them what you please.”

“T find twenty-four in this flower. Is that
the right number ?”



lic. 4.—SEction or FLower or Butrercur.
a, Sepal ; b, Petal.

“That will do. Then there are the Aoaer:
leaves or petals.”
BUTTERCUPS. 97

“Yes; twelve.”

“Not exactly. There are twelve altogether ;
but there are three outside ones, which we call
the sepals, and nine inner ones, which are the
petals. In many flowers the sepals are green,
but in some they are coloured, as in the little
celandine.”

“Then how shall I know them?”

“Call the outer circle sepals, and the inner
petals, and you will usually be right.



Fic. 5.—SEED-VESSELS OF BUTTERCUP.

1, Petal; 2, Ovary; 3, 4, Sections; 5, Section cut through a cluster of ovaries
“Tn all the buttercups, when the flower-leaves

fall, the seed-vessels will be seen remaining on
the stem in a roundish cluster of about twelve.
28 BUTTERCUPS.

Some other wild flowers have only one seed-
vessel, it may be a berry, or a pod, or a capsule,
which keeps on growing after the petals fall
away; so you see that it is of importance al-
ways to find out, if we can, what kind of seed-
vessel any wild flower has, and if it is single, or
whether several of them grow in a cluster.”



Fic. 6.—Burrercurs.
VIOLETS:

: HERE, Cissy, in that quiet little nook

you should find the March violets ; but
you must use both eyes and nose, and what
you cannot see you must smell.”

“Oh, they are lovely; I hope I shall find
some.”

“ And whilst you are looking I will tell you
a short story of them. You have read in your
history of Napoleon the Great, the Emperor of
France ?”

“ How he fought many battles, and was then
taken to Elba, and escaped, and came back to
France.”

“Right; but you have not said that his
friends welcomed him in on his return, on the
20th of March, by wearing bunches of violets.”
30 VIOLETS.

“T did not know that.”

“Nor that whilst he was away, before his
return, his friends used the violet as a token.
If any one was asked, ‘ Do you like the violet?’
and the answer was ‘ Well!’ he was hailed as
a friend, and was told, ‘It will appear again in
spring.”

“The violet was used as a token, because it
comes in March, to tell all his friends that he
would come back in the spring, as the violets do.”

“Yes; but after the battle of Waterloo he
did not come back, and no one was allowed
to wear violets in France: so that when the
Frenchmen could no longer make war upon
men, they made war upon the violets.”

“ Now, uncle, as I have found two or three, I
shall make war upon them, and capture them
too!”

“You have no doubt that you have found the
right flower ?” *

“T should think not ; just smell of it.”

** And what does it smell like ?”

* Viola odorata.
VIOLETS. 31

“ Why, violets, of course !”

“Yes; but that’s a girl’s answer. I want you
to tell me, as if I had never seen one, what the
scent of the violet is like.”

“ But I can’t tell you; it is like violets, and
nothing else.”

“T suppose you are right, and that there is
no other scent exactly like it.

‘A lowly flower, in secret bower,
Invisible I dwell ;
For blessing made, without parade,
Known only by my smell.’”

“Do the sweet-violets appear first? because
there are some violets without scent.”

“Yes, the sweet ones come first, for a short
time, and then comes the dog-violet.”

‘“ And they are shams!”

“No, Cissy, not exactly shams, because they
are true to their nature, and make no pretension
to be what they are not.”

“ But they mimic the true violet in colour
and shape, without scent.”
382 VIOLETS.

“You might as well say that they are
naughty violets, that have done some wrong,
and lost the virtue of sweetness.”

“T don’t care, I don’t like them, for they
deceive me.”

“ Although the fault may be your own, for
not knowing them better. We shall see. Now
you must get a plant up by the roots. Never
forget the roots!”

“Oh, they are just the same as many other
roots—little bunches of threads or fibres.”

“ Just so; and you may as well call it a fibrous
root as a bunch of fibres. You are sure it is not
a creeping root ?”

‘“ Look, uncle, here is something like a runner
which joins two plants together !”

“T thought you were too hasty, and that
you would find, in a large patch like this, some
of the plants made runners. Do not hurry so
much to say whether the plant has a stem or
not.” ;

“ There are flower-stalks coming up from the
root, but I cannot find one with a stem.”
VIOLETS. 33

“Then you think we may say that it has no
stem, because the dog-violet has a stem ?”

“That is another difference besides the scent.”

“ And now as to the shape of the leaves.”

“ They are nearly heart-shaped, are they not,
with long foot-stalks ?”

“« And the edges are not quite even?”



Fic. 7.--LEAF oF SwEET- VIOLET.

“T hardly know what to call them, but the
edge is toothed all round with blunt rounded
teeth.”

“ And the upper surface is smooth, but the
under side is sometimes a little downy, with
very fine hairs. If you lay one side by side’

with a leaf of the little celandine, you will soon
(497) 3
4 VIOLETS.

see the difference, though they are nearly the
same in size and shape.”

“Yes: the violet is thinner, and not shining,
or of so bright a green colour.”

“T suppose you would say that the flower-
stalk is as long as your finger?”

“Yes, and bent over at the top.”

“Well, Cissy, how would you explain to
Lotty what the flower is like if you had not
one to show her ?”

“T should say it was of a deep violet-blue
colour.”

“Don’t you think purple would be better than
to say violet, when you are speaking of a violet?”

“ Ts it not bluish-purple then ?”

“Yes; but you are not to forget that some-
times it is pinkish or white.”

“ Not often, as none of these are white.”

“ But all are paler at the centre, or eye.”

“ And each flower has five separate leaves—
two standing up at the top, one on each side,
and one at the bottom, and all nearly of the
same size and shape.”
VIOLETS. 35

“Perhaps the bottom one is a very little
broadest ; but turn it over and look at the back
of the flower.”

“ There is a curious little horn sticking out at
the bottom, almost like a spur. Are all violet
flowers spurred like that ?”

“Yes; and the bottom leaf, or petal, of the
flower is narrowed behind and forms the spur,
which pushes aside two of the little outer green
leaves of the flower, called the calyx or cup.”

“ And I see the little threads inside the eye
of the flower. It looks like an eye, doesn’t it?”

“Tf you will count the outside little green
leaves of the cup, you will find five; the purple
leaves are five, and the threads inside the flower
are also five—all fives.”

“ And where are the seeds ?”

“When the flowers die and fall off, they leave
behind them a little green swelling; this grows
into a capsule or seed-box, which splits into
three parts, and allows the seeds to fall out.”

“ And that is called the fruit?”

“Yes, that is the regular and proper fruit.
36 VIOLETS.

In the violets and some other plants there is
another contrivance for growing seeds that
sometimes puzzles little people, and not very —
long ago puzzled older people also.”

“What is that?”

“T don’t think we shall find any to-day; but
there are little secret flowers—I cannot tell you
the long name they are called by—yet these
little flowers have no pretty purple leaves, and
they. only look like little green buds, growing
hidden, in out-of-the-way places, about the
plant.” ; :
“ And they don’t look pretty or smell nice?”

“No; they are for use, not beauty.”

“ And for what use?”

“They become at last changed into seed.
boxes, or capsules, containing more seeds.”

“Then if little girls were to gather all the
violet flowers they could find, there would be
no seed from the proper flowers left on the
plant ?”

“No; so that by-and-by, as the old plants
died, there would be Jess and less, and at length
VIOLETS. 87

no violet plants at all, unless young plants were
born in other ways.”

“ By the seeds in the secret flowers?”

“Ay, and by the runners from the old
plants ; for you must not forget the use of the
runners.”

“ Has the dog-violet secret flowers as well ?”

“Yes, and several other violets, but not
pansies.”

“And are pansies a kind of violet ?”

“Indeed they are, for the wild pansy is the
common field heart’s-ease.”

“‘T should like to find the secret flowers. Do
they grow on any other plants except violets?”

“There is another pretty little plant that we
must seek some day in the woods. It is called
the wood-sorrel, with trefoil leaves, like clover
leaves, and such pretty flowers. Secret flowers
are to be found on that plant, and also upon
some few others. 3
' “T suppose, as you are such a lover of violets,
that you will think they have need of no other

virtue than their odour and their humility.”
38 VIOLETS.

“What else do they need, uncle ?”
“Then you will agree that—

‘ Long as there are violets

They will have a place in story.’ ”

“ Yes; but what other virtues have they ?”

“Well, the flowers were at one time given as
medicine to children, and the roots of many
species contain an active substance still used by
doctors.”

“ Never mind; I won't be set against them.”

“Not even because violet is not really an
English name, but imitated from viola, which
was the Latin name of some fragrant flower
which might not have been a violet at all.”

“J think they deserve to be found all the
world over.”

“‘ And they are nearly so, but not often sweet-
scented ; and so there are many countries where
the sweet-violet and the little English daisy are
unknown.”

Cissy and her uncle found no “ dog-violets” on
that day, and not until two or three weeks later,
VIOLETS. 39

when their gossip on violets was taken up again
and made more complete.

“Now that we have found the ‘ dog-violet,’”
said Cissy, “I still think the other is best, because
the colour is deeper, to say nothing of the scent.”



Fia. 8.—Lear or Doc-VI0.et.

“That is not the point,” said uncle: “you
called the ‘dog-violet’ a sham, and you must see
that it is not.”

“ And what must I look at?”

“ Firstly, the stem. Now the sweet-violet has
no stem at all, and this has a stem with leaves

upon it.”
"40 VIOLETS.

“So it has, but that is not much.”

“Well, then, compare the leaves.”

“Oh, they are a little different, but not
much.”

“‘ And the flowers ?”

“Not so pretty, and with no scent. Why
was it called the dog-violet ?”

“ Possibly the animal’s name, attached - to
flowers, was meant to point them out as be-
ing less good than some other flower or plant
which was something like them. We have
dog-rose to set against the rose; dog-violet to
place against the violet; horse-chestnut against
the chestnut ; cow-parsnip against the pars-
nip; and horse-mushroom against the mush-
room.”

“So we have three kinds of wild violet in this
country ; and is that all?”

“By no means; there may be eight British
violets. But the bog-violet and the mountain-
violet are not likely to come in our way; and,
after all, you care most for the sweet-violet, and
very little for any other.
VIOLETS. 41

‘Smell at my violets! I found them where
The liquid south stole o'er them, on a bank
That leaned to running water. There’s to me
A daintiness about these early flowers

a9

That touches one like poetry.

“Can you tell me no other story of the
violet ?”

“Only a short one about Io, who was the
daughter of Atlas. One day she was being pur-
sued by Apollo, who was the sun, you know,
and she fled from him into a wood, where
Diana changed her into a violet. Perhaps this
is only another way of saying that violets grow
in the woods to escape the sun.

‘The trembling violet, which eyes

29

The sun but once, and unrepining dies.
DANDELIONS.*

UNCLE, mamma says we should not
pick ‘the nasty dandelions. But they
are not nasty, are they ?”

“Well, Cissy, some people call them nasty,
but I don’t.”

‘Why do they call them nasty?”

“ Perhaps, my dear, because they do not smell
very nice, and perhaps because they have a
sticky juice, which makes the hands dirty.”

“Ts that all the reason, uncle? for Lotty says
that country children will not pick dandelions,
and some of them aren’t afraid of making them-
selves dirty.”

“Indeed, Cissy, I have heard the warning

not to smell the dandelions; but I fancy the

* Taraxacum officinale.






















































































































































i

)
)

e

HUI

i on
KU Hf

Tig. 9.—DANDELIONS,

}
i



DANDELIONS. 45

young urchins always do it all the same, and no
harm comes of it.”

“Why are they called ‘dandelions,’ uncle?”

“Well, my child, I think we had better walk
down the lane, and find the plant growing, when
I can show you the cause for the name.”

No sooner was this plan agreed to than Cissy
and her uncle, hand in hand, were strolling
along a quiet country lane, in quest of the
humble and common plant of which they had
just been talking. Some of the leaves may be
found all the year round, but the flowers only in
summer and autumn. In some places the chil-
dren call all the yellow flowers which have the
star shape by the name of dandelidn, but there
is only one kind of plant and flower which has
the right to be so called, and that is the one
which Cissy is looking after and her uncle has
already found.

“ Here is one, Cissy, without any flower ; but
we must dig it up by the root.”

After digging for some time in silence and

loosening the soil all round, Cissy complained
46 DANDELIONS.

that the root was so long and so deep that she
could not tear it up.

“JT am glad that you have found what a
strong and long root the dandelion has,” replied
the uncle, “and how difficult it is to pull it
up. Some people think, when dandelions grow
amongst the grass on a lawn, that it needs
only a weed-‘spud’ and a push to clear them
all away; but the diggers only break off the
top of the root, and then they find, soon after,
that the rest of the root, still in the ground,
grows again stronger than ever.”

“Oh, never mind the root, uncle; I am in
such a hurry to know the meaning of the name.”

“All in good time, Cissy. I only want the
leaves for the present; but they must be whole
leaves, and not bitten by the slugs or gnawed
by the rabbits.”

“T can soon find some beautiful leaves, and
we need not have been digging at the roots
at all.”

“My dear Cissy, your labour has not been in
vain ; because you will not forget that if this
DANDELIONS. 47

weed has no stem, it has plenty of root. Now
you must smooth out five or six leaves and lay
them flat on this book, so as to see their
shape.”

“Yes, uncle. They are long leaves with such



Fic. 10.—DANDELION LEAF.
(Reduced.)

a funny zigzagey edge that they look as if the
slugs had been biting pieces out of them all the
way down.”

‘Just so: the edges of the leaves are toothed,
and by that I mean that sharp points stick out
48 DANDELIONS.

all the way along each side, like teeth in a large
saw. Some of these teeth are large and some
are small, but all are sharp pointed, with the
points curved backwards towards the bottom of
the leaf.”

“Ah yes; I see all of them are hooked
downwards like a cat’s claw.”

“Not quite the best likeness, Cissy. I should
have said, perhaps, like a lion’s tooth; but you
never saw a lion’s tooth, did you?”

“No, uncle ; lions don’t grow in our woods.”

“Did you ever see pussy’s teeth? When the
cat opens her mouth do you watch her teeth—
sharp pointed, with all the points curved back-
wards, just as the lion’s teeth are; only the
lion’s are so much the largest.”

“T see now—‘ dandy-lion.’”

“Not exactly, Cissy. It was at one time
‘ dent-de-leon, which means ‘tooth of lion’ or
‘lion’s teeth,’ but has fallen to ‘dandelion,’
which means the same thing ; because the points
of the leaf are curved backwards, ending in a
sharp point like lion’s teeth.”
DANDELIONS. 49

“Yes; but lions do not always show their
teeth.”

“True, my dear; but you remember on the
village green at Wickham what we saw as we
rode past one day. Outside the public-house
there was a large board upon which was painted a
red lion, standing on his hind legs, and pawing
with his fore feet in the air, his mouth wide
open, showing his large teeth. He always
shows his teeth. I could show you a book in
which it is written, ‘The jagged edges of the
leaf are like the rows of teeth that garnish the
jaws of the red lion which announces the head
inn of some village or town.’ ”

“ But, uncle, would lions dance on their hind
legs, like dancing-bears ?”

“Perhaps not, Cissy, unless they are red
lions. Could you count how many leaves there
are on this dandelion plant, all bent back to
the ground and lapping each other, spreading
like rays, making a rosette of green leaves ?”

“T don’t think I know what a rosette is.”

“Well, dear, a rosette is an imitation of a
(497) 4
50 DANDELIONS.

rose, or supposed to be, in which a great num-
ber of leaves have their lower ends all joined
together in the centre and the other ends spread-
ing out all round, as they do in a marigold
flower, or a plant of houseleek, or London pride,
or a dandelion.”

“T like a rose better than a rosette.”

“ But each one is useful in its place.”

“O uncle, what can be the use of the dande-
lion rosette? it is only a common weed.”

“Cissy, call nothing common or unclean,
until you know it well, and can find no good
in it.”

“ But I do know the dandelion !”

“ Not yet, my child ; you have not even tasted
it,” :

“O uncle!”

“You like lettuce, and celery, and water-cress,
and other green leaves, and call them ‘salad.’”

“Yes, I like salad; but I don’t think I shall
like this, because it tastes bitter.”

“ And so does endive, until it is blanched.”

‘* Blanched ! what is that ?”
DANDELIONS. 51

“ Blanched simply means bleached-—losing its
green colour. Suppose we place a piece of tile
or slate on this dandelion plant, and leave it
there for a week or two, and then look at it
again. The leaves will be there, just as before ;
but instead of being green in colour, they will
be turned sickly white. They will be blanched,
and, if you taste them again, no longer bitter.
By shutting off the light the green colour will
not be formed in the leaves, nor will the bitter
taste, both of which require the light. So that
by blanching them these leaves become more
pleasant to eat. In this state dandelion leaves
are as good in salads as endive, and are con-
stantly eaten in that way by some people,
without being blanched at all.”

“Then shutting out the light makes them
better. Why don’t they always grow in the
dark ?”

“Yes, Cissy, shutting off the light makes
them better for eating, because more tender and
less bitter; but at the same time they are made

what we should call sickly, unhealthy, and
52 DANDELIONS.

would be killed at last. Celery, endive, sea-kale,
etc., are all treated in a like manner for the
same purpose. So you see they cannot always
grow in the dark, and, like most little girls, do
not like to be in the dark.”

“T didn’t think that the dandelion was useful
to any one but slugs and rabbits.”

“And you were mistaken, because those
troublesome large roots are useful also.”

“What! to ‘people’ ?”

“Certainly to ‘people, as you call them.
The roots are dug out of the ground and washed
clean. Then they are cut in pieces and dried
in the sun, in the air, or in heated rooms.
When quite dry and hard they may be grated
or pounded, and the powdet made into pills,
which are useful as a medicine.”

“Dandelion pills ?”

“Yes, Cissy ; and even something more than
that, because when the dried roots are roasted
until they are crisp, they can be ground and
made into coffee.”

“ Not real coffee, uncle ?”
DANDELIONS. 53

“Not real coffee, of course, but dandelion.
coffee, which some people like as well as they
do real coffee ; and it is sold in the shops, some-
times pure and sometimes mixed with real coffee,
and either way makes a very pleasant, cheap,
and sober drink.”

“ But I wish you to tell me something about
the flowers, they look so curious.”

“Let us spread your white handkerchief on
the grass and pull one of the flowers in pieces,
gently and carefully pulling off every one of the
yellow leaves, so that we may count them and
not lose one of them.”

“See the little tuft of white hairs at the bot-
tom of all of them.”

“Yes, but do ‘you know that they are not
simple leaves, such as they are in many common
flowers, but each one of those yellow florets, as
they are called, is a perfect flower ; so that there
are a great number of very little flowers, grow-
ing together into a compound or . composite
flower. Just you count them and see how
many there are.”
54 DANDELIONS.

“JT find a hundred and fifty florets in my
flower.”
‘« And in mine there are one hundred and



Dandelion Clock. Pappus and Fruit. Floret.

Fig. 11.— DANDELION.

sixty ; so that we cannot call it a single flower,
but a cluster of florets, or a flower-head.”

‘“‘ And is every one of these a perfect flower ?”
DANDELIONS. 55

“Certainly it is; of which I will convince you
directly. They are all alike, too, in the dande-
lion, but they are not all alike in the daisy,
which has yellow florets in the middle, and
white ones all around them.”

“Then the daisy and the dandelion are both
of them what you call compound flowers ¢”

“Yes; but the daisy has a disc of yellow
flowers, with a ray of strap-shaped white
flowers.”

“ And are these florets of the dandelion all of
them strap-shaped flowers ?”

“See, the bottom of the floret is a tiny tube
with a long, yellow, strap-shaped flower-leaf on
one side, nearly the same width all the way,
and little notches at the top end.”

“Oh, what a funny little yellow column stands
up in the middle of each floret, which is split at
the top, and each half of it curls outwards!
what is that ?”

“Tt is the style, and the five stamens are
around it, but so closely glued to the column

that you cannot see them with the naked eye.”
56 DANDELIONS.

«« And where will the seeds come ?”

“The ovary, or young seed-vessel, is at the
bottom of the floret, just a little swelling, and
then it is narrowed above a little way, and then
swells again, just where the fringe of white
hairs stand up all around it.”

‘What are the hairs for?”

“That is the pappus. When the florets die
off and the seed-vessel grows ripe, the narrow
part above it gets longer and longer, and carries
up with it the tuft of white hairs, which spread
all round, so that when the seeds are ripe the
pappus at the top is like a parachute, which
floats in the air.”

« And then we blow it off to see what o’clock
it is!”

“Certainly. - What you do is just what is
written in the book:—‘ The little girls adorn
themselves with chains and curls of dandelions,
pull out the yellow leaves to see if the schoolboy
loves them, and blow the down from the leafless
stalk to find out if their mothers want them at

»”

home.’
DANDELIONS. 57

“We call them ‘ dandelion clocks.’”

“But, Cissy, we are forgetting the flower-
stalk, after plucking off the florets. You must
look at it, and see that the top of the stem forms
a little cushion upon which stand the florets,
packed closely side by side; and by-and-by as
the seeds ripen they stand upon the cushion,
until they are blown away by the wind.”

“ And form a pretty globe of down.”

‘You remember that in most flowers there
is a cup or a ring of small green leaves just
beneath the flower, called the calyx, which is
another word for cup. In the dandelion and
other compound flowers there is also a circle,
or two or three rings, of small scaly green leaves
just beneath the flower-head.”

“There are two rings of leaves in the dande-
lion.”

“ And the outer circle bend backwards. But
these green bracts are not a calyx or cup, but
a general involucre. Every floret has a substi-
tute for the calyx in the fringe of white hairs
or pappus. The involucre protects the young
58 DANDELIONS.

flowers in the bud, and as the seeds ripen the
whole of the leaflets bend backwards, close to
the stem.”

“Can we find a ‘dandelion clock’ with ripe
seeds 2”

“JT am afraid not; but you will remember
them, and I can remind you of one or two
things. When all the fruits of the composite
flowers of the dandelion are ripe, they have a
long stiff bristle at the top which supports the
parachute or flattened pappus of white hairs.
All the combined parachutes of one receptacle
form a delicate round ball, but the fruits are
attached so slightly to the cushion that a puff
of wind will blow them away. The use of the
downy head is to cause the seeds to be floated
in the air, and thus easily scattered. When a
suitable place is reached, the seed settles and

begins to grow; and this completes our history.”
LORDS AND LADIES.*

“CC HARP eyes, Cissy, in the hedge-bank, for

the flower of ‘lords and ladies.’ I can
see plenty of the glossy green leaves, but not
a flower as yet.”

«“ Show me the leaves, uncle; | am not sure
that I know them.”

«There they are, scores of them, rising out of
the ground without any stem—bright, shining,
arrow-shaped leaves, many of them spotted with
blackish spots.”

orl

“That’s the ‘wake-robin,’” exclaimed Cissy ;
‘“T know the horrid leaves.”

“Why call them horrid leaves? for I think
them handsome leaves.”

“Yes, uncle, to look at; but I bit one of

* Arum maculatum.
60 LORDS AND LADIES.

them one’ day, and, oh, it was horrid! it al-
most blistered my lips and tongue.”

“You were foolish, Cissy. I do not know
any leaf that would punish you so much for
ene and you will never wish to taste it

again.’
“That I shan’t. But why ‘lords and ladies’ ?”
“ And why ‘ wake-robin,’ or ‘ cuckoo-pint,’ or

‘calves’ foot,’ or ‘ starch-wort All are names
for the same plant.”

“Perhaps ‘cuckoo-pint’ because it comes
with the cuckoo.”

“Perhaps ‘starch-wort’ because starch was
made from the roots, to starch the big ruffles
which were worn in the reign of Queen Eliza-
beth.”

“ Let’s dig up the roots.”

“They are almost like a bulb, but solid, and
not with one coat over another as in the onion.”

“Hach root has three, four, or five leaves on
long stalks rising from it.”

“ And in the autumn a new root grows beside
the old root, and as the berries ripen the old
LORDS AND LADIES. 61

root dies and rots, and the new root rests through
the winter, to send up green leaves and flowers
in the spring.”

“ And I know it flowers in a hood.”

“There is one at last! See, this round,
greenish, spotted stalk comes up from the root
amongst the leaves, and on the top of the stalk
stands a long hollow husk or sheath, very pale
green, puffed out like a bladder, sharp-pointed
at the top, and split down on one side nearly to
the bottom.”

“The hood, or sheath, must be six inches
long.”

“Yes, Cissy, quite as much as that, and an
inch thick in the middle.”

“ And is that sheath the flower ?”

“No, not the flower.”

“Nor yet the flower-cup ?”

“No; it is like nothing that we have seen.
It isa sheath or hood, sometimes called a spathe ;
but it is only a wrapper, or sheath, to protect
the flowers that are inside.”

“Then we may cut it off?”
62 LORDS AND LADIES.



Fic. 12.—SpatHE AND LEAF.

“Yes, and lay bare the flowers hidden within.
The upper part, for more than half its length,

is a purple club, like a pestle or clapper, rounded
LORDS AND LADIES. 68

at the top and narrowed downwards, and paler
below. Then again it becomes thicker, and around
it a ring of little knobs with hairs at the top.
Below this is a ring of male flowers,
and lower still a broader band of female
flowers, and then follows the flower-stem,
which runs down to the root.”

“Then it is not one flower, but a host
of flowers shut up in a sheath ?”

“Yes: passing upwards from the bot-
tom there is a band of female flowers,
then a band of male flowers, then a ring of
barren flowers, and above all these the up-
right purple club, and all enclosed inalong \~
sheath which is split down on one side.” Fue. 13.—

SPADIX
“The flowers must be very small.” or Lorps

“And so they are, and as simple as they Lapins.
canbe. The male flowers are only pollen-boxes,
and the female flowers are only seed-cells, or
young fruits, containing the minute egg-like or

bud-like seeds.”
“ Flow many flowers are there in one of the



sheaths 2?”
64 LORDS AND LADIES.

“TI know not, but perhaps scores. Only a
few, or not more than a dozen, of the fruits
ripen. Later in the season, clusters of the red
fruits, of the size of red currants, are to be seen
crowded together on a stem amongst the leaves,
quite naked—the club and all above the ring of
female flowers, and every shred of the sheath,
dead and gone.” .

“They must be easily seen.”

“Indeed they are. And it is said that phea-
sants eat them, and perhaps other birds also ;
but I do not wish you to try them.”

“Thank you; I had rather not. I have no
wish to taste again.”

“You had enough with tasting the leaves.
I am told that if the fresh leaves are bruised
and laid on the skin they will raise a blis-
ter.”

“Do you think they were called ‘ cuckoo-pint’
because they come with the cuckoo 4”

“T have read that it was called ‘pint’ because
the sheath was like a drinking-cup, and ‘ cuckoo-
pint’ because it cometh with the cuckoo in the




LORDS AND LADIES. 65

spring ; ‘friar’s cowl,’ because the sheath is like
a friar’s hood or cowl.”

“Veg; and ‘lords and ladies’ ?”

“Tt was fancied that the hood of the flowers
resembled the ruffs in which lords and ladies
buried their heads in olden times.”

“Did the plant make wonderful cures, like
some other wild flowers ?”

“Well, it has been said that it will do a great
many things; but I should not like to try it, if
it can blister the skin and scorch the tongue.

‘« You will love it, and ride away!”

“Yes; I will be content to remember
How sweet it used to be when April first
Unclosed the arum leaves, and into view
Its ear-like, spindling flowers their cases burst,

9

Betinged with yellowish white or lushy hue.
Or at other times—

‘Oft under trees we nestled in a ring,

2929099

Culling our “lords and ladies.

(497) 5
RED CAMPION.*

‘ HEN I was a boy, Cissy, that red
flower was always called ‘bachelor’s

- buttons’ in Norfolk, but I have since learned
that in other places some other wild flower is
the ‘ bachelor’s buttons.’ ”

“ And what is this one called ?”

“Sometimes ‘red campion’ and sometimes
‘red robin;’ but I never forget the old name.”

“Tt is almost like a ‘ pink.’”

“Of course it is a wild pink, and so is the
‘ragged robin,’ which grows in meadows.”

“A spring nosegay is dull without the cam-
pion.”

“So I think. Although it is straggling, it
is a pretty object in the lanes at spring-time.

* Lychnis diurna,

RED CAMPION. 67

The long, thin stems are often more than half
a yard high, and velvety.”

“The roots are rather tough and stringy.”

“ And do not die in the winter, but remain
in the ground, and send up a tuft of green
leaves in the spring.”

“The leaves are long, and broadest in the
middle, narrowed to each end, almost like a
boy’s ‘ tip-cat.’”

“We should call them lance-shaped, because
they are like the head of a lance, only that they
are rather too blunt at the tip.”

“ And a little hairy or velvety, without any
proper foot-stalks.”

“The stems are quite round, with swollen
joints, rather wide apart, so that there is a long
naked space between one joint and the next.
The stems will break more easily at the joints.”

“There is always a cluster of root-leaves on
the ground at the bottom of the stem.”

“And not many leaves on the stem; but
these always grow at the joints, and in pairs,

one leaf opposite to another.”
68. RED CAMPION.

“And the branches come from the joints
too.”

“Yes: the stem divides into two branches
at the joint, and then each branch divides again
into two at the next joint, like a two-pronged
fork ; so that it goes on forking up to the top,
each branch becoming shorter and shorter the
further it is from the root.”

“See, the last branch, with the flower at the
top, is quite short. Is that campion with quite
white flowers the same ?”

‘No, Cissy; that is the white campion, or
the evening campion, which is different, but
very much like the red campion, and the flowers
smell sweet in the evening.”

“The leaves look almost the same, and the
flowers nearly of the same size and shape, only
that they are quite white.”

“True; but the flowers of the white campion
are sometimes pinkish, and those of the red
campion nearly white. You must not be guided
wholly by the colour of the flowers.”

“Then what must be the guide?”
RED CAMPION. 69

“The shape of the capsule, as we shall see
by-and-by. But we have still to look at the
flowers, ‘each of them standing in a large green-
striped hairy husk, large and round below, next
to the stalk.’ You will remember. the ‘ flower-
cup’ in other flowers, but in these it is more
distinct.” ;

“Oh yes; the green flower-cup, with its
toothed edge, is very plain to be seen.”

“Tn the red campion the teeth of the cup are
very short; in the white campion they are
longer, and with a broader notch.”

“T see the difference now; but it is such a
little one, and the teeth are always small.” .

“We must pull the flower in pieces, as [
have to show you something here which we
have not seen. before; but before I do so, we
must see the coloured leaves, the true flower-
leaves.”

“There are five of them again.”

“ Five, deeply notched at the outer edge, and
lengthened out into a long: claw at the bottom.
Pull out the pink leaves and find the claw.”
70 RED CAMPION.

‘“‘ Here it is: nearly white, and as long as the
blade, sharply bent in the middle.”

““Of course you can see the reason. When
the flowers are open the top is quite flat, like
} a button, with the five spreading
pink leaves ; but the long claw
must be bent sharp downwards to
pass into the flower-cup, making a
sort of elbow joint at the bend.
All the family of Pinks have these
aN hoes clawed petals,’ as they are called.”

Crawep Petar. “ Yes, I see—the pink part quite
flat, and the white claw bent sharp downwards
into the cup.”

“Now I must tell you of the ‘something’ which
we have not met with before in other flowers.
Some of the plants of the campion have only
male flowers,and others have only female flowers.”

“‘ And are both sorts of flowers just the same
to look at?”

“Exactly the same; and you could not tell
the one from the other by just looking at them
outside, only by pulling them in pieces.”
RED CAMPION. 71

“QO uncle, show me the difference; I should
like to know the puzzle.”

“Yes, dear; but you must have patience,
because you will hardly understand the puzzle
all at once. I have told you that the first set
of parts in a flower is the outside set of green —
leaves, which we have agreed to call the flower-
cup; then the next set are the true coloured
flower-leaves, which are pink, with a long spur
or claw in these flowers; but the third set are
the threads in the middle, called stamens, and
the column in the centre, with the young seed-
vessel at the bottom.”

“T recollect all that.”

“We have always found, up to now, both the
stamens—you call them threads—and the centre
piece all in one flower; but we shall see in
these flowers, as in this one, that there are ten
stamens or threads, but no column in the centre.
Here is another just the same—only the ten
stamens, and no column. ‘These, then, are
male flowers.”

“Ts the column of so much use?”
72 RED CAMPION.

- “Certainly it is; for the young seed-capsule
grows at the bottom of the column, and if there
is no centre piece (people call it a pistil) the
plant will have no seeds.”

“Then these male flowers have no seeds ?”

“That is just the point; we must hunt in
other flowers for the centre piece or pistil. All
the flowers on this one plant are male flowers,
so we must find the plant which bears female
flowers.”

“Do they grow together ?”

“Yes, Let us try this one. No; it is just
the same, and all male flowers. We will try
them on the other side of the road.”

“‘Here’s a nice one, uncle—all a-blowing, all
a-growing.”

“ Ah, that will do; it is a female plant.”

“Tt looks just like the others.”

“But it is not the same. See here: there
are no stamens, only a column, with a swelling
at. the bottom, which is the young seed-vessel,
and holds the very little dots which one day

will grow into seeds.”
RED CAMPION. 73

“The column is split into five at the top; and
these female flowers will have seeds, while the
male flowers will have none. So the male
flowers are of no use, only to look at?”

“T did not say that, Cissy; but your ques-
tion makes me tell you something more.”

“What! about the male flowers?”

“Yes; we must go back to them again. You
saw the thick tops of the threads or stamens ?”

“ All powdery like.”

“These tops split lengthwise, and scatter
very fine yellow powder—the pollen; and this
pollen, if it settles on the top of the centre
column, grows, and thrusts a very fine tube
down the inside of the column into the seed-
vessel, so that the liquor that was in the pollen
grain passes down this tube into the space at
the bottom of the column, and helps the little
dots to grow into perfect seeds.”

“Wouldn't they grow into perfect seeds
without the help of the pollen grains ?”

“They would not grow, but shrivel up.”

“Then how do the pollen grains get from the
74 RED CAMPION.

male flowers into the female flowers, that may
be growing a long way off?”

“Perhaps in more ways than one; but I will
tell you one way in which they travel. You
have seen bees and flies hovering about flowers
and sucking their juice ?”

“Very often.”

“Little fly goes to a male flower, and pushes
about and gets into it as far as he can. Doing
this, he knocks off the pollen powder, which
sprinkles all over his head and back. By-and-
by he goes into a female flower, and there he
rubs the powder from his head and back upon
the sticky top of the column, and so the pollen
travels from the male to the female flower.”

“What happens after ?”

“The male flowers die, and nothing is left;
the female flowers die, but the swelling at the
bottom of the centre column remains, and grows
bigger and bigger, until it becomes a large seed-
vessel or capsule, open at the top, with ten teeth
round the edge, so that when the seeds are ripe
they shake in the inside and fall out.”
RED CAMPION. (oee

“Then they are all female plants which have
capsules ?”

“Only female plants; and in the red campion
the capsules are nearly round, with the teeth
bent back; in the white campion the capsules
are longer and almost pear-shaped, with the
teeth straight. Thus you may know the red

©
e

Fig. 15.—CApsuLe oF Fic. 16.—CAPSuLE OF
RED CAMPION. WHITE CAMPION.

from the white campion when the flowers are
all dead and gone.”

“Suppose the fly carries the powder on his
head into another sort of plant, such as a
stitchwort, and leaves it behind him, what will
happen ?”

“Nothing will happen. The tubes will not
grow, and the powder will wither and dry up.”

“Have all the pinks, and such like plants,
76 RED CAMPION.

male flowers on one plant and female flowers on
another ?” |

“Oh no; only a few kinds.”

“They are very pretty flowers, and some of
the garden pinks smell so sweet; but are they
of any use?”

“T am afraid that very few of them are of
any use to man, except for his pleasure; but
some of them may be as useful to smaller ani-
mals as ‘ chickweed’ is to the little birds.”

“T know the chickweed ; it has such miser-
able little white flowers.”

“The flowers are small, but rather pretty if
you see them through a glass. I would advise
you to watch the leaves of this little plant, and
that you can do easily, for it grows in every
garden. At night the upper leaves draw to-
wards each other in pairs, so that they close
over the young shoots, and protect them during
the night. This has been called ‘going to
sleep ;’ but it is rather more than that, for the
leaves rise upwards and cover up the buds, to
shelter them from cold or harm. In some other
RED CAMPION. 77

plants the leaves either rise or fall, but only to
protect themselves, and they look as if they
were going to sleep. It is not generally known
that the young plants may be boiled as a vege-
table, and are something like spinach. You
must not despise the chickweed, for it may
remind you that little things are not mean or
miserable because they are small.”
ST. JOHN’S WORT.*

xs ANY old customs, Cissy, have to do

with flowers; but some of them have
gone out of use, and others out of thought—
mistletoe at Christmas, hawthorn on Mayday,
willow on Palm Sunday, and St. John’s wort on
Midsummer Eve. We must find the St. John’s
wort, and learn its story.”

“Shall we find it in the lane?”

“Tt grows on hedge-banks and by roadsides,
as well as in woods, and is in flower in July and
August.”

‘“‘ What is the story ?”

“Not a long one. A Welshman says that
.in Wales they have the custom of sticking St.
John’s wort over the doors on the eve of St.

* Hypericum perforatum.
ST. JOHN’S WORT. 79

John Baptist; and, without naming this plant, a
bishop wrote of olden times, when men of the
country brought into London on Midsummer
Eve branches of trees from Bishop’s Wood, and
flowers from the field, to array the houses and
make them gay.”

“Do you know why this flower should have
been called St. John’s wort, or why it should
have been chosen for that purpose ?”

“Perhaps because it is a showy plant, and
flowers at this time of year. It is a large plant,
and we cannot miss it.”

“ And the colour ?”

“There are at least ten kinds of St. John’s
wort found in this country, and all of them have
yellow flowers. Our St. John’s wort, which is
probably the true species, grows more than half
a yard high, and can be seen a long way off.”

“T hope we shall find it.” }

“ There’s a plant, with golden yellow flowers,
just in sight. It may be a ‘ragwort,’ but it is
the more likely to be St. John’s wort. You
had better run and look at it.”
80 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

“ How shall I know it ?”

“ You will know if it is the ragwort, because
the ragwort is something like the dandelion:
the flower-head, which looks to be one flower, is
made up of a host of little flowers packed close
together in the middle, and rows of strap-shaped
flowers round the edge, like the rays in a dande-
lion or daisy.”

“Yes, a composite flower; but if it is St.
John’s wort?”

“Then it is a simple flower, and in the middle
of it a very great number of golden threads
which we call stamens.”



Fic. 17.—Srction oF Frower or St. Jony’s Wort.
At length Cissy called out, “ Here it is, and
they are simple flowers.”
“You see that it is quite half a yard high, and


ST. JOHN’S WORT. 81

grows so stiff and upright that you should know
‘it again a long way off.”

“And such a number of golden yellow
flowers.”

“The stem, you can see, is distinctly two-
edged, and bright reddish brown, so slender that
if it were not tough and woody it would soon be
blown down.”

“ And such a number of branches.”

“ Mostly in pairs, one on each side of the stem,
and opposite to each other; not spreading much,
but pointing upwards.”

“« And what little leaves.”

“ Yes ;.the leaves are small for the size of the
plant. Oblong, three times as long as they are
broad, with quite a smooth edge; and I don’t
think you will find hairs upon them anywhere.”

“They are rather tough, aren’t they ?”

“Yes; but what is more strange is that they
are pricked with little dots, and you must use
your best eyes to see them.”

“‘ And the leaves grow in pairs, too, on oppo-
site sides of the stem.”

(497) 6
82 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

‘“ All the branches grow out from the corner
which the leaf makes with the stem; that is to
say, the branches grow from the stem, or larger
branches, just over and close to the bottom of
the leaf, and are said to grow in the awils of the
leaves.”

“The leaves are all smaller at the top of the
plant than they are at the bottom, and smaller
on the branches than they are on the stem.”

“ That is usually the case with herbs.”

“ The flowers look very different from butter-
cups.”

“ And yet the flowers of both have five yellow
floral leaves, and a great number of threads, or
stamens, in the middle of the flower.”

“ With five little green cup-leaves close to the
outside of the flower.”

“ Now then, Cissy, you must pull one flower
in pieces, very carefully, over this sheet of paper,
and be very careful with the stamens.”

“One, two, three! Such a lot of stamens—
sixty or seventy—but all grown together into
two or three tufts or bundles.”
ST. JOHN’S WORT. 83

“Exactly. That is just what I wished you
to be quite sure of, because that is how you may
always know St. John’s wort from any other
yellow wild flower. The stamens are always
joined in bundles. You can remember ?”

“Yes;

I don’t think I can forget it now

Q Q 5
\q D



Fic. 18.—F Lower or St. JoHn’s Wort.

1, Flower; 2, Bundle of Stamens ; 8, Pistil; 4, Section of Ovary ; 5, Fruit;
6, Seed ; 7, Section.

that I have seen it. And there is a large
knob in the middle where the stamens are
pulled off.”

“ That is the ovary, which grows into a fruit
and contains the seed. You will notice that not
only the stems, and sometimes the large veins
84, - §T. JOHN’S WORT.

of the leaves, but the tips of the flower buds,
before they open, are tinged with red.”

« And the plant is smooth all over.”

“You have been pulling the plant about,
breaking and rubbing it, so that I want to know
if you can smell any scent on your fingers.”

“Yes; I think I smell something like lemons.”

“There is a yellow juice in the plant which
perhaps contains the scent, but sometimes it is
better to be seen than at others. Suppose we
carry some of the plant home, and put it in
water in a glass bottle: then we shall see, after
it has been standing a little while, that the
water becomes yellowish.”

“See, it stains my fingers, but not yellow.”

“ Tf you press some of them between blotting
paper, the juice will stain the paper yellow.”

“Ts the yellow colour of any use?”

“T have been told that when mixed with
alum and boiled the dried plant will dye wool
a yellow colour, but I have never tried it.”

“ And yet you say that all things have their
uses.”
ST. JOHN’S WORT. 85

“Yes; but I did not tell you that I knew the
uses of all things. The St. John’s wort was
gathered in the country, when I was a boy, by
many old people, who believed it to be so useful
as a medicine that they dried it and kept some
of it always in the house.”

“ And what was it good for?”

“It was supposed to cure the ague, and to be
good for jaundice, and I think useful for wounds
and for internal bleeding, and perhaps for many
things besides, for it was a plant of many vir-
tues.”

“ And not all of them true ?”

“ You will think so when I tell you that in
France and Germany the common people gather
the plant on St. John’s Day, and hang it up in
their windows as a charm to protect them from
harm by storms, thunder, or evil spirits. Even
in North Wales there was at one time a similar
belief. I may tell you that there is a St. John’s
wort, with large yellow flowers, as big as half-a-
crown, often grown in gardens and shrubberies ;
but it is not one of our wild flowers. One name
86 ST. JOHN’S WORT.

for it is ‘ Aaron’s beard,’ on account of the great
number of stamens. As the flowers are so large,
you will be able to see the bundles of stamens
better than you can do in the common St. John’s
wort; so that you had better look for it, as it
grows close to the ground in large patches, and
the large flowers stand singly, and not in bunches.
It grows in some places like a wild plant, but it
is a native of Southern Europe, and was intro-
duced into this country, therefore we cannot call
it a true British wild flower.”
MALLOW.*

OU should know the mallow, Cissy, with
the pink flowers close at your feet.
But what do you call it?”

“Oh! ‘cheeses.’ Yes, I know.”

“ Cheeses? why do you call it ‘ cheeses’ ?”

“ Because little cheeses grow all over it, and
so we play with them, and call them ‘ cheeses.’ ”

““« Pick-cheeses’ they are called in some places,
and are the round, flat fruits of the mallow.”

“What a sprawling plant! too lazy to grow
straight.”

“ As some people are too lazy to walk straight.
It is a strong, tough plant; so you may grasp
it firmly, and pull with all your might to drag
it up by the root.”

* Malva sylvestris.
88 MALLOW.

“T can’t; it sticks so hard.”

“Then I will help you. Now, pull all to-
gether, and up it comes.”

“ But the end of the root is broken off.”

“Never mind; there is enough for you to see
what a large, tough root it has, thicker than
your finger ; and if you rub it where it is broken,
you will find that it has a clammy juice.”

“Tt is almost like liquorice root, but not so
nice, is it?”

“Not so sweet, but nearly as useful.”

“Good to eat ?”

“ Not exactly ; but all kinds of mallow roots
are whitish and full of a slimy juice, and when
laid in water the juice runs out, and makes the
water thick and clammy. It is said that the
old Romans used mallow roots as a vegetable.”

“ But it is not used now-a-days?”

“Yes, it is, but not in the same way. Mallows
are one of the few common plants still used in
proper medicine, and more abroad, in Europe,
than with us.”

“ How is it used?”


Fic. 19.—Common Mattow.

1, Part of Plant, reduced ; 2; Root; 3, Section of Flower ; 4, 5, Fruits; 6, Carpel.
7, Seed; 8, Stamen.

MALLOW. 91

“The water in which it is soaked is sweetened
with sugar and drunk, or it is used outside for
bathing inflamed limbs, or made into a kind of
poultice.”

“Only the roots?”

« All parts of the plant more or less, especially
the marsh-mallow, which is made into a syrup
or lozenges. French chemists sell the dried
flowers and roots under the name of ‘ guimauve.’”

“The stem is tough like the root, and strag-
gling.”

“The common mallow is not a neat-growing
plant, but the flowers are pretty; sometimes it
is half-a-yard high, and often less.”

“It seems to be soft and velvety all over.”

“Yes; but the marsh-mallow is much softer
and more velvety. Let us try to name the
shape of the leaves.”

“That is not so easy. They would be rather
rounded if they were not so deeply notched at
the edge.”

“T should call them kidney-shaped, and
notched at the edge so as to have from five to
92 MALLOW.

seven broad and almost three-cornered teeth:
too large for teeth, we might almost call them
lobes. The dwarf mallow is nearly as common,
but the leaves are more kidney-shaped, and
scarcely lobed.”

“ Lobes! what are they 2”

“The lower flap of the ear is the lobe of the
ear; and so these are lobes, or flaps, if you like.”

\



Vg

IY
[/
Se
Sy
77 | a
AN

Fic. 20.—Dwarr Matitow Lear.

_ “Never mind what we call them, so long as
we know what it is that we mean.”

“You are right, Cissy: names mean little
until we give some meaning to them, and it is
seldom easy to state the forms of leaves in words.”

« And these plants have lobed leaves.”
MALLOW. - 98

“Yes; which are not opposite to each other
in pairs, but grow singly and scattered. The
lower leaves, in most plants, are the most per-
fect in their form.”

“ And there are tiny leaves at the bottom of
the foot-stalks upon the stems.”

“You will see that there are a great many
flowers, or flower-buds, which have short stalks,
and spring from the inner corner or axil where
the leaf-stalk is joined to the stem or the
branches.”

“Some are only buds, some are open flowers,
and some almost like buds, only that the flowers
have opened and fallen off.”

“ T wish you to look carefully at these flowers.
I should tell you that in all flowers there are
three things you should always look for. You
should look for the outer green leaves close up
to the flower, and which close over and cover
the young bud: these are the flower-cup or
calyx. Then there are the coloured leaves, which
form the proper flower. And lastly, there are the
thread-like stamens in the middle of the flower.”
94, MALLOW.

“ And should we always find all these three
parts ?”

“Yes,—we should in all perfect flowers; but
sometimes one of the parts becomes very small.”

“ But in the mallow the green leaves of the
flower-cup are very large.”

“They are in all the Mallow family; and
not only large, but double. The inner cup has
five divisions, and the outer one three. It is
not usual for the green flower-cup, or calyx
(which means cup), to be double, as it is in
mallows.”

“T must not forget that.”

“Not even when you see hollyhocks grow-
ing in the garden, for they are big mallows.
Now, look at the second set of parts in the
flowers.”

“Yes, the coloured flower-leaves; and there
are five, broadest towards the outer end, and
notched. Very pretty pink with purple lines.”

“Do you smell anything ?”

“No; I don’t think they are scented.”

“ There is a ‘musk-mallow,’ which is not so
MALLOW. 95

common, and that is supposed to smell faintly
of musk in the evening, but I never could smell
musk during the daytime in the flowers.”

“ Now for the third set of parts in the flower.”

“Yes, Cissy; and curious they are too, for
you see they form a big bundle in the middle of
the flower, which stands up boldly.”

“And such a lot of stamens! That’s the
name,”

“ See, all of them joined together at the bot-
tom, ina sort of tube, around the column that
stands up in the middle.”

“ More than five?”

“More than five—more than ten—dquite a
bunch of them, with large nodding heads. You
will not forget that in the mallow flowers the
first set and the third set of parts are different
from what they are in most flowers.”

“T shall not forget. And see how the flowers
are twisted round before they open, almost as
they are in the bindweed. But the ‘cheeses ’—
I want to know about them.”

“Of course you do; and here is a young one
96 MALLOW,

at the bottom of the plant, where the flower has
fallen off and the cup-leaves have closed over
again.”
“Oh yes; there’s a little cheese inside.”
“That is the fruit, like a thick round button,
with marks all round the edge ; and when quite
ripe all these little seed-vessels will break off



Fic. 21.—Frvuit or Mattow.

from the core in the centre and part: into sepa-
rate pieces, with a seed in each piece.”

“T eat them sometimes,” said Cissy.

“When they are green and juicy, but not
when they are dry. If we are to believe all the
good things which the mallow is said to do, we
would call it the most wonderful of plants.”

“‘T suppose some people have believed ?”

“ Hardly so much as Pliny did, who wrote
MALLOW. 97

nearly at the time of Christ, that ‘whosoever
shall take a spoonful of any of the mallows,
shall that day be free from all diseases that may
come unto him.’”

“That would be a useful medicine.”

“ Another says that the leaves bruised or
rubbed upon the place stung with bees, wasps,
or the like, presently take away the pains, red-
ness, and swellings that arise therefrom.”

“Mallows must have been known thousands
of years ago.”

“Even in the time of Job, when they were a
famine food. As he says, ‘For want and fam-
ine they were solitary; fleeing into the wilder-
ness in former time desolate and waste: who
cut up mallows by the bushes’ (xxx. 8, 4). The
Greeks and Romans ate it boiled, or raw in
salads.”

“ And are they ever eaten now?”

“T believe that the poor inhabitants of Syria,
especially the Armenians, subsist for weeks on
herbs, of which the marsh-mallow is one of the
most common. When boiled first and then

(497) 7
98 MALLOW.

fried with onions and butter, they are said to
form a palatable dish.”

“T should not think we could eat them like
cabbage.”

“Well, Cissy, I am not so sure of that, but I
never tried them ; yet there are plants in India
very nearly the same as mallows, the leaves of
which are used every day as a common pot-herb.”

“ Any way, if the mallow is a weed it is not
quite a useless one.”

“The neatest use I ever saw for the mallow
was a pretty lace collar for a little girl, made
from the stems of the common mallow.”

“Do tell me how it was done, uncle.”

“The bark was stripped off the stems, soaked
so that it could be beaten, and stripped into
very fine threads, and these threads were spun
into something like flax thread. This thread
was worked up and made into lace by some
ladies in Ireland, and sent to a great exhibition—
it might have been in 1851—and no one could
have known that it was not lace made in the

”

usual way.
Pie et.

MALLOW. 99

«“ What was it done for ?”

“To prove that common things have their
uses, and that the common wayside mallow
could be made into lace that was fit to decorate
the finest lady in the land.”

“To deck the living and the dead.”

“Truly so; for the ancients used them as
funeral flowers, and it was customary to plant
them round the graves and tombs of dead

friends.”
GREAT BINDWEED.*

rs HAT is the large white flower, uncle,
with the stems running all over the
hedge?”

“That is the bindweed, Cissy.”

“The large white flowers like a funnel ?”

“Tt is a wild convolvulus, something like the
purple convolvulus which grows in gardens, only
that the flowers are white.”

«“ And it runs all over the bushes, with a
flower here and there.”

“Tf we track the stems down to the bottom,
we shall find the roots—and such roots !—creep-
ing along in the soil, like underground runners.”

“Do they grow easily ?”

“Indeed they do. Some people are foolish

* Convolvulus sepium.
GREAT BINDWEED. 101

enough to move the plants into their gardens,
because the white flowers look so pretty, but
they always are sorry for it.”

«“ And why are they sorry ?”

“ Because they can never get rid of it again.
The roots run everywhere, and nearly every piece
of the root which is left in the ground continues
to grow. The stems twine over other plants
and bushes and choke them to death.”

“Tg there no other plant which has such
roots ?”

“Oh yes, there are many, but the stems are
not twiners, so that they cannot do so much
mischief. There are the ‘lily of the valley,’ and
the garden mint, and the musk plant, and the
wood-sorrel, and some others.”

“ But what are twiners ?”

“ They are plants which have long, thin stems,
so thin that they cannot stand upright of them-
selves, but twine round other plants, as the hop
does, and so does the purple convolvulus.”

“T see the stem wound round and round all
these bushes. And do they wind themselves up ?”
102 GREAT BINDWEED.

“Like a corkscrew; for you see the stem is
not thicker than a straw, and it might be two
or three yards long, if we could unwind it.”

“ And does it wind as it grows ?”

“Yes; and if we could watch it, we should
see the top end move slowly round the branch
of the shrub that supports it, always moving in
one direction, which is against the sun, or from
the right to the left.”

“Do all twiners move from right to left ?”

“No; the hop moves in the other direction—
from the left to the right.”

« And any others ?”

“The honeysuckle and the wild bryony follow
the sun, from left to right, whilst the scarlet-
runner twines in the same direction as the bind-
weed.”

“‘T should like to see the tip of the stem mov-
ing round and round. How long does it take
them to get round ?” .

“The bindweed goes once round in about an
hour and three-quarters, and the hop in about

two hours and a half.”
GREAT BINDWEED. 103

“Then we would have to watch for two hours
to see the tip go round once.”

“Quite; because they move more slowly in
the ‘evening and morning, or when the sun is
not shining.”

“JT suppose that the quicker they grow the
faster they move.”

“The one depends upon the other. But you

a

Fic, 22.—-Lea¥ oF BINDWEED.

must try to give me your name for the shape
of the leaves.”

“They are not heart-shaped quite, nor yet
flat-iron shape, nor yet three-cornered. I don’t
know.”
104 GREAT BINDWEED.

“What do you say to arrow-shape, or like an
arrow-head ?”

‘“‘T have never seen an arrow-head, but I have
seen the top end of iron railings almost like it.”

“Well, then, I suppose they are meant for
arrow-heads or spear-heads. The leaves are
smooth, but not shining, and of rather bright
green.”

“ With long stalks.”

“ Certainly, with rather long stalks; and the
leaves are not set close together, but rather wide
apart on the stem, and never in pairs.”

“When are leaves ‘in pairs’ ?”

“T had forgotten to show you the St. John’s
wort, with the leaves in pairs—that is to say,
one leaf on each side of the stem, opposite to
each other, and at the same height.”

« And these are not opposite, or in pairs, but
single. Don’t you think ‘bindweed’ is a nicer
name than ‘ convolvulus,’ uncle?”

“ Well, it matters little; for both words mean
the same thing, or nearly so.”

“ And one name is English, the other foreign.”
GREAT BINDWEED. 105

“Convolvulus is Latin, and means ‘ twining ;’
but its use is so common that it is almost as
good as English.”

< Except for little girls,” added Cissy.

“Let us leave the name for the sake of the
thing, and find something that is like the shape
of the flower.”

“T said funnel just now; but I do not like
funnel-shaped, because the sides are not straight,
but bent inwards.”

“ More like the end of a trumpet or a French-
horn.”

“ Much more like, but so narrow at the
bottom.”

“Growing on flower-stalks which are thin,
and not like the leaf-stalks ; but why ?”

“ Because they are almost square,” said
Cissy.

“Let us find some flower-buds before the
flowers are open. See, here is one which is
quite a bud, closed between small heart-shaped
leaves.”

“They are funny little leaves, not like the
106 GREAT BINDWEED.

real leaves ; but will they grow into real leaves?”
asked Cissy.

“No, dear; they are only the outer leaves
which belong to the flower. You will see them



Fic. 23.—FLowrer oF GREAT BINDWEED.

1, Flower; 2, Pistil ; 8, Section of Ovary; 4, Fruit within persistent calyx ;
5, Fruit with calyx removed; 6, Section ; 7, Seed.
at the bottom of all the flowers, and not grown
any larger. They are not real leaves, but

299

‘ flower-leaves,’ called ‘ bracts.
GREAT BINDWEED. 107

“ T shall call them flower-leaves; I shall not
think of ‘ bracts’ when I want to.”

“ See, here is another bud which is older, and
you see the flower, folded lengthways and
twisted.”

“Can we wait and see it open?”

“ Hardly, since it will not open until to-mor-
row morning.”

“ At what time?”

“The flowers of the great bindweed open at
about three or four oclock in the morning, so

that you must rise early to see them.

‘We'll gather the wild convolvulus,

29)

That opes in the morning early.

“ And I suppose the flowers close again carly
in the evening ?”

“Or during a dull day. But you have not
noticed, Cissy, that these flowers are all in one
piece, and do not part into separate leaves as
Some flowers do. ‘The lower part is a tube,
which widens upwards, but is never parted.”

“Yes, I did notice it; and when the flowers
108 GREAT BINDWEED.

close they do not fall off readily, but wither and
die.”

“Let me take my penknife and cut one of the
open flowers down through the middle, into two
equal portions, and then we shall be able to look
inside.”

“ And see one little thread standing up in the
middle, and five others standing around it.”

“ The five little threads all alike, thick at the
top, are the stamens, and the one in the middle
is the style. You should look for these in all
flowers and count them ; because, although there
usually is one style in the middle, there may be
a great number of stamens standing around it.”

“Yes, uncle; but I must grow a little bigger
before I bother myself about them.”

“JT agree with you, Cissy, that it is better to
learn a little, and learn it well, than try to learn
a great deal and learn nothing.”

“ But where is the seed ?”

“You see that little hollow at the bottom of
the flower where it joins the stem?”

“Yes; I see it in both the halves.”
GREAT BINDWEED. 109

“Tf you were to look into that hollow with a
pocket-glass, you would see little points in it,
and they will grow and grow until they become
seeds.”

“JT cannot see them.”

“ No,—and the plant does not often ripen its
seeds; but if you should find the seed-vessel
when full grown, late in the year, perhaps the
seeds would be inside.”

“Don’t the plant want the seeds?” inquired
Cissy.

“Not much, for it can spread and spread by
the roots, which live through the winter, just as
well as other plants do with a great many seeds.”

“Then it does not grow seeds because it really
wants them ?”

“Do you know the periwinkle ?”

“ What—the ‘ winkles’?”

“No, not the sea-snails, but the periwinkle
plant, with blue flowers ?”

“T think not.”

“That plant spreads by the roots in the same

manner; and the fruit is so scarce that people
110 GREAT BINDWEED.

have grown it for forty years in their gardens
and never seen a single berry.”

“And are the bindweeds of any use except
for show ?”

“Did you ever hear of such a thing as
‘jalap’?”

“TJ don’t think so.”

“It isa physic, well known to country people,
which is brought over from America, and it is
the powdered root of a bindweed, or convolvu-
lus. Many years ago the roots of our. great
bindweed were collected and dried and used for
the same purpose.”

“ But not now?”

“T think not now at all, because other things
have been found out which serve the purpose
better.”

“And yet the flowers are very pretty, if the
plant is of no use.”

“No, Cissy; pretty things are not. always
the most useful.”

With this page our first chats about wild
GREAT BINDWEED. 111

flowers are at an end. We have found some of
the common plants which grow in every green
lane, and have tried to learn what they can
teach us about the life of plants. There are a
great many more that we could have picked and
talked about; but we have only chosen eight,
and from all these have learned something. It is
much better for us to attempt only a little, and
to do it well, than try to do too much, and end
by learning nothing properly. You will have
found that there is a great deal to be learned
from a little wild flower, but it must be done
with patience and in order. You had to learn
the names of the different parts, and to see how
much they are alike and how much they differ.
This is the important lesson we have been seek-
ing—how to see all that there is to be seen,
and in what way to see it best; how we should
use our eyes, and study to compare one flower
with another. We know by sight a buttercup,
a violet, and a dandelion, and can tell them
by their names; but that is not enough: we
must pull them in pieces, and look at all the
112 GREAT BINDWEED.

parts by themselves, before we can understand
what are the greatest differences between them.
In learning to do this properly, we learn the
method we have to adopt with all plants; and
by following this method, we discover what to
look for, and how to turn to account what we
see. Nothing can be learned well without pa-
tience and perseverance, and making good use
of our eyes. See, mark, learn, and inwardly
digest, and you shall have your reward.
INDEX.

Aaron’s beard, 86.
Arrow-shaped leaves, 104.

Creeping buttercup, 16.
Cuckoo-pint, 60.

Bachelor’s buttons, 66. Dandelions, 42.

Bindweed, 100.
Blanched leaves, 50.
Bracts, 106.
Buttercups, 11.

Calyx, 35.

Campion, 66.
Capsule, 75.
Celandine, 20.
Cheeses, mallow, 87.
Chickweed, 76.
Clawed petal, 70.

Climbing plants, 101.
Column, or pistil, 72.

Composite disc, 55.

Composite flower, 53.

Composite ray, 55.
Convolvulus, 100.

Corn crowfoot, 15.
(497)

Dandelion clocks, 57.
Dog-violet, 39.
Double calyx, 94.
Dwarf-mallow, 92.

Female flowers, 72.
Fibrous roots, 32.

Flies and flowers, 74.
Florets, 53.
Funnel-shaped flower, 105.

Goldylocks, 15.
Great bindweed, 100.
Guimauve, 91.

Hollyhocks, 94.

Indefinite stamens, 20.
Involucre, 57.
114
Jalap, 110.

Leaves, opposite, 104.
Leaves, trifoliate, 18.
Lobes of leaf, 92.
Lords and ladies, 59.

Male flowers, 71.
Mallow, 87.

Mallows as food, 97.
Marsh-mallow, 91.
Meadow-crowfoot, 13.

Movements of plants, 102.

Musk-mallow, 94.
Napoleon and violets, 20.

Opposite leaves, 104.
Ovary, 56.

Pansy, 37.
Pappus, 56.
Periwinkle, 109.
Petals, 23, 27.
Pilewort, 21.
Pink family, 70.
Pistil, 72.
Pollen, 73.



INDEX.

Ragged robin, 66.

Ragwort, 80.

Red campion, 66.’

Reniform, or kidney shape, 91.
Rosette, 49.

St. John’s wort, 78.
Secret flowers, 36.
Sepals, 27.

Sleep of flowers, 76.
Spadix, 63.

Spathe, 61.
Spearwort, 15.
Stamens, 26.
Starch-wort, 60.
Story of the violet, 41.
Style, 55.

Trinity leaves, 18.
Tubers, 21.
Twining plants, 101.

Violets, 20.

Wake-robin, 59.
White campion, 68.

Yellow juice, 84.


Rambles Emong the Wild Flowers.

IL.
THROUGH THE COPSE.
PREFACE. |



DEAR CHILDREN, I have already written for you an
account of several “Chats” about some of the wild
flowers which are to be found in the spring and in
the autumn during rambles along a country lane. I
have now added, in the pages of this little volume,
some gossip about the wild flowers which are to be
seen in a copse or a wood. As most of these are
flowers which do not grow in hedges, this will help
you in a woodland ramble. I hope that you who
are to read this have already read the first book,
because I have explained in that the meaning of
many of the words which are used when writing
about plants, and have not repeated those explana-
tions here. If you are minded to learn a little about

flowers, you should first of all go with us “Down.
Vill PREFACE.

the Lane and Back,” and then you will be ready for
a ramble “Through the Copse,” and in a short time
we shall be prepared for “A Stroll on a Marsh,” to
gather other wild flowers which have each of them
their own story to tell. The plates will help you to
find them, and then you will wish to know what
these pages can tell you about them. Be brave, and

you will not fail. M. C, COOKE,
i
,



CONTENTS.

WIND-FLOWER,
PRIMROSE,

WILD HYACINTH,
LILY OF THE VALLEY,
WOOD-SORREL,
WOOD-SPURGE, ;
WILD ANGELICA,
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE,

BITTER-SWEET,



11
20
33
47
54
64
15
85
94



THROUGH THE COPSE.



WIND-FLOWER.*

cS HAT a lot of pretty flowers under the
trees!”
“Indeed, Cissy, it is a fine crop of anemones,
or wind-flowers.

‘Thickly strown in woodland bowers
Anemones their stars unfold.’ ”

“They look something like ‘ star-flowers,’ with
their white flowers spreading like stars.”

“Indeed they are pretty; but they do not
last long, and have no scent.” .

“They would be much nicer if they smelled
sweet.”

* Anemone nemorosa.
12 WIND-FLOWER.

“Do you think so? They have been called
the ‘flower of sickness.’”

“You have not told me why they are called
‘wind-flower, or why ‘anemone.’”

“As for ‘wind-flower’: it was believed in
the days of a very old writer, named Pliny,
that the flowers never opened until the wind
blew upon them, else I should have thought
it was ‘wind-flower’ because the wind soon
blows the flowers off. The seed also blows
away with the wind.

‘And coy anemone, that ne’er uncloses
Her lips until they’re blown on by the wind.”

“Anemone is a strange name ; I cannot guess.”

“No, Cissy, you would never guess, because
it comes from an old story. You know the
kind of fables they had in those olden days.
Venus was said to be a beautiful goddess, and
a youth named Adonis was her favourite ; but
one day he was killed by a wild boar, and Venus
changed his body into a flower, now called
anemone.”
WIND-FLOWER. 18

“Tt is an early flower.”

“Like the primrose and the violet, it comes
in the spring. Sometimes all the flowers are
closed up, and then people who are weather-
wise say it is going to rain. If you look at the
under side of the leaves of the flowers, you will
see that they are often pink, and there is no
green cup just under them.”

“So that they can be blown off easily ?”

“Perhaps so; but you have not counted the
rays of your stars.”

“Oh, there are six! That is a curious num-
ber ; there should be five, shouldn’t there ?”

“Five is a common number, but there may be
four, and, as you see, there may be six.”

“ Are all of them proper flower-leaves ?”

“Tt is more likely that the three outer ones
belong to the flower-cup, and the three inner
ones to the proper flower; for you see they do
not all stand in a ring, but three are outside and
three are inside.”

“Yetall of them are of the same size and colour.”

“Yes, that is true; and the same thing hap-
14 WIND-FLOWER.

pens in some other flowers besides the wood-
anemone.”

“ Both sorts fall off together.”

“Indeed they do; and both open and shut
together.”

“There are plenty of threads—what are
they ? stamens—in the middle. I cannot count
them.”

“Yes; and the young seed capsules at the
centre nearly as many, all in a bunch.”

“ Almost like a buttercup.”

‘“You are right there, Cissy; it is, as we
should say, cousin to the buttercups.”

“But buttercups are yellow!”

“Not all of them; the water buttercups are
white. You will see them floating on the water
in ditches. But you must gather two or three
flowers of anemone, with the whole flower-stalk
down to the root.”

“ With one flower at the top, and three leaves
all together in the middle of the stalk.”

“The stalk-leaves are different, as you see,
from the leaves that come from the root.”


WIND-FLOWER. 15

“The root-leaves have long stalks, and the
stalk-leaves have only very short ones.”

“The three stalk-leaves are all together, at
the same height, on three sides of the stem, like
three rays ; and they are not proper leaves, but
stalk-leaves, and not exactly the same shape as
the root-leaves.”

“ But I cannot tell you what the shape is.”

“Then I must help you. They are something
like the leaves of the creeping buttercup, but
smaller, each leaf divided into three smaller
leaflets, like three leaves in one. Each leaflet
has a deep notch or two nearly to the bottom,
and each piece or lobe is toothed at the edge;
and these leaves of the stalk are called bracts.”

“ But the true leaves ?”

“They are the leaves with long stalks which
spring up from the roots. The blade of the
leaf is not so very different from the bracts, for
it has three leaflets. The two outside ones are
often divided nearly to the bottom in two lobes,
and all of them are notched or toothed nearly
at the top; so each lobe is shaped rather like
16 WIND-FLOWER.

a wedge, with the broad end outwards, and
notched.

os

LI

Fic. 1.—LEar or ANEMONE.

“Now, Cissy, you must turn up the roots
carefully, for they are curious.”

“How they creep along like runners, just
under the ground.”

“True; and they have a name too, but we
need not trouble with that. You will find a
number of little rootlets striking down into the
ground from the underground runners.”

“ Something like the little celandine?”

(498)


WIND-FLOWER. 17

.“ Yes, something like, but not quite the same.”

“And do they live all the winter ?”

“These underground runners rest in the
ground after the flowers and leaves are dead,
and grow again in the spring.”

“ Don’t some of them die?”

“Perhaps they do, and sometimes they become
altered in a very curious manner.”

“ Do tell me, uncle!”

“T can hardly explain how it is done, but all
the inside part of some of the runners gets dis-

eased and harder, and unable to grow in the

- usual way; and although they look all the same,

they are quite changed into something different.”
“ And what changes them ?”
“ A sort of mould, or fungus it is called, turns

_ the whole inside of the runner into fungus.”

“ And how is that done ?”

“ By growing inside it, eating up or altering
the stuff it is made of, and growing itself in the
place.”

“ And it is a ‘ wind-flower’ root no longer ?”

“ Hixactly so; it is no longer the root of anem-
(498) 9
18 WIND-FLOWER.

one, but the ‘root, or something like a root,
of a fungus which grows out of it, just as the
anemone flower would have done if there had
been no change.”

“ And what is it like when it grows ?”

“Shaped like a little cup
or a wine-glass about half an
inch broad, of a light brown
colour, with a long wavy
stem three inches long, nearly
as thick as a straw, and black.”

“Springing out of the
root?”

“Sometimes one, or two,
or three, or four from the
same root, with the cups just
above the top of the ground.”

“‘ And are they hard?”

“ Not very hard ; about as



Fic. 2.—Ansnone Pazza. hard as the flesh of an apple,
and juicy, so that you can break and crush them
up in your fingers.”

“ And could you eat them?”


WIND-FLOWER. 19

“T suppose you could eat them, if you liked,
and they would do you no harm. The slugs
eat them sometimes.”

“ How very strange! And yet they do not
belong to the anemone ?”

“Not rightly so, but are the growth of a
disease of the old root-stocks.”

“ Are any other plants served in the same
way ?”

“Not exactly in the same way; but wheat
grains and rye grains are often changed into
fungus called ergot, and this ergot is very like
the diseased anemone roots.”

“ And grows a fungus upon it.”

“Yes; a fungus grows from the diseased
_ grain or ergot, but of a different kind from that
of the anemone.”

“What funny things there are in the world,
uncle! I should so like to find these cups on
_ the anemone roots. Perhaps we may find them
one day.”

“Very likely ; they are common enough.”
PRIMROSE.*

79

ELL me, Cissy, which is your favourite
wild flower—the one above all others
which you love the best.”

“T like so many of them, but there are some
I love more than the rest.”

“Ts there no one flower which you think is
the best, and would be pleased to call your
own?”

“T am very fond of the daisy—it is a pretty
wee thing; but it has no scent. Violets are
lovely—the colour is so nice, and they smell so
sweet ; but the shape is not so pretty. I think
I like the primrose best.”

“ For what reason ?”

“They come so early and last so long. We
seem to have them nearly always with us, like

* Primula vulgaris.


PRIMROSE. 21

a good friend. And they smell so nice—not
strong, but so sweet you could smell them for
always. And the colour is so soft and gentle ;
it is like a baby with a clean face.”

“You are not the only person to love prim-
roses, for I love them too. They are the flower
of hope, for they tell us that spring is coming.”

“Tam glad you love primroses, because you
will tell me more about them than I know, and
I think I shall love them all the more.”

“ Most old writers thought them sad, so that
sadness was as much linked with the primrose
as hope. It is so with our keeping of Primrose
Day.”

“Why do we have a Primrose Day, when
nearly everybody carries primroses ?”

“Because on that day a great man and great
statesman died, and we are sad for the past.
The flower tells of sunny days to come, and then
we hope for the future.

‘The pale
Sweet-perfumed primrose lifts its face to heaven,

299

Like the full, artless gaze of infancy.
22 PRIMROSE.

“Don’t they look pretty all along that bank ?
It seems a pity to gather them, they look so nice
as they grow amongst the green leaves; much
better than when they are huddled in a bunch
in your hand.”

“Indeed, Cissy, a bunch of naked primrose
flowers without green leaves is a mistake. One
clump as they grow is better than all the nose-

gays.”



Fig. 3.—PrRIMROSES,

“Yes, uncle ; but mamma says we should not
pull up the roots, or by-and-by we shall get no
primroses.”

“T am afraid there are not so many wild
primroses as there were years ago, because the
roots have been dug up so much to be sold in
large towns.” ,
PRIMROSE. 23

“What colour do you call the primrose
flower ?”

“Tt is very much the colour of sulphur.
There are some artists who call it a delicate
green; but I should call it rather a pale greenish
yellow.”

“T call it ‘primrose colour.’ ”

“ A very natural thing for a little girl to do.
Take the open part of one of the flowers in your

‘fingers and draw it out of the cup. It will come

out easily.”

‘‘ All in one piece !”

“ Now you have left behind the green flower-
cup, which was outside, and the centre column,
or prstil, which was in the middle.”

“ And have only the coloured flower-leaves.”

“A long tube, nearly an inch long, with five
lobes or flaps at the top, bent back, and lying as
flat as a button. Something like the campion,
but the claws are joined together and form a
tube, so that it comes off in one piece.”

“Oh yes! Of course there’s a hard name for
that sort of flower, but I don’t want it.”
24, PRIMROSE.

“There is a name, but it’s a long one. The
largest number of flowers are like the buttercup
and the wild rose, with the coloured flower-leaves,
or petals, all separate, so that each falls off by
itself; but in a smaller number of plants, all the
true flower-leaves are joined together and come off
in one piece, like the primrose and the bindweed.”

“‘ And the honeysuckle ?”

“Of course, the honeysuckle. If you look
once more at the primrose flower, you will see’
that the five pieces are divided nearly down to
the top of the tube, so that at first sight it looks
as if there were five separate flower-leaves, and
each of them has a shallow notch in the middle
of the outside edge.”

“Shall I throw it away now?”

“No; you must split open the tube and see
what is inside.”

“T thought it was empty!”

“ Better to look than to think, Cissy, when
you have the chance.”

“Well, I never! There are five little things
sticking to the inside of the tube.”


PRIMROSE. 25

“Do they belong to the flower?”

“Yes; they are growing there. They look
like the dust-boxes, pollen cases, that we saw
in the red campion, at the end of the threads.
How very short the threads are!”

“Indeed they are, and grown to the side of
the tube. Some of them are split, and you see
the yellow dust.”

“T thought all flowers would be so much
alike ; but they aren’t alike at all, when you pull
them in pieces.”

“Yes, Cissy, alike, and yet so different. If
you now split open the green flower-cup, you
will see that in pulling off the flower you left
the column behind, with the knob at the bottom,
the young seed-vessel. The cup, or calyx, is
grown to the outside of the ovary, or young seed-
_ vessel, and the stamens come away in the tube
_ when the flower is pulled off.”

“ And that has some meaning too, I suppose ?”

“ A meaning which I will try to explain. We
must gather flowers from many plants first, and
_ look at them afterwards.” |
26 PRIMROSE.

“One from each plant ?”

“That will do, for we shall get a variety.”

« And can we look at them here?”

“Oh yes, that is simple enough. There are
two sorts of primrose flowers, and nearly as many
of the one sort as of the other ; but all the flowers
that grow from one root are of one sort.”

“What is the difference ?”

“One kind is called ‘pin-eyed, the other
is ‘thumb-eyed.’ The middle of the flower,
looking down the tube, is the ‘eye,’ and the
difference is in this ‘ eye.’”

“ Have we gathered both ?”

“Yes; here are the ‘ pin-eyed, with the end
of the column in the middle of the eye, like a
pin-head. Here is a ‘thumb-eye,’ the five
stamens showing their tops in a ring at the
mouth of the tube or eye.”

“Sometimes one is at the top, sometimes the
other. Is that it?”

“Exactly. Ifthe column-head is looking out
at the eye, it is ‘pin-eyed;’ but if the five
stamens are looking out at the eye, it is ‘ thumb-
PRIMROSE. 27

eyed.’ Perhaps you will see the reason better
if we cut one of each kind of flower down in the
middle.”

“Oh, I see! Hither the stamens are half-
way up, or they are quite at the top.”

«When the stamens, with their pollen powder,



Fic. 4.—Pin-Eyvep anp THumB-EyED FLowERrs.

_ are only half-way up, the column passes them
_ and goes to the top. When the stamens are at
_ the top, then the column goes only half-way up.
- One or other always half-way up, or at the top.”
«That I can see ; but what difference does it

make to the flower?”


28 PRIMROSE.

“When the column is half-way up, then the
dust from the stamens can fall down upon the
column easily when the cases burst. When the
stamens are only half-way up, and the column
at the top, the dust falls, but does not rise, so it
cannot reach the top of the column. The pollen
cannot fall upwards.”

“ Must it fall on the top of the column?”

“Jt is only when the dust sticks to the top
of the column, which is sticky, that the pollen
grows a tube, and this tube passes down inside
the column into the hollow of the swelling at
the bottom, and empties itself there.”

“ And after that?”

“The seeds ripen, but only then.”

“What a pity! Then the pollen, when only
half-way up, is all wasted ?”

“No, it is not; for insects will thrust down
their long tongues to reach the honey or sweet
liquor at the bottom of the flower, and bring
some of the pollen dust up with it. Or smaller
insects will go down the tube and brush the

pollen all over them.”


PRIMROSE. 29

“So they are all dusty when they come out?”

“Yes; and then they fly to another flower to
do the same thing, and some of the dust will be
rubbed upon the top of the column and stick
there !”

“Oh, I see! and push out the long tube,
down the middle of the column. How clever!”

“Besides, the pollen dust from ‘thumb-eyed’
flowers, where the stamens are at the top, is one-
third larger than it is in the ‘pin-eyed,’ where
the stamens are half-way down.”

“See, when I pull off the whole piece of flower
out of the cup, and leave the column behind, the
top of the tube in ‘pin-eyed’ flowers is empty,
whilst the stamens block up the top of the tube
in the ‘thumb-eyed’ flowers.”

“ Before we leave the flowers, I suppose, like
all little girls, you suck the sweet from the
bottom end of the primrose tube before you
throw it away.”

“Yes, we always do that; and so we do with
the honeysuckle flowers.”

* And rob the poor insects ?”
30 PRIMROSE.

“ Never mind, there is plenty more for them.”

“Did you see how much broader the flower-
cup is than the flower-tube which grows inside
it?”

“Quite loose, and twice as thick, all in one
piece, like a little wine-glass, and five sharp teeth
at the top.”

“ And you should add, that it stands all alone
at the top of a velvety flower-stalk.”

“T suppose I left that for you to say. Now
we are going downwards, to the leaves and root.”

“A tuft of pale-green leaves, all coming up
from the crown of the root. You must name
the shape of the leaves.”

“ Longer than broad, and rounded at the top.”

“Well, that is not enough.”

“ Getting narrower and narrower down to the
bottom, and wrinkled all over, as if it were
covered with little blisters.”

“That is on the top, I suppose ?”

“Of course ; for it is whiter and velvety under-
neath, and all the veins standing up.”

“Not a very clever picture after all; but
PRIMROSE. 31

- everybody knows a primrose and a daisy. The

roots are still untold, but we will not spoil a
_ plant by digging it up. There is a thickish,
short root-stock, and a lot of thready rootlets
running from it into the ground.”

“T don’t want to know if primroses are good
for the rickets, or sore throat, or mumps. I
should not like them any the better for that,”
said Cissy.

“Nor yet if I told you that if the leaves and
root are dried until very dry, and then powdered
fine, if sniffed at they will make you sneeze as
snuff would do?”

“No, uncle; I like to sniff them best when
they are all alive and sweet, and not snuff their
_ dry powder.”

“Don’t you like the cowslip, for that is a
kind of primrose ?”

“Oh yes; I like it well enough, but I don't
love it like the primrose. I wish there was

_ a fairy tale about primroses.”

— “T cannot tell you any fairy tale, but I can
_ tell you of something rather like it. I have read


32 PRIMROSE.

that many hundreds of years ago a youth named
Paralisos was to have been married to a damsel
called Melicerta; but the damsel died, and the
youth was so grieved that the gods changed her
dead body into a flower, and the flower was
afterwards called primrose.”

“That is something like a fairy tale, because
it never could have been true.”

“ And the damsel died unmarried, which it is

said primroses do.
‘Pale primroses
That die unmarried, ere they can behold

Bright Phcebus in his strength.’ ”
WILD HYACINTH.*

q ISSY, dear, the bells are ringing !”
“ What bells, uncle ?”

“The bluebells, child.”

“Why, I can’t hear them.”

“No, Cissy, you are not a fairy, and only
fairies can hear the bluebells ring.”

“Then why should you ask me, or tease me
about them, if I can’t hear them ?”

“ But you can see them, if you go with me.

‘Come, my child, come out to play,

29

For the sun shines bright to-day.

“T ghall run and tell mamma, and then I
will

‘Come with a good will, or come not at all.”

Uncle and niece were soon on their way, this

* Scilla nutans.
(498) 3
34 WILD HYACINTH.

bright spring day, to a near copse, where the
English bluebell was blooming in plenty.

“Here they are by hundreds, and oh, so
beautiful! But where are the fairies?”

“Have you not heard, Cissy, that the fairies
were said to hide themselves in all bell-shaped
flowers ?”

“ Are these ‘bell-shaped flowers’ ?”

“Certainly. They are shaped like a little
hand-bell.”

“Oh yes; like the one mamma rings when
she wants Lotty. And are these the ‘bluebells
of Scotland’ ?”

“No, no! The bluebell of Scotland is the
harebell, and not the hyacinth, which is the
English bluebell.”

“ And is this the hyacinth? It isn’t like the
hyacinths that mamma grows in tall glasses.”

“No, Cissy, not exactly like them, for this is
the wild hyacinth.”

“What a funny name, uncle.”

“Truly a funny name; but I suppose it has
some meaning, if we only knew what it is. I


WILD HYACINTH. 35

once read a story in an old book which might
help us. In olden times, when many people
were pagans, and believed in gods and goddesses,
the sun was called Apollo, who was very fond
of a youth whose name was Hyacinthus, or,
as we should say, Hyacinth. One day, when
Apollo was playing at quoit with his pupil
Hyacinth, the jealous wind, which was also
supposed to be a god, blew the quoit on one
side, so that it struck Hyacinth upon the head,
and killed him.”

“Wasn't that spiteful? And had the wind a
name too?”

“Yes; the wind was called Zephyrus, so we
call a gentle wind ‘a zephyr ’.”

“Ts that all?”

“Oh dear no! The story goes on to say
that Apollo was so sorry for the death of his
pupil that he changed his blood into a flower,
which goes by the name of Hyacinth.”

“ That is not a true story, is it, uncle?”

“As I have told it to you, Cissy, it is a

pagan romance ; but it is true that the sun, or
36 WILD HYACINTH.

Apollo, bids the hyacinth and other flowers
spring from the earth when he shines upon
them.”

“ And is this the hyacinth of the romance ?”
inquired Cissy.

“Unfortunately not; for the wild hyacinth is
not, I suppose, a hyacinth at all, although it
looks very much like them.

‘The melancholy hyacinth, that weeps
All night, and never lifts an eye all day.’

“ Now, Cissy, take hold of one of the flower-
stalks; grasp it firmly, and pull it up.”

“What a long stem !”

“Yes; nearly the lower half was in the
ground, and half above it.”

‘And what at the bottom ?”

“We must dig down to find that out.”

“Oh, what a bunch—all come up together !”

“Let us separate them. These were at least
four inches beneath the surface, the lower end
of the plant almost like a young onion. This
we call the bulb.”


Nar,

WILD HYACINTH. 37

«“ And is what we call an onion a bulb?”
“Yes; the base of an onion plant is a bulb.”
“ And those little white threads in a bunch at

_. the bottom?”

“ Are the rootlets or roots.”

“Then the bulb is not the root?”

“No, Cissy ; the bulb is an underground bud,
and not aroot. The fibres are the root.”

“Then what’s the use of the bulb, uncle?”

«“ Ah, now we must come back to the onion
to help us. You know the onions that your
mamma uses in the kitchen 2?”

“Yes, uncle; the bulbs dried, and all the

green tops and all the little roots pulled off.”

‘‘ Precisely—the dried bulbs ; and in that state
they rest all through the winter, so that they

+ seem to be dead.” -

“ But they are not dead. I have seen them
sprouting sometimes, with a green sprout longer
than my finger.”

_ “That is true; and if you were to plant the
dry onion bulbs in the ground, in early spring,

_ they would sprout and grow up into onion
38 WILD HYACINTH.

plants, with leaves, and flowers, and seeds. So
that, you see, the onion bulbs, and all such
bulbs, are really buds, which go to sleep, or rest,
through the winter, to awaken and grow into
plants in the spring.”

“ And would they rest if they were left in the
ground all the winter ?”

“Certainly they would; for no one digs up
the wild hyacinth bulbs: they remain in the
ground all the winter, and, as you see, all wake
up and grow in the spring.”

“‘ And crocuses, and snowdrops ?”

“Yes, and daffodils, and tulips. But we must
look at the plants we have taken up, and find
out what there is besides bulbs and roots.”

“ And leaves and flowers,” added Cissy.

“Leaves first, if you please.”

“Long leaves, so long, all the way from the
bulbs.”

“True; and without any stem, except the
flower-stem, which is quite distinct and separate
from the leaves.”

“And so, when I pulled up a flower-stem, it


WILD HYACINTH. 39

came up clean from the bulb. How white and
brittle it is at the bottom.”

“Because it has been hidden from the light,
and blanched, or ‘made white.’ The entire stem
is often more than twelve inches long.”

“And the pretty flowers at the top, all blue—
not all blue, for I see one cluster nearly white,
and there is another such a pretty pink; but
they are really nearly all blue.”

“«Pink bluebells’ and ‘white blackbirds’
sound rather funny, but both may be found.”

“Are any other blue flowers ever white or
pink ?”

“Yes; larkspurs in gardens are often white
and pink, mixed with blue. Lilac may be white
as well as blue, and so also violets. The hare-
bell is sometimes white ; and, indeed, most blue
flowers are apt to have a few white ones.”

“ Are they blanched for want of light?”

“No, dear; the change from blue to white in
the flowers is not caused by want of light, as
it is in the blanching of the green parts of
plants.”
40 WILD HYACINTH.

“Would flowers always have their proper
colour if grown in the dark ?”

“T don’t think they would have flowers at all
when grown in the dark?”

“What makes all the flower-stalks bend over
at the top as if they were nodding ?”

‘‘Oh, that is the common habit of the plant
They all do it, so that it has been called the
‘nodding bluebell.’”

“ And without a reason, uncle ?”
~ “Not without a reason, or a cause, Cissy ;
nothing is without a cause, whether we know it
or not. Do you not sec that all the little bells
hang down on one side of the stalk ?”

“Yes,”

“ And would you not think it enough to bend:
over the stalk to the side which carries the
weight of all the flowers?”

“Flow many are there? I shall count how
many flowers there are on a stem.”

“T should do so if I were you; but some
have more than others.”

“This one has ten, another has sixteen, and
WILD HYACINTH. 4)

_ the very long one has twenty-five. There are

- many of them with ten or twelve, so I suppose



a that is the most usual number.”

“Yes; and every one hangs and swings upon
a tiny thin stalk, so that it can wave about as
_ if it were ringing.”

“With a clapper inside. How funny !”

“Not a wagging clapper, Cissy, but a fixed
one. We shall find a better name for it by-
and-by.” :

“ How sticky my fingers are! and the stalks
are sticky !”

“The bulb and the stem are filled with a
sticky juice, but most in the bulb, and it rises
from the bulb into the lower part of the stem.”

“What's the use of it ?”

“T do not know that I can explain its use
fully ; but it is most plentiful at flowering time,

and very likely it helps the plant to flower.
All plants use a great deal of moisture at flower-
_ ing time.”
“Where does it come from ?”

“Do you know what starch is?”
49 _ WILD HYACINTH.

“Of course I do. It is the white stuff that
mamma mixes up like paste to stiffen papa’s
collars.”

“Right; and this starch is to be found in
almost all plants, even in the bulbs of the wild
hyacinth.”

“Can we see it ?”

“No, we cannot see it now, or at any time,
in the bulbs, because the tiny grains are so very
small; and sometimes they are dissolved into
a gummy, sticky substance, very like melted
sugar.”

“ And some of it is sticking to my fingers.”

“Perhaps ; because when plants are coming
into flower, the starch is changed into a sticky
stuff, and, after that, what is left behind is
changed back into starch again, and stored up
in the bulb.”

“Then can we see it?”

“Indeed we can, in one way, by grating the
bulbs into a basin of water, when the little
grains of starch are set free, and fall to the bot-
tom, whilst the other parts float, and can be
WILD HYACINTH. 43



5 poured off. The little film of white grains which
lie on the bottom of the basin is the starch.”
- “And could mamma make the starch paste
F of it?”
“Oh dear, yes; just the same as any other
starch. When the water is all drained off, and
the starch is dried, it is a soft white powder,
and can be used for starching linen.”
“Tsn’t it a pity that the flowers do not smell
so sweet as the real hyacinth, or the violet?”
“T don’t know, my dear. We like the smell
of the sweet violet and the rose, but there may
be beauty without scent ; and I think that these
things are more wisely ordered for us, and for
them, than they would have been if you or I
had done it. Did you never read that verse :—
‘To comfort man—to whisper hope,
Whene’er his faith is dim ;
For Who so careth for the flowers,
Will much more care for him!’
Perhaps, if we had done it, we should have
_ wanted all the flowers to blossom at once.”
“And so made a mess of it. This little
44, WILD HYACINTH.

flower, it is said, usually blooms, one year with
another, about Saint George’s Day.”

“ And what day is that ?”

“The twenty-third of April; and it is written
in an old play that blue coats were worn by
people of fashion on Saint George’s Day.”

“Now, dear, we must examine the flowers
themselves, or the ‘corolla’ as it is called; and
we have already seen that it is bell-shaped, of
six petals joined to each other for a long way, so
as to seem all in one piece, with the six ends
projecting like teeth around the edge.”

“How shall we see the inside
properly ?”

“ By cutting it down through
the middle from the bottom to
the top. Then we see one little
‘clapper’ standing up in the cen-

iat ciety Ue) which is the pistil or female ;
Wup Hyacwtu. and if we examine both the
halves we can count six stamens. Three of
them are long and three are short. Those oval
bodies on the top are called anthers, but the




WILD HYACINTH. 45

threads which support them are grown to the
inner side of the corolla for a long way up.”

“And they stand round the pistil in a circle.”

S Might we not say two circles, of three in
_ each ?—a circle of short stamens, and a circle
of long stamens, and the pistil in the centre,
like a tiny column swollen at the base. Look
_ closely at this swelling at the bottom, where we
cut it through.”

“What a cluster of little round things, just
like tiny pin-heads! What are they?”

“Those are the ovules now, but when they
_ are fully grown and ripe they will be called seeds.”

“Ovules when young, seeds when old.”

“Quite right; and the lower part of the
pistil, in which you see the ovules growing, is
the ovary. The column on the top is the style.”

“ How long will they be in growing ?”

“Oh, a very little time after the corolla falls
off; for in a week or two they will become large
green knobs, as large as a pea; and in the
autumn, or late in the summer, dry capsules,

_ with the ripe seeds inside.”
46 WILD HYACINTH.

Until they reached home, the time was taken
up by comparing the “wild hyacinth” with
primroses, and observing how they differed from
each other. How the leaves of the primroses
had branched veins, and those of the hyacinth
veins which ran along the leaf side by side.
How the parts or petals of the corolla were five
in the primrose, and six (or twice three) in the
hyacinth. How the stamens were also five in
the former, and twice three in the latter. And
how the seeds of the primrose, when they grow,
produce at first two little seed leaves, whilst
those of the hyacinth have only one. From
this comparison it was learned that flowering
plants are of two kinds—those which have
two seed leaves (Dicotyledons), and those which
have but one (Monocotyledons) ; and that in the
former the leaves are net-veined, and in the
latter parallel-veined; whilst the parts of the
flower, such as the petals and stamens, are
usually five or twice five in the one, and three

or twice three in the other.
LILY OF THE VALLEY.*
q EE there, Cissy, actually ‘lily of the val-

ley’ in flower. I never saw it here
before—perhaps escaped from some garden.”
“Tsn’t it a wild flower?”
“Yes, it is a British wild flower, but only
found in woods, here and there. It is common

enough in gardens.

‘No flower amid the garden fairer grows

Than the sweet lily of the lowly vale,

2

The queen of flowers.

“Has it only one name? Wild flowers often
have two or three names.”

“And so has this one, for it is ‘May flower’
and ‘ May lilies,’ because it comes in May.”

“Tt is lovely, and smells so sweet. Isn’t it
something like ‘cherry blossom’ ?”

* Convallaria majalis.
48 LILY OF THE VALLEY.

“ Possibly ; two people seldom agree as to
what any scent is like. Some think it is like
one thing, and some think it is like another;
perhaps noses are not all alike.”

“ And yet everybody likes it.”



Fic. 6.—Lity or THE VALLEY.

“T am told that in Hanover large parties go
into the forests on Whit Monday to gather
these May flowers.”

“That is Bank Holiday.”
LILY OF THE VALLEY. 49

“Bank holidays are unknown in Hanover ;
but there are holidays, and this is one.”

“And is it really a lily? It is so different
from the great white lily which grows in gar-
dens.”

“Yes, it is a lily in the same way that the
wild hyacinth is a lily, or the asparagus plant,
or the onion. They all belong to the lily family,
and in that sense they are lilies. In no other
sense are they lilies.”

“How it spreads over the ground in large
patches.”

“The roots are like runners, creeping under
the surface, and running for a long distance, so
that it would be difficult to root it out.”

“ And all the leaves come up from the roots
without any proper stem.”

“ Delicate pale green leaves too, with a smooth
edge.”

“T should think they are almost lance-shaped
—hbroadest in the middle and narrowed to each
end.”

“Narrowed most at the bottom, so as to have
(498) 4
50 LILY OF THE VALLEY.

a leaf-stalk not quite so long as the leaf, with
the bottom part in the ground.”

“‘ And smooth everywhere.”

“T wish you to look at the veins of the leaf,
for in many leaves of common plants there is a

mid-rib, which runs down the middle of the leaf, |

with short branches on each side, and these
branch again and again, so as to cover the leaf
like a network ; but in this lily the veins run in
lines, side by side, along the whole length of
the leaf.”

“Oh, yes; almost as they do in a grass leaf.”

“You will see the same kind of veins in a
tulip leaf, and in the wild garlic, and in the
leaves of most of the bulb-rooted plants.”

“So that there are net-veined leaves and
straight-veined leaves.”

“T fancy you will find out, by-and-by, that
plants which: have straight-veined leaves have
the flowers with three or six leaves, and the
stamens are either three or six in the middle of
the flowers. Just look at these flowers of the
lily of the valley.”


LILY OF THE VALLEY. 51

“ The flower-stalk comes up from the roots.”

“And bends over at the top in a curve, so
that the flowers seem to droop from one side.”

“ As they do in the wild hyacinth.”

“And every one of them with a short flower-
stalk or foot-stalk, with a very narrow and very
small pointed leaf on the main stalk, just where

the foot-stalk of the flower joins the stem.”



Fic. 7.--Liny or THE VALLEY.

1, Root; b, Inflorescence; 2, Section of Flower; 8, Capsules; 4, Section of Ovary.

“See! there are eight flowers on this stalk,
and ten flowers on this, and nine on this.”

‘So that there are from eight to ten flowers
on each flower-stalk; and at first, before they
are open, each flower-bud is round like a berry,

with about six little furrows.”
52 LILY OF THE VALLEY.

“And the flowers go nid-nid-nodding with
the wind blowing them.”
“ Just as they are said to do in the lines—

‘The lily of the vale, whose virgin flower

Trembles at every breeze, beneath its leafy bower.’ ”

“Why is it called ‘ virgin flower,’ uncle ?”
‘« Because the flowers are of such a pure white-
ness, virgin white, or pure white.”
‘“¢ And, when open, they hang like round silver
bells.”
“Each flower has six teeth on the open edge,
a little bent back, and six shallow
grooves down the sides; and now.
(ip) you must look inside.”
“One, two, three, four, five, six
stamens.”
Fic. 8.—Src-
movorFrower. ‘“ Around the centre column. But
do you notice that none of the flowers have on
their outside the usual green flower-cup ?”
“T had forgotten that.” —
“ This is the way it is explained. Each flower
is formed of six pieces, grown together at the
sides, and the teeth at the edge of the flower




LILY OF THE VALLEY. 53

are the ends of the flower-leaves. Of these six
leaves, if they were not grown together, three
of them would belong to the flower-cup and the
other three to the proper flower.”

“ And yet all of them white?”

“Yes; for if we were to look at a tulip in the
garden when we are back home again, we shall
see that the tulip has no green flower-cup, but
six separate flower-leaves, all of one colour.
Three of these are outside, and belong to the
flower-cup, and three are inside, and belong to
the proper flower, called a perianth.”

“But if we do not find a tulip in flower, what
shall we do then ?”

“Take a single snowdrop instead, and that
will teach us the same lesson. I recollect a
Scotch verse about the lily, which is perhaps

too hard for you to remember—

‘Sweet flower o’ the valley, wi’ blossoms of snow,
And green leaves that turn the cauld blast frae
their stems,
Bright emblem o’ innocence, thy beauties I lo’e
Aboon the king’s coronet circled wi’ gems.”
WOOD-SORREL.*

T was a cool March morning when Cissy
and her uncle wandered into a small wood

to hunt for a plant about which they had been
talking. Saint Patrick’s Day was coming, and
no one thinks of that day without thinking also
of the shamrock, and they went to seek the
wood-sorrel, which some call shamrock. As
they walked they talked, and this time it was
of the patron saint of Ireland, and the story of
the shamrock.

“Now, Cissy, you must hunt amongst the
wood-sorrel, and see if you can find any flowers.”

“There’s a large patch of it, looking very
much as if it were clover.”

“More delicate than clover, and only like it
in the trefoil leaves.”

* Oxalis acetosella.


WOOD-SORREL. 55

“T know the roots, running just under the
ground like little strings of fine twine.”

“Some of the kinds of wood-sorrel are very
hard to root out of a garden when once they are
in it. The roots run a long way, and spread
the plant very fast; we should rather call them
‘runners,’ or underground shoots.”

“The leaves grow from the runners in little
tufts.”

“The leaves have long, thin foot-stalks, and
three leaflets, nearly heart-shaped, fixed at the
top of the stem by the narrow end, and
notched at the outer edge, like trefoil or white
clover.”

“And the stalks are velvety, but thin and
nodding.”

“Tf you look at the young leaves, you will see
that the three lobes are bent backwards to the
stem.”

« And so are the old leaves sometimes.”

“When the leaves are bent in this way, it is
the top side of the leaves that is turned out-
wards; but in the white clover leaves the upper
56 WOOD-SORREL.

sides turn inwards, and the under sides are left
naked.”

“Then the leaves of the wood-sorrel and those
of the white clover close up in quite a different
way.”

“Yes; the wood-sorrel hides the under side,
and the white clover hides the upper side.”

“ What makes them close up and go to sleep or



Fic. 9.—LEAVES OF WooD-SORREL.

“Perhaps if I tell you how it takes place you
will be able to guess. In the wood-sorrel, during
the daytime the leaves are quite open and flat.
In theevening each one of the three leaflets or
lobes gradually falls, and keeps on falling till the
under side of the leaves nearly touches the leaf-
stalk, and so they rest through the night.”

“Then they go to sleep for the night.”


WOOD-SORREL. 57

“« After half-past five in the evening they
droop and fall quickly, and by seven o'clock are
bent quite down to the foot-stalk, and remain
so all night. In the morning, about a quarter
to seven, they begin to rise again, and keep rising
till they are quite flat; this motion takes about
an hour. During the day they move a little up
and down according to the weather.”

“ But do they move during the night?”

“T think not. Between seven o'clock in the
evening and nearly seven in the morning they
seem to be quite at rest.”

“Then it is just like going to sleep?”

“Tt is sometimes called ‘sleep,’ but I suppose
it is done for some purpose ; because if the leaves
were flat the dew would settle upon them, and
that would make them colder; but if bent
downwards they keep drier, and so they are
warmer.”

“ And they know when it is time to go to
sleep?”

“They seem to know also the time to wake.
Little boys and girls are seldom so ready to go
58 WOOD-SORREL.

to bed, and some of them are not so ready to
get up.”

“ And do any other plants shut up like the
wood-sorrel and white clover ?”

“Qh dear, yes. A great many of them move
a little, but not so much. Some droop their
leaves, and some close their flowers, and some
even droop or close their leaves in the daytime
when they are touched.”

“Indeed I know how the daisy closes up
sometimes, so you cannot see the inside of the
flower.”

“ Flowers could teach us a great many things
we do not know, if we would listen to them.”

“Here are some wood-sorrel flowers at last.
What dear little flowers !”

“You see that they grow singly at the top
of short foot-stalks, coming up from the roots,
almost hidden amongst the leaves.”

“Flowers with five leaves this time.”

“Five small spreading flower-leaves, and five
green cup-leaves on the outside. You will
notice that all the flower-leaves are a little


WOOD-SORREL. 59

grown together at the bottom, and so are the
cup-leaves.”

“The flowers are a little pink on the outside
and white on the inside, with pretty lilac mark-
| ings like little veins. Some of them are quite —
closed.”

“They will soon open when the sun shines
upon them, and then you will see the ten
threads or stamens in the middle, five of them
longer than the other five. All fives, Cissy—
five cup-leaves, five flower-leaves, five long
stamens and five short ones, and five little
points on the column in the centre.”

“And do they make seeds?”

“When the flowers fall away you will find a
little capsule of five parts joined together, with
the seeds inside.”

“T shall look for them again when the flowers
are all dead and the little seeds are ripe. And
that is all the wood-sorrel can teach us?”

“No, no; by no means. You have not
noticed a pair of very little leaves growing half-
way up the flower-stalks.”
60 WOOD-SORREL.

“Yes, I did see them, and wondered what |
they were.”

“They are little leaves, and so small and so
different from the others that they are not
called leaves, but bracts. You will often find
that the pair of leaves next to a flower are
different in size and shape from the rest, and
these are bracts.”

“T wish there were not so many strange
words about flowers, but I suppose we must
learn them.”

“T think you must, or you will never under-
stand what you read about flowers, because you
must know one part from another. But you
have not tasted the leaves yet.”

“Are they nasty, like the ‘lords and ladies’?”

“ Don’t be afraid of them. There is nothing
you will dislike.”

“They are quite sour, but I like them. I
shall eat some more. Does any one eat
them ?”

“ Sometimes the leaves are gathered and put
in salads, with lettuce and onions. One of its
WOOD-SORREL. 61

' names is ‘sour clover, and another is ‘gowk’s

- clover.’ Sheep are said to be fond of it.”

“ Has it any other names ?”

“Tn France it is called ‘cuckoo’s bread,’ or
‘cuckoo’s meat,’ and I suppose one of its oldest
names in England is ‘alleluja.’”

“ And why alleluja?”

“‘ Because it comes about Easter, when ‘alle-
luja’ issung. But, strangest of all, some persons
believe it is the ‘shamrock,’ although others say
that the true shamrock is clover.”

“And what is the story of the shamrock ?”
“A long time ago a Welshman was made a
bishop, and his name was changed to Patrick.
The Pope sent him to Ireland to convert the
Irish ; but he had a hard time of it, and the Irish
were ready to stone him because he preached of
the Trinity. Saint Patrick, as he is now called,
plucked a leaf from the ground with three leaf-
lets, and said, ‘Is it not as possible for the
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as for these three
leaves to grow upon a single stalk?’ and then
they believed him.”


62 WOOD-SORREL.

“And the plant was called the shamrock ?”

“Yes; and Irishmen wear the leaves in their
hats upon St. Patrick’s Day.”

“The wood-sorrel leaves ?”

“No; the Irishmen wear clover leaves. But
many persons believe that the true shamrock is
wood-sorrel—

‘Chosen leaf of bard and chief,
Old Erin’s native shamrock.’

In olden times they say that it was the sorrel
leaf, and more lately the white clover, which was
called the shamrock.”

“ And both leaves are very much alike.”

“ With three leaflets on one stalk. There is
a belief that whoever shall find a four-leaved
shamrock will have the power to do many
wonderful things.”

“And do you think that any one has ever
found a clover leaf, or a wood-sorrel leaf, with
four leaflets instead of three ?”

“Tt is very probable that such a thing may

have happened, but it is not a common event.






WOOD-SORREL. 63

I do not think it at all impossible. I remember
to have once seen a clover leaf with four leaflets,
but one was smaller than the rest. The Irish
believe that a four-leaved shamrock is a charm

against witches; and an old song says,—

‘Tl seek the four-leaved shamrock,
In all the fairy dell ;

And if I find those charméd leaves,
Oh, then, I'll weave my spell.

For I would play the enchanter’s part,
And scatter bliss around,

Till not a pain, or aching heart,
Should in the world be found,’ ”
WOOD-SPURGE.*

i HAT pale-green plant, Cissy, about half

a yard high, is the wood-spurge, and
we’ shall want the whole plant and a little
patience to understand it, for it is a very curious
plant, with very small flowers, so you had better
pluck it up by the roots.”

“ Here it is; but what is the matter with it?
See here, uncle, wherever it is broken, or a leaf
pulled off, it bleeds a white blood, just like milk.”

“So you have found out the first secret
already, that every part of the living wood-
spurge is filled with a white juice, which looks
like milk.”

“And see how it runs out and drops, as if it
were blood running out of a wound, and it makes
my fingers dirty and sticky.”

* Euphorbia amygdaloides.



WOOD-SPURGE. 65

“You must not put them in your mouth until
you have washed them, for this juice is strong
and unpleasant, and might sting your tongue.”

“Tt spurts out everywhere, the plant is full
of it. Are there any other milk plants?”



Fic. 10.—INDIA-RUBBER TREE.

“Yes, there are several spurges found in this
country which have a milky juice; but in foreign
countries there are many more, and some of

them grow to very large trees.”
(498) 5
66 WOOD-SPURGE.

“And are they still milky when they are
trees ?”

“Yes, Cissy; but they grow in very hot coun-
tries, and the natives bore holes in the trunk to
let the juice run out, and they catch it in bowls.”

“But what do they do with it? They can-
not drink it.”

“When the juice has run out it hardens and
turns darker coloured, until it is almost like
leather, and then it is called caoutchouc, or india-
rubber.”

“To rub out pencil marks ?”

“And make goloshes and waterproof coats,
and a great many other useful articles.”

“Ts india-rubber always a milky juice when
it runs out of the tree?”

“Yes, always; and it soon becomes sticky, as _
this juice was upon your fingers, and after that
it becomes hard and tough.”

“But the milk of the wood-spurge is not
india-rubber, is it?”

“Not exactly, but something like it when it
dries. The ‘rubber’ of some trees and of some








TuE ‘‘Cow TREE.”





WOOD-SPURGE. 69

countries is much better than others, and some
milk does not become ‘rubber’ at all, or not
such ‘rubber’ as could be made use of. There
is a large tree which grows in South America,
and is called the ‘cow tree.’ It gives a great
deal of milk, which is sweet and pleasant. The
natives drink it, and soak their bread and cakes
in it; but white people find it cling about their
mouths so much, because it is sticky, that they
are not so fond of it.”

“ And it does them no harm ?”

“Certainly not; it is very much like cow’s
milk. But I must tell you of another tree
which yields milk, and in this case the milk is
so poisonous that the natives poison their arrows
by dipping them in the milk. These arrows
will kill any man or animal that is pricked with
them.”

“The milk of some trees is sweet and pleasant,
of others it is poisonous, and of others it becomes
india-rubber.”

“Just so; and of some it is stinging to the

taste and very unpleasant, as in the spurges,
70 WOOD-SPURGE.

and in some of these it dries into a kind of gum,
which is used for medicine. So you see that
this milky juice, which is found in some plants,
is a very curious substance.”

“ And is the milk of the wood-spurge used for
anything ?”

“Country children when they have warts on
their hands rub them with the milk of the
spurge, which, it is said, eats them away.”

“Now, uncle, we must see to this plant, which
you say 1s so curious in other ways.”

“You will notice that the stem and branches
are round and of a reddish colour, and if you
pinch them you will find them quite hard and
frm. Then the top of the stem has five
branches, which are all together on the same
level, called an wmbel, because they are like
those rods which open out an umbrella or parasol.
You must remember what an umbel is, because
we shall find it again in the wild angelica, and
many common wild flowers. The branches start
from the same level, and reach to nearly the
same level.”
WOOD-SPURGE. 71

“TJ ghall think of it when I open an umbrella.”

“The leaves on the stem are narrow-oblong,
and crowded together about the middle of the
stem; but they are shorter above, and further
apart. These are the true leaves, but there are
others of a different form on the umbel.”

“Some of the five branches of the umbel are
divided.”

“Yes, they are forked; but you must not
think that the number five is wanted to make
an umbel, for in some plants there might be as
many as twenty rays or branches in an umbel.
Now for the floral leaves on the umbels, these
are in pairs, which are connate, or united, so as
to look like one round leaf, with the stalk pass-
ing through it. In the middle of these floral
leaves, or bracts, you will see the little flowers,
which are also very curious, and we must look
at them through a pocket-glass, because they are
So small.”

“They are strange-looking greenish flowers.
What is that green cup outside, with half moons
around the edge of it?”
72 WOOD-SPURGE.

“That looks like a corolla, but it is called an
involucre, a name you will have to recollect. It
might be a corolla, or perianth, if it was only
one flower; but in this case it is a cup which
holds several flowers, as you will see presently,
and so it is called an involucre. Its meaning is
‘a wrapper, and nearly the same as ‘ envelope.’

Those half-moon shapes on the edge are yel-

lowish glands.”

“Ornaments for the edge of
the cup.”
“Hush, Cissy! don’t forget

that it is an wnvolucre, although



it is shaped like a cup; and
ee between the glands are small
SpurcE. teeth.”

“And there are four or five moon-shaped
glands.”

“The flowers within the involucre look as if
they were only stamens, with an ovary or a pistil
in the middle; but I must show you why they
are not. Let us look at the female flower first

—that is the one in the centre. It is an ovary
WOOD-SPURGE. 73

standing upon a stalk. Around it are several
erect little bodies very much like stamens; but
if you pull away one or two of them very care-
fully, you will see that there is a joint at the
middle of the filament, and a minute scale at the
base. This little scale at the bottom of the fila-
ment is all the perianth the flower can boast; but
they are imperfect male flowers, and not stamens.”

“Then the male flowers would be stamens if
there were no little scale at the bottom of the
filaments, and the female flower would only be
a stalked ovary if the male flowers were only
stamens. Is that what I am to learn?”

“Yes, Cissy, that explains the difference ; but
after all it is not a very big one to make a fuss
about.”

“T think it is very much like ‘great cry and
little wool ;’ but I suppose we must mind what
the books say. I don’t see that I should be so
very wrong if I were to call them, what they
look like, stamens, and not male flowers. It
seems so stupid to call the little things flowers.

T can hardly see them at all.”
74 WOOD-SPURGE.

“You have learned at least that the spurge
family is a very singular one; and if ever you
should go to a botanic garden, such as Kew
Gardens, you must look for some of the very
strange forms that grow
in foreign lands, and
they will surprise you.

“There are some very
curious foreign plants
which are very juicy and
thick, many of them
armed with sharp spines,
but without any leaves.
One kind is called Cactus,
and they have often



splendid flowers; but




on JF oN AOE

al Pee see

another kind, very much
like them, are spurges,

Fic. 13.—Arnican Evruorsia. or Huphorbia, which have
only small flowers. They are not like the
English spurges in appearance, but so nearly
like cactus as to seem as if they imitated them.”
WILD ANGELICA.*

a HE plant we are looking for to-day is a

large one, and one of the members of
a very large family. The family likeness is seen
most strongly in the arrangement of the flower-
heads, those clusters of flowers called the in-
Jlorescence. In this case an almost countless
number of flowers are found in each cluster, and
they are grouped upon an wmbel. I have told
you already that an umbel is a number of flower-
stalks, which start from the same level and
reach to the same height, and are something
like the thin rods which hold up the ribs of an
umbrella when it is opened. The top of an
umbel is often nearly flat, and when you look
down upon it you only see a large round flat
cluster of small whitish or yellow flowers closely

* Angelica sylvestris.
76 WILD ANGELICA.

packed together. The carrot, parsnip, parsley,
celery, all of them garden vegetables, have their
flowers in umbels. Yonder stands an angelica
plant as tall as yourself, so that you can soon

see what an umbel is like.”



Fic. 14.—UMBELLIFEROUS PLANT.

“T have often seen flowers growing in that
way, and didn’t know what to call them.”

“We will not pluck this one and carry it
away, but will sit down beside it. And take my
word for it that, in most cases, the root goes
straight down for a long way, growing thinner
WILD ANGELICA. 77

and thinner, until it ends in a point, like the
root of a carrot or a parsnip; but in the wild
plants they are not so thick as in garden plants,
and are more woody and tough. We may call
it a tap-root.”

“Then a carrot or a parsnip is a tap-root, or,
I suppose, a tapering root.”

“And now for the stem, which is upright,
straight, and thick. If you cut it across any-
where, you will find it hollow, like a tube or
pipe, with ridges and furrows on the outside,
and a branch here and there, carrying a smaller
umbel at the top.”

“Tt is very light for such a large plant, and,
I suppose, that is because the stem and branches
are hollow.”

“The leaves, Cissy, will be a puzzle for you
to name, except that they are compound; for
nearly all the umbel-bearing plants have com,
pound leaves, and these are not so compound as
many of them. You will remember that com-
pound means that they are not simple leaves,

but composed of a number of leaflets.”
78 WILD ANGELICA.

“T know there are a great many different
kinds of compound leaves, and these are very
large.”

“Tf you find one of the largest and most
perfect of the leaves, there is, first of all, the
principal leaf-stalk in the middle, with a com-
pound leaflet at the top, and two pairs of com-
pound leaflets below. Each compound leaflet
has a simple leaflet at the end, and two pairs of
leaflets below; but the lowest pair are sometimes
divided again, so that each leaf is twice or three
times divided.”

“That is a puzzle. I should scarcely know
how to write it down, except as a double com-
pound leaf.”

“The simple leaflets are not so difficult, as
they are rather a long oval, pointed at the top,
but with the edges sharply toothed all round,
like the teeth of a saw. , For this reason they
are said to be serrate—that is to say, they are
toothed like a saw.”

“ But what a funny pouch at the bottom of
the leaf-stalk !”
WILD ANGELICA. 79

“Yes, I thought you would see that; and
many of the plants in this family are made in
that way. The leaf-stalk is very much widened
at the bottom, and the edges are clasped around
the stem, like a stocking or a boot, so that there
is a large hollow in the axil of the leaf. You
recollect what an axil is?”

“The arm-pit, where the leaf-stalk joins the
stem.”

“Tn some plants, instead of the bottom of the
foot-stalk being widened and clasping the stem
in this way, there is a very small leaflet on each
side, just by the stem, and these are called
stipules. You may find them on the haw-
thorn.”

“ And now we come to the inflorescence.”

“That is right, Cissy. I am glad that you
remember inflorescence as the name for the
whole arrangement of the flowers. In this case
we find not only an umbel, but a compound
umbel. The flower-stalks rise all from one
level; and just where they join the stem you
will see three or four little narrow leaflets, called
80 WILD ANGELICA.

bracts, for they are floral leaves, and not true
leaflets.”

“T see them, but they are very tiny.”

“Each one of the rays of the umbel, or, as
you would say, each one of the flower-stalks in
the umbel, has a little umbel at the top of it,
with its little rays, or flower-stalks, and the
little bracts at the bottom. Every umbel is
made up of a lot of smaller ones, and so it is
called a compound umbel. And every little
umbel carries a great number of small whitish
flowers.”

“And some of them just a little pink.”

«Sharp eyes, Cissy, for the flowers.”

“T cannot quite see the calyx, but I suppose
it is there, but so very small. And there are five
petals, not touching each other, leaving a round
green spot in the middle, with two tiny horns;
that will be the top of the ovary.”

“Call it the disk, which is the top of the
ovary; and the two horns are the two styles,
with the five stamens standing around. So you
see, that although the flowers are very small,
WILD ANGELICA. 81

they are as perfect as are flowers twenty times
as large.”

“T think I should like to see the fruits; are
they berries ?”

“Oh dear, no! They are little dry fruits,
almost like the seeds of some other plants. You
will find them in plenty late in the autumn, for
they remain a long time on the umbels.”

“Could you show me what they are like?”

“T will tell you all I can about them. They
are nearly as large as your finger-nail, flattened,
and of a roundish outline. The fruit consists of
two halves joined together ; and in this case the
halving is through the thin direction, so that
the two halves are of the same (7 e
size and shape, with the flat
backs joined together. Each
half has a thin edge which is
called a wing, and the outside
surface has three ridges run- Fic. 15.—Frurr axp

: Cross-SECTION OF
ning from top to bottom. Fruit,
When the halves split apart, people are apt to

call them seeds, although only the inner portion
(498) 6
82 WILD ANGELICA.

is a seed. When you cut through one of the
fruits with a sharp knife, across in the middle,
you will see the wings, and the ridges, and the
oval seed which lies in the centre.”

“Tt is not quite easy to understand what
they are like without seeing them, but we shall
be able to get them in the autumn. Are
all the fruits in this family something like
them?”

“Well, they are all similar, because they are
double, and often winged and flattened; but
they are very variable in shape. You should
look at the carraway seeds which are used in
making seed-cake, and the seeds, as they are
called, of coriander sold by chemists, and the
seeds of carrot and parsley, if you can get them ;
then you will see how they are alike, and how
much they differ.”

“ And is this angelica of any use?”

“Not that I am aware of. But the true
angelica, which is much like it, is grown in
gardens, and the green stalks are candied with
sugar and sold as ‘candied angelica.’ Some


WILD ANGELICA. 83

people are very fond of it, but the taste is rather
peculiar.”

Thus ended our “chat” on one plant of the
largest families of plants, in which the flowers
are very small, and grow on umbels of short
branches. They are all herbs, and mostly with
hollow stems; but many of them are of great
service to the human race. The roots of the
carrot and parsnip, the leaves of parsley and
fennel, and the leaf-stalks of celery are culti-
vated as vegetables; the fruits of ‘carraway,
cumin, coriander, anise, and dill as condiments;
and some parts of many others are used in
medicine. Some species or other is nearly cer-
tain to be found during a country walk.

It would be very useful to compare the wild
carrot with the angelica, as it belongs to the
same family, and the woodcuts will help to make
this task an easy one. We have first of all the
inflorescence, which is a compound umbel, 4,
(Fig. 16), with very deeply cut compound leaves,
and very distinct toothed bracts close beneath the

umbel. Then one of the flowers is much enlarged
84 WILD ANGELICA.

in figure B, with a section cut through it at o.
The figure p shows the fruit, and p’ a section cut
down from the top to the bottom, and figure & is
a cross-section of the same. The wild carrot is



Fic. 16.—WILp Carrot.

A, Inflorescence ; B, Flower; C, Section ; D, Fruit, and D’, Section ; E, Transverse
Section of Fruit.

common enough on hedge-banks, and is easily
known by the outer rays of the umbel curling in-

wards, giving it the appearance of a bird’s nest.
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.*

| N their woodland ramble Cissy and her uncle
were not long in finding a damp spot, on
which was growing a common weed with yellow
flowers, which at first looked a little like a nettle,
but with no stinging hairs, called sometimes the
yellow dead-nettle, at others by the name of
yellow archangel, and less commonly as “ weasel
snout.” Country children know at once that it
is not a stinging nettle because of the yellow
flowers. Cissy had not forgotten the rule to
gather an entire plant, roots as well as stem, and
soon seated herself and laid it across her lap.
“My dear,” said her uncle, “I wish you to
listen to me this morning, and I will tell you
what I think you should look at, and try to
remember, about this yellow dead-nettle, because

* Lamium galeobdoton.
86 YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.

there are a great many wild flowers very much
like it in the shape of the blossom, which is a
very curious one; and you can ask me questions
about anything more you may wish to know.”
“That will be nice; you will give mea lesson.”
“Yes, Cissy, for this time I will lecture you.
Let us begin at the bottom. What you see
there are not simple roots, but long strings, as
we may call them, which run underground, and
are only just covered by the soil. Sometimes
they are called ‘runners, but ‘creeping roots’
will do just as well. If you look closely at them,
you will see, here and there, that buds grow at
the joints, and these, in due time, also become
plants, That will explain how it is that so many
of the plants of this family are found growing in
such large clumps, which go on getting bigger
and bigger as the creeping roots spread more and
more. Mint, which grows in the garden, the
musk-plant, which is grown in flower-pots, and
the ground-ivy in woods, are all first cousins ;
they are all alike in this respect. There are no

buds to be found on real roots.
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE. 87

“Now look at the stems. You will see at
once how different they are from most other
stems, because they are not round, like the stem
of the buttercup or the mallow, but nearly
square, with four corners or angles. Whether
they are hairy or smooth is not of so much
consequence. If you pass your fingers up and
down the stems, you will feel that they are
thicker in places, not far apart, where the leaves
grow. These are the joints, or nodes, and of
course you can see as well as feel them. All
the leaves and branches grow out from one or
other of these nodes, or joints. In most cases I
should say that the stems are about a foot long.

“The leaves are stalked, but the foot-stalks
are never very long, and they are arranged upon
the stems in a manner which is called decussate,
and may be thus explained. They are in pairs,
opposite to each other, on opposite sides of the
Square stems; but two following pairs are not
directly over, or under, each other, for one pair
are on the two opposite sides, and the next pair
on the intermediate two sides, so that the first
88 YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.

and third pair, and the second and fourth pair,
are over each other, and so on throughout.
Thus, one pair will project north and south, the
next pair east and west, the next pair north and
south again, and the next pair again east and
west. Such a method is common with the leaves
of plants having square stems.

“‘ And now for the leaves themselves. In this
case they are narrowly ovate, and rather wrinkled,
the edges coarsely toothed like a saw, or serrate.
When crushed, the whole plant has an odour
which is thought to resemble that of the weasel,
and gives it the name of weasel snout.

“The flowers grow in the axils of the leaves,
in circles, or whorls, round the stem; of course,
several in each whorl. I have told you before
that sometimes the leaves, and sometimes the
flowers, are in circles, or whorls, all being on the
same level in each whorl. The calyx, or cup, is
cup-shaped, with sive pointed teeth at the edge,
and ribbed on the outside. Within the cup
stands the two-lipped or bilabiate corolla. In
this species the two lips are broadly gaping, or
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE. 89

ringent, and the lower part of the corolla forms
a tube. The upper lip is arched and hood-like ;
the lower lip is spreading, with the middle lobe
broadest, the two side lobes being rather nar-
rower. The whole corolla is of a bright and
pleasant yellow blotched with red.

“ And now we must see what is to be found
within the corolla. Of course, there are the
stamens, of which there are four, in two pairs.
The mint family is a:large one, and this, as well
as the snapdragon family, has only four stamens,
which are often in pairs. In one or two kinds
there are only two stamens. When so many of
our wild flowers have five stamens, it is well to
recollect those which have but four, especially
when the other parts of the flower are five, such
as five teeth to the calyx and five lobes to the
corolla. The ovary is small but four-parted,
and contains four ovules, which become, when
ripe, four seeds. You see now that you should
never forget to count the stamens when you
pluck a flower in pieces, especially if it is one

you have not seen before.
90 YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.

“This plant is not noted for any great virtues,
and is not used in medicine, except by herb
doctors ; but there are many useful herbs in the
family to which it belongs. I have called it the
mint family already, and you will at once think



Fid. 17.-—Mint.

of the mints of the gardens as having a strong
family likeness. The common mint reminds you
of ‘mint sauce,’ and the peppermint of strong-
flavoured sweets or of a useful family medicine.

These, and many others, have a strong scent,
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE. 91

such as thyme, marjoram, and lavender ; and this
scent abounds in the leaves, where it is stored
up in little cells, or glands. The scent is what

is termed a volatile oil; it is not a greasy oil or



Fig. 18.—PEPPERMINT.

fat oil, like olive oil, but volatile, or one which
flies off, or evaporates easily. A great many

perfumes are made from volatile oils, such as
92 YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.

otto of roses and rose-water. Many plants store

up in little cells, or glands, their own particular
)
a)

'
(. SY i)

SAN
MWS py



Fic. 19.—Tuyme,

volatile cil; and when the leaf is broken or
bruised, some of these little glands are broken,
YELLOW DEAD-NETTLE.

and the volatile oil, or scent, @ bs

escapes. ‘There are a great many
of the mint family which are very
useful because of the volatile oil
they contain. There is sage, and
savory, and basil, as well as those
I have already named, and the
wood-sage is as bitter as hops, and
horehound is even more bitter, so
that the mint family is noted for
the volatile oil which so many of
the species contain. Remember
that most of them have square
stems, opposite leaves, bilabiate or
two-lipped flowers, and either two

or four stamens, but usually four “

in two pairs.”

‘“T suppose that none of them
are hurtful or poisonous ?”

“T know of none, and should
scarcely think it probable. Some of
the foreign species are very showy
garden flowers.”



















Fic. 20,—LAvVENDER.
BITTER-SWEET.*

ee NE of the most straggling of climbing

plants is the bitter-sweet, which is com-
mon enough in hedges and in little wood copses.
It is a very bad climber, for it has no tendrils, and
does not make use of its leaves for the purpose,
but only scrambles amongst other plants, and
supports its slender stems as best it may. Some-
times it has been called the “ deadly nightshade,”
but that is a different plant, with bell-shaped
flowers, and is very poisonous. The woody
nightshade, or bitter-sweet, has flowers very
much like those of the potato, but smaller and
darker. The stems are more woody and the plant
more like a shrub than the little black night-
shade, which grows as a weed in all gardens.
When scrambling in hedges, it seems to imitate
the honeysuckle in manner of growth; but it

* Solanum dulcamara.
BITTER-SWEET. 95

cannot support itself in the same way, for it is
unable to twine itself around sticks and twigs,
and has no twirling motion. In other places I
have spoken already of families of plants, and
this one belongs to the nightshade family, and
its members are all alike in some features, espe-
cially that in the wild state some part of the
plant is inclined to be poisonous, by being nar-
cotic, or causing sleep. Even the fruit of the po-
tato has some of this power, and so also have the
berries of the bitter-sweet, and especially the dark
berries of the deadly nightshade, and the whole
plant of henbane. When you learn what the
flowers are like, you will always remember that
flowers of that kind are a danger signal, and you
must be warned not to put them in your mouth,
and prevent other children doing so, or else they
may make you very ill.

“There are the flowers, Cissy, nearly out of
reach, in that thicket. See the straggling clus-
ters of little purple flowers drooping, as though
ashamed for intruding themselves amongst the
green leaves of some other plants. I will reach
96 BITTER-SWEBRT.

you a bunch or two, and we will take the flowers
first. We have had single flowers before, and
bunches of flowers growing together, but have



Fic. 21.—Birrer-SwEeEv.

1, Portion of Stem with Flowers; 2, Flower; 3, Section ; 4, Pistil; 5, 6, Sections
of Ovary.

never looked for the differences in the manner

in which different flowers are grouped together

in bunches, so we must do a little now.”
“What are the bunches called ?”
BITTER-SWEET. 97

“ All flowers, and clusters of flowers, are the
inflorescence, and this means the flower branches,
and the way the flowers are arranged upon
them. Some flowers are solitary, one standing
alone; we may leave them out. Others are
grouped in different ways. When the flowers
grow close to the stalk, in one upright long
spike, it is called a sprke; but when the flowers
are stalked, it is a raceme. In both these cases
the common stalk, which bears all the flowers,
is not branched. Then there are other kinds of
inflorescence, in which the common stalk, or awis,
is branched. This, of the bitter-sweet, is the
only one we shall talk about now. One flower,
which is the centre one, opens first; then the
branches beside it are forked, and, grow one after
the other, or in succession, and each branch bears
a flower. This is called a cyme. You cannot
understand all the forms of inflorescence at once,
and the cyme is often a difficult one, but it
should always begin with a centre flower, and
then others follow. You must look at it care-

fully again and again, and in time you will learn
(498) 7
98 BITTER-SWEET.

to know when an inflorescence should be called
a ‘cyme.’”

“Yes, uncle, I know a spike; I am not sure
that I know a raceme; and I will try to know
a cyme.”

“A raceme is not difficult to remember: it
is a spike with the flowers stalked, like the ‘lily
of the valley’ or the common currant. But we
must come back to the flowers of the bitter-sweet.”

“Hach single flower has an outside calyx, or
cup, with five little teeth. These are sepals
joined together. Inside is the corolla of five
purple petals. I think they are not separate,
but joined together into one piece
—a one-petalled corolla.”

“ All right thus far; and you
see how soon the outer ends of
me aL the petals turn backwards.”

BrrrEn-SWEET. “And leave that yellow col-
umn standing upright in the middle.”

“ Tt is a curious-looking column, rather pointed
at the top, almost like an extinguisher. Notice
how it is made up of the five anthers—you
BITTER-SWEET. 99

might call them stamens, only they have scarcely
a filament at all. These stamens join at the
side, and hide the pistil, which is in the centre,
so that they form a tube round the pistil. The
purple petals bent backwards, and the yellow

ee

Fic. 23.—Lear or BIrrer-sweer.
column standing up in the middle, give a singular
appearance to the flowers.”
“And are potato flowers like that too?”
“Yes; but larger, and white. After the
flowers come the fruit, which is at first a green’
100 BITTER-SWEET.

juicy berry, something like a currant, and when
ripe they are red, but still almost like red cur-
rants, only that they are not in a raceme.”

“ And now, as we are going backwards to-day, °
we must not forget the leaves.”

“We have some here, and others can be had
from a lower part of the stem. They are stalked,
and the shape is something like, at the base,
what is called heart-shaped, or cordate, only not
quite perfectly so. Some of them are almost
lanceolate or lance-shaped, and some have a pair
of lobes or ears at the bottom, like a small pair
of leaflets. They are rather of a dull green, and
sometimes a little downy, but never shining.”

“T suppose that this plant does not die
down every year, but lasts a long time like
shrubs.”

“Tt is not an annucal—that is to say, a plant
which lasts only one year—but it is a perennial,
or a plant which lasts several years. Annuals
have usually soft juicy stems, but this has a
tough woody stem like a shrub. Some herbs
that die down to the ground every year have
BITTER-SWEET. 101

perennial roots, and these revive in the spring
and send up fresh stems.”

“Then the bitter-sweet has tough woody stems
which are not killed by the frost, which send
out leaves and flowers again from the old stems
like the lilac and the rose.”

“But the stems are always thin; they do not
grow so thick as those of the honeysuckle, and
are never strong enough to stand upright of
themselves.”

“ And why is it called ‘ bitter-sweet’ ?”

“Tn past times the stem and twigs were dried
and used as a medicine, called dulcamara, and
that is the same as bitter-sweet. When dried,
these pieces of the stem have at first a bitter
taste, but afterwards rather sweet, so that I
Suppose it was called ‘bitter-sweet’ for this
reason. It is not often used now, except by
herbalists.”

This ends the story of the wild flowers we
found in a copse. There were a great many
more, but we only chose to chat about a few,
102 BITTER-SWEET.

and from these some lessons may be learned that
will be of use in gaining a little knowledge of
wild flowers. One puzzle left unsolved is the
meaning of the pair of strange-looking words at
the bottom of the first page of every chapter.
In this book they commence with Anemone
nemorosa, and that is the Latin or scientific
name of the wood anemone. The first is the
name of the genus, or generic name, Anemone,
and is applied to all the kinds or species of
anemone, of which there are several. The second
is the name of the species, or specific name, and
is applied only to the species to which it belongs.
This one is called nemorosa, because it is found
in woods, and is the “ wood-anemone.” Another
one, which is grown in gardens, is called Anemone
pratensis. This is an anemone as well as the
other, but it is not the same species, and has
therefore a different specific name, which in this
case is pratensis. Then again there is another,
called Anemone pulsatila; it is also a plant of
the same genus Anemone, but not the same

species as either of the others, and therefore has
BITTER-SWEET. 103

a different specific name. All kinds of anemone
are known by one generic name, but each kind
or species is known only by its own specific
name. It is as though we called a family by
the family name of Robinson; of which there
were several members, and all of them Robinsons,
but all different, such as Jack and Jom and
Will; and we should speak of them as Jack
Robinson, or Tom Robinson, or Will Robinson,
so as to distinguish one from the other, only
that we put the family name last, and not first,
as is done in Latin. It would seem comical
to say Robinson Jack or Robinson Tom. The
reason why the names are in Latin, in botanical
books, is partly because it tells the generic name
first, but chiefly because Latin is known by
educated people all over the world, and so the

scientific name is everywhere the same.

Alleluja, 61.
Anemone, 11.
Anemone peziza, 18.
Angelica, wild, 75.
Annual plant, 100.
Anthers, 44,

Axil, 79.

Axis, 97.

Bilabiate corolla, 88.
Bitter-sweet, 94. :
Bluebells, 33.
Bracts, 15, 60.

Bulb, 36.

Cactus, 74,

Calyx, 25.

Colours of flowers, 39.
Compound leaves, 77.
Connate leaves, 71.
Corolla, 44,

Cowslip, 31.

Cow-tree, 69.
Creeping roots, 86.



INDEX.

Cuckoo’s bread, 61.
Cup-leaves, or calyx, 58.
Cyme, 97.

Decussate leaves, 87.
Dicotyledons, 46.

Euphorbia, 74.

Genus and species, 102.
Glands, 72, 91.

Hyacinth, wild, 33.

India-rubber tree, 66.
Inflorescence, 79, 97.
Insect-helpers, 28.
Involucre, 72.

Lily family, 49.
Lily of the valley, 47

May flower, 47.
May lilies, 47.
Milk plants, 65.
106
Mint family, 89.
Monocotyledons, 46, 50.

Moving leaves, 57.

Nectar of flowers, 29.

Net-veined leaves, 46, 50.

Nodes, 87.

Ovary, 45.
Ovules, 45.

Parallel-veined leaves, 46.

Perennial plant, 100.
Perianth, 53.

Petals, 24.

Pin-eyed flowers, 26.
Pistil, 23, 44.
Poisoned arrows, 69.
Pollen, 25.
Primrose, 20.

Raceme, 97.
Ringent corolla, 89.
Root-fungus, 18.
Runners, 49, 55.

Seeds, 45.

Serrate leaves, 78.
Shamrock, 54, 61.

Sleep of plants, 56.
Sour clover, 61.

INDEX.

Species and genera, 102.
Spike, 97.
Spurge-flower, 72.
Stamens, 14, 44.

Starch in bulbs, 42.
Stipules, 79.

Style, 45.

Tap-root, 77.
Thumb-eyed flowers, 27.
Trefoil, 54. =
Trifoliate leaf, 16.
Two-form flowers, 26.
Two-lipped corolla, 88.

Umbel, 70, 75.
Umbelliferous plants, 76.
Underground stem, 17.

Virgin flower, 52.
Volatile oil, 91.

Whorls, 88.

Wild angelica, 75.
Wild carrot, 83.
Wild hyacinth, 33.
Wind-flower, 11.
Wood-sorrel, 54.
Wood-spurge, 64.

Yellow dead-nettle, 85.
Rambles Hmong the Wild Flowers.



IL.
A STROLL ON A MARSH.

PREFACE.



DEAR YOUNG FRIENDS, you have had two or three
rambles with me already, either “Down the Lane and
Back” or “Through the Copse,” and then we found
some pretty wild flowers which you and I thought
were very nice, and we did our best to learn all we
could about them. I have now planned some walks
into the marshes and damp meadows, to find some
of the flowers which do not grow in lanes or in
woods, but are always to be found on the banks of
ditches, or in damp places, such as neither you nor I
would be likely to choose for a ramble unless we had
some object in going there. I fear we shall have to
go more than once, for the plants we find in blossom
in the autumn are not to be seen in the spring. If
you will allow this little book to be your guide, I do
not think you will be sorry for the means of learning
something about the wild flowers you may gather in
“A Stroll on a Marsh.” M. C. COOKE.

CONTENTS.



CUCK00-FLOWER,
MARSH-MARIGOLD,
MARSH-PENNYWORT,
GOAT’S-BEARD,
MEADOW-SWEET,
FORGET-ME-NOT,
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE,

MEADOW-SAFFRON,

11
19

29

40
49
59
67
78



A STROLL ON A MARSH.





CUCKOO-FLOWER.*

-NUMBER of people who are related to
each other form together what we call

a family: there are brothers and sisters, and
aunts and uncles, and cousins, and nieces, who
have a family likeness to each other, and also
a family name. Sometimes the family is a
small and sometimes a large one; but the mem-
bers have many things in common besides the
family name, for they are relations—of one
kindred. So it is with plants. There are
groups of plants, which we call families, that
are related to each other, called by a family
name, bearing many features in common, and
Sometimes so nearly alike that it is not easy

* Cardamine pratensis.
12 CUCKOO-FLOWER.

for a stranger to tell the one from the other.
Let us, for example, take one family of plants,
which may be named the Crossworts, or more
usually Crucifers, which means the same thing.



Fie. 1.—Crucirers.

A, Flower; 8, Section of same ; c, Stamens and Pistil; p, Clawed Petal ;
E, Section of Ovary; F, Siliqua or Pod.

These have all of them a strong family like-
ness: the flowers have four petals, instead of

five, and these are placed crosswise, or in the
CUCKOO-FLOWER. 13

form of a cross. Then, again, they have six
stamens, of which two are shorter than the
rest, which is a family feature. The fruit,
again, is either a long pod or a short pouch con-
taining the seeds. Many of the members of
this family are known to every child by name.
There are the turnip, cabbage, mustard and cress,
radish, watercress, wallflower, candytuft, and
all kinds of garden stocks; so that it is a large
family, and many of its members are very use-
ful plants. With a little care and practice it
will soon be easy for any one to learn the
family features, and to say at once whether a
plant belongs to the family of the Crossworts
or Crucifers.

“ Now, Cissy, you are quite ready to gather
a handful of those pretty white flowers which
you see growing amongst the grass all over the
meadow. One of the old names was ‘ ladies’
smocks ;’ and it has been said that this name
was given because they make large white
patches on the meadows, which in the distance

look as if they were linen bleaching on the
14 CUCKOO-FLOWER.

grass. This scarcely seems to be a good reason
for the name, by which the plant was known in
Shakespeare’s time—

‘When daisies pied and violets blue,

And lady-smocks all silver white,
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue,

Do paint the meadows with delight ;
When shepherds pipe on oaten straws,

And maidens bleach their summer smocks.’

It is also called ‘cuckoo-flower, because it
begins to flower in April and May, when the
cuckoo sings. In some parts of Scotland it is
called the ‘Mayflower ;’ but in the northern
parts of England, and perhaps also in Scotland,
it is called ‘ spinks,’ or ‘ bog-spinks.’ And now
we must look carefully at all parts of the plant
to find the family likeness to all the crossworts,
and the lesser features that belong only to the
cuckoo-flower.”

“JT have taken the root-leaves of some of
them, because they are larger than the rest.”

“You are right, Cissy; and the roots, as
CUCKOO-FLOWER. 15

you see, are of the common fibrous kind, and
not creeping.”

“The root-leaves seem to spread out at first
and lie back on the ground, like a rosette, but
I am puzzled to say what they are like, only
something like little watercress leaves.”

“Very good for a comparison, but we must
try something better. Suppose you call them
compound leaves—that is to say, a leaf com-
posed of several smaller leaflets, and not all of
one piece. If you will look at that dock leaf,
you will see that it is a svmple leaf, as if it were
cut out of one piece.”

“Then the cuckoo-flower has root-leaves,
which are composed of about nine leaflets, or
little leaves, placed on a foot-stalk, one at the
top, and then four pairs, opposite to each other,
and all nearly of the same size and shape.”

“ That is better, but it is not quite right yet ;
for there is a name given to leaves of this kind,
which are said to be pinnate, or like a feather.
This, then, is a pinnate leaf; but you will find
that the top leaflet, which stands alone, is the
16 CUCKOO-FLOWER.

largest; and of the others, the pairs become a
little smaller towards the bottom. Now, you
must find a shape for the leaflets.”

“ Not very easy, for they are roundish, rather
pointed at the top, but not round or regular at
the edge.”

“That will do; but now for the stem and
stem-leaves.”

“Oh, the stem is upright, about nine inches
long, and thin, but stiff; the leaves are not oppo-
site to each other in pairs, but single and apart.”

“ That is to say, they are alternate.”

“Yes; I had forgotten the word. These
leaves are pinnate, like the others, but smaller,
and there are more leaflets—sometimes five and
sometimes six pairs—narrower, and shaped
like a fish, or like a spear-head—what do you
call it?”

« Lance-shaped.”

“ Ah, that is it; shaped like a lance. The
flowers are in a bunch at the top of the stem,
nearly white, with just a little pink, and very
pretty; but I do not smell any scent.”

(499)
CUCKOO-FLOWER. 17

“You know what you will expect to find
in the flowers, as I have told you it is a cross-
wort.”

“Four petals, crosswise, and heart-shaped,
with four little green sepals outside. Here
they are—four long stamens, and two short ones,
with the pistil in the middle. I think I shall
know all the crossworts now, it will be so easy.”

“Tf we came later on we should find the
fruit—little pods, something like pea-pods, but
not quite, and the seeds in them lying in a row.
You can watch the wallflowers in your garden
when they run to seed, and then you will see
what the pod of the crossworts is like.”

“ And that is all ?”

“Not quite, Cissy, for you may taste the
leaves, as they will not hurt you, and you can
tell me what you think they are like.”

“ Rather warm, but like watercress, I think.”

“Right. They are all rather peppery to the
taste, but pleasant, and the leaves of so many
of them are eaten. If we go through the lane

home, we shall find a plant growing in the
(499) 2
18 CUCKOO-FLOWER.

hedges, with very little white flowers; and it
is called the ‘poor man’s pepper,’ because the
leaves may be put in salads and eaten, just like
‘mustard and cress, for they are crossworts
also. It is useful to know that the whole of
this large family are quite harmless to eat, and
that many of them are grown as vegetables ;
but when growing wild most of them have a
peppery taste.”
MARSH-MARIGOLD.*

sf EE those bright yellow flowers, almost

like large buttercups ; I should like to
get them, but the ground is so wet it is almost
aswamp. Can you reach them ?”

“T think I can, Cissy. But they are not
buttercups; they are the marsh-marigold, and
they always grow where it is very wet. In
some places they are called ‘king-cups,’ and
in the north ‘yellow gowans.’ At any rate,
they are nothing like marigolds, except that
they are yellow. We have a great many wild
flowers which are yellow, but more white ones;
and it is said that bees seldom visit yellow
flowers.”

“T don’t think that yellow flowers have a
nice scent, if they have any at all.”

* Caltha palustris.
20 MARSH-MARIGOLD.

“Some of them are not pleasant; but you
must not forget that the primrose is a pale yel-
low, and primroses are sweet.”

“You have not brought me the roots of the
marsh-marigold ; I suppose they were too big.”

“They are large and swollen and very



Fig, 2.—Manrsu-MARIGoLp.
(Reduced.)

muddy, and as there is only one kind of them,
or species as we call it, the roots are not im-
portant.”

“The large glossy leaves are mostly about
the roots; and they are nearly kidney-shaped,
with the edge scalloped all round. These
MARSH-MARIGOLD. 21

notches are not sharp-toothed like a saw, but
rounded, and so they are called crenate. Large
kidney-shaped leaves, with a crenate margin
and long foot-stalks. If you were to taste
them you would find that, like the leaves of
some of the buttercups, they would give a
stinging sensation to the tongue. In North
America they are sometimes boiled when young
as a vegetable.”

“The leaves are thick and tough, and not
easily torn.”

“And the stem is thick below, and upright,
with a few branches. Those small leaves with-
out foot-stalks, nearest to the flowers, are bracts,
and not the true leaves of the plant. The last
leaves, just beneath the flowers in most plants,
are of a different size and shape from the usual
leaves, and are called bracts. Sometimes the
bracts are very small.”

“They look just like little leaves, only so
much smaller than the other leaves, and have
no long stalks. And now we must look at the
yellow flowers.”
22 MARSH-MARIGOLD.

“Yes, Cissy ; and I think you will be puzzled
a little again. You will see that there is no
green calyx, or cup, on the outside of the
flower; only five large yellow leaves, which
look like petals.”

“They must be the petals, aren’t they? for
there are no petals inside them.”

“No, nor outside them either; there is only
one circle of five leaves, which are yellow and
glossy. The outside leaves of a flower are al-
ways the sepals, so that these five must be
the sepals; and as there are no inner ones,
then the marsh-marigold is a flower without
petals.”

“ Are there any other flowers which have
sepals outside and no petals within ?”

“Yes, there are; and sometimes, instead of
the petals, there are very small scales, which
stand in the place of real petals. In a tulip
there are six coloured leaves to the flowers, but
three of these are outside, and three are inside ;
so that there are three sepals and three petals.
But the marsh-marigold has only five flower-
MARSH-MARIGOLD. 23

leaves, and these are the outside circle, and
must therefore be called sepals.”

“That is curious, for they look so much like
the petals of a buttercup. Have there never
been any sepals outside which have fallen off ?”

“Look at the flower-buds which have not
yet opened, and you will see that there is noth-
ing like a calyx, or leaves, outside these coloured
leaves, which I have said are the sepals.”

“ How many stamens are there ?”

“There are a great many stamens, and the
outer five may possibly stand in the place of
petals ; but they are only stamens after all.”

“The cluster of ovaries in the centre are
flattened and crowded in a rounded head.”

“Yes: there may be five or there may be ten
in a cluster ; and there is a cluster in the middle
of the flowers of the buttercups and the wood
anemone, with the stamens standing around
them. So that we have in this a family like-
ness, for they all belong to the Buttercup
family.”

“In the flowers of some plants there is but
24 MARSH-MARIGOLD.

one ovary, and in others there are several, as
in the buttercups.”

“T want you to listen to me a minute, and I
will explain these stamens and ovaries. Some-
times, as you say, a flower has but one ovary,
or pistil, and it stands up in the middle, like a



Fic. 3.—PIstTI1s.

column. The bottom of the pistil is usually
the largest, and swollen: this part is the young
ovary, and contains the young seeds, or ovules.
The upper part is often long, and stands up like
a column, and is called the style. The top of
the column, or style, is sometimes thickened,
MARSH-MARIGOLD. 25

like a knob, or it may be split; and this part
is the stigma, or sticky surface, which catches
the pollen. When there is no long column,
the stigma is close upon the top of the ovary.
When there are several ovaries, there is a
stigma on the top of each. You know all
about the stamens—that the anther is that
yellow piece on the top of the filament, and
that the anther is full of yellow dust, or pollen.
When the pollen is ripe, the anther opens, and
the pollen, or yellow dust, falls upon the stigma,
and sticks there, on the top of the ovary, or
the style when there is one. Now, this is what
takes place afterwards.”

“When the pollen is sticking upon the
stigma, ?”

“Yes; it is sticky, so that the pollen dust
sticks to it. Each grain of pollen dust begins
to grow out of its side a very thin tube, like a
hair, and the end of it is thrust into the stigma ;
and it keeps on growing, and passing down the
column, or style, into the ovary, until the end
of it touches one of the ovules, or young’ seeds,
26 MARSH-MARIGOLD.

and enters it. At this time there is the pollen
grain on the stigma, at one end of a thin tube,
and the ovule at the other. When this is all
ready, the juice or liquid that is in the pollen
grain passes down the little tube, into the ovule
at the lower end, and mixes with the liquid



Fic. 4.—FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS.

a, Pollen Grain with its Tube; b, Ovule with the ends of the Pollen Tubes; ¢,
Pollen Grains with their Tubes passing down between (d) the Cells of the
Style; ec, Pollen Grain sending out two Tubes, at f, into the tissue of the style, g.

inside the ovule. This is called fertilization ;
and then the ovule grows and becomes a seed.
There is no more use for the old pollen grain,
so it shrivels up, and the tube dies away.”
MARSH-MARIGOLD. 27

“So that is the use of the pollen dust ?”

“Yes; and the ovule never grows into a seed
until the tube from a pollen grain grows down
into its side, and carries the juice or contents
of that pollen into the body of the little ovule.”

“Then the ovule must be very soft, as well
as the pollen 2”

“They are both very soft, and both of them
are filled with a kind of juice or liquor, which
has to be mixed before the ovule begins to grow
into a seed and become hard.”

“Suppose that there should be ovules in the
ovary, and no pollen grain sends its little tube
down to them, what would happen ?”

“They would remain barren, as we say, and
be of no use; they would not grow, but shrivel
and dry up.” .

“ And ovules would never grow into seeds
but for the pollen, so that the pollen is a great
deal of use after all.”

“Of course it is; and you will notice always
that there seems to be a great deal more pollen

about a flower than is wanted. Some is blown
28 MARSH-MARIGOLD.

away, and some carried off by insects, and some
falls to the ground, and only a little reaches
the stigma. But there will be often five sta-
mens to supply one stigma with pollen—a good
supply in case of accident.”

“T never thought so much of the pollen dust
before ; I did not think it was of any use.”

“Shocking, Cissy ! to think that there is a
spot, or a hair, or any part of a plant, however
small, that is without its use.”
MARSH-PENNY WORT.*

N human families, and in families of animals,
it is not uncommon to find one individual
which appears to differ so much from all the
rest that relationship can scarcely be seen. It
is so with plants, that in a family where nearly
all the members have a strong family likeness,
one or two may be found which seem to be
quite out of place, and it is hard to trace the
lnk that binds them. This is the case with
the marsh-pennywort, which belongs to the
same family as the wild angelica, the parsnip,
the carrot, and many another plant which bears
the flowers on umbels.

Careful stepping and good boots are wanted
by any one who would walk over the soft
bogey parts of a marsh to hunt for the little
plant which runs along close to the surface,

* Hydrocotyle vulgaris.
30 MARSH-PENNY WORT.

and is known to farmers in some counties as
“sheep-rot,” because, as they say, if sheep eat
the leaves it will give them the disease which
they call “rot;” and in other places it is known
as “ white rot.”

Here is the plant, almost hidden by the
coarse grass and rushes amongst which it grows.
Cord-like creeping roots run along the top of
the ground, and at short distances small tufts of
pale green leaves grow upwards, and a little
bundle of thread-like rootlets pass down into
the soft soil.

“ Don’t follow me, Cissy; the ground is so
wet and boggy that you will wet your feet. I
can pass you some of the plants, for they are
small. There you can see the pale runners:
here and there a bundle of leaves, with long
foot-stalks, and little tufts of flowers on shorter
stalks.”

“Well, uncle, that little thing does not look
as if it belonged to the Carrot family ; the
leaves are not compound, and there is no tall

hollow stem, and no umbrella top.”
MARSH-PENNY WORT. 3l

“T told you how unlike it was, and that is
one reason why we came to look for it. But you
must not always trust to appearances. We
have met with no such leaves before, and so I
suppose you do not know their name.”

“Oh, they are round leaves, or nearly so—
round and flat as a penny, but not so large, not
bigger than a sixpence or a shilling, and the
edge is notched with rounded notches, not ser-
rate, but I forget—”

“Crenate, which means ‘notched’ or ‘jagged;’
but it is always supposed that the notches are
rounded. And there is another thing you have
not noticed, and that is the way in which the
leaf is fixed to the stalk.”

“Yes, I did see it, and was Sage what
other leaves I had seen like them; 4
and now I recollect that it is the f fs



garden plant we call nasturtium,
with the foot-stalk joined to the leaf ¥ : rae
in the middle, on the under side, and Nasterrrum.

the blade quite flat, like the head of a flat-
headed nail.”
32 MARSH-PENNYWORT.

“ And the name for a leaf which is balanced
in that way, on the top of the foot-stalk, is pel-
tate, or like a target. We have but few wild
flowers with peltate leaves.”

« All the veins run off from the centre.”

“ Now, you must seek the flowers, for you do
not appear to have seen them, they are so small.”

“Dear me, and those little knobs on the
short stalks are the flowers! I did not look at
them, growing down nearly upon the ground; I
should never have found them.”

“They are not easy to find even when you
know them; they are always covered by the
leaves.” ;

“ Only about five or six pinkish little flowers
in a close head, growing on short stalks or
peduncles. Well, I suppose it must be an
umbel, but it does not look much like one.”

“The calyx is grown to the ovary, at the
back of the five rounded petals, with a little
spot or disc in the middle of the petals, and five
stamens standing round, It is just the sort of
flower that we saw in the wild angelica.”
MARSH-PENNY WORT. 33

“Ts it always in flower about midsummer,
and no fruit until some weeks afterwards?”

“Yes; but in very wet weather it is some
trouble to get the flowers, for the ground is soft
at any time in the places where the plant grows.
If you saw the fruit you would be surprised to
see how much it is like the fruits of other umbel
flowers.”

“ And is there any truth about its being bad
for sheep to eat ?”

“T should scarcely think that sheep would be
likely to feed in such places as the pennywort
grows in, and I am not so sure they would eat
it if they found it. In some countries where a
similar, or it may be the same, plant is found,
it is used as a medicine, as a remedy in skin
diseases, but I am not so sure that it is of
much use.”

We have not had a very long chat about this
curious plant, but having been seen once it is
not likely to be forgotten. Whilst we are walk-
ing along, seeking some other flowers, there is

need that I should remind you of paying atten-
(499) 3
34 MARSH-PENNYWORT.

tion to the margins, or edges, of all leaves,
after you are satisfied of their shape. Of course
the size of the leaves will be different in differ-
ent parts of the same plant; and even the shape
will not always be the same, for the root-leaves
will differ from the stem-leaves, and the upper
leaves on the stem will not always be exactly of



Fic. 6.—ENtTIRE Lear,

the same shape as the lower. Yet there will be
more regularity with the margins, which always
seem to be very much the same in the same
plant. Thick and leathery-leaved plants, like
the ivy and the box, have the margins quite
smooth or entire; and so also have some other
plants with thinner leaves, and in these the
MARSH-PENNY WORT. 35

margin is called entire, for there are no notches
or teeth. Other leaves, which are really entire,



Fic. 7.—SERRATE LEAVES.

have the margin fringed with hairs, or very fine



Fic. 8.—Crrnate LEAF.

teeth, so that they are said to be ciliate, or
fringed like an eyelash; for that is the meaning
36 MARSH-PENNY WORT.

of the word. A very large number of leaves
are cut in some manner at the edge, and are
called dentate, or toothed; but they may be
toothed in several different ways. If the teeth
are all regular, and nearly of the same size,
pointed at the top like the teeth of a saw, they



Fic. 9.—Sinvatze LEAF.

are serrate; but if the teeth are still regular,
but blunt and rounded at the top, then the
margin is called crenate. When the raising
and falling of the edge is broad and blunt, or
rounded, and not always equal, the margin is
MARSH-PENNYWORT. 37

said to be stnwate, or wavy. If you look more
closely at the edges of leaves, you will soon find
that even these names are not enough for the
purpose; because in some serrate leaves the
edges of the teeth themselves are again serrate,
and then they are said to be bi-serrate, or twice



Fic. 10.—Br-Serrate LEAVES.

serrate. In a few cases the simple teeth of a
serrate leaf have the teeth pointed backwards
or forwards, with one edge concave and the
other edge convex, as it is in a pit saw: this
kind of margin is rwncinate. When I said that
all toothed leaves are sometimes called dentate,
38 MARSH-PENNY WORT.

I should have said that one particular kind of
toothing, in which the teeth are regular and
pointed, but the cuts or serrations are rounded,
is specially said to be dentate; but when the
regular teeth are right angled, each side being
of the same length, and both teeth and serra-



Fia. 11.—Roncrwate Lear.
tion equal angled, the margin is said to be
acutely crenate.
I have now told you the names which are
given to the different kinds of notching of the
edge of leaves. There may be one or two
MARSH-PENNY WORT. 39

iS

Fic. 12.—Denratre Marcin. Fic. 18.—AcureLy CrENATE Marcin.

others which are rarely used, but these will be
all that you are wanted to learn. It would be
good practice for you, when you are alone, to
look at the edges of all the different leaves
which you can find, and try to give the right
name to the notching; and take care of those
you cannot name, so as to ask some one who
knows. You will have to be careful that you
use the right name, because if you are telling
any one about a leaf, you should be able to tell
them not only the shape of the leaf as nearly
as you can, but also what kind of margin it has.
This is what we call describing a leaf, so you
must learn to describe a leaf properly.
GOAT’S-BEARD.*

f S we walk along, I may remind you of

what we talked about when we had a
gossip over the dandelion, and especially of the
family to which it belongs, which have all of
them composite flowers—that is to say, a great
number of flowers growing together in a head
which looks to be only a single flower. You
will remember that the daisy, and corn blue-
bottle, and thistles, and the garden marigold,
are all of them composite flowers. I told you,
I think, that the daisy, with its yellow centre,
called the disc, of tube-shaped flowers, has all
around it the ray of strap-shaped flowers, so
that the head contains some tube-shaped and
some strap-shaped flowers. The thistles have
no strap-shaped flowers, but all are tube-shaped.
And the dandelion, as well as the goat’s-beard,

* Tragopogon pratensis,
GOAT’S-BEARD. 41

has no tube-shaped but all strap-shaped flowers.
You will remember these three kinds whenever
you look at composite flowers. And now you
may gather some of those tall, lanky yellow

4



Fic. 14.—ComposirE FLowsrs.
1, 3, 7, Flower-heads ; 2, 4, Tubular Florets ; 5, 8, Strap-shaped Florets ;
6, Anthers surrounding the Style.
flowers, which are known to most people by the
hame of goat’s-beard. Those flower-heads open
about four o’clock in the morning and close

again about noonday, so that they are sometimes
42 GOAT’S-BEARD.

called ‘John-go-to-bed-at-noon.’ It is rather
a long and uncouth name, so we will still call it
the yellow goat’s-beard.

“Tt is a rather tall, upright plant, about half
a yard high, with tapering or tap roots, which
run a long way into the soil; and it looks lanky
because of the very long and naked flower-
stalks. It is very common in meadows, and
sometimes on railway banks, flowering in the
early summer.”

“The flower-heads look something like dande-
lion, only not quite so clumsy.”

“ And it grows very differently, and the leaves
are nothing alike.”

“What very long, narrow leaves! some of
them at the bottom of the stem are nearly a
quarter of a yard long, and tapering nearly all
the way, like grass leaves, but they are not
parallel-veined.”

“You will see how the broad base of the
leaves clasps round the stem like a sheath.
They are not only sessile but sheathing, and the
edges of the leaves are not scalloped or toothed.
GOAT’S-BEARD. 43.

The upper leaves on the stem are not so long as
the lower ones.”

“The leaves are so long that they cannot
keep straight, but bend and twist in all
ways.”

“You have a flower-head there which has
not opened, so that you can see the outer green
leaves, and I suppose you are willing to call
them all together the involucre. It is a very
different kind of involucre from those we saw
in the wood-spurge, but it 7s an involucre and
not a calyx, as it encloses a number of flowers.”

“Tf it were a single flower, of course the
outer circle of leaves would have been the
calya.”

“The leaves of the involucre, or rather the
bracts, are narrow and long and pointed, but at
the bottom, where they join the flower-stalk,
this latter is thickened, so as to form a broad
base for the receptacle.”

“By receptacle you mean that top of the
flower-stalk on which all the flowers stand.”

“Yes; but in these composite flowers we call
44, GOAT’S-BEARD.:

the single flowers florets, which implies that they
are little flowers.”

“Well, then, I cannot count all the florets
there are in this flower of goat’s-beard. I must
call the whole flower the flower. I don’t know
what else to call it, and I don’t want any more
hard names.”

“You may call the compound a flower, if you
please, but the single little ones must be florets.
I do not wish you to count them, as there are
a great many, those towards the middle being
the shortest.”

“ And they are all strap-shaped. I shall pull
one of them in pieces.”

“Yes: the florets are one-sided, the corolla
lengthened on one side like a strap, and notched
at the end. The lower part of the floret is
tube-shaped, fixed on the top of the ovary.
Outside are a few delicate hairs, which are in
place of a proper calyx. These are all packed
close together in the composite head.”

“Tt is not easy to get at the pistil and sta-
mens, they are so small; but there is a pistil in
GOAT’S-BEARD. 45

the middle, and five stamens around. Oh, and
all the anthers are joined together at the sides!”

“JIndeed they are, so as to form a sheath
round the column.”

“ And is that all?”

“Not quite; we must get some knowledge
of the fruit.”

“TJ cannot find any ripe fruit.”

“That will be found later on. When the corol-
las fade and fall away, the ovaries are left stand-
ing on the receptacle. As they grow and ripen,
a long horn rises straight up, with a bunch of
bristles at the top; and by-and-by they spread
out like a web, as large as a sixpence, something
like an open parasol with a long handle, and the
seed at the bottom. When they open they are
easily carried away by the wind, and float in the
air, until at last they fall to the ground, with
the seed, which is the heaviest part, downwards.
They then find their way into the ground; for
the bottom is rather pointed, and the outside of
the seed is rough. And in this way the seeds
are scattered, and grow into young plants.”
46 GOAT’S-BEARD.

‘‘ Almost in the same way as dandelion seeds.”
“Exactly, only that the shape is different.
The threads at the top, which open out, are
called the pappus; and in the
goat’s-beard the threads of the
pappus are feathered and interlaced,



so that they open out flat, and have
a long horn hanging down in the
middle which carries the seed, like a
Fie. ee balloon with the car at the bottom.
Danvetion. Tn the dandelion the hairs of the
pappus are simple, and not feathered.”

“So that the seeds are scattered by the
wind.”

“The seeds of different plants are scattered
in different ways, but many of the seeds of com-
posite flowers, like the dandelion and the thistles,
are driven by the wind. It is very curious to
notice the various seeds which have a pappus, or
bunch of hairs at the top, such as those of the
composite plants. They have some of them a
horn, or kind of stalk, with the seed at one end
and the bunch of hairs at the other; and some
GOAT’S-BEARD. 47



Fic, 16.—DANDELION SCATTERING SEEDS.

of them have no stalk at all, for the bundle of
hairs grow out at the top of the seed. Then,
again, as I have told you, some of the seeds
have a bunch of hairs that are quite smooth,
and others have hairs which are branched or
plumed all the way up, with a row of short hairs
standing off on each side like the plumes of a
feather. You will also notice another difference,
—that in some cases the hairs are very long and
delicate, but in others they are short and stiff,
almost like bristles. When they are long and
thin, they will often spread in all directions, like
48 GOAT’S-BEARD.

a ball of down, with the seed hanging in the
middle, as in thistle-down, and they are so light
that they will float in the air and be carried a
long way by the wind. The groundsel and rag-
wort have smaller seeds and also shorter hairs,
so that when quite open, and floating in the air,
they are like tufts of cobweb, and are not so
easily seen; but if you will watch them, or the
thistles, which you can see better, you will be
surprised to see how they will sail out of one
field and over another, or along across the com-
mon, as fast as you can run, and for such a long
way that you would get tired of running after
them. When you see a field overgrown with
thistles, you will understand how easy it is,
when the land is ploughed and broken up, for
the seeds of the thistle plants to be blown over
from other fields and drifted along the rough
ground; and how the clods of earth will stop
the seeds, and then they will send down little
roots into the cracks, which will soon grow into
young thistle plants, and the field will be covered
with them in a year or two.”

MEADOW-SWEET.*

i OU will have read, Cissy, that in olden

times, before the use of carpets, it was
the custom to strew the floors of rooms with
rushes and sweet herbs at feasts and on holidays.
One of the plants which were used was the med-
wort or meadow-sweet, sometimes called queen of
the meadows, and we have come to gather it. It
grows on the banks of ditches and beside ponds,
and is in flower in the summer, when it ‘looks
so neat, and smells so sweet’ that it. is rightly
called meadow-sweet. You would scarcely think
that it belongs to the Rose family, for it is not
at all like a rose to look at, as you will soon see.
It grows upright, nearly a yard high, and you.
can see its bunches of little white flowers in
that ditch across the meadow, where they look

* Spirea ulmaria.
(499) 4
50 MEADOW-SWEET.

something like clusters of elder flowers. The
roots are perennial, but the stems are annual,
and die down to the ground every year.”

“The stems are almost square, and stiff, al-
though they are not very thick; and they like
to grow near the water, where it is not easy to
reach them.”

“You will notice that the stems are only
branched in the upper part, for the purpose of
carrying the flowers, and that there are plenty
of leaves near the ground.”

“The leaves are compound, and what is called
pinnate.”

“Yes; they are large, handsome pinnate leaves
with a terminal leaflet, or one at the end, which
is the largest, and two or three pairs of opposite
leaflets below; then there is a pair of small
leaflets between each pair of large ones, so that
the pairs of leaflets are alternately small and
large.”

“ And all of them toothed at the edge; but
the teeth are not all alike or all of the same
size.”
MEADOW-SWEET. 51

“No; you would call them irregularly toothed.
But the large leaflet at the end is more than
toothed ; it is deeply divided into three lobes,
which are like three leaflets, only that they are .
joined at the bottom and for some way up, so
that really it is but one leaflet, with a centre
piece and two wings. Nearly all the simple
leaflets are broadly lance-shaped, broadest in
the middle, tapering to each end.”

“The two sides are of a different colour.”

“The upper side of a beautiful bright green,
and the under side dirty white, or grayish white,
and velvety. You will notice how much the
veins stand up on the under side. We should
call them prominent.”

“The leaves of the ‘silver weed’ are green
on one side and white on the other.”

“ Nearly all leaves are paler on the under side
than they are on the upper, but those of the
meadow-sweet and the silver weed are unusually
pale and silvery white, because they are downy
with such a number of delicate white hairs.”

“The inflorescence of the meadow-sweet is
52 MEADOW-SWEET.

not like an umbel, because the flower-stalks do
not all rise from the same level, and yet the
flowers in each cluster are nearly on the same
level. What is it called?”

“Well, it is a kind of corymb,
and that is an inflorescence I




have not yet explained to you.
You have already seen that the branches
which bear the flowers start at different
levels, and yet all the flowers are nearly
on the same level; so that, of course,
some of the branches are much longer
Fre. 17. than the others. In some respects it

Conyus. ig like a cyme, but in a cyme the central
flower opens first.”

“There seems to be at first one large corymb,
and afterwards a side branch grows up from the
stem, and it carries a smaller corymb, which is
later in flowering.”

“When you see the elder tree in flower, you
must compare the inflorescence with this one;
for the elder flowers are in cymes, but not a one-
sided cyme like the ‘ forget-me-not.’”
MEADOW-SWEET. 53

“T think we can look at the flowers now, for
I am afraid that I cannot quite understand a
corymb and a cyme unless I can see them to-
gether, especially as all cymes are not alike.”

“ Although the flowers are small, you will find
a green calyx with five sepals, joined together
at the bottom, but not grown to the ovary. In
most of the Rose family the calyx is grown to
the ovary, as you will see in the ‘hips,’ or fruit
of the wild rose.”

“And there are five petals, nearly white, or
rather cream-coloured, and such a number of
stamens, more than five, and more than ten. I
suppose that all the Rose family have a great
number of stamens, like the dog-rose.”

“Yes; an indefinite number of stamens, in-
serted on the calyx, is the chief family feature,
There is a central ovary, which becomes the
fruit; ‘but we are too early for the capsules,
There is a very great difference in the fruit in
the different members of the Rose family, so
that you would hardly think that the fruits of
the wild rose and the blackberry, of the pear
54: MEADOW-SWEET.

and the cherry, all belonged to the same large
family.

“T think, Cissy, that I can set you a very
pleasant task, now that you know how to pull a
flower in pieces, and what to look at when you
have done so. And this task will be to compare
together all the flowers of the Rose family which
you can find, especially those which you find
growing wild. I should ask you to begin in
the spring-time, because there are a great many
to be found then which you cannot see later in
the year. Some of these I will tell you, andI
think when you have looked carefully at these
you will never have much trouble with them
again. The hawthorn is one of these, which
should be in blossom on the first of May; and
another is the blackthorn, or wild sloe, which
flowers earlier; then, in gardens and orchards,
you will find the cherry blossom, apple and pear
blossom, and all kinds of plums. Later on you
may look for the strawberry and silver weed;
and after that the raspberry and the blackberry
flowers, or, as you may call them, the bramble


Fic. 18.--Witp Rose.
2, Section of Flower; 3, Pistil; 4, Fruit; 5, Ovule.

MEADOW-SWEET. 57

flowers, and, of course, the dog-rose if you
please. In all these flowers you will find a
proper calyx, and a corolla of five separate
petals, and a great number of stamens. This
may also be the case with the flowers of the
Buttercup family, which have mostly a corolla
of five petals, not so decided a calyx, but also a
great number of stamens, so that in some things
they will resemble each other. But the stamens
are not inserted in the same way: for in the
Rose family they are inserted on the calyx—
that is to say, they seem to grow from the
calyx; and when the petals fall off the calyx
remains, with the stamens still standing upon
it, low down from the edge, so that all the
teeth of the calyx remain free. The fruits may
trouble you, for they do not resemble each other
so much as the flowers; but when you have
learned more than I can tell you now of this
family of plants, it will not seem so strange that
the apple and pear, that the plum and cherry,
as well as the raspberry and the blackberry, are
all fruits belonging to the large kindred of the
58 MEADOW-SWEET.

Rose. You know that the whole study of plants
is called ‘botany.’ But plants may be studied in
more than one way; and if they are studied so
as to learn all we can of their structure, and of
their different parts or organs, and the uses of
these parts, this is called ‘structural botany,’
and we must know something about that before
we attempt anything else. Another portion of
botany is the study of plants in their relations
to each other—how to join them together in
families and orders, and to call them by their
names. ‘This is ‘systematic botany,’ and is very
useful in its way; but it cannot take the place
of the first, and must always follow it. For
this reason I tell you so little about the family
relations of the plants we gather, except a few
words by the way, which may help you by-
and-by.”
FORGET-ME-NOT.*
VERY boy and girl knows the pretty blue

forget-me-not, but not every one has
heard the story of its name. It has been told
that once on a time a young man and woman,
who were soon to be married, were walking one
evening on the banks of the river Danube, and
saw some flowers floating on the stream. The
young woman admired the pretty blue flowers,
thinking they were lovely, and what a pity that
they should be floated away and lost. The
young man leaped into the river to get them
for her, and seized hold of the flowers; but the
current was so strong that it carried him away.
He cast the flowers on shore, and they fell at
her feet; but as he did this the water swallowed
him up, while he cried, “ Forget me not.”

* Myosotis palustris.
60 FORGET-ME-NOT.

“Then the blossoms blue on the bank he threw,
Ere he sank in the eddying tide ;
And, ‘Lady, I’m gone, thine own knight true.

Forget me not, he cried.”

Such is the story, which has been told many
times and in different ways, but the flower re-
mains the same. It is in blossom from June to
October, so that it was a bright summer’s day
when Cissy and her uncle went in search of it
along some ditches running through the marsh;
for the true forget-me-not is a water-plant, and
grows on the banks of streams and ditches.

“The forget-me-not on the water’s edge
Reveals her lovely hue,
Where the broken bank, between the sedge,
Is embroidered with her blue.”

This is not the only little blue flower which
has been called ‘“ forget-me-not ;” but the others
have been so called in mistake, because they are
somewhat like it. The true forget-me-not has
also been called “scorpion-grass,” because the
top of the flower-stalk curls over on one side,
FORGET-ME-NOT. 61

and also ‘“‘mouse-ear,” but the real mouse-ear
has woolly leaves and yellow flowers, like a small
dandelion.

“T can reach the flowers for you, Cissy ; but
you must not try, for the bank is very soft and
slippery, and you may fall into the ditch. Yon-
der is the brook-lime, with its pretty blue
flowers, growing amongst the watercress. It
is sometimes called forget-me-not, but it is a
sham.”

‘You have gathered some of the root, which
is a bit creeping; but the stems are nearly
upright, only they are not very long, and a
little woolly.”

“Tt is fortunate that you can see it together
with the brook-lime; for that has thick, juicy
stems, and smooth, shining, darker green leaves.”

“The forget-me-not has pale green leaves,
but not shining, almost narrow lance-shaped,
and only the lower ones with a little foot-stalk.
The stem-leaves are smaller, and sessile. Don’t
you see there is a ridge running down the stem
from the mid-rib of the leaves ?”
62 FORGET-ME-NOT.

“There are a few slender branches on the
upper part of the stem, with flowers at the end.
But the inflorescence wants a name.”

“ T know it does, and I cannot tell what name
to give it, for it is not a spike—the flowers are
all stalked. It looks something like a raceme.”

“You must notice that the flowers are on



Fie. 19.—ForRGET-ME-NOT.

one side of the stem, and the top turns over in
a coil, like the tail of a scorpion ; so it is called
scorpioid.”

“T gee how it coils over; and the lowest
flowers are oven and blue, the upper are only

buds, and pink.”
FORGET-ME-NOT. 63

“Yes; they open one after the other, from
the bottom to the top. We may call it a
scorpioid raceme. And you see the gradual
change of colour from pink to bright blue.
Some botanists call it a scorpioid cyme; but we
need not trouble about that.”

“ And now for the flowers. The outer cup
or calyx is green, with the sepals joined to each
other half-way up, and then with five teeth at
the top. The outside of the calyx is hairy.”

“The corolla also has the petals joined to-
gether into a very short tube at the bottom.
As you look at the flower from above, looking
down upon it, it looks like a five-petalled blue
corolla with a yellow eye. Take the pocket-
glass, and you see the throat of the tube in the
middle, nearly closed by five very little scales.
You do not see the stamens.”

“When you pull open the corolla, the stamens
are in the tube. There are five of them, with
a little flat ovary in the middle.”

“Sometimes people will show you a little
blue flower which grows on banks, and call it
64 FORGET-ME-NOT.

forget-me-not ; but it is a veronica, like the brook-
lime. And you will know the difference in a
minute ; for you will see the stamens outside,
and there are only two. The common veronica
and the brook-lime have two exposed stamens,
whilst the forget-me-not has five hidden ones.”

“Do we ever see the fruit of the forget-me-
not?”

“T am afraid we think more of looking after
the pretty blue flowers than the fruit, which is
only to be seen after the flowers are all gone.
Then it is small, and is made up of four small
nuts, which are like seeds, smooth and three-
angled. The four triangles meet in the centre,
so that a compound fruit is made up in a flat-
tened rounded form, with the mark of the
divisions like a cross.”

“That is rather a curious fruit, is it not ?”

“Tt is the fruit of the family, and I may
show you some day larger fruits from other
plants of the family, and then you will under-
stand it better. There are the comfrey, and the
borage, lungwort, gromwell, and others, which
FORGET-ME-NOT. 65

are found in gardens, and they have very much
larger fruits.”

“ Are all of them blue flowers ?”

“No; they are white or purple, and some
of them blue, but not of quite so pure a blue.”

“What sort of blue do you call forget-me-
not ?”

“T should call it turquoise blue, because it is
nearly of the colour of turquoise, a blue stone
used for jewellery, in rings, pins, brooches, etc.
You may have seen it, and it is a paler blue
than that of the corn-flower.”

“T think that I have seen rough hairy plants
in gardens or in old gravel pits, with the inflo-
rescence like a spike, but coiled round, scorpuord,
and the blue flowers open at the bottom, but
purple or red in the buds towards the end. Yes,
and all the flowers on the outer side; but such
a rough, clumsy plant! Do you know what it
is called ?”

“Oh, the ‘viper’s bugloss’! That belongs
to the same family, and a very strange-looking

plant it is. It grows sometimes by roadsides,
(499) 5
66 FORGET-ME-NOT.

and is in flower for a long time, almost through
the summer; for the flowers follow each other
along the coiled racemes, and the fruits are at
the bottom before the last flowers have opened
on the coils.”
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.*

= HAT are those tall spikes of purple

flowers growing beside the ditch?”
inquired Cissy, as we were about to go home,
along a wet meadow, after our trip in search of
the meadow-sweet.

“Those are the purple loosestrife ; and if we
take a few spikes, it will give us something to
do for another half-hour. The medwort may be
queen of the meadows for its scent and grace,
but the loosestrife has a beauty of its own,
which is equally royal. It is one of the wild
flowers which are worthy of a place in our gar-
dens. I think I like it as well as the foxglove.”

“ Does it always grow in such wet places, like
the meadow-sweet ?”

‘‘T have never seen it growing elsewhere than
beside the banks of ditches or on the edges of

* Lythrum salicaria.
68 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.

rivers and streams. This also has a perennial
root-stock, although the stems die down every
year.”

“JT should think that some of them are nearly
a yard high, and all the upper part glowing with
the flowers.”

“ Besides which the flowers are very curious ;
for we shall find that, although they all look the
same as they are growing, there are at least
three different kinds, which we can only find out
by pulling them in pieces.”

“ We found two different kinds of flowers in
primroses, and here there are three kinds.”

“Let us look at the other parts first, and then
we need carry only the spikes of flowers. You
will notice how straight and upright the stems
are, and with hardly any branches.”

“And the leaves are opposite each other in
pairs; but in one or two places there are three
leaves instead of two, and all of them without
leaf-stalks. Let me see: they are sessile, and
clasping the stem.”

“You have forgotten to say that in shape
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE. 69

they are lanceolate, or like the head of a lance,
with smooth edges. The upper leaves, which
are amongst the flowers, are smaller, and should
be called bracts. I should say that the larger
leaves are about three inches long. Now, I
think we may look to the flowers.”

“Don’t you think that the inflorescence—the
whole mass of flowers—should be called a spike ?”

“Yes, I think so.”

“There is one thing I cannot explain, and
that is the flowers making a circle round the
stem, and then another, and another, all the
way to the top. You see that they all grow in
rings.”

“Leaves are sometimes placed in that way,
at the same level round the stem, and so are
flowers. Such a circle of leaves or flowers is
called a whorl, and these flowers are said to be
m whorls.”

“Ts there any meaning in the word ?”

“Well, I should suppose it meant ‘whirl,
with a hint that the parts are placed like the

spokes in a wheel.”
70 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.

“J shall remember it better now. They are
wheels or whorls of flowers. All of them have
a green cup or calyx, which is cup-shaped, or
rather longer, and toothed at the edge.”

«Let me show you that the petals and stamens
are fixed to the calyx, so that when the petals
fall the stamens are left behind in the calyx.
You may count the petals, and then the stamens.”

“There are mostly six petals, sometimes four,
and twice as many stamens—six long ones and
six short ones—with a column in the middle.
See, there are not five short and five long
stamens, but s?x of each kind, so that there are
twelve. We have never found a flower with
twelve stamens before.”

“That is one of the curious things about the
stamens in these flowers; but I have now to
show you something else which is curious. I
told you at the first that there are three kinds
of flowers, and the differences are in the style,
or column, and the stamens.”

“ Shall we find all three kinds on these spikes ?”

“T have no doubt that we shall, for one kind
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE. val

is nearly as common as another. Here is one
of them: it is the long-styled form. You see
that the style is much longer than any of the
stamens, and rises above them. Then there are
six long stamens, not quite so long as in the
other two kinds, and six very short ones. We
must compare them all together when we can
find the other two kinds.”

‘Had we not better put that flower between
the leaves of my book to keep it safe ?”

“ Here’s another kind, for I can see that the
style does not rise above the stamens. This is
all right: it is the mid-styled form. You can
see, now I have opened it, that there are the six
very short stamens, just the same length as the
short stamens in the first form; and six long
stamens which are longer, and quite as long as
the style in the long-styled form: but the style
reaches only about half-way between the long
and short stamens, and is just the same length
as the long stamens in the first form. Perhaps
we may not find the third kind quite so easily,
so you must put this flower in your book.”
72 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.

“T hope we shall find the other, for I suppose
it will be the short-styled form.”

“T expect it will be more trouble to find,
because we must open the flowers. No! I
have tried three or four from this spike, and
now I shall try another spike. Patience will
reward us. Here it is at last. And this is
the short-styled form. There is the style, quite
as short as the shortest stamens we have seen
‘in the other flowers; and then there are six
stamens as long as the longest in the mid-styled
form, and six stamens which rise about half-way
between the very short style and the long
stamens. Now, we can place them side by side
and see how they match.”

“Of course we. shall know one from the other
by the length of the style.”

“Here is the long style, which is about the
same length as the long stamens in the mid
style and the short style. This is the mid style,
and the style is of the same length as the long
stamens in the long style and the short stamens
in the short style. Lastly, we have the shor‘ style,
.

PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE. 73

which is of the same length as the very short
stamens in the long style and the mid style.
Can you see how they match ?”



Fic. 20.—Tur Turer Kinps oF FLowErs or THE PURPLE
LoosESTRIFE.
A, Short Style ; 8, Mid Style; c, Long Style.

“Oh yes. I can see now all the different
lengths; but perhaps that is not all you can see.”
“Then I will show you how each style is
74 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.

matched in length by two sets of stamens. The
long style by the long stamens in mid style and
short style; the mid style by the long stamens
in the long style and the short stamens in the
short style; and the short style by the very
short stamens in the long style and mid style.
Thus each style has two sets of stamens of the
same length, or twelve stamens of its own length,
in the three kinds of flowers.”

“Yes; but they are in different flowers.”

“T know that, and the pollen would have to
be carried from one to the other by insects;
but that can be done, and must be done in this
case, for you saw what numbers of insects were
flying about the spikes.”

“Ts it known that insects do help the flowers
in that way ?”

“Indeed it is, and even with this very plant,
so that even the difference in the flowers, in the
length of the styles and the stamens, has its use
in the fertilization of the ovules of the purple
loosestrife.”

“ Just as you told me of the primroses—some
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE. 75

of them with long styles and some with short
styles.”

“Helping each other. The flowers give
honey to the bees, and the bees carry the pollen
from one flower to another on their bodies.
You remember the old maxim, ‘One good turn
deserves another.’ I cannot explain to you now
how it is done, but when you are older and have
learned more about flowers, you will be better
able to understand. No plant can ever have
seeds unless the pollen from the stamens can
get upon the little sticky place on the top of
the style or column, which is called the stigma.
I have told you that some plants have male
flowers and female flowers, growing separately,
either on different parts of the same plant or on
different plants. Now, the pollen from the male
flowers must go to the female flowers, or there
will be no seeds. The question is, How can it
be done? And the answer is, that it may be
done partly by the wind blowing the pollen
grains from one flower to another, or by the
light pollen dust floating in the air. This is too
76 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.

uncertain a plan to be relied upon, as it leaves
too much to chance, so that the agency of in-
sects comes in to help the plants by carrying
the pollen from the male to the female flowers,
and this must be the most usual way in which
the pollen is carried from the male to the female
flowers. There are also some flowers which have



Fic. 21.—Fervitization or Prant py Means or Bur.
pollen grains within the same flower as the pistil,
but the stamens are placed in such a manner
that the pollen cannot reach the stigma of the
pistil without help, and in this case the help is
given by insects. If you watch the bees and
other insects as they flutter around the flowers
on a sunny day, you will sce that they are
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE. 77

sprinkled and powdered with pollen dust. Most
of these insects have hairy bodies, and the little
hairs help to brush the pollen from the stamens
upon their bodies, and keep it there until it is
brushed off by rubbing against something else.
This ‘something’ is often the stigma in another
flower. You may suppose that a very great
deal of pollen is wasted, and never reaches a
stigma at all; but even this is provided for, for
nearly every flower has much more pollen than
is wanted. Around nearly every pistil stand
perhaps five, perhaps ten, perhaps many more
stamens, and each stamen has its anther or head-

piece filled with pollen grains. Not only

‘Doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey day by day

From every opening flower,’

but it scatters the pollen also from flower to
flower, and helps the plant at the same time that
it helps itself”
MEADOW-SAFFRON.*

ce

HOSE flowers in the meadow are very

much like the purple crocus of gardens ;
but it is not the same thing, although it is
called meadow-saffron. In some counties the
meadows are gay with it in autumn, and some
people call it the autumn crocus. The plants
root rather deeply, and we must dig up the
roots of two or three of them, for they are
curious, and at the time of flowering there are
no leaves. It is during September that the
flowers are in perfection, but the leaves appear
in winter and early spring.

“Whilst you are digging for the roots, I
must tell you something of the leaves. They
rise from the ground in small tufts, and are of
a long lance shape, narrowed towards each end,
and nearly an inch broad in the middle, but

* Colchicum autumnale.
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 79

“sometimes nearly a foot in length, and of a
bright, glossy green, with a sort of keeled mid-
rib. The veins run side by side down the leaf,
but do not form a network. I have already
told you that there are some plants, such as all
-the large trees and shrubs except the firs, which
have net-veined leaves. The veins branch off

from the mid-rib, and are again so much branched

Se

ae



Pic, 22.—Ner-vetrnen Lear,
that they form a network. Then there are the
grasses and tulips and crocuses, which have
mostly long leaves, with the veins running side
by side, and not branching so as to form a net-
work of veins, These are parallel-vecied leaves,
and they are not so numerous, Now, I see that

you have some roots ready.”
80 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

“ Almost like little onions, with a brown
skin.”

“Some persons would call them bulbs, but a
better name for them is corm. If you cut
through the bulb of an onion, you will see that
it is made up of thick layers, one over the other,
something like leaves in a bud, and you can peel

off these layers, one after the other; but now,



Fig. 23. —PARALLEL-VEINED LEAF.

as I cut through this corm, you will see that it
is quite solid, and there are no layers. The
little thready roots at the bottom are the true
roots; but the bulb or corm is not a root, but
a sort of underground bud, nearly as large as
a chestnut. Each corm, as you have it, has

another one beside it, which is the corm that
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 81

flowered last year, and is now on its way to
decay. The corm which bears the flower has
grown out from the old corm, and was only a
little bud in June. It was the old corm which
bore the leaves in spring, and these new corms
which have flowers now will have a tuft of
leaves next spring, and then they too will shrivel
and die.”

“ But we can’t eat these, like onions ?”

“Certainly not. They are useful in medicine,
but not as a salad, for they are almost a poison.
The corms are cut in slices and dried; then they
are sold by chemists, under the name of colchi-
cum, and are bitter and disagreeable. They
were probably known and used by the Arabs
two thousand years ago.”

“The flowers grow singly, or three or four
together, from one corm; but I suppose that
this white part which runs downwards is the
flower-stalk.”

“That is the long tube of the corolla, and the
ovary is at the bottom, just within the sheath

that rises from the corm. The corolla has six
(499) 6
82 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

leaves, three of them outside and three inside,
and these are separate from each other, down to
the top of the long tube. You may call them



1
Vic, 24.—MEADOW-SAFFRON.
1, Corm with Flowers ; 2, Style; 3, Fruit; 4, Section of Capsule.

three sepals and three petals if you please, but
the whole is usually called a perianth. Inside
this you will find the stamens,”
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 83

“There they are, six of them, and three
threads in the middle: that must be the column
or style parted into three.”

“You are right, Cissy: that is the three-
parted style, which must be very long to reach
the whole length of the tube down to the ovary.
The next time you see a crocus you must count
the stamens, and you will find that it has only
three.”

“ And the meadow-saffron has six.”

“This plant produces also a great number of
seeds. After the flowers fade, about October,
there is little to be seen of the plant until early
spring, when the leaves are growing in little
tufts from the corms which bore the flowers,
and amongst the leaves the capsules will be
found. These capsules passed the winter under-
ground after the death of the flowers, and were
carried up with the leaves in spring into the
air.”

“Then the fruit is a dry capsule ?”

“Yes; three capsules joined together, or
rather a dry capsule, with three valves, and a
84 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

great number of small, roundish, brown seeds.
with a wrinkled coat. The seeds are ripe about
midsummer.”

“This is a curious plant. The flowers are to
be seen in autumn, then the green leaves in the
early spring, and the ripe seeds at midsummer,
just about the time when the old corm has
budded a little corm beside it, which is to flower
in the autumn, and go through the same round.”

“Tf they are let alone, the plants seem as if
they would go on growing, year after year, ‘on,
on for ever,’ without wanting seeds. In pas-
tures and meadows, where they grow at all, they
are usually seen by hundreds, and the pale lilac
flowers are very pretty.”

“ Do you think that the sheep and cattle eat
them ?”

“T don’t know, but I should think not, be-
cause they would not taste pleasant; and I
fancy animals are wise enough not to eat or
drink anything which would harm them.”

“And would the meadow-saffron flowers
make them ill?”
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 85

“T think they would, because the corms and
the seeds are both alike, and both rather poison-
ous in the same way; and it is very probable
that the same poison which is in the corms and
the seeds would be found also in the leaves and
the flowers.”

“ Don’t cows and horses sometimes eat plants
that do them harm ?”

“Sometimes, I think, because they will eat
the young twigs of the yew tree, and die of it,
whilst a plant called water drop-wort is said to
have been eaten by cows, and to have killed
them ; but these are exceptions. There are many
coarse grasses they will not eat, and they seldom
touch some of the buttercups which would do
them harm. Depend upon it, cows and horses
are as able to choose their food as you or I, and
do not often make a mistake.”

Thus ends our “chat” on the wild flowers
found on a marsh; but as it closes J must have
one more “last word,” and say something which
I have long thought of, but had no chance of

telling. It does not concern marsh flowers any
86 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

more than others, but it has something to do
with all flowers, and the time has come when
I should tell you just a little about it, so that
it may be a help to you hereafter. We have
already pulled a great many pretty flowers in
pieces so as to get at their secrets, and you
must not be surprised at my taking advantage
of what you know to tell you a little which I
fancy you do not know. In studying a great
many living things, such as plants, we are
obliged to lump them together in groups, with
some likeness which is common to them. If we
were to turn all our money out of our pockets
upon the table, we should find it convenient,
first of all, to put all the coins of one kind to-
gether, so that there would be a pile of gold
coins, then a pile of silver coins, and lastly a pile
of bronze coins. Yet in all the piles we should
have coins of different sizes and values; but
they would agree in one thing—that they are
either gold, or silver, or bronze. Now, if we
were able to sort out all plants in the same

manner, we would have three piles. The first
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 87

pile would be the most perfect, and these would
be called by some long name, such as Exogens,
or Dicotyledons. I am sorry for the name, but
I must tell you of the thing presently. The
second pile would be called the Endogens, or
Monocotyledons. And the third would be the
Thallogens, or Acotyledons. As far as we are
concerned, we can cut off the last pile altogether,
for they are not flowering plants at all; and
sometimes they are called Cryptogams, because
they have hidden flowers, such as ferns, mosses,
lichens, fungi, and sea-weeds. This will leave
us two groups or lots, which are called some-
times Exogens and Endogens, and sometimes
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. I wish that
I could give you two words which would be
easier to remember and yet represent the mean-
ing as well. We can cut them short, if you
please, and call them “Dicots” and “ Mono-
cots;” but I must tell you why they are called
by these names, and the differences between
them.

If we were to sow some mustard seeds upon
88 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

a piece of damp flannel, and keep them moist,
they would very soon begin to grow; the outer
coat or husk of the seed would crack, and a
little bud would be pushed out, and that would
be the growing point. Very soon after, as this
point kept on growing, the bud at the end
would open, and then gradually turn green, just

like two little green leaves rather rounded, and



Vie. 25.—AcoryLepon. MownocoryLepon. Dicorriepon.

opposite to each other. These are the first
pair of leaves, the cotyledonary leaves, thickish
and rounded, quite different from all the leaves
that will grow afterwards. Another name for
them is “seed-leaves,” because they come out
from the seed ; and there are two of them, called
Di-cotyledon, because di means two; and all

the plants which have two seed-leaves together
MEADOW-SAFFRON. 89

when the seeds begin to grow are called Dicoty-
ledons, or “ plants with two seed-leaves.” This
is the larger of the two piles or groups of
plants, and includes forest and fruit trees, and
a great many flowers and herbs. There are
other differences between these Dicots and the
Monocots, some of which I will tell you now.
The Dicots have leaves with branched veins
which form a network in the leaves; but the
Monocots have leaves with parallel veins, such
as a grass leaf or a tulip leaf. The flowers of
the Dicots have usually five parts, sometimes
four, as five sepals, five petals, five or ten sta-
mens; but the Monocots have flowers with
three parts, such as three sepals, and three
petals, often very much alike, three or six
stamens, and a three-cornered ovary. The
second or smaller group of plants, therefore,
are the Monocots, and the growing seed has
but one seed-leaf, with the other differences
just now mentioned ; so that it is never difficult
to tell at once whether a plant belongs to

the Dicots or the Monocots, even without
90 MEADOW-SAFFRON.

the trouble of watching to see how the seeds
erow.

If we will turn back and think of all the
plants we have gathered and talked about in our
rambles, we shall discover that we have only
had four Monocots—lords and ladies, wild hya-
cinth, lily of the valley, and meadow-saftron ;
all the rest have been Dicotyledons. Remem-
ber that the grasses, of which there are many,
are Monocots; and the bulbous-rooted plants
which are grown in gardens, such as tulips, cro-
cuses, lilies, snowdrops, and onions, with some
others; but, in this country, none of the shrubs
and trees, for they are all Dicotyledonary. Per-
haps you will understand now why two such
long words as Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons
have been.uscd, instead of having to say every
time, “ plants with two secd-leaves,” and “ plants
with one seed-leaf ;” because the one long word,
in each case, takes the place of five short ones.

This seems to me to be a fitting ending for
our third chat on wild flowers, as it will put

into practice some of the things we have been
MEADOW-SAFFRON. — 91

learning, and in future will help us the better
to understand the reasons for looking at the
veins of the leaves to see whether they are net-
veined or parallel-veined ; and also for counting
the parts of the flowers, to see whether they are
four or five, or only three or double that num-
ber. Now we may part again for a while, with
the two words Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons

ringing in our ears.

INDEX.

Acotyledons, 87.
Acutely crenate, 38.
Alternate leaves, 16.

Bi-serrate margin, 37.
Botany, what is it? 58.
Bracts, 21.

Bulb, 80.

Calyx, 63.

Ciliate margin, 34.
Colchicum, 81.
Composite flowers, 40.
Compound leaves, 15.
Corm, 80.

Corolla, 63.

Corymb, 52.
Cotyledonary leaves, 88.
Crenate leaves, 21.
Crenate margin, 36.

Crucifers, or crossworts, 12.

Cuckoo-flower, 11.

Dentate margin, 36.

Dicotyledons, 87.
Disc-flowers, 40.

Endogens, 87.

Entire margin, 34.
Lod

Exogens, 87.

Families, 11.
Fertilization, 26, 76.
Florets, 44.

Flowers, trimorphic, 71.
Forget-me-not, 59.

Goat’s-beard, 40.
Inflorescence, 69.
Insect-help, 74.
Involucre, 43.
King-cups, 19.
Ladies’ smocks, 13.

Lanceolate leaves, 16.
Leaf-margins, 34.


94,

.

Long-styled flowers, 71.

Margin, bi-serrate, 37.
Margin, ciliate, 34.
Margin, crenate, 36.
Margin, dentate, 36.
Margin, entire, 34.
Margin, runcinate, 37.
Margin, serrate, 36.
Margin, sinuate, 37.
Marsh-marigold, 19.
Marsh-pennywort, 29.
Meadow-saffron, 78.
Meadow-sweet, 49.
Mid-styled flowers, 71.
Monocotyledons, 87.

Net-veined leaves, 79.

Ovary, 24.
Ovules, 24.

Pappus, 46.

Parallel-veined leaves, 79.

Peltate leaves, 32.
Perianth, 82.

Petals, 22.

Pinnate leaves, 15, 50.
Pistils, 24.

Pollen, 25.

Purple loosestrife, 67.



INDEX.

Raceme, 62.
Ray-flowers, 40.
Receptacle, 43.

Rose family, 49.
Runcinate margin, 37.

Scorpion- grass, 60.
Scorpioid raceme, 62.
Seeds scattered, 46.
Sepals, 22.

Serrate margin, 36.
Sheep-rot, 30.
Short-styled flowers, 72.
Simple leaves, 15.
Sinuate margin, 37.
Spike, 69.

Spinks, 1+.

Stigma, 25.
Strap-shaped florets, 44.
Style, 24.

Thistle-down, 48.
Three-formed flowers, 68.

Viper’s bugloss, 65.
Wallflowers, 17.
Whorl, 69.

Wild rose, 55.

Yellow gowans, 19.
Rambles Hmong the Wild Flowers.

IV.
ACROSS THE COMMON

PREFACE.

—-4+4———_

DEAR youNG Frienps, this is our fourth series of
“Rambles,” and must be taken over whatever of
common, heath, or moorland lies within our reach.
Some of the flowers may be seen growing on dry
banks, but a little bit of heath or common will supply
them all. Hedgerows, woods, and damp marshes
have all of them their wild flowers which love such
places best, and so have sandy heaths; and in the
warm midsummer days we must hunt over such
spots for heather and broom, and such other wild
flowers as we have not met with up to now. Of
course, if you have read and used our first three
“Rambles,” you will have learned a little how to use
your eyes, and how much depends sometimes upon
a very little thing. You must never forget how so
much depends upon your own powers of seeing.
You must have sharp eyes, and be quick to use
them, believing that every spot and every hair has
its use, and everything its proper place. The most
successful plant-hunter will be the one who can ob-
serve best all the differences between one kind of
plant and another. M. C. COOKE.

CONTENTS.



IHAREBELL,
SCARLET PIMPERNEL, ....
HEATHER,

YELLOW BROOM,

SILVER-WEED, .... a bas
EYE-BRIGHT,

THISTLES, .... ee

THE SUNDEW, ....























































































































































































HAREBELL.*

‘HE “bluebell of Scotland” is
the pretty little blue flower,
so common on heaths and commons,



which is known also as the “hare-
bell ;” but children often call those

flowers bluebells which are found in

* Campanula rotundzfolia.
10 HAREBELL.

woods at spring-time, and should be called “ wild
hyacinth.” The latter have a string of blue
bell-flowers on one side of a flower-stalk, whilst
the former has only one flower at the top of a
very thin wiry flower-stalk.

“With drooping bells of clearest blue
Thou didst attract my childish view,
Almost resembling
The azure butterfly that flew
Where on the heath thy blossoms grew
So lightly trembling.”
They are called bell-flowers because they are
shaped like a hand-bell, and hang upon a foot-
stalk so thin that they are always trembling
with the least puff of wind. A much larger
kind grows in gardens, and is known as Canter-
bury bells ; but they are all known by the Latin
name of Campanula, which means “a little bell.”
The harebell is shaped like a small thimble
hanging with the mouth downwards, and is
usually blue, but sometimes white. One of its

?

common names is “ladies’ thimble ;” only that

name is sometimes given to a stitchwort which
HAREBELL. il

grows in hedges and has a pretty white flower
that is never blue. The best name for it is
“bluebell” or “harebell,” and by that it is
mostly known,

“ Bluebell! how gaily art thou drest,
How neat and trim art thou, sweet flower ;
How silky is thy azure vest,

1”

How fresh to flaunt at morning’s hour

The “harebell” is sometimes written “ hairbell,”
because the flowers hang upon a thread so slender
that they seem to be hanging from a hair. Cissy
was not long in picking a handful, and seated
herself on a grassy slope to take her lesson.

“ Now, uncle, tell me about these two kinds
of leaves. Those at the bottom of the stem,
which spread out and lie upon the ground, are
roundish, notched at the edge, and have long
stalks ; but the others are different.”

“They are the root-leaves, and are often
different in other plants from the stem-leaves.
That is one reason why we should always look

at the root-leaves as well as the stem-leaves.”
12 HAREBELL.

* Well, the stem-leaves are long and narrow,
almost like little grass-leaves, and the edges are
not notched.”

“So far as it goes that is all right, but you
_ should always notice how the stem-leaves are
placed on the stem. In some plants the leaves
are in pairs, opposite to each other; and in some
they are placed apart, or alternate—one leaf on
one side of the stem, and one on the other side,
but higher up.”

“These are alternate, then, for they are not
in pairs, opposite to each other. And now for
the flowers.”

“Sometimes growing singly, and sometimes
two or three on a stem. There are special
names for the different ways in which flowers
are seated upon the stem, but we need not to
trouble ourselves to-day.”

“ More names to learn, uncle ; but never mind,
let us pull the flower in pieces.”

“ Before you do so, Cissy, you must notice
that these are bell-flowers, and all in one piece.
It is a one-petalled corolla.”
HAREBELL. 13

“T see that; and the little green sepals outside
are all joined in one piece, with five teeth—I
forget what to call it.”

“The calyx!”

“Oh yes, that is the calyx; and the inside blue
flower like a thimble -is the corolla, with five
notches at the mouth, and something inside,
which we must cut it to see. That willdo! I
have torn it down the middle, and there are five
stamens, with an ovary at the bottom. Isn’t it
strange that flowers seem so fond of the number
Jive?”

“A oreat many plants have the parts of the
flower in fives, but you will learn one day that
there are also many plants which have the parts
of the flower in threes: such plants as snow-
drops, tulips, crocuses, lilies, and many more.”

“The wild hyacinth, too. And now I can see
how much it is different from the harebell.”

“Have you noticed how the bees have been
buzzing around these flowers since we sat down ?
Those bells on the bank have been kept swing-
ing by the bees.”
14 HAREBELL.

“‘T saw the bees; but I am afraid of them, so
I did not look at them very much. They cannot
know one flower from another.”

“ Indeed they do, Cissy ; they know more than
you think. I can tell you that bees know the
colour of flowers, and that humble-bees are very
fond of blue flowers, as well as of red ones, and
that more humble-bees visit red and blue flowers
than those of all other colours together. Honey-
bees are fond of blue flowers, but they like red
ones better, and yellow ones hardly at all.”

“Why do they go to flowers and hover about
them ?”

“O Cissy, what a strange question! Do you

not remember what it is that

‘Gathers honey all the day

. is
From every opening flower’ ?

Bees go to the flowers to gather honey from
them. You can taste the sweet nectar in cow-
slip and primrose and honeysuckle flowers ; and
do you think that bees are more foolish than
you 2”
HAREBELL. 15

“ But do they go for anything else?”

“Perhaps not on purpose, but they do some-
thing else without knowing it.”

“And what may that be?”

“When you look at the stamens to count
them, do you never notice that the top, which
is called the anther, is often burst open, and
covered with a yellow powder which we call
pollen? This pollen or fine dust must find its
way from the stamen on to the top of the pistil
or ovary. If no pollen falls on the top of the
ovary, the seeds never ripen.”

“T have read that, but I never thought much
about it.”

“Suppose that a bee puts its head into one
of the bell-flowers, and tries to suck the nectar
from the bottom. In doing so the head of the
insect brushes against the stamens, and the
anthers will burst and sprinkle the pollen dust
over the head of the bee. Then the bee flies
away and goes to another flower of the same
kind, and thrusts its head deeply into the bell.
In this case some of the pollen dust is rubbed
16 HAREBELL.

off from the head of the bee, and falls upon the
top of the ovary, just where it is wanted, and
then the ovules become seeds.”

“Why does it go to the ovary rather than
anywhere else ?”

“Because at the top of the ovary there are
always one, two, three, or more sticky places,
called the stigma, to which the pollen sticks
firmly ; and the other parts are not sticky. The
bee cannot reach the bottom of the corolla with-
out brushing its head against the little sticky
stigma on the top of the ovary, and a large bee
cannot thrust its head into a bell-flower without
brushing the pollen out of the anthers on to its
head.”

“And so the bee helps the flower.”

“And the flower helps the bee. There is still
another way in which a bee may help a flower.
I have told you before that there are some plants
which have flowers bearing stamens and no
ovary ; and that there are other plants, or other
flowers on the same plant, which enclose an ovary

and no stamens. The pollen has to travel from
(501)
HAREBELL. 17

the flowers which bear stamens into the flowers
which only bear ovaries; but how is this to be
done? The wind may help a little by blowing
the pollen from one to another, but insects can
do it much better in passing from one flower to
another. So you see that even an insect may
be doing good without knowing it.”

“Yes, uncle. But if a bee flies away from my
bell-flowers with pollen on its head, and then
goes on a visit to a dandelion, the pollen of the
bell-flower will not do any good to the dan-
delion.”

‘Certainly not. But the bee does not fly from
a bell-flower to a dandelion—it seldom visits
yellow flowers—but it prefers to go from one
bell-flower to another, or from one blue or red
flower to another. Some insects are very true
to the flowers they visit, and they go from one
flower to another of the same kind as long as
they are in blossom. Insects are able to choose
the flowers they like best, sometimes by colour
and sometimes by the smell.”

“Do you think that bees or flies are able to

(501) 9

4
18 HAREBELL.

know a flower by its smell, and to love it as we
do?” |

“Tndeed I do, One blow-fly smells stinking
meat and likes it, another loves stinking fish.
One insect, or more, loves the scent of lime
flowers, and another revels in the odour of sweet-
smelling clover. Insects can detect the sweet
scent, or what is to them the pleasant scent, of
flowers, when our noses can scarcely find any
scent at all.”

“Some insects, I suppose, go to certain flowers
because they like their colour; and some insects
go to other flowers because of their scent. That,
I suppose, is what you wish me to know.”

“Yes; and I wish also to tell you that insects
go to flowers for some good purpose, and not
for pastime or mischief. It is their work, and

they do it as if they were at play.”
SCARLET PIMPERNEL.*

= SE your eyes, Cissy, to find the little

scarlet pimpernel, and I suppose you
only know it by the common name of ‘poor
man’s weather-glass.’”

“Yes, uncle ; I know the little red flower that
we call ‘ poor man’s weather-glass,’ but I couldn’t
tell you why it has such a funny name.”

“Perhaps I can help you; and whilst you are
looking for the flower, I will explain it. There
are some plants which open and close their
flowers at certain times of the day: some open
in the morning, some open in the evening, and
some only open when the sun is shining. These
are called ‘meteoric flowers,’ and the pimpernel
is a meteoric flower. When it is a cloudy or

rainy day the flowers are closed, and they open

* Anagallis arvensis,
20 SCARLET PIMPERNEL.

in the sunlight. If the flowers are open in the
morning, it isa sign that there will be no rain ;
but if they are closed, you must carry an um-
brella. This is the reason why they are called
the ‘poor man’s weather-glass,’ because, like a
weather -glass, they foretell changes in the
weather.

‘Come tell me, thou coy little flower,
Converging thy petals again,
Who gave thee the magical power
Of shutting thy cup on the rain ?
While many a beautiful bower
Is drenched in nectareous dew,
Sealed up is your scarlet-tinged flower,

And the rain peals in vain upon you.’ ”

“Then they are almost ‘sensitive plants,’ I
suppose, but not those which open and shut
regularly.”

“Yes, they are all sensitive to something ; if
not to a coming shower, then to the light of the
sun. ago, and wrote out a ‘flower-clock,’ so as to

of

know the hour by the opening or closin

a
oS
SCARLET PIMPERNEL. 21

flowers. Thus, there is the bindweed to open at
four in the morning, the sow thistle at six, the
pimpernel at cight, the marigold at nine, the
blue passion-flower at twelve ; and, in the even-
ing, the evening primrose at six, the campion at
seven, and others at eight. Some people call
the opening and shutting the waking and going

to sleep of flowers.

‘Oh let us live so that flower by flower,
Shutting in turn, may leave

A lingerer still for the sunset hour,

”

A charm for the shaded eve.’

“The daisy always closes and goes to bed as
the sun goes down, and then it looks so sleepy.”

“Flowers are always most open in the bright
sunlight, except evening flowers and the few
that blossom in the night. You know the
garden flower called ‘purple convolvulus:’ it is
avery early riser, and opens its flowers at two
o'clock in the morning.”

“ Now I have found the pimpernel, but nearly
all the little flowers are closed.”
22 SCARLET PIMPERNEL.

“T have told you something about the families
of plants in our rambles, but you would scarcely
think that the pimpernel belongs to the family
of the primroses. There is not much family
likeness, but you see that the corolla is all in
one piece.”

“How thin and weak all the stems are, so
that they lie and creep along upon the ground ;
and the leaves are so thin.”

“Opposite to each other, in pairs, along the
stem. Almost egg-shaped, ovate they are called,
and not toothed at the edge. There are no
proper leaf-stalks, for the leaves are seated, or
placed, close to the stem. In some plants, when
pairs of leaves are so close, they are joined to-
gether, so as to appear to be one leaf; but these
are not joined, or connate.”

“ T should like to find some plant with connate
leaves.”

“They are not very common, but perhaps we
shall find the ‘ teazel’ some day. Now you must |
look at the flowers, for you see that they have
rather long, thin stalks, and everywhere the
SCARLET PIMPERNEL. 23

flower-stalk comes out from the stem, just at the
place where the leaf joins the stem. This is
called the ail, and it means ‘ arm-pit.’ Just as
your arm joins the body, there is the arm-pit;
so, where the leaf joins the stem, there is the
axil. Pluck nearly any flower which has a stem,
and where the leaf, or the leaf-stalk, joins the
stem : that is the ail, and in the axil isa bud or
a flower.”

‘‘ Axil—arm-pit ; I shall remember.”

‘And now for the flowers. The outside cup,
or green calyx, is in one piece, with five teeth:
but the cup is a shallow one, and not like the
long tube of the primrose. When the corolla
falls away, the cup, or calyx, remains behind.
See how easily the corolla falls off, all in one
piece, with a hole in the middle, like a cart
wheel. When a wheel goes round it is said to
‘rotate,’ because rota is a word for wheel. A
corolla such as this is rotate, because it is like
a little cart wheel, all hanging together, with
a hole in the middle. There are five rays, or
lobes, or teeth, whichever you please to call
24, SCARLET PIMPERNEL.

them, to your bright red corolla, and within
these you will find the five stamens, with the
ovary in the middle.”

“The number is all the same again: there
are five teeth to the cup, five points to the
corolla, and five stamens.”

“In some of the oldest of the flowers, where
the corolla has fallen off for some days, you will
see that the ovary remains behind, and has
grown much larger ; and it goes on growing into
a seed-vessel, and a very curious one, round like
a pea, until, when it is ripe, it is nearly as large
as a small pea.”

“Not a soft, juicy berry ?”

“No; it is a hard, dry capsule, or seed-box,
and a very strange one. I will tell you what it
is like, because they will not be ripe for some
weeks. The little capsule is round, and green
at first, but becomes dirty yellow, and when it
is ripe it splits all round, and the top falls off
like a lid, with the little seeds packed closely in
the lower half, like eggs in a nest.”

“T shall have to learn the names of the
SCARLET PIMPERNEL. 25

different sorts of fruits in the autumn. I have
called them all fruit, and did not notice the
difference.”

“Well, Cissy, a pea-pod is a fruit, and so are
a filbert, and a plum, and a blackberry, and a
cucumber, but they are all very different.”

“ Are all the dry fruits capsules ?”

“Not properly so; neither are all the pulpy
fruits berries. A red or black currant is a berry,
but a cherry or a plum with a stone in the
middle is not a berry, but a drupe. Then the
dry fruits may split open when ripe, like a pod;
or they do not split, like a filbert. Those which
split when ripe, if they are long and narrow, are
commonly called pods; but if short, or nearly
round, capsules. Those which do not split are
nuts. Of course there are other names for fruits,
but we need not trouble about them now. We
should learn to know the things, and then their
names.”
HEATHER.*

s HE large purple tufts of heather which

grow in a scattered manner over heaths
and commons look very pretty in autumn, but
they should be seen in all their glory on moors,
and amongst the mountains of Scotland and
Wales, where they cover acres of ground like a
carpet. There are several different plants which
are called by the name of heather—such as the
ling, or he-heather, and the Scotch, or she-
heather, and the cross-leaved heath; but all of
them are very much alike, and it is no wonder
that they are commonly known by the same
name.

‘The heather flower
Of scent delicious, and inviting still

The eye to rest upon its beauty, spread

* Erica tetralix.
HEATHER. o7

For miles athwart the moor, where wild fowl haunt,
And where the industrious bee collects her sweets.’
We shall find at least three kinds of heather, all
growing together on the common, and we will
take them one at a time, and then we shall see
how much they are alike, and where they differ.
A pretty cluster of the cross-leaved heath, as
the flowers look the brightest, is at your feet,

and we will take it to begin with.”

“What a pretty rose colour! and the flowers
look like waxwork.”

“The heath plants are almost like little
stunted shrubs with us, hardly a foot high,
and the flowers are small, but in such immense
numbers that they may be seen a long way
off.”

“And how tough and strong they are! I
cannot pull it up by the root, and I can scarcely
break off the branches.”

“JT think we can call them woody little shrubs,
for they are perennial, and grow from year to
year, for many years, close to the ground, and
cover it like a carpet. In this one the tiny
28 HEATHER.

leaves are narrow, and growing in clusters on
the branches.”

“ Always in fours, and fringed with hairs—
four, four, four, cross leaves. And this, then, is
the ‘ cross-leaved heath.’ ”

‘‘ The ‘rule of five’ is broken with the heather,
as you will soon find out by the flowers.”

“So it is. Here is the little green cup, or
calyx, with four teeth ; and the corolla, hardly
bell-shaped, but all in one piece, with four teeth
at the mouth.”

“True, it is a one-petalled corolla, nearly of
an oval shape; and these grow in clusters, at the
tops of the branches, with the mouths hanging
down, and all turned to one side.”

“ Racemes, I should say ; but the flower-stalks
are short. What would you call racemes at the
end of a branch?”

“Terminal racemes; but these are more clus-
ters than racemes. And now for the inside of
the flower ; and you must be careful, for they
are small.”

“Pistil in the centre, and four—four, yes,
HEATHER. 29

eight stamens. All in fours this time, with
such strange-looking horns, like bristles, to the
stamens. I can just see them, but it wants a
hand-glass to see them well.”

“ And now, Cissy, you must find the Scotch
heather, with longer racemes of flowers, and the
leaves more pointed, but not in clusters of four.
Look carefully, and you will be certain to find
it, for I have often found them, growing closely
together.”

“JT wonder whether I have got it here, with
leaves in threes instead of fours, and they are
not hairy.”

“T expect that you are right, Cissy ; for you
see that the flowers are not so much in clusters
as in lone racemes, and the shape is rather
different, the colour more purple, and they are
more numerous.”

“T thought at the first that they were all
alike, but suppose I shall know them now as
the four-leaved and the three-leaved heather.
But they must be brothers and sisters, uncle,

they are so much alike.”
30 HEATHER.

“ More alike than they are to the other one
that we are looking after, which is called ‘ling’
in many places, and is very common. The
flowers are smaller, more open or bell-shaped,
and of a paler colour.”

“Do you think that I can find it for myself?”

“You should be able to see the difference in a
minute, for there is plenty of it round about us.”

“Then I see which it is, with the little pink
flowers more scattered about on the branches.”

“ Look first at those flowers, and you will find
that the calyx, or cup, of the flower is pink, like
the corolla, and looks like a double corolla, but
it is really a coloured calyx, with four teeth,
longer than the true corolla, which is nearly
hidden by them. Outside of both is a green
outer calyx, with four leaves or bracts. So you
see that there are three sets of flower-leaves—
the little four-toothed corolla inside, then comes
the larger coloured calyx, and outside all the
four green bracts. Stamens nearly as in the
other heaths, and eight. Now we will turn to
the leaves.”
HEATHER. 31

“ And they are very small, and opposite.”

“The young branches will show you that the
leaves are in four rows, up and down, on opposite
sides of the thin twigs. So that in all the three
kinds of heather the leaves are placed in a
different manner. The branches of ling are
gathered, and bound tightly together to make
little brooms.”

“They are useful as well as pretty.”

“Yes. It is even said that, a very long time
ago, the Danes made beer from heather; and
now the bees, you see, are very busy all around,
gathering honey from the flowers. A great
quantity of honey is gathered by bees from the
flowers of heather.

‘The powdery bells, that glance in purple bloom,
Fling from their scented cups a sweet perfume ;
While from their cells, still moist with morning dew,
The wandering wild bee sips the honeyed glue.’”

“T should think that the Scotch moors are
very beautiful when the heather is in flower.”
“Indeed they are, Cissy; and sometimes you
32 HEATHER.

can see the ground purple for miles with these
little flowers, and hear the bees humming over
them, and see the wild birds hiding amongst
them.”

“Ts the fruit a berry ?”

“No; it is a dry capsule, with many seeds, in
the heathers, but it is a fleshy berry in some
of the little shrubs which belong to the same
family, such as the bilberry and cranberry.”

“Could we not grow the heather in our
garden 2” i

“Not readily. They will not grow anywhere
as they do on their open heaths and moors, and
only by a great deal of care will they grow in
gardens at all. The ling is the most likely to
succeed. Many very beautiful foreign kinds
may be grown in greenhouses.

“As we jog along, Cissy, I wish to explain
to you two words which are often used in books
upon flowers, as they refer to the petals or
corolla, and you may be puzzled when you see
them. These two words are ‘monopetalous’

and ‘polypetalous.’ Indeed, you might guess
HEATHER. 33

that they meant ‘one-petalled’ and ‘many-
petalled, but you will desire to be quite sure.
We have in the heathers a monopetalous corolla,
in which the petals are joined along the sides
into a corolla, and not divided into four or five
separate petals, in which case it would have
been ‘polypetalous.’ You do not see the join-
ing of the petals perhaps, but you know that
the corolla is all in one piece. In the heather
flowers the corolla is like a little jug, which is
narrowed at the mouth, swells in the
middle, and is rounded at the bottom.

Such an one is said to be wzceolate.



But there are other kinds of mono-
Fic. 2.—Ur-

petalous corolla, which are not at all ree
narrowed at the mouth, but form a Harmen.
straight tube as they do in the honeysuckle
and the florets of the thistle. This is called a
tubular corolla. If we pass on to the primrose,
we find another kind of corolla which has a long
tube, and the mouth is furnished with five
spreading limbs or lobes, like petals, but joined
at the bottom into a tube. This is called salver-
(501) 3
34 HEATHER.

shaped, or hypocrateriform—a long ugly word.
If the petals are spreading in the same man-



Fic. 8.—TuBULAR COROLLA OF Fic. 4.—SALVER-SHAPED Co-
HONEYSUCKLE. ROLLA OF PRIMROSE.

ner, but the tube is very short, as it is in the
forget-me-not, then it is called rotate, or wheel-
shaped. When the corolla is shaped like a
little bell, as it is in the harebell, it is said to

be campanulate. But if the mouth is wider



Fie. 5.—Rorarre Cororia. Fic, 6.—CAMPANULATE COROLLA OF
a, Stamens attached. HAREBELL.

open, like a funnel, as in the bindweed, it is
called infundibuliform.
“ And now that I have named all the forms
HEATHER. 35

of the monopetalous corolla which have a regular,
or as we term it a symmetrical form, I must
run over the names of those which have an

irregular corolla—that is to say, the petals, or



Fig. 7.—INFUNDIBULIFORM COROLLA Fic. 8.—BILABIATE COROLLA
or BINDWEED. or EYEBRIGHT.

which would have been the petals if they had
been divided, are not all of the same shape and
size. There are the bilabiate, or two-lipped,
monopetalous corolla of the ‘eyebright’ and the
mints ; and the ringent, or gaping, corolla of the
yellow archangel, which is also two-lipped. Then
there is the very curious closed mouth of the
corolla in the snap-dvagon, which is a personate,

monopetalous corolla. And the pouch -like
36 HEATHER.

corolla of the calceolaria is an example of the
calceolate corolla. Then, lastly, there is the ir-
regular form of monopetalous corolla which is
found in the strap-shaped florets of the goat’s-

beard and dandelion—the lower part tubular,



Fic. 9.—CALCEOLATE COROLLA Fic. 10.—Licunatr FLoretT oF
oF CALCEOLARIA, DANDELION.

and the upper with a long strap on one side:
this is a ligulate corolla.

“T shall say nothing about the polypetalous
corolla, except to repeat that the petals are

separate, and not united together in any way ;
HEATHER. 37

and although the greater number of them are
regular, having all the petals equal in form and
size, there is one very marked exception in the
pea flowers, such as the yellow broom, the
flowers of which have a standard, two wings,
and a keel, and are called papilionaceous, from a
fancied resemblance to a sitting butterfly. Let
me advise you to read this all over again, and

be sure that you remember it.”
YELLOW BROOM.*

NE day we had a chat about families, and
Cissy learned what was the family like-

ness in the Crossworts, and many a time after
she amused herself by hunting after the different
kinds to see how many she could find. There
is another large family with peculiar shaped
flowers, which are quite as easy and even more
numerous. Some of them are grown in fields,
some are found in hedgerows, others on commons
and waste places, as well as in gardens and
almost everywhere. They are the Pea-flower
family, which include the garden peas, beans,
clovers, and many others, as well as the broom
and furze. They are easily known, both by
their flowers and their pods. All that are

found in this country have what are called

* Sarothamnus scoparius,
YELLOW BROOM. 39

butterfly flowers, which have five unequal petals.
The upper one stands up like a shield, and is the
largest, called the standard; one on each side

are the wings; and two at the bottom, partly



Fic. 11.--Pra Frowens.

A, Flower; 3B, Section; c, Stamens and Pistil; p, Pistil; u’, Petals; e, Standard ;
a—a, Wings; c, Keel; ©, Pod or Legume; Fr, Seed; «, Section.

joined together like a boat, are the keel: so that
there is one large one and two pairs of smaller

ones, and they look something like a butterfly
40 YELLOW BROOM.

at rest. Inside the flower are ten stamens, and
- these are also singular, because the ten filaments,
or stalks, are either joined together to form a
tube, or nine are joined together and a single
one is left outside. Then the fruit or pod con-
taining the seeds is like a pea-pod, formed of
two halves that are both alike, joined all the
way down, both back and front, but easily split-
ting at the joint and exposing a row of seeds.
A very good example is to be seen in the
common garden pea, in which the peas are the
seeds, all in a row.

A great many of this family are climbing
plants like the garden pea, the scarlet-runner,
and the vetch. Some are little creeping herbs,
like the clovers; but some are large shrubs, like |
the broom and furze, or even large trees, like the
laburnum, and a very common tree called an
acacia. In foreign countries some of the trees
grow to an immense size. The very prickly
shrub which grows on heaths and commons,
with bright yellow flowers, is the gorse, furze,

or whia; but we shall choose a shrub that is not
YELLOW BROOM. 41

a prickly one, with quite as pretty yellow flowers,
which we shall find in the old sand-pit. This
is the broom, or we might call it the royal
broom.

“You have read, Cissy, in your History of
England, that in olden times some of the royal
families were called Plantagenet, which is said
to mean ‘planta genista,’ because genista was the
Latin name of the ‘broom,’ and the broom was
the badge of the Plantagenets before they
adopted the rose. Another story is that Geof-
frey of Anjou placed a sprig of ‘broom’ in his
helmet on the day of battle, and was called from
it Plantagenet, and that he gave the name to
his children. Now we have reached the sand-
pit, and must gather the Plantagenet broom,
which is standing there in a thick mass of gor-
geous yellow blossom.”

“Tsn’t it lovely !” and that was all she said.

“The broom it is the flower for me,
That groweth on the common.
Oh the broom, the yellow broom!

The ancient poet sung it;
42 YELLOW BROOM.

And sweet it is on summer days
To lie at rest among it.”

“You find how tough the branches are, Cissy,
and ribbed, rising straight up, and so many of
them that the twigs are made into very good
brooms in many places. I wonder whether
besoms are called brooms because they were
made of broom twigs as well as of birch.”

“ And what little trefoil leaves! some of them
with no stalk at all. The plant seems to be all
twigs and flowers.”

“Yes; but it makes a grand show. And now
you can study the flowers. The green calyx
outside is almost bell-shaped, with two lips, and
finely toothed.”

“Ah! but the flowers, the butterfly flowers ;
I want to look at the flowers. That is the
standard, the biggest petal, at the top; it is
twice as large as the others. Then there are two

smaller ones at the sides



these are the wings ;
and at the bottom, like a hood turned upside
down, two petals joined together in the shape
of a little boat—that is the keel.
YELLOW BROOM. 43

‘And now I have a little boat
In shape a very crescent moon,
Some other flowers have a lower lip, but when
you compare them you will soon see how dif-
ferent they are from the ‘ butterfly flowers.’”

“The stamens lie in the little boat, all of a
bunch ; there are ten of them, and the stalks are
all glued together around the pistil.”

“No, Cissy, you should not call them stalks ;
they are the filaments, or little threads, of the
stamens with the anthers at the top, and you
see that they are all curved so as to lie in the
little keel, and scarcely to be seen without
bending down the petals. Look how neatly
they fit into the hollow, just like a tiny ‘ Jack-
in-the-box.’”

“T can only just see the top of the pistil.”

“Tf you would clear away the filaments which
are closed around the pistil, you would see that
the ovary is a long and curved one, just like a
very small and young pea-pod, for such it is,
and it is the future pod in a very infant stage.
When the corolla dies and falls off, the ovary
44, YELLOW BROOM.

remains, and it continues to grow until it becomes
the seed-vessel or pod, and this, in the common
pea, is the pod which contains the peas. This
is the kind of fruit which is to be found in the
Pea-flower family, and in the broom as well as
in the pea.”

“We must wait for the pods until later on,
when the flowers have fallen and the ovaries
have grown into pods.”

“Yes, my dear; and then we shall find the
pods nearly black, and a little hairy, shaped like
pea-pods, only smaller, each holding a row of
seeds much smaller than peas.”

“ And are they good to eat?”

“No; they become very hard, and it is said
that sheep are fond of eating them, which makes
them tipsy for a time; and so if children eat
them it makes their heads giddy. Laburnum
seeds are even worse, and are more poisonous.
Children should never eat wild seeds, or berries,
unless they are strawberries, or blackberries, or
filberts, which they know to be good.”

“You said that there are many wild flowers
YELLOW BROOM. 45

which belong to this family ; shall we find any
more of them to-day ?”

“Yes; I pointed you to the prickly gorse.”

“T know; but I mean, any others.”

‘“‘ Perhaps we may ; but the clovers have very
small flowers.”

“And I shall know them always by their
curious flowers when they are in blossom, and
by the pods when the blossoms are gone, but not
by the leaves when there are no flowers or fruit.”

“Not for certainty, Cissy, until you know
more about wild flowers, because leaves vary so
much.
leaves, like the clovers; but some other plants
have trefoil leaves, like the wood-sorrel and the
wild strawberry. Then many of them have
pinnate leaves with a number of leaflets on each
side of the foot-stalk ; but many other plants have
pinnate leaves, only not quite like those of the
pea flowers. I do not know of any which have
simple leaves—that is to say, leaves with only
one blade, like the violet and primrose, or the
oak and poplar.”
46 YELLOW BROOM.

“ Are the leaves of any of them eaten ?”

“Only by sheep and cattle; none of them
for salads or vegetables. Don’t forget, if you
are ever uncertain about the shape of the flower,
to look at the stamens, which should be ten

joined together, or nine united and one free.”

SILVER -WEED.*

S we stroll along to the common, in search
of another of our wild flowers, my com-
panion and myself chat of many things that
relate to plants and their leaves. This time we
were talking most of the hairs which clothe the
cuticle, and such small objects as are scarcely
visible to the naked eye. Hairs are common
enough on leaves, stems, and flowers, and we
are often content to say that such parts are
hairy or smooth without being able to say
what is the form, which our eyes are not strong
enough to detect. By using a good pocket-glass
a little more can be seen. But it is the micro-
scope only which can reveal all the variety of
form in hairs; and as this last instrument re-
quires skill for its use, we had to be content
with gossip.

* Potentilla anserina,
48 SILVER-WEED.

“ Hairs,” I said, “are most often simple and
delicate tubes, tapering and closed at the end,
and either with or without cross partitions, at
certain distances apart. Some hairs are very
short, and then the appearance is velvety ; some
are long, waved, and twisted together, and then
the surface is woolly. Besides simple hairs,
there are some few which are branched; and
some, although not branched, are thickened at
the top. The stinging hairs of the nettle have
a swollen top which breaks off at a touch, and
then the stinging juice escapes. Glandular hairs
are little cells containing oil or some other fluid
borne at the top of slender hairs. They are
large and pretty on the leaves of the sundews,
short and small on lavender and geranium.
Some leaves have on their under surface star-
' shaped hairs, or even irregular scales, and others
are only frosted with a powdery meal.”

“ And all these are supposed to be given for
some good purpose, or for some use.”

“Exactly. And now we have to gather the

silver-weed, and learn why it is silvery. It is
SILVER-WEED. 49

common enough by roadsides, in waste places,
and on such ground as this. I don’t know why
it should have been called ‘ goosegrass,’ as the
plant usually called ‘goosegrass’ is a slender
straggling herb, which climbs in hedges, and is
very rough in all parts, with hooked prickles, so
that it cleaves to the clothes, and is also called
‘cleavers.’”

“ But the ‘silver-weed’ creeps on the ground,
and grows in large patches. We always call it
silver-weed because of the silvery leaves.”

“As you know it so well, you had better give
me your account of it; and there is plenty of it
close by, which may help you.”

“It has a creeping stem, which creeps along
the ground, and has little rootlets at all the
joints, to keep it fixed, and the leaves rise up
from the runners, about six inches long.

“There always appear to be a great many
leaves and a very few flowers; for the leaves
grow in large dense patches, and the flowers are
solitary.

“Of course the leaves are pinnate, and broader
(501) 4
50 SILVER-WEED.

above than below, so that the upper leaflets are
the largest, and about six leaflets on each side
with one at the end. Sometimes they are op-
posite, and sometimes alternate. Tach leaflet
would be oblong, with the edge deeply cut into
rather large sharp-pointed teeth. The upper
side of the leaves is green, and only a little
silky ; but the under side is silvery white, and
very silky, because closely covered with long
white hairs, which are pressed down close to the
leaf.”

“Very good, Cissy. You have given a very
nice account of the leaves, and now you must do
the same for the flowers.”

“The first thing I know about them is that they
are yellow, and look very much like buttercups.”

“You must begin at the beginning, and give
us some notion of the flower-stalk and the in-
florescence.”

“The flowers grow singly, on the top of long
stalks, which come up from the creeping runners,
starting from the joints, and rising to about the
height of the leaves.”
SILVER-WEED. 51

“Don’t you see that they are avillary ?”

“Yes—they spring from the axils of the
leaves ; but I can see no bracts. The calyx is a
double one, each cut at the edge into five teeth,
and the outside ones are the smallest. Then
the yellow petals are five, quite distinct from
each other, and scarcely touching. The stamens

are in great number, and stand upon the calyx,



Fic, 12.—SrrawBerry.

and not on the corolla, so that when the petals
fall they leave the stamens behind.”

‘Must I help you with the column in the
centre, which is not a column, but a swollen or
thickened end to the flower-stalk, called the
receptacle, upon which stand a great number of
one-seeded ovaries, called also carpels, or ‘little
52 SILVER-WEED.

fruits’? The receptacle enlarges a little after
the petals fall, but is never juicy.”

“T suppose the calyx grows to the receptacle?”

“You know what strawberries are, and you
call them a fruit; but they are only just such a
receptacle as this, which continues to grow after
the petals fall, and becomes very large and juicy
and sweet. If you look at the outside of a
strawberry, you will see a great number of pale
dots: these are the carpels, or little fruits, each
with one sinall seed inside. The strawberry
flower is like a silver-weed flower, only it is
white, and the receptacle becomes ‘fleshy.”

“Do the raspberry and blackberry belong to
the same family as the strawberry ?”

“Yes; and the flowers are very much alike.
If you pluck a ripe raspberry, you will gather
with it the end of the flower-stalk. When you
pull this out of the ripe raspberry, it is a little
white conical receptacle, and you will see marks
on the outside where all the fruits or carpels
were growing. This was a receptacle which

did not grow much, but became longer, and the
SILVER-WEED. 53

little berries studded over it, packed close to-
gether, were the carpels, which became juicy as
they ripened, each with a little seed buried in
the juice. Now, do you see the difference be-
tween a raspberry and a strawberry ?”

“T believe that I do. The strawberry has



Fic. 18.—RASPBERRY F Rurts.

the receptacle changed into the fruit, as we call
it, and the carpels are dry, and stick on the out-
side. The raspberry has a conical, rather spongy
receptacle, and the carpels become juicy and
joined together all around the receptacle, but
54, SILVER-WEED.

can be pulled off all together, like a cap, when
the raspberry is ripe.”

“Of course the blackberry is just the same
sort of fruit as a raspberry, and all belong to
the Rose family. You have asked me once or



Fic. 14.—Recepracte, CARPELS, Etc., oF BRAMBLE.
twice before to explain to you how it is that
single flowers become double when they are
grown in gardens, or, as we say, cultivated.

The rose is a good example, because the present


Fic. 15.—Dovuste Rose.

SILVER-WEED. 57

‘double’ roses, so called, are descended, as chil-
dren, from a stock which was single. Double
flowers are those in which the number of petals
has been largely increased, beyond the usual or
original number in the wild flower, and are there-
fore what are termed ‘ malformations’ or ‘mon-
strosities.’ The wild rose, you know, has in the
centre of the flower a great number of stamens,
but the garden rose has none or rarely very few.
The reason for this is that the stamens, in the
garden rose, are changed into petals. Learn
from this that it is possible for stamens to be-
come ‘petaloid,’ or to be changed into petals.
If you examine the single dahlia, you will see
that the central florets are tubular and fertile ;
but in the double dahlia they are changed into
strap-shaped florets, and are not fertile. From
this we learn that when single flowers become
double they are no longer fertile, and do not
produce seeds. That pretty white flower which
floats on ponds and lakes, and is called the
white water-lily, is sometimes seen becoming
more double by the change of stamens into
58 SILVER-WEED.

petals, so that you may see little petals carrying
a small anther at the top. If you will take the
trouble to examine double flowers, suc: as those
of the double hawthorn, double primrose, double
stocks, you will find that as the petals increase,
so do the stamens diminish, until they are all
changed into petals. The lesson this should
teach you is, that if you wish to find out the
true number of petals and stamens in any given
flower, you should use single flowers; and if
you find at any time a wild flower which has
more petals than other flowers of the same kind
of plant growing near it, you may expect to find
also that it is deformed in other particulars, and
has fewer stamens than it should have if it were
perfect.”


Fie. 16.—Witp Roser.

EYE-BRIGHT.*

WO little plants, not very unlike each
other, are usually to be found in dry,

hilly pastures, and on commons or heaths. They
are often both of them plentiful, and can scarcely
be mistaken the one for the other. These are
the wild thyme and the eye-bright, and both
are in flower nearly at the same time. The
garden thyme is known to most persons on
account of its scent, which is similar in the wild
thyme, but is not so strong. That it is also

found on banks may be learned from the line,—
“TI know a bank whereon the wild thyme grows.”

Some people say that it loves to grow on an old
ant-hill; but wherever it grows the bees will
soon find it out. When plentiful it quite per-
fumes the air. The other little plant has paler

* Euphrasia officinalis,
62 EYE-BRIGHT.

flowers, and does not grow in dense clumps, and
is without odour. The flowers in both are ir-
regular, small, and monopetalous—that is to say,
the petals are all united in one piece—but they
do not belong to exactly the same family. We
shall see them both, but it is only the eye-bright
which is our object to-day.

“T expect you to ask me at once what is the
meaning of the name, and I can give you two
reasons, either of which may be the right one.
The flowers, although small, are plainly to be
seen at some distance, when they seem to be
white, or with a faint purple tinge mixed with
yellow. Scattered over the ground the flowers
are turned upwards, and seem to be gazing at
you like hundreds of bright eyes. Hence they
may have been called bright eyes, or eye-bright.
Another reason for the name has been given
from its uses. The old plant-doctors, or herbal-
ists, thought it so good for the eyes that one of
them wrote, ‘If the herb was but as much used
as it is neglected, it would half spoil the spec-
tacle-maker’s trade.’ One has even said that
EYE-BRIGHT. 63

‘it hath restored sight to them that have been
blind for a long time. From this you may
learn that it was believed to have the power
of making the dim eyes bright, and hence was
called eye-bright. I see that you have found it,
Cissy, whilst I have been talking; and now we
will sit down amongst it, and ‘improve the
shining hour.’”

“T have been trying to find the longest
stems that I can, but they are all very short
and tough. You see that none of them are
longer than my hand, with one or two little
branches near the bottom.”

“Sometimes they are not longer than your
finger, but the root is rather long for the size
of the plant.”

“Tt is not a creeping root, but goes straight
down into the ground.”

“Although there is plenty of it, it does not
grow in spreading tufts, but each plant separate.”

“The leaves are small, and almost egg-shaped,
or ovate, without any foot-stalks, sitting close
to the stem, and in pairs, opposite to each other.
64 EYE-BRIGHT.

The edge of the leaves is toothed, but the teeth
are more blunt in the lower part of the leaves
than in the upper.”

“There are not more than about five teeth
on each side of the leaf.”

“ What shall we call the inflorescence? There
are only a few flowers, and on the upper part of
the stem, or the branches; but I should think
they are in a sort of spike, yet not a very good
one.”

“Yes; it is a loose, leafy spike.”

“The separate flowers have no proper stalk,
but they have a green calyx, with four or five
pointed teeth; and within this is the corolla,
‘the petals of which are joined below into a short
tube. The outer lobes or divisions of the corolla
form an upper and lower lip, so that it is a two-
lipped corolla, gaping at the mouth. The upper
lip is two-lobed, and the lower lip is three-
lobed. The lobes would be the petals if they
were not joined.”

“This is not such a hooded two-lipped corolla

as we find in the yellow dead-nettle, or even in
EYE-BRIGHT. 65

the yellow rattle; but the two lips are distinct
enough to be observed at once.”

“There is a yellow spot in the throat; for if
we call the corolla two-lipped, we may call the
opening in the middle a throat.”



Fic. 17.—FLower or Eyr-BrieHt.
1, Flower ; 2, Ovary and Style; 3, 4, 5, Capsule with Section ; 6, Seed, magnified ;
7, Section of Seed.

“Oh yes; that is a well-known name for the
opening of the tube of a corolla.”

“Most of the flowers are nearly white, with
purple streaks and a yellow throat.”

‘When the plant grows in mountain pas-

tures or on high moors, it is dwarfed very
(601) 5
66 EYE-BRIGHT.

much, and is such a tiny little plant, with
smaller flowers, and they are almost wholly
yellow.”

“Do plants usually grow smaller as you go
to colder places, or higher and higher up a
mountain side ?”

“Yes; as a rule, plants and shrubs become
smaller and smaller as you go up a mountain,
until it gets too cold for them to grow at all.”

“ But some plants will grow in cold countries,
and on the sides of mountains, which do not
. grow in the plains, or where the weather is
warm.”

“Certainly. Plants depend very much upon
what is termed temperature, as well as upon the
nature of the soil; and many animals depend
upon the plants. But you have quite forgotten
the stamens.”

“Indeed I have, for I was thinking of some-
thing else. I can only find four stamens, in two
pairs—that is, two and two; but they are very
small to find.”

“T am not surprised that you should have
EYE-BRIGHT. 67

forgotten them; but as you find that there are
only four, it is well that you found them at last.
In this family the stamens are usually two or
four, as well as in the Mint family, to which the
wild thyme belongs.”

“ And is the fruit a dry capsule ?”

“Yes; it is a small one and flattened, with
very little seeds, which are ribbed or furrowed.”

“Do I know any other plant which belongs
to this family and is not so small ?”

“Two or three you know in gardens, but they
will not help you much with the eye-bright.
These are the snap-dragon, the foxglove, the
yellow calceolaria, and the musk plant; but
they are all very different looking plants, and
you will have to study them to see where the
family likeness comes in.”

“Tt does not seem so easy to learn the inflo-
rescence as it does to understand the forms of
flowers.”

“ Let us try to do so by comparing together
the common forms of inflorescence. Of course
we leave out all solitary flowers, growing by
68 EYE-BRIGHT.

themselves. The simplest inflorescence is a
spike, in which the flowers stand one above
another upon the stem; but the single flowers
have no foot-stalk, or only a very short one.
The plantains have the flowers in a dense spike.
If the flowers are arranged in the same manner,

Fic. 18.—SpPrike. Fic. 19.—-RAcEME.

but all the flowers have foot-stalks of equal
length, it is called a raceme; so that a raceme
differs from a spike in having stalked flowers.
The flowers often turn over to one side, as they
do in the lily of the valley, but all the flower-

stalks are unbranched. When the inflorescence
EYE-BRIGHT. 69

is more spreading, and each of the flower-stalks
is branched either once or several times, then it
is called a panicle. Many of the grasses have
this kind of inflorescence, and so has the lilac.
If we suppose that a panicle has all the flower-
stalks gradually lengthened from the top one to

Fic. 20.—PANIcE. Fic. 21,—Coryms.

the lowest, so that all the flowers stand at the
same level or nearly so, then it is a corymb.
The flower-stalks themselves may be either
branched or unbranched. It sometimes seems
difficult to know a corymb from a cyme, but a

eyme, although it much resembles a corymb in
70 EYE-BRIGHT.

form, differs in growth ; for the central flower
opens first, and the side branches grow usually
in pairs, in succession, so that it keeps growing
by increase of branches and flowers, as in the
campion. Or the cyme may be one-sided, and

a succession of flower-stalks are produced on

Fie. 22.,—Cyme.

the upper side, which when young are curled
over and said to be scorpioid. It is hardly
necessary to tell you what an umbel is, for all
the flower-stalks start from the same level.

When each of these stalks carries a smaller
EYE-BRIGHT. 71

umbel at the top, it is compound. The head,
or capitulum, of the composite flowers was ex-
plained in our chat on the dandelion, goat’s-
beard, and thistle.”



Fic. 23.—Compounb UMBEL.
THISTLES.

HISTLES are of many kinds, as well as
buttercups, but thistles especially, and

yet they have not many friends. Farmers do
not like thistles to grow upon their land, and
yet some thistles are very fond of ploughed
fields. Children do not like thistles, because
they have a way of pricking their fingers.
Cattle do not like thistles, and will not eat
them whilst they can get anything else.
Donkeys like thistles well enough, but then
they are asses. Goldfinches are supposed to
be fond of thistles, but only of their seeds.
Thistles are plentiful everywhere, and yet no
one has a good word for them, unless he is a
Scotsman. Why a Scot should love the thistle
may be found in its being the emblem of his
nation, as the rose is the emblem of England,
THISTLES. ' 73

and the shamrock of Ireland. The story is,
that in the time of the Danish invasion, when,
of course, the Scots and the Danes were
opposed, and fought against each other, an
attempt was made to attack the Scots by night,
when a barefooted Dane trod upon a thistle,

which made him cry aloud with the pain, and



Fic. 24,—THISTLES.

this ardused the Scots, who fell upon and
defeated the enemy. Which kind of thistle it
was is unknown, and so many kinds have been
supposed, by different people, to be the true
Scotch thistle. But the emblem of Scotland is
a thistle, of one kind or another. Many kinds
74 THISTLES.

of these plants are found on commons, heaths,
and waste places, where we shall find the dwarf
thistle,* and that will answer our purpose.

“There it stands, Cissy, growing close to the
ground, with scarcely any stem at all, and you
must dig it up with a large, strong knife, or it
will hurt your fingers.”

“ How hard it sticks! I cannot get it out
without cutting or breaking the roots.”

“They are not important, for we shall see
that it has a tough, thick root, and that will be
enough.”

“Of course it grows from year to year, and
lasts for several years, so that it is perennial.”

“ And it is not easy work to kill them.”

“The leaves lie back flat on the ground, like
a rosette—let me see, like the daisy and the
sundew, and sometimes the dandelion. But
the shape of the leaves, I can scarcely say what
to call them.”

“T think I should call them cut down, nearly
to the midrib, in a pinnate manner—that is, after

* Cnicus acaulis.
THISTLES. 75

the manner of a feather—but very broadly and
coarsely cut, so as to appear like large prickly
teeth.”

“ And they are so waved, too, they will not
lie flat ; and the spines are so long and sharp.”

“You see that the leaves are not cut, as they
are in the dandelion, into large teeth which are
curved backwards, but into straight and nearly
three-angled teeth.”

“And so much thicker and firmer than are
the leaves of the dandelion ; and they are quite
smooth, only not so shining as holly leaves.”

“They would make rather an uncomfortable
cushion to sit down upon. The in-
florescence is what we commonly call
‘thistle heads,’ and they grow close
down to the rosette, with scarcely

any stem. Of course they are com-



posite flowers, and each head con-

Fic. 25.
tains a large number of florets, so Tsttz Hxap.

that we have a name for the outer green leaves
of the flower-head, which is not a calyx.”

“Yes, I remember—it is an involucre; and
76 E THISTLES.

these thistle heads are not round, or globose,
but longer than broad, and rather egg-shaped,
and very hard and firm, almost like a prickly
ball, before they open.”

“Can you count how many bracts there are
in the involucre ?”

“No, I cannot easily, there are so many, and
they overlap so closely, like the tiles of a house.
I should call them nearly lance-
= shaped, but they are not very




long ; the edges are fringed with
short hairs.”

“Now then for the florets. I have
|, told you, when we found the goat’s-
| | beard, that all the florets of the thistles
/ are tubular, and none of them strap-
shaped.”
noe 2 “But I could not count them, there
Mooret. are so many—a great many more than
in the goat’s-beard, and of a purple colour.”

“ You will have to cut down the involucre to
get the florets out without breaking them, they
are so long and so tender.”
THISTLES. 77

“And I shall want a pocket-glass to count
the stamens, they seem to be so small.”

“Well, you will find them the same as they
were in the goat’s-beard—five stamens, with the
anthers all joined together round the pistil ;
but the florets are different, for you see that
they are all long tubes, and quite regular at the
mouth.”

“ And there are more hairs at the bottom, in
place of the calyx. I cannot think of the name.”

“ Pappus, I suppose. In the
case of thistles the pappus be-




comes the thistle-down. You have
seen the thistle-down blowing about
in the wind, with the seeds hanging
to it. This, again, is different from

the pappus of the goat’s-beard ; for

, ; Fic. 27.
the threads are all smooth and pis op

DANDELION.
at

simple, without any feathering
the sides, and so they are not joined into the
shape of a parasol.”

“ And there is no long horn like the parasol
stick,”
78 THISTLES.

“No; but the thistle-down can float in the
air just as easily, and scatter the seeds.”

“Then all thistle-down is very much alike ?”

“Yes, and very soft, and may be used for
stuffing cushions. But there is a difference
which you have not noticed in the receptacle
when the seeds are blown away. In the dande-
lion it is smooth and dotted, but in the thistles
a great number of bristles are left behind, and
these passed upwards between the florets when
they were growing, and are now left standing.”

The thistle we have been looking at is a very
good type or pattern of thistles in general.
They are all of them awkward plants to gather
or carry, and not very nice to examine. Some
of them are very tall, growing as much as
a yard high, and the stem much branched.
Both stem and branches are often prickly, with
very sharp, stiff bristles, and so are the leaves.
They will scratch you severely, and draw the
blood, but they do not poison like the stinging
hairs of the nettle. Thistles are to be found grow-
ing almost everywhere, for each head of flowers
THISTLES. 79

bears a great number of ripe seeds, and these
are so easily drifted about, and for so long a
distance, because of the thistle-down, that hardly
any piece of ground is safe from them. It has
been calculated that one thistle seed will pro-
duce at the first crop twenty-four thousand,
and consequently at the second crop five hun-
dred and seventy-six millions of seeds. This is
a number you cannot imagine.

Although thistle leaves are usually lance-
shaped if the margin were entire, yet they are
constantly deeply cut into large, irregular-
pointed teeth, and each of these often ends in a
sharp stiff bristle. Besides which the leaves
will not lie flat, for they are puckered and
waved so as to thrust the spines in all direc-
tions. The stems are tough and woody, so that
they will not break easily, hence they will suffer
much crushing and ill treatment without any
serious injury. The roots strike a long way
into the ground, and cannot be readily killed.
In every way thistles are defiant, and well
provided with power to increase and multiply
80 THISTLES.

and replenish the earth. In return for the
annoyance they cause the thistles seem to have
few virtues, for none of them are of any value
in the arts or in medicine. As far as we know,
they might have been one of the original curses
of the soil, which man had to till by the sweat
of his brow. Farmers will testify that many a
brow has sweated in the attempt to clear the
ground of thistles. Their good qualities must
be deeply hidden, for they have yet to be
revealed, at least so far as they concern the

family of man.
THE SUNDEW.*

UR plant-hunters are in search of a plant

so small that it needs close looking after,

and so scarce as only to be found in soft boggy

places, where the feet sink into the soil, and the

water oozes over them. They must be well

shod who would gather the “sundew” and not
suffer from wet feet.

“There it is, Cissy ; I will get it for you, for
it is growing amongst the bog-moss, and the
ground is so very soft and wet.”

‘What a pretty little plant, and how the
leaves sparkle! It is like a rosette, and no big-
ger than a brooch.”

“Here are three or four more, and yet it isa
pity to gather them; but we must see if there
are any with dead flies hanging to the leaves.”

* Drosera rotundifolia.
(501) 6
82 THE SUNDEW.

“Oh yes; here are some little flies on two,
three, four leaves. They are all dead; but why
are they sticking there ?”

“ Because this is a fly-catching plant, and the
little flies are caught and eaten as surely as
if it were a spider's web. We shall talk of
that presently, but we must first attend to the
plant.”

“ Are they always small like these ?”

“Yes, Cissy, this is the usual size; perhaps a
half-dozen small leaves, spreading, and falling
back, as you said, like a rosette, with no proper
stem except the one which rises in the middle
and carries the flowers.”

“JT scarcely know what shape to call the
leaves.”

“Perhaps not; but I should say that they
are very nearly round, and not half an inch
across, tapering into the leaf-stalk. The whole
upper surface is covered with glistening purplish
hairs, which are club-shaped at the top. They
are called glands, because they contain a sticky
fluid which oozes out and makes the outside
THE SUNDEW. 83

sticky and shining. The hairs in the middle of
the leaf are shorter than the rest, and they are
gradually longer as they reach the edge.”
“ Some of them are bent down like hooks.”
“Tf a poor little fly alights upon the leaf, the
sticky surface helps to keep it there, and then



Fic. 28.—GLaNDULAR LEAF oF SUNDEW.
(Enlarged.)

the long hairs slowly bend over it, so that it
could not fly away if it tried; and the more it
struggles the more closely the hairs bend over
it, until it dies.”

“Then it is really a fly-catcher.”

“Yes, and a good one too; for you will see on
84: THE SUNDEW.

those leaves which have flies sticking to them
that the hairs are bent down over them, and
hold them down until they are dead ; and when
that is done the hairs slowly raise themselves,
and become straight again.”

“ Are any other plants fly-catchers ?”

“Several; but not many of them are British.
Now we must examine the flowers of the sun-
dew. The flower-stalk is thin and upright,
curved over on one side, and the flowers are all
on one side of the stalk. They are small and
white, and something like the single flowers of
a common garden plant called ‘ London pride ;’
but they are rarely open, and only when the sun
is shining upon them. Let us pull one of them
in pieces.”

“ Five outside and five inside leaves.”

“Certainly ; that is to say, five green sepals
and five white petals.”

“ And five stamens, with a pistil in the middle.”

“Yes; and when you see the London pride
again, you will find that it has ten stamens in-
stead of five.”
THE SUNDEW. 85

“Can we take these home and plant them in
our garden to grow ?”

“You may take them home, dear, and plant
them ; but you cannot make them grow, for they
will only grow in such places as the bog where
we found them.”

“What a pity! I should like to see them
catch flies. But how do they eat them, because
they have no mouths ?”

“They do not eat them in the way that ani-
mals eat their food, but they dissolve them. It
is not easy to explain to you how they do it; .
but there is a liquid which oozes from the hairs,
and this softens and melts the fleshy parts of the
fly, and when melted into a liquid this is sucked
up or absorbed by the leaf, and only the wings
and the hard parts are left.”

“Won't they catch anything else except flies 2”

“Oh yes; the hairs will close over almost
anything which touches them, but they soon
fall back again when such a mistake is made.
But they will dissolve little pieces of meat, just

as they would dissolve a fly. After an insect
86 THE SUNDEW.

has settled upon a leaf, it will be dead in a
quarter of an hour.”

“T should like to see the hairs move.”

“Perhaps you may be able to see that they
do move if we carry these plants home and
plunge the roots in water. If placed in the
sun the leaves will open fully; then you must
place a little fly upon them, and watch to see if
the glands close over it, but they will do it very
slowly. See how many of these leaves are closed
since we gathered them, on account of having
_ been touched.”

“Would the sundew live if it were covered
up so that insects could not get on the leaves?”

“ Oh yes, it could live and grow in the bog
if no flies settled upon the leaves, just as other
plants do, so that animal food is not a neces-
sity.”

“ Don’t you think it must be an accident when
a fly is caught and sticks to the leaf of the sun-
dew ?”

“No, Cissy; I am no believer in accident in
such cases. The fly would not stick on the
THE SUNDEW. 87

leaf if the glands were not sticky. Then there
is some purpose in the glands being sticky.
Supposing that a fly were caught upon sticky
leaves or upon sticky glands, it could not be
accident which made the glands bend over and
clasp the insect so that it could not get away.
It could not be accident that made the glands
grow wetter, or made the sticky juice change so
that it would dissolve the fly more easily. It
is not accident that when a little bit of glass
touches the leaf the glands close only a little,
and more slowly, and then open altogether to
allow the glass to fall off, as if the glands had
found out that they could not dissolve the glass.
It is well known that the glands bend over
to catch the fly, that the juice of the glands
dissolves the flesh of the fly, and then the glands
open to allow the skeleton to fall off And
as for accident, it is a handy word, which some
people are apt to use when they cannot explain
how a thing is done. In such cases it is only
an excuse for ignorance to say that it was an
accident.”
88 THE SUNDEW.

“Is there more than one kind of sun-
dew ?”

“There are three different sundews in Britain,
with different shaped leaves, but the one we
found is the most common, with the rounded
leaves.”

We have now come to the end of the fourth
story of our rambles, and in closing the record
I have a word or two to say about leaves which
may freshen your memory or be of service here-
after. It will be quite enough if I chat to
you only about the different forms of simple
leaves, because the leaflets of compound leaves
have the form of simple leaves. To begin
with, the narrowest leaves we shall meet with
are those in which the length is five or six
times their breadth, and sometimes more, even
to twenty or thirty times as long as broad.
These are called linear, which suggests that
they are like a line, whereas they are not like
a line, but have an evident breadth, which a

‘line has not; however, they are the narrowest
THE SUNDEW. 89

leaves. If they should be as thick in the middle
as they are broad, then they are said to be subu-
late, or shaped like an awl, as in the leaves of
fir trees. When a leaf is much longer than
broad, and is broadest below the middle, nar-
rowed gradually upwards to a point, it is shaped

\

Fic. 29. Fic. 30.

Linrar Lear. SuBuLATE Lear. Fie. 31.—LancronaTs Lemar.
like the head of a lance, and is called lanceolate.
There is a form of leaf, not so common, which
is broadest at the top and gradually narrowed
downwards, like a wedge; it is wedge-shaped,

or cuneate. If the broad part at the top is short
90 THE SUNDEW.

and rounded, and the lower part tapering and
long, something like a spoon or ladle, it is said
to be spathulate, like the leaves of a daisy. The
remaining shapes are gradually shorter and
shorter as compared with their breadth.

When a leaf is blunt, or rounded at the ends,

and is from twice to four times as long as it is

Fic. 32.—CuNEATE OR WEDGE- Fic. 33.—SPATHULATE LEAY.
SHAPED LeEar,

broad, it is called oblong ; but when scarcely twice
as long as broad, but rather broader below the
middle than above it, then it has the shape of
an egg, and is called ovate. When reversed,
and the broadest part is above the middle, it is

obovate. The remaining forms are elliptical,
THE SUNDEW. 91

oval, and orbicular, because they have the shape
of an ellipse, or an oval, or an orb. These are
all the regular forms usually met with, but there
are a few less common and more singular shapes
to which names have been given.

Leaves with a triangular form are not com-

Y

Via. 35.—Ovats Lear.

y

Fic. 34.—Ostone Lear. Fic. 36.—Osovate Lrar.

mon, and the triangle is not perfect ; but one of
them is called sagittate, because it is like an
arrow-head—that of the “lords and ladies”
is something like it. If the lower corners are
more spreading, it takes the shape of an old hal-
92 THE SUNDEW.

berd head, and is said to be hastate. There are
also two far more common shapes, but in these
the corners are rounded, especially the lower
corners, in a cordate leaf, which is what is com-

monly called heart-shaped. The other is broader



Fic. 37.—Sacirrate Leaves. Fic. 38.—Hastate Lear.
than long, rounded above, and kidney-shaped,
or reniform. To these it seems only necessary
to add a form of leaf about as broad as long,
with the edge cut deeply into five lobes, like the

fingers of a spreading hand, and is therefore
THE SUNDEW. 93

called palmate. This is a lobed or lobate leaf,
for the projecting parts are called lobes. These



Fic. 39.—Corpatre Lear,

sorts of leaves are best described by the number



Fic. 40.—Renivorm Lear,

of their lobes—as two-lobed, three-lobed, five-
lobed, and so on. It is understood that the
94 THE SUNDEW.

divisions are not cut down to the midrib; for
if they are cut quite down to the midrib, it be-
comes a compound leaf, and the parts are not
lobes, but leaflets. Therefore, if a palmate-
shaped leaf has the divisions cut down to the
midrib, it is called a digitate leaf, with five



leaflets. And so the trefoil leaf of clover and
wood-sorrel is a leaf composed of three leaflets,
and is not a three-lobed leaf.

There are such a large number of different
shapes in leaves, that a long catalogue of their
names might soon be made; but there is not

much wisdom in a multitude of names, and it will
THE SUNDEW. 95

always be best to confine ourselves to such com-
monly used names as we have given, if it can be
done, by the addition of an adverb, such as nar-
rowly lance-shaped, acutely ovate, or similar addi-

tions, whenever such accommodation is possible.



The preceding small figures of compound leaves
show a trefoil (1) leaf; two digitate leaves with
four and five leaflets (2, 3); two with a larger
number of leaflets, one a whorl of leaves (4, 5);
and a pinnate leaf (7); whilst the other group
exhibits forms of compound leaves of the pinnate
96 THE SUNDEW.

kind, excepting Figure 6. It will be seen that
Figures 8, 5, and 8 have no leaflet at the end,
but in 5 and 8 the apex is furnished with ten-
drils. In Figure 8 the leaflets are alternate,
and opposite in the rest.


INDEX.

—++—

Alternate and opposite, 12.
Anther, 15.

Axillary flowers, 51.

Axil of leaves, 23.

Bees and flowers, 14.
Berry, 25.

Bilabiate corolla, 35, 65.
Bluebell of Scotland, 9.
Bracts, 30, 76.

Bramble fruit, 54.

Calceolate corolla, 36.
Calyx, 13.

Campanula, 10.
Campanulate corolla, 34.
Canterbury bells, 10.
Capitulum, 71.
Capsules, 25.
Carnivorous plants, 85.
Carpels, 51.

Compound umbel, 71.
Connate leaves, 22.
Cordate leaves, 92.
Corolla, 12.

Corymb, 69.

Creeping stem, 49.
Cross-leaved heath, 27.
Cuneate leaves, 89.
Cyme, 69.

Dahlia, 57.
Digitate leaves, 94.
(501)



Double rose, 55.
Drosera, 81.
Drupe, 25.

Elliptical leaves, 90.
Eyebright, 61.

Filaments, 40.
Flower-clock, 20.
Fly-catchers, 83.
Fruits, 25.

Glands of leaves, 82.
Glandular hairs, 48.
Gorse, or furze, 40.

Hairs of plants, 47.
Harebell, 9.

Hastate leaves, 92.

Heather, 26.

Heather-beer, 31.
He-heather, 26.
Hypocrateriform corolla, 34.

Inflorescence, 64.
Infundibuliform corolla, 34.
Insect fertilization, 17.
Involucre, 75.

Irregular corolla, 35.

Keel, or vexillum, 39.

Ladies’ thimble, 10,
Lanceolate leaves, 89.
98 INDEX.

Leaves, forms of, 90.
Ligulate corolla, 36.
Linear leaves, 88.
Ling, 26.

London pride, 84.

Meteoric flowers, 21.
Monopetalous, 32.

Nuts, 25.

Oblong leaves, 90.
Obovate leaves, 90.
Opposite and alternate, 12.
Orbicular leaves, 91.

Oval leaves, 91.

Ovate leaves, 90.

Palmate leaves, 93.
Panicle, 69.
Papilionaceous corolla, 37.
Pappus, 77.

Pea-flower family, 38.
Perennials, 27.
Personate corolla, 35.
Petaloid stamens, 57.
Petals and stamens, 57.
Pimpernel, 21.
Pinnate leaves, 45.
Plantagenet, 41.

Pod, or legume, 25, 44.
Pollen, 15.
Polypetalous, 32.

Poor man’s weather-glass, 19.

Raceme, 28, 68.
Raspberry, 52.
Receptacle, 51.



Regular corolla, 35.
Reniform leaves, 92.
Ringent corolla, 35.
Root leaves, 11.

Rose family, 54.
Rotate corolla, 23, 34.

Sagittate leaves, 91.
Scarlet pimpernel, 19.
Scorpioid cyme, 70.
Scotch thistle, 73.
She-heather, 26.
Silver-weed, 47.
Spathulate leaves, 90.
Spike, 68.

Standard, 39.

Stigma, 16.

Story of the broom, 41.
Strawberry, 51.
Subulate leaves, 89.
Sundew, 81.

Temperature, 66.
Thistle down, 77.
Thistle head, 75.
Thistles, 72.

Trefoil leaves, 45.
Tubular corolla, 33, 76.

Umbel, 70.
Urceolate corolla, 33.

White water-lily, 57.
Wild rose, 59.

Wild thyme, 61.
Wings, or ale, 39.

Yellow broom, 38,
Rambles Hmong the Wild Flowers,



V.
AROUND A CORNFIELD.

PREFACE.



DEAR younG Frienps, I think you would be glad to
see and learn something of the wild flowers which
are to be found in the summer-time growing amongst
the corn, or on the borders of fields, or in such places
as we have not visited in our “Rambles.” I shall
choose only a few of the flowers that are to be seen
in such places, for this book is not large enough to
tell you about all of them; but if you will try to
learn all that you can about a few, it will make it so
much more easy afterwards to understand the rest.
The corn itself, and the grasses, which you will find
in plenty, have all of them their own story to tell,
but it is not so easy to learn. It is better always,
for all of us, not to try to do too much; but if we
can do only a little, and learn only a little, we
should try to do that little well. I hope that these
vill PREFACE.

little books will have been a help to you; and if you
have made use of them and learned from them all
that they have had to teach, you will be able by this
time to use and understand the books of a higher
grade, and with them at your hand carry on with
pleasure and profit your rambles after wild flowers.

M. C. COOKE,
RED POPPY,
CORN-COCKLE,

CORN BLUE-BOTTLE,
WHITE CLOVER,
PLANTAINS,
YELLOW RATTLE,
HONEYSUCKLE,
WHITE BRYONY,

LAST WORDS,

CONTENTS.



AROUND A CORNFIELD.



RED POPPY.*

“EW people suspect, when they look at the

scarlet poppies growing in a field of corn,
or on a hedge-bank hard by, that there are really
four different kinds, which are so much alike
that, at a distance, you cannot tell one from
another. Yet there are four sorts of red poppy,
but the one which is called the common red
poppy is the commonest of them all. Perhaps
if you had the flowers of all of them in your
hand, you would at first hardly notice the differ-
ence. If you had the capsules, probably you
would notice the difference almost at once. The
corn poppy was known to the old Greeks, but
the opium poppy as far back as the time of

* Papaver rheas.
12 RED POPPY.

Homer. All kinds are known for their power
of inducing sleep. The dried juice is called
opium, which is a narcotic, or inducer of sleep,
when taken in small quantities, but in larger
doses causes death. That is the common red
or corn poppy, with roundish smooth capsules.”

“Will it make you feel sleepy to smell the
flowers or handle them ?”

“Not as far as our smelling or handling will
go; but the scent is not very pleasant.”

“The whole plant is hairy, with long hairs,
and grows upright, with a few branches, and, as
I suppose, dies down every year, so that it is an
annual.”

“Yes, it grows from seeds every year.”

“The leaves are large, and cut down deeply
from the edge nearly to the midrib, in the same
way as if they were pinnate; but the divisions
are not quite separate from each other, so that
we cannot call them pinnate, and the divisions
are not leaflets.”

“No, Cissy, it is a deeply notched or divided

leaf, but the lobes are not leaflets.”
RED POPPY. 13

“The divisions, or lobes, as you have called
them, are narrow and pointed, but not opposite
to each other in pairs, and some of them are
notched again. The lower leaves are the largest,
and have foot-stalks.”



Fie. 1.—Porry.
A, Flower and Bud; 8, Section. c, Capsulé ; p, Cross Section. §, Seed; r, Section.

“Tf you bruise any part of the plant you will
notice a faint heavy smell.”

“The open flowers have no calyx.”
14 RED POPPY.

“Not when opened. But see that flower-bud
which is bursting : it was enclosed in two green,
boat-shaped sepals, and as it opens the sepals
give way, so that when the flower is quite open
the sepals have fallen.”

“T forget what to call a calyx when it falls off.”

“ A deciduous calyx. The stalk of the flower-
bud is bent over near the top, so that the bud
hangs down until it opens, and then the flower-
stalk becomes straight.”

“What a bright red, like a soldier’s jacket !”

“ Ay, and in some country places I have heard
the red poppies called ‘soldiers’ on account of
this scarlet colour.”

“There are only four petals, and some of them
have a blackish blotch near the bottom. See
how they are crumpled up in this bud which is
opening, and they are so thin and soft.”

“Tf you put some of the petals in your book,
to keep them flat, and dry them, you will find
that they stain the paper, and, when dry, will be
so thin that you can almost see the letters through
them.”
RED POPPY. 15

“There, now, they are falling; nearly all the
petals have fallen off.”

“One of its botanical names is supposed to
have been given to it because the petals fall off
So soon.”

“T can’t carry any of them home, because the
petals will all fall off.”

“Try some buds, Cissy; they will open to-
morrow if you put the stalks in water.”

“So I will. There are so many stamens that
I cannot count them, and such a strange column,
or ovary, in the middle.”

“Tf you choose one which has lost all the
petals for a few days, you will find it has grown
larger, so that you can see the marks better.”

“Then the ovary is almost top-shaped, and
the flat top is marked with lines from the centre
to the edge, like rays.”

“Do you not suspect that this flat top with
rays is the stigma, which lies flat on the ovary,
without any style?”

“What a large stigma! And does the pollen
stick upon it ?”
16 RED POPPY.

“Certainly! And now, if we can see a full-
grown capsule, we shall find it can teach us*some-
thing. The capsules grow quickly, and it is
likely that we shall find one directly.”

“Will a green one serve us?”

“Not so well, if you can find one that is dry
and turning yellowish. Full in the sun, Cissy ;
and mind that you get a smooth capsule, and not
a hairy one.”

“ Here is one, but it is still green, shaped like
a top, with a flat stigma. Underneath the edge
all round are a lot of little holes, just opening ;
what are they for?”

‘When the small seeds are ripe they can fall
out through these holes. Now cut across the
capsule and look inside.”

“There are thin partitions all round, stand-
ing out from the inside wall of the capsule,
but not meeting in the middle, with the
seeds sticking to them, and more seeds loose
at the bottom. There are about ten of these
partitions.”

“The capsule of the opium poppy is sometimes
(509)
RED POPPY. 17

as large as an apple, but those of the corn poppies
are always small.”

“You said that there were four kinds of red
poppies to be found in the fields.”

“Yes; two of them with smooth capsules, and
two with hairy capsules. This is the commonest
one, with smooth capsules, nearly as broad as
long; the other one has the capsules twice as

long as broad, but is more rare.”



Fic, 2.—Harry Poppy Capsute.

“ And those with the hairy capsules, are they
common ?” |

“No, they are not very common. One of
them has a capsule nearly of the same shape as
that of the common red poppy, but it is hairy
outside. It is only found in chalky or sandy

places. The other has a long capsule, twice as
(509) 2
18 RED POPPY.

long as broad, and hairy outside. This is mixed
with the common red poppy in fields and on
banks, but it is not so common. The flowers are
rather smaller and paler, and the plant looks like
the common poppy, but starved and dwarfed.”



Fic. 3.—CaprsuLe or Orrum Poppy, sHowinc Mopk or
EXTRACTING JUICE.

“How do they get opium from the opium

poppy?”
“When the capsules are fully grown they are
RED POPPY. 19

scratched on the outside with a little knife,
either downwards, from top to bottom, or cross-
wise; then the juice, which is rather milky,
oozes out at these wounds, and dries a little on
the outside, and turns brownish. This is scraped
off every day, and is the opium which is made
up into cakes, and then dried until it is quite
hard, and sold.”

“What is it used for?”

“Tts best use is in medicine, to soothe pain.
But in China and other places it is smoked nearly
as tobacco is smoked; but it sends the smokers
to sleep, and makes them dream, and sometimes
almost mad, or drunk and incapable.”

“Then it may be either good or bad, as it is
used.”

“Yes, like many other things, it is very good
if properly used, and as a medicine ; but it is bad
if turned to improper use.”

‘‘ How very small the seeds are.”

“Not only are they very small, but in very
great numbers. You could hardly count all the
seeds in a poppy head. Every one of these
20 RED POPPY.

seeds, when crushed, has within it a small drop
of oil, which is as mild and pleasant as salad oil.
In some places, as in India, where an immense
number of poppies are grown, the seeds are
crushed to get the oil. Nearly all the fat oils
from plants are got from the seeds—linseed oil
from flax seed, colza oil from rape seed, castor
oil from castor seeds, cocoa-nut oil from cocoa-
nuts. There is a little oil in nearly all dry seeds
when they are ripe. If you crush any seed on
a piece of white writing paper, you will sce the
greasy stain it makes, and this is from the oil in
the seed. When seeds begin to grow, the oil is
changed into something else, which helps the
plant to grow, so that it is of great use to the
plant.”
CORN-COCKLE.*

“ T CANNOT understand,” said Cissy, “why

these double flowers are so short of sta-
mens. Pinks and carnations are very pretty,
and smell so sweet, and yet they don’t seem to
be perfect.”

“There are not many ‘double’ flowers, as
they are called, which are quite natural. Most
of them have been made double by growing
them in gardens and greenhouses, and training
them. We call them double because the num-
ber of petals has been doubled, or increased, in
growing them. ‘The stamens are fewer, or none
at all, because they are changed into petals, so
that where there should be stamens there are
petals. The wild rose has a few petals and a
great number of stamens, but the garden rose

* Agrostemma githago.
22 CORN-COCKLE.

has a great number of petals and no stamens;
so that, in the garden rose, the stamens are
changed into petals. When a ‘single’ flower
becomes ‘double,’ it seldom has seeds; so that
to obtain new plants, it must be by buds, or
cuttings, and not by sowing the seeds.”

“T know that it is the flowers in gardens that
are double, and not the wild flowers, and I
wonder how it is done.”

“Tt is done by a number of little tricks, and
the gardener takes advantage of changes, or
variations, either in form or in colour, to raise a
new variety. It would be a long story to tell
how it is done, but when flowers are grown in
gardens they are said to be cultivated, and all
the changes that are made are the result of
training, or cultivation.”

“TJ think many of the ‘single’ flowers are
quite as pretty as the double ones. I like the
wild pinks.”

“ And so you will like the ‘corn-cockle,’ for
that is almost a pink, as it belongs to the
family.”
CORN-COCKLE. 23

“Ave they all pink because they are called
pink ?”

“There are aS many white as there are pink
or red; but none of the flowers are yellow in



Fic. 4.—Witp PINK.

the Pink family, which is a large one. You
remember the red campion? that belongs to
the same family, and is a very close relation of
the corn-cockle.”
24, CORN-COCKLE.

“What a strange name to call it—‘cockle’!”

“And sometimes ‘popple;’ but it was
stranger that in olden times it was believed
by many people that corn could be changed into
‘cockle.’

‘Good seed degenerates, and oft obeys

The soil’s disease, and into cockle strays.’”

‘But no one believes that now, do they?”

“No, they do not believe that; but they still
think that cockle hurts the corn to grow with it,
or even, if not, that cockle seeds, if ground up
with wheat, will spoil the flour.”

“T can see but a few plants in this large
cornfield, and not enough to do any harm.”

“Tt is an annual, and grows afresh from seeds
every year. If the wheat is well cleaned, or
sifted, very few cockle seeds will be mixed with
the seed-corn, and thus very few plants are
found growing amongst the corn.”

“These are quite half a yard high or more,
with very slender round stems, and only one or
two branches, sometimes none at all. I suppose
CORN-COCKLE. 25

that the white down upon the stems is made up
of silky hairs ?”

“Yes; it is rather a hairy plant, and the
hairs give to the green parts a dull, mealy
appearance.”

“There are very few flowers, and they grow
singly at the tops of the stem and branches.
Most of the plants have only two or three
flowers, growing on long foot-stalks.”

“True; but they have leaves, which you have
passed over.”

“ There is nothing particular about the leaves;
they are long, narrow, and opposite to each
other, in pairs. The flowers are the only showy
thing about the plant.”

“Perhaps so; and as you are so taken up
with the flowers, you had better give me your
account of them.”

“T must begin with the calyx, for that is so
large I cannot help seeing it. There are five
very long green sepals, longer than the corolla,
but narrow like straps; they are joined together
into a tube at the bottom, but soon become
26 CORN-COCKLE.

spreading in the upper part. They are a little
like the flower-bracts of the goat’s-beard.”

“They are, somewhat; but the goat’s-beard
is a composite, and the flower-bracts are not
sepals.”

“When the flowers are wide open you still
see the ends of the five sepals standing out
around the corolla. The five petals are all alike,
and of a purple colour, broad, but with a very
little notch at the end, or else none at all.”

“T am glad you noticed that, Cissy, for a
great many of the flowers in the Pink family
have a very deep notch at the end.”

“Yes; and I remember something else, when
I pluck off these petals—that they are not joined
together at the bottom, but every petal has a
long, narrow strip, like a claw, which runs to
the bottom inside the calyx. It is called the
claw, is 1t not?”

“Certainly ; we saw it in the red campion,
and you will see it in the garden pinks and car-
nations. You have still to find the stamens and
pistil.”
CORN-COCKLE. 27

“That is easy enough, if we look inside.
There are twice as many stamens as petals; I
see ten stamens, and the pistil in the middle.”

By looking at the woodcut (Fig. 5), which
represents a section of the flower in the Pink
family, the clawed petals will be seen within the



_ Fic. 5.—Sxcrion or “ Pink” Frower.
calyx; then the double row of long and short
stamens, of which three only of each are shown,
standing about the ovary, in which are the
ovules; and on the top of the ovary rises the
forked style.
28 CORN-COCKLE.

“And now, you will wish me to tell you
something of the fruit, as we shall not find it
to-day. When ripe, the fruit is a dry capsule,
open at the top, with the edge notched into five
teeth. The seeds are ripened inside the capsule;
and then they are loose, so that, when the cap-
sule is turned over, the seeds fall out.”

“T suppose that there are not many useful
or very wonderful plants in the family of the
Pinks?”

‘There are a number of pretty garden flowers,
such as the pinks, carnations, sweet-williams,
etc., and some are very sweet-scented, but not
many of what are called useful plants. The
roots of some were used long ago for scouring
instead of soap, but now-a-days soap is preferred.
One little plant, with very small flowers, is the
chickweed, which birds are so fond of. This is
one of the plants the leaves of which move at
night, as if going to sleep. The upper leaves
close up, with their faces inwards, over the
young shoots, so as to protect them from the
cold at night. And there are some that are
‘CORN-COCKLE. 29

called ‘catch-fly,’ which blossom in the evening
or during the night, and are very sweet-scented.”

“Were they called ‘catch-fly’ because they
are able to catch insects, in the same way as
‘sundews’?”

“They have not the means of catching flies in
the manner of the ‘sundews,’ but probably they
were so called because flies are often found
caught by the sticky fluid that coats the stem
in some of the species. They are not ‘ carnivor-
ous plants, which catch insects and suck their
juices, like sundews and the fly-trap, and fly-
catching with them would seem to be rather

accidental or for protection than for digestion.”
CORN BLUE-BOTTLE.*

i NE of the flowers which at one time were

so common in cornfields, and are now
rather rare, is the corn blue-bottle, which in the
north is called blawart, or blew-blaw. It is a
favourite in gardens, where the flowers are
larger and more varied in colour. Mixed with
poppies and ox-eye daisies, they make a showy
nosegay.

‘Everywhere about us are they glowing—
Some like stars, to tell us spring is born ;

Others, their blue eyes with tears o’erflowing,
Stand like Ruth among the golden corn.’

The blue-bottle is a composite flower, of the
same family as the daisy, the dandelion, and the
thistle, but it belongs to that group of composite

* Centaurea cyanus.
CORN BLUE-BOTTLE. 31

flowers in which all the florets are tubular.
You will recollect that, in the goat’s-beard, all
the flowers are strap-shaped and one-sided; but
in this they are different. In the thistles all
the florets are alike, and have stamens and pistil
in every floret; but in the blue-bottle they are
not all alike, for it is only the smaller central
ones which are perfect, and have stamens and
pistil: This I tell you at once, so that you may
not be disappointed ; and now we must gather
the flowers.”

“What a beautiful blue! I have often seen
those flowers, but I always called them ‘corn-
flower.’”

“Tt is of a clearer and purer blue than most of
our wild flowers, or, perhaps, any you have seen.”

“The harebell and the bluebells are of quite
a different blue.”

“The speedwells are of a pretty blue, but not
of such a pure blue as the corn-flower. Blue
is not a common colour amongst wild flowers.”

“ Which would you think is the most common

colour ?”
32 CORN BLUE-BOTTLE.

- “Well, amongst composite flowers I should
say it is yellow, and in the Rose family it is
white.” .

“The stem in this one is very slender and
graceful, with a few branches about half a yard
high, and covered with a sort of cottony down.
It is an annual, I suppose, and dies off every
year.”

“Tt was probably first brought into this coun-
try from Asia a long while ago; the seeds may
have been mixed with corn, and it is by the
seeds that it remains.”

“The lower leaves are very much cut, and
coarsely toothed, almost pinnate, but not com-
pound leaves; and the upper ones are long and
narrow, nearly like straps.”

“The flower-stems, or peduncles, are very long
and slender, like wires, with a solitary flower-
head at the top, which is the inflorescence.”

“The thick part, just under the flowers, which
we should call the calyx in simple flowers, is the
same here as in the thistles, covered with scales,

and it has a name which I forget.”
CORN BLUE-BOTTLE. 33

“ Involucre, because it involves, or envelops,
the flowers. It is shaped rather like a little
pear, with the thin end uppermost.”

“The pointed scales are so many that I could
hardly count them at once, overlapping like tiles,
and so close that they seem to be glued down.”

“They are scaly, but we. call them bracts,
pointed at the top and finely toothed at the edge,
especially the lower or outer ones.”

“Now we have come to the pretty flowers.
There are two kinds of florets. Those forming
the outside ring are quite blue, and larger than
the rest; those in the middle are more like
purple, and not so pretty.”

“T warned you at first that there were two
kinds of florets, but that all of them are regular
and tube-shaped, and no one-sided or strap-
shaped florets; and I told you something else,
which you will see directly.”

“T shall break one of the heads open to see
how the tubes run down to the bottom.”

“Now you may open one of the large florets

from the outer ring or circle.”
(509) 3
34 CORN BLUE-BOTTLE.

«Why, they are only sham flowers; there is
nothing inside—no column, and no stamens.

They are of no use, except for show.”



Fic. 6.—Corn Brur-Borrie.

A, Compound Flower; B, Fertile Floret; c, Section of the same; D, Sterile Floret;
BE, Stigma; ¥F, Seed crowned with Bristles.

“If they had only stamens, we should call

them male flowers; and if there were only an
CORN BLUE-BOTTLE. 35

ovary, or column, and no stamens, we should
call them female flowers ; but as they are neither
the one nor the other, we call them neuters.”

“ And does neuter mean ‘good for nothing’ ?”

“Tt does not mean that, because we are not
sure that they are good for nothing; it only
says that they are neither male nor female.”

“The neuter florets, then, are tube-shaped at
the bottom, spreading at the top like a funnel,
with the edge cut into large teeth, or lobes,
sometimes five and sometimes more, and they
stand in a ring around the flower-head.”

“ Now look at the smaller and fertile flowers.”

“The inner florets are packed closer together,
smaller, of a more dingy or purple colour, and
are tubes like the others, but not spreading at
the mouth into a funnel shape. The edge is
more finely toothed, and there is a bundle of
hairs at the bottom of the tube, on the outside
of each floret, instead of a calyx.”

“You will remember that the bundle of hairs
is the pappus, which becomes the down of the

thistle and dandelion.”
36 CORN BLUE-BOTTLE.

“These smaller florets have a column and five
stamens, so that they are both male and female,
or, as it is called, hermaphrodite. The anthers
are not joined together, and they are dark-col-
oured ; in many other flowers they are yellow.”

“Tf you strip off all the florets from an old
flower-head, where they will come away easily,
you will see that there are bristles between the
florets which spring up from the receptacle, just
as they do in the thistles, and help to hold the
florets in their place. These kinds of flowers
are sometimes called ‘thistle-head flowers,’ be-
cause, when the florets and seeds are all gone,
the old receptacles are bristly, as they are in
those of the thistles.”

“ What is the fruit like?”

“Tt is dry, like a seed, with a spreading
bundle of bristles at the top called the pappus,
which helps the wind to scatter them. It is not
a pappus of long hairs, as in the thistles, but a
short one, and not longer than the seed. The
wind cannot blow them about as it does thistle-
down, or the parachutes of the goat’s-beard.”
WHITE CLOVER.*

LOVER is almost as well known to little
boys and girls as buttercups and daisies ;
and clover is grown in large fields, as food for
cattle, but daisies are not, although they are
common almost everywhere in our country, whilst
there are some countries abroad where the little
daisy will not grow at all. There are several
kinds of clover, such as the purple clover and
the white clover ; but we shall choose the white
clover to begin with. We can find plenty of it
in meadows or fields, and often by the roadside.
Sometimes it is called ‘creeping clover,’ some-
times ‘Dutch clover,’ and sometimes ‘trefoil.’
Nearly every herb with three leaflets has been
called ‘ trefoil.’
“Some people call ‘clover’ by the name of

* Trifolium repens.
38 WHITE CLOVER.

‘shamrock ;’ but we have had a chat about this
when we found the ‘ wood-sorrel.’

“You see that large patch of white clover,
Cissy, but there are no upright stems; the
stem is trailing on the top of the ground, run-
ning all ways, and so making large patches.
Many wild flowers have such trailing or creeping
stems. You will remember some that we have
met with.”

“Oh yes; the wood-sorrel, and the creeping
buttercup, and the pennywort.”

“Sometimes these creeping stems are called
runners, and sometimes, when they only lie on
the ground, they are called prostrate, and when
they have rootlets at the joints they are said to
be creeping. The white clover has a proper
creeping stem, for you will find little thin rootlets
striking down into the ground at all the joints,
and these fix the plant to the soil and help it to
suck up the moisture.”

“And the leaves rise from the joints on very
long foot-stalks.”

“Tf you look closely you will see that these
WHITE CLOVER. 39

leaves are alternate upon the creeping stems
at the joints, the leaf-stalk rismg up, and the
rootlet running down.”

“And a very little sheath at the bottom of
each leaf-stalk.”

“Tt is not a sheath, such as we saw in the
wild angelica, but a small kind of leaf called a
stipule. Most of the Pea-flower family have
stipules. They are very large in the garden pea
and small in the clovers, and always at the
bottom of the leaf-stalk. Now you must look
at the blade of the leaf, that part which is spread
out, and called the blade or lamina. Never
mind the lamina; we will call it the blade of
the leaf.”

“ Tyifoliate—trefoil—three-leaved.”

“Yes; with three leaflets, each one almost
egg-shaped, or ovate, with little teeth all around
the margin.”

“ Serrate, or toothed like a saw.”

“True; but very finely serrate, with very
small teeth. You will find all the leaflets open
in the sunlight; but as it becomes later in the
40 WHITE CLOVER.

day, or clouded, the ends of the leaflets rise up,
and their faces are turned to each other. This
is when they ‘go to sleep.’ The leaflets of the
wood-sorrel fall back and droop down, but those
of the clover rise up; so that the wood-sorrel
goes to sleep with the leaflets back to back, and
the white clover with the leaflets face to face.
Now we must go back to the creeping stem, and
see how the flower-stalks are joined to it.”



Fic. 7.—Ciover Lear, AWAKE AND ASLEEP.
“They come out from the axils of the leaf-
stalks.”
“Then you have not forgotten the awils ?”
“No, uncle; I recollected the ‘arm-pits.’”
“ Now for the inflorescence, or globose heads of
flowers. There are a great number of flowers, all

growing together. Perhaps you can count them.”
4

WHITE CLOVER. 4]

“ About sixty of them, and all on short foot-
stalks of the same length—almost an wmbel.”

“We will be satisfied to call it a globose head
of butterfly flowers, or pea flowers. Globose
means that they are in a round mass, like a
globe or ball.”

“But as they grow old the bottom flowers
fall back to the stem, and then the others follow,
and so they keep on bending backwards until all
are bent, and then they die.”

“Tn colour the flowers are mostly white, or
with a tinge of pink, but when they fall back
they soon turn brownish.”

“The green calyx, or cup, with five teeth, is
plain enough to be seen, and the flowers are
shaped almost like very little broom flowers.”

“Yes, there are the same five pieces to the
corolla—the standard at the top, the two wings
at the sides, and two very little ones at the
bottom joined to form the keel. You will
scarcely be able to count the stamens without



a glass.”
“T am afraid not; but you may lend me
42 WHITE CLOVER.

yours, for I fancy there is one stamen all alone
by itself, and nine others joined together.”

“T have no doubt you are quite right; and
if you suck one or two of the flowers, you will



Tic. 8.—Ciover Hrap or Frowers.

taste the sweet nectar at the bottom of the
corolla. You will see that the bees are buzzing
around on the same errand.”

“Ts the fruit a pod, as it is in the broom ?”
WHITE CLOVER. 43

“Yes; it is a little pod, with only two, three,
or four seeds. Sometimes clover leaves may be
found with four leaflets instead of three, and
children think that they will be lucky if they’
find one. It used to be thought that they were
the gifts of the fairies.”

“‘O uncle, there are no fairies.”

“A long time ago it is said that a girl was
coming home from milking, with a pail on her
head, when she saw the fairies frolicking in a
field, and pointed them out to her companions ;
but they could not see any fairies. When she
reached home it was found that she carried a
four-leaved clover, and so she was able to see
the fairies, which were not visible to any one
else. So runs the story.”

“T shall hunt for the four-leaved clover, but I
shall not expect the fairies.”

“There are two other kinds of clover which
are grown in fields, but we need not trouble to
find them to-day, although we may see them on
our way home. There is the ‘purple clover,’
with longer shaped heads of purple flowers ; and
44. WHITE CLOVER.

the ‘crimson clover,’ with long heads of bright
crimson flowers. Both these have trefoil leaves,
but the leaflets are longer than in the white
clover. When grown in fields as a crop, the
crimson clover is very beautiful and bright, and
on a sunny day bees and other insects swarm
about it and keep up an unceasing hum. The
form of the flowers and the number of stamens
are the same as in the white clover.

“Tt is hardly possible for me to tell you all
the curious things which could be told of plants
belonging to this Pea-flower family. There are
a great many of them in all parts of the world,
some of them humble little herbs like the
clovers, but some of them growing into large
forest trees. I have said that clover leaves will
close up at night, as if they were going to
sleep; but there are still more wonderful leaves
in hot countries, especially those called ‘ sensitive
plants.’ In one of these, which has compound
leaves, the usual condition is to have the leaves
open and flattened, but at the least touch the
leaflets rise and close the upper surfaces to-
WHITE CLOVER. 45

gether, and remain closed for a long time, and
then they slowly expand again. In another
plant, called the ‘telegraph plant,’ the leaves
are in motion all day, up and down, and round
and round, without being touched at all, but
especially in the full glare of the sun; and if the
motion is stopped by any hindrance, as soon as



Fic. 9.—SEnsitive PLant Lear.

that is removed, the leaves will start off again
quicker than before. In other plants the leaves
require to be touched to set them in motion,
and, as these are touched, one leaf after another,
they will droop and close, so that all the leaves

in the plant may be sent to sleep in succession.
46 WHILE CLOVER.

The leaves of an Indian tree, called the ‘ caram-
bola, move by themselves during the night
more freely than during the day, when they
only rise and fall on being touched. often seen in this country, although it is a
foreigner, growing in shrubberies and in front of
houses, has compound pinnate leaves, of which
the leaflets droop down on both sides of the
leaf-stalk at dusk, as if they were going to sleep,
but touching has no effect upon them. Even
children have noticed this, if it is true of a little
girl reminding her mother that it was time to go
to bed, for the acacia was saying its prayers, in

allusion to the clasping together of the leaflets.”

PLANTAINS.*

es P our rambles we have found some large

and many very pretty flowers, some bright-
coloured, and some sweet-scented, and most of
them attractive for some cause or other. But
there are wild flowers to be found which have
pretty little flowers, scarcely to be seen, and
with no scent or’ other attraction. They live
and die, and no one seems to notice them, un-
less birds or insects. Such are the plantains,
by no means small plants, but with such in-
significant flowers that they seem to have no
flowers at all. We must find two kinds of them
which grow in waste places, by roadsides, and on .
the borders of fields. One is called the ‘great
plantain,’ and the other the ‘ribwort.’ I must
point them out to you, and then you will be

* Plantago major, and lanceolata.
48 PLANTAINS.

sure to know them again. There is one of
them, the great plantain, with its long spikes.”

“What a curious spike, like a rat’s tail! But
these must be the seed-vessels, are they not?”

“These are flowers, for you can see the
stamens.”

“That is nearly all I can see which looks like
flowers.”

“You can at least see the leaves.”

“They are large enough to be seen, growing
from the root, like a rosette.”

“The root-stock is thick, and there is no
proper stem ; all the leaves grow direct from the
root-stock.”

“Here is a splendid leaf, let me measure it
—nine inches long, without the foot-stalk, and
seven inches broad. Some of them are only
four or five inches, with a foot-stalk nearly as
long.”

“T should call them broadly ovate, narrowed
at each end, with the edge nearly even, or with
a few coarse broad teeth.”

“ And there are seven ribs standing up on
PLANTAINS. 49

the under side, running side by side along the
leaf, with a network of thin veins between
them; the veins run on at the bottom, down
the foot-stalk. On the top side of the leaf there
are as many furrows, just over the veins.”

“Yes, and I think both sides seem to be
quite smooth. The leaf-stalks are nearly as
long as the leaves, with a deep broad furrow on
the upper side.”

“The flower-stalks come up in the middle,
straight from the root-stock, without any leaves,
or bracts, or branches, one straight stem, or
several together; but they are rather hairy, and
this large one is more than a foot long.”

“The upper part, for four or five inches, is
thickly covered with flowers, in a dense spike.”

“ Dense spike is when the flowers are crowded
close together, I suppose.”

“Yes; and you will notice that flowering
begins at the bottom, and the flowers open,
one after another, only a few at a time, all the
way up. You will see the open flowers by the

stamens standing out.”
(509) 4
50 PLANTAINS.

“T can see the stamens, four together for
each flower, but I cannot see much more with-
out a pocket-glass.”

“Then I suppose I must tell you what you
are to look for—a cup-shaped calyx, with four
teeth ; then a thin corolla inside it, almost like
a little green egg, with four spreading teeth at
the top; and inside that the four long stamens,
standing a long way out at the mouth; and an
ovary in the midst of all.”



Fic. 10.—FLowrEr or PLANTAIN.

“Then there are a four-toothed calyx, a
four-toothed corolla, and four long stamens,
with one ovary, to all the flowers in the long
spike.”

“Yes; and although you can see the stamens
PLANTAINS. 51

standing out, you cannot see the parts of the
calyx and corolla with the naked eye.”

“‘ After the flowers comes the fruit.”

“Little dry capsules with several seeds in
each ; and birds are so fond of them that you
will see them put into bird-cages to feed canary
birds.”

“Ts the ribwort quite like the great plan-
tain ?”

“Not quite like it, but something like it, as
you will see from this plant which I gathered
just now; for it is not so large, and the leaves
are narrower.”

“T am sure that I shall always know the
ribwort from the great plantain, now that I
have seen them both.”

“The root-stock is thick, as it was in the
other ; and all the leaves come from the root, so
they are called radical leaves.”

“Some of them stand upright, and the outer
ones fall back towards the ground, like a
rosette. The leaves are lance-shaped, four

inches long or more, with rather long foot-stalks,
52 PLANTAINS.

and the blade of the leaf runs down the foot-
stalk on each side, like a wing. There are
from three to five raised veins, running length-
wise, on the under side of the leaves, with a
fine network between.” '

“So that the two sorts of leaves are similar,
but these are smaller, narrower, and more in-
clined to be hairy. There are a less number of
veins, and the edges are either quite even or
with here and there a broad tooth.”

“The naked flower-stalks grow up straight
from the root, just in the same way, but the
spike is very short.”

“Take one of the flower-stalks between your
fingers and you will feel that it is not round,
but almost square, and like the other tough and
hard, so that children call them ‘cocks and
hens,’ and beat the spikes against each other
until the stalks break.”

“The inflorescence is also a spike in the
ribwort, I see, but it is a short one, and rather
thicker ; not more than one inch long, often less,

but the stamens are longer and prettier.”
PLANTAINS. 53

“ Here again you must use the glass, or you
cannot see that the sepals are ribbed, the corolla
much the same as in the other kind—that is to
say, a four-toothed calyx, a four-toothed corolla,
and four stamens, more than twice as long as
the corolla, with thin white filaments and yellow
anthers. The anthers are the top crossed ends
of the stamens, which enclose the pollen.”

“And the fruit, a dry capsule, just the
same ?”

“Not quite the same, for each capsule con-
tains only two seeds, instead of several.”

“ And these are both plantains ?”

“Yes, Cissy ; and they will help me to explain
something. They are both of them plantains,
which in botany is called a genus, which means
any number of plants which agree, like these
do, in many things, but differ slightly in others.
The great plantain is what is called a species, or
particular kind of Plantain ; and the ribwort is
another species, or kind of Plantain. So that,
here are two species, or kinds of plants, which
are so much alike that they belong to one
54 PLANTAINS.

genus, and that one is called Plantain. When
we say Plantains, we mean the group or genus
of Plantain; but when we say great plantain,
we mean one species of Plantain; and when we
say ribwort plantain, we mean another species
of Plantain ; and when we say sea plantain, we
mean another species of Plantain. All of them
have spikes of little flowers, with four-toothed
calyx, four-toothed corolla, and four stamens,
and the fruit a dry capsule. This will give you
some notion of what is a genus and what a

spectes.”
YELLOW RATTLE*
‘s MONGST the common weeds of culti-

vated fields there are none more curious
than the rattles, although not so tall or so easily
noticed as the poppies and corn flowers. The
yellow rattle is a haymaking flower, for it is
seén in full bloom on the edges of fields at the
time of haymaking. The pink-flowered kind is
a different species, and flowers later, in corn-
fields, but it is not a proper rattle. They
belong to the same family as the eyebright,
and, like that, have been supposed to live and
thrive at the expense of the grasses amongst
which they grow. The corolla is all im one
piece, the petals being joined at the base,
sometimes forming a tube, and separating at the
top, where, as in the Mint family, they are

* Rhinanthus crista-galli.
56 YELLOW RATTLE.

often two-lipped. There are two or three kinds
of two-lipped corollas, and they are called bi-
labiate, which means the same thing. There is
the kind found in the eyebright, where the
upper lip has two nearly upright lobes that are
close together, and the lower lip of three lobes.
Then the toadflax and snapdragon have a two-
lipped corolla closed like a mouth. Whilst a
third kind has a wide gaping mouth, as in the
dead nettles, with the upper lip something like
a hood, and the lower lip three-lobed. Because
the mouth in the last kind is gaping, it is called
ringent, and such a corolla belongs to the
rattles. The yellow rattle is also known as
‘cock’s-comb, and in northern districts as
‘gowk’s sixpences, or ‘gowk’s siller.” And
now we must look it over, and all its parts,
so that we may become able to describe it in
writing.”

“ And call it an annual, growing in fields, six
inches or a foot high, with a slender, branched,
and fibrous root?”

“Yes; and sometimes you may see on the
YELLOW RATTLE. 57

roots some enlarged suckers, by which this plant
attaches itself to other living roots, amongst
which it grows.”

“ And do they hurt the plants to which they
stick ?”

“They do no good to the grasses, and many
persons think that they do harm, as they are a
sort of parasite.”

“A parasite is an animal or a plant which
lives upon another, is it not?”

“Certainly ; but the rattle does not live en-
tirely on the plant to which it fixes itself, so
that it is only partly a parasite.”

“Many of the stems have no branches, and
some of them are a little branched.”

“But the stem and branches are thin, and
round, and the leaves are opposite to each
other, in pairs.”

“Rather long, narrow, and pointed. I sup-
pose they are lance-shaped, or lanceolate, with
the edges coarsely toothed, or serrate. The
upper leaves, that are mixed with the flowers,
are shortest.”
58 YELLOW RATTLE.

“The inflorescence is a loose leafy spike, for
the flowers and small leaves are mixed together.”

“What a large calyx! It is rounded and
flattened, so that the mouth is narrow and
toothed, with four small teeth. I have never
seen such a large calyx before ; it is almost like
a bladder.”

“There is a wild flower, called the ‘ bladder
campion,’ which has such a large puffed-out
calyx, but in that case it is not flattened at the
sides.”

“The corolla peeps out at the top, like a
Jack-in-the-box ; and it is yellow, so that this is
the yellow rattle. The bottom part is a tube,
longer than the calyx; and the upper part is
two-lipped, with gaping lips, and a purple spot
on the lips.”

“You must notice that the upper lip is flat-
tened sideways, with a sort of tooth on each side
at the front, and that the lower lip is shorter,
with three lobes. The flower is much smaller
than it is in the yellow dead nettle, but in
shape something like it.”
YELLOW RATTLE. 59

“ And is this a ringent corolla ?”

“Tt is bilabiate, or two-lipped, and ringent, or
gaping. You must open the mouth gently and

seek the stamens.”

«Oh, the stamens are all right, there are two
pairs; and there are four stamens in the eye-
bright, and four in the yellow dead nettle.”

“You have said nothing about the column or
pistil.”

“That is so small I could scarcely see it.
But where is the rattle?”

“We must come some other day to see the
rattle. The fruit is a dry capsule, almost like
paper, much blown out, and when the seeds are
ripe they are loose in the capsules, so that
when you shake them the seeds rattle inside.
That is why it is called the rattle.”

“ And why is it called cock’s-comb ¢”

“Perhaps for the coarse teeth of the leaves.
The old herbalists called it ‘rattle grass,’ and
believed that ‘the whole seed being put into the
eyes, draweth forth any skin, dimness, or film,
without trouble or pain.’ Both the eyebright
60 YELLOW RATTLE.

and the yellow rattle were supposed to be good
medicines for diseases of the eyes.”

“T should think that putting little seeds or
even small dust into the eyes is not a good way
of curing them. When anything blows into my
eyes it pains me, and I should think hard little
seeds are best to be kept out of the eyes.”

“ Indeed, Cissy, in the same way that wild red
berries are best to be kept out of the mouth.

“ You will remember that this kind of capsule,
which is inflated, or blown out like a bladder, is
called by the name of wtricle, which has the
same meaning as ‘bladder.’ I shall have to tell
you, before our chats are over, something about
the many forms of fruits, and what they are
called ; but to-day I have another thing to talk
of which I had nearly forgotten.”

“And some more long names, too !”

“Only one, Cissy, and that is the name of
the substance which makes leaves green—that
green colour which would be called in English
‘leaf-green,’ but in books is named chlorophyl.
It is found in all the green parts of plants, in
YELLOW RATTLE. 61

small granules, and causes the colour; but when
leaves, or other parts, are covered from the
light there is no chlorophyl. If you lay a
piece of wood upon a grass plat, and let it lie
there for a few days, when you move it away
the grass will look bleached, and nearly all the
green colour will be gone. When the leaves of
a cabbage grow over closely and cover up the
‘heart,’ as it is called, or middle of the cabbage,
so that the inner leaves are in the dark, they
will be almost white. From this you will learn
that unless leaves are exposed to the light they
will not be green, so that chlorophyl depends
upon the light. It is believed that chlorophyl
acts like a screen between the light of the sun |
and the juices of the leaf, and so prevents too
quick and too great a change in the juice which
lies underneath the green chlorophyl. So you
see, that besides giving a pleasant green colour,
which igs so agreeable to the eye, this substance
is at the same time of great service to the plant.
Blanched leaves, like blanched faces, are not

healthy, and are caused by unnatural conditions.
HONEYSUCKLE.*

‘“C* OME wild plants which have very long thin

stems have a climbing habit, for they
climb up other ‘plants or around other objects to
support themselves, and this is done in several
ways. Some twist themselves around their
support, as the honeysuckle and hop. Others
climb by means of their leaves, as does the
clematis. Others ascend and attach themselves
by means of tendrils or suckers, as the vine,
bryony, and Virginian creeper. Whilst a few
others climb by means of rootlets, as the ivy;
and a few scramble amongst other plants in an
irregular manner, so as scarcely to be called
climbers. The largest number, and the most
interesting, are those which climb by twisting
themselves around their support. The hop is

* Lonicera periclymenum.
HONEYSUCKLE. 63

one of the best to notice, and it will be seen that
the end of the stem revolves as it grows, moving
in the same direction as the sun. The large
bindweed moves in the opposite direction to the
sun. It may take two hours or more for the
growing end of a hop stem to move once round
a hop pole. Some climbers will only twine
around a very thin support, as is the case with
the bitter-sweet ; but the honeysuckle will twine
around young trees. Most of us have seen the
scarlet-runner bean climbing up a thin cord,
stretched for the purpose; but we may not have
watched long enough to see the end move once
round the cord. This motion is slow enough not
to be detected by the eye as the end moves; but
if it is watched beside some fixed object, and
looked at from time to time, it will soon be seen
that it is gradually moving round and round,
and thus climbing up the cord.

“ The honeysuckle, or woodbine, is one of the
first to show its leaves in the spring, and one of
the last to flower in the autumn. Every one
loves it, as they love the violet, for the flowers
64 HONEYSUCKLE.

smell so sweet and taste so sweet ; and yet they
grow so high that they are often out of reach.
It has sometimes been called the eglantine ;
but the proper eglantine is the wild-brier, or
sweet-brier.

‘Through the sweet-brier, or the vine,

Or the twisted eglantine.’

But most commonly it is known as the woodbine,
as in the lines,—

‘Sleep thou, and I will wind thee in my arms.
So doth the woodbine—the sweet honeysuckle,
Gently entwist.’

“See, Cissy, how closely the thin stems wind
themselves around any stems or branches near
them, and climb to the top. As the stems grow
old, the thin outside bark loosens, and is easily
peeled off, like paper, one coat after another,
until we reach the youngest, which is inside and
adheres to the stem. These old parts are quite
naked, but there are leaves on the young

branches.”
HONEYSUCKLE. 65

“And they are opposite to each other in
pairs, I wanted to find some opposite leaves, and
these are quite simple, and smooth at the edge,
but most of them are without any foot-stalks.
Would you call them oblong ?”



Fic. 11.—Brancu oF HoNEYSUCKLE.

“Very nearly so, and rather downy on the
under side; but the flowers are its greatest

beauty.”
(609) 5
66 HONEYSUCKLE.

“Oh yes; how sweet they smell! I do not
wonder that the little insects fly about them so
much. Here are a dozen or more of flowers
growing all together in a bunch, or head, and
they are like little bent clubs before they open.”

“ And they do not all open at once; but you
must find one which is quite open.”

“The outside cup, or calyx, is small and green,
with five little teeth, but the corolla is pink, with
some yellow ; and they are all very long, and a
little curved, smallest at the bottom, and then
getting bigger and bigger upwards. The bottom
part is like a funnel all in one piece.”

“The tube of the corolla!”

“Splitting at the mouth, when it opens, into
two pieces. The upper one is the larger, with
four teeth, and it curls over backwards; the other
is small, with no notches, and the end curls under.
What should you call such a shaped flower ?”

“You may call it a two-lipped corolla.”

“But all two-lipped corollas are not of the
same shape, are they?”

“Oh dear, no! The mints have a two-lipped
HONEYSUCKLE. 67

corolla, and the yellow dead-nettle, but they are
different, and so is that garden flower which you

299

call ‘ snapdragon.



Fic. 12.—HOoNEYSUCKLE.
1, Flower; 2, Anther; 3, Stigma; 4, Fruit; 5, 6, Sections of Fruit; 7, 8, Seeds.

“When the flowers open the stamens are very
much outside; see how they stand out around
‘the pistil. There are five of them, and such long
filaments waving in the wind.”

“Did you ever suck the bottom of the tube

of these honeysuckle flowers ?”
68 HONEYSUCKLE.

« Always, when we can get them, the juice is
so sweet; and we girls call it honey, it is so
nice. But how can the insects reach it, the
tube is so long?”

“Some insects have a very long tongue, or
sucker, which they can thrust to the bottom of
a very long tube; and other insects, which have
no long tongue, bite a little hole near the bottom
of the corolla and steal the juice. You can see
the holes sometimes.”

“ What is the fruit of the honeysuckle like ?”

“You must look for them by-and-by; they
are little red juicy berries, and are to be seen
late in autumn. But I don’t think that I should
suck them, if I were you, because they are likely
to disagree with you, and some people say that
they are poison.”

“ And is no part of the honeysuckle of any
use ?”

“T should be sorry to say that, Cissy, because
I do not think that anything is without its uses.
This plant is useful to us because it looks pretty
and smells so sweet. It is useful to insects
HONEYSUCKLE. 69

because they suck its sweet nectar, and some of
them live upon its leaves. In olden times it was
said that the flowers were good for asthma, and
that when made into ointment they would take
away the freckles from the skin; but they are
of very little use for such purposes. We must
not judge everything by the use it seems to be
to ourselves. It has been useful to us to show
how a plant with a weak stem may climb, and
how one stem can twist itself around another
like a corkscrew. And it may teach us what a
beautiful variety there is in the forms of flowers,
and how a one-petalled corolla may have many
shapes, and that when two-lipped they are not
all alike. It is our own fault, Cissy, if we can
find no use, and no beauty, in everything which
the Creator has made.”
WHITE BRYONY.*

a ROM time to time we have had some chat

about the families of plants, but never
before of a family which had only a single mem-
ber of it a native of this country. And yet
several kinds are grown in Britain; but they are
not natives, and only one grows wild. Surely
such things as cucumbers, vegetable marrows,
melons, and pumpkins are common enough, and
well known; but they have a foreign origin,
and only one of the Cucumber family is a true
Briton. We have to seek this, which is called
the white bryony, scrambling in the hedges
which surround the fields, or in hedge-banks
along shady lanes. In the olden times, when tall
hedges were common in all country places, the
white bryony might always be seen in summer

* Bryonta dioica.
WHITE BRYONY. . 71

and autumn, climbing and scrambling through
the tall hedges ; but now the hedges are clipped
so low that a well-crown bryony becomes rare.
We shall walk to one which has been growing in
a hedge year after year for many years. The
thin stems die down every year, but the root
remains.

“This 1s sometimes called the wild vine, be-
cause it climbs by tendrils, and the leaves are
lobed somewhat like those of the grape vine.
It is also called the white bryony, and another
climbing plant is called the black bryony, but
they are very different. As we walk along to
the place where it grows, I may tell you of
some family likenesses which may be useful to
remember. The stems are long and slender, so
that they lie upon the ground, or climb by
means of tendrils. These tendrils are like long
leaf-stalks ; but instead of having the blade of
a leaf the tendrils are often branched and very
long, and the ends twist round twigs and
branches like a corkscrew, and hold the stem
firmly as it climbs higher and higher. Besides
72 WHITE BRYONY.

this, the leaves have the chief veins all starting
from one point, and spreading like the fingers of
the hand, so that they are called palmate veined.
And also, the flowers are of two kinds—male
flowers and female flowers, both growing sepa-
rately upon the same plant. You will find the
stamens in one flower, and the pistil, or ovary,
in another. Such plants are called unisexual, or
having the flowers of one sex.

“ And now, as we see the plant scrambling up
this hedge, we must not expect to see the root,
for that is deep in the soil, and it would take a
long time to dig it out. Sometimes a root is
quite half a yard long, and thicker than a man’s
arm, often bent, and crooked, and branched.
When cut, it is white within and firm, but with
plenty of watery juice. It looks something like,
and cuts something like, a very large potato.
Tn later times it has been called ‘mandrake,’ in
the belief that it was the mandrake known to
the Jews, about which many fables have been
told.”

“T gee the stems climbing about in the hedge,
WHITE BRYONY. 73

with the pea-green leaves, and holding fast by
the tendrils. The stems and leaves are quite
hairy, and must be very long. They must grow
very quickly to have grown so large this year.”

“Tt is a quick-growing plant; and as it grows
it makes new tendrils as well as new leaves, and
thus it clings as it grows.”

“The tendrils are sometimes branched and
sometimes not, usually not; but they do not
twist until they touch something which they
can twine around, and then they twist them-
selves like a corkscrew.”

“When a tendril catches hold of a twig, it
twines itself spirally in one direction until it has
made about half a dozen turns, then it stops,
and begins to turn in the opposite direction, so
that about half the turns are made in one direc-
tion, and half in the opposite. Sometimes they
twine without clinging, but then in only one
direction.”

“The leaves are deeply divided into five or
more lobes, like fingers spreading from the palm
of the hand, and each has a middle rib, all the
74 WHITE BRYONY.

ribs starting together from the same place. So
that they have palmate leaves as well as palmate
veins.”

“And the lobes are coarsely toothed at the
edge, the middle one being the longest. The
flowers, you see, are several together in racemes.
There are male flowers and female flowers, but
they grow on different plants.”

“The flowers are whitish, with green veins,
and the petals spread like a five-armed star.”

“These flowers are one-petalled, for all the
five petals are joined at the bottom, and the
outer cup, or calyx, has five teeth. The male
flowers are the largest, and you will see that
there is no ovary, but five stamens, although
there seem to be only three; for one stands
singly, and the other four are joined together in
two pairs, so there are really two double stamens
and one single one. The stems or filaments are
thick, and the anthers, at the top, are curiously
curved and twisted.”

“Are the anthers like those in cucumber
plants?”
WHITE BRYONY. 75



Fic. 13.—WuiITE Bryony.

1, Inflorescence and Tendril; 2, 3, Male Flowers; 4, Female Flower; 5, Section
of Ovary ; 6, Seed.

“Yes; if you look at cucumber plants when
they are in flower, you will see that some of the
flowers are at the top of a long-shaped ovary,
like a very tiny cucumber. These are the
female flowers. Then there are other flowers

with no ovary at the bottom, and in these you
76 WHITE BRYONY.

will find the stamens with twisted anthers.
These are the male flowers.”

“ Are both kinds found on the same plant?”

“Yes, the same plant has both male and
female flowers.”

“ And is it the same in the white bryony ?”

“No; the female flowers grow on one plant,
and the male flowers on another plant, so that
there are male plants, which have only male
flowers, and female plants, which have only
female flowers. These sort of plants are called
diecious, or two-housed—one house, or home,
or plant, for the males, and another for the
females.”

“ And what are they called when both grow
on the same plant, like the cucumber ?”

“They are monecious, or one-housed.”

“ Are the female flowers in the bryony grown
on the top of the ovary ?”

“Yes, they are seated on the top of a little
round ovary, and not upon a long one.”

“Then I suppose the fruit is round.”

“The fruit is a little, round berry, not much
WHITE BRYONY. 17

larger than a currant, which is green at first,
and then turns of a bright red or orange, with
several seeds inside. You must never taste
them, for they will do you harm ; but they look
pretty as they grow in clusters in the hedges
late in the year.”

“Then the fruits do not look like cucumbers
or melons?”

“ Not at all, but more like large red-currants.
They are sometimes called ‘tetter-berries.’ It
is lucky that they grow so high that children
can seldom reach them, as they might eat them

and poison themselves.”

You are, perhaps, a little puzzled with the
tendrils which grow on the vine, bryony, and
other climbing plants. It is easy to understand
that plants which have very long thin stems
must have some support, unless they are content
to creep along the ground. The stems grow
rapidly, and are much too thin to stand up by
themselves, so that they have to support them-
selves by clinging to their stronger neighbours.
78 WHITE BRYONY.

Some of them, such as the hop and honeysuckle,
do this by twining their stems around their sup-

port. Some of them, like the clematis, cling by

KX



Fic. 14..-Trenprits or Pra.
twisting their stalks. But the most perfect
climbers produce little branches without leaves,

called tendrils, which wind themselves around
WHITE BRYONY. 79

anything that comes in their way, and thus
help to steady the weak-stemmed plant, and
carry it up into the light. You may ask me if
these are new organs, which are found only on
climbing plants ; and to this I should reply that
they are old organs in a new form. In most
cases they are the foot-stalks of leaves, and the
midribs, without blades, adapted to a new pur-
pose, that of support, and therefore capable of
twisting themselves. In a few plants a little
tendril grows at the end of true leaves, and is a
continuation of the midrib, or it is a continua-
tion of the foot-stalk of a compound leaf, as in
some kinds of vetch. Mostly they climb by
twisting themselves; but, in addition, some of
them have little suckers at the end of every
branch of the tendril, by which they fasten
themselves. The movements of climbing plants
and of their tendrils are very curious, and it is
worth while to watch them and see how cleverly

they are done.
LAST WORDS.

ITH these “last words” our chat on

wild flowers is ended ; and if we have

only had about forty flowers to look at, I have
named others by the way, which you may study
by yourselves. You must not think that I
have told you half of what there is to tell,
because, after all, I have been able to tell you
only a very little; but I have tried to make it
more easy for you to go on and learn some-
thing more. I hope that all who have followed
me up till now have found the inclination to
go on, because they will find it easier and easier
the more they know. What I have been teach-
ing has been only the first steps, but it is “the
first steps that cost,” and it is the elementary
which requires most teaching, even if the same

thing has to be said over and over again. Any-
LAST WORDS. él

thing that is good is not to be had without a
little trouble ; and whatever you learn, if it looks
like play, must be done as if it were work,

You have had to learn some strange names,
and some long ones; but they are not hard
names when you understand their meaning, and
have become accustomed to using them. I have
tried to show you that it is not enough to learn
to know one plant from another by its outward
appearance. You may without trouble soon
know a red corn poppy when you see it, or a wall-
flower, or a primrose, and never make a mistake ;
but you will know little more than their names,
nothing of how they are like each other or how
they differ from each other. If you would
know them really, and be able to give a reason
for so knowing them, you will have to know
something of all their parts, or organs; and if
you are to explain these to any one else, you
must call all their parts by some well-known
name. You may soon be able to speak of the
root, the stem, the leaves, the flowers, and the

fruit; but as all the ordinary wild flowers have
(609) 6
82 é LAST WORDS.

all these parts in common, you will have taken
but a very short step. You will want to
describe every orie of these parts by itself; but
to do this you will have to know some name by
which to call the particular form of root, leaf,
or flower. Here you will begin to find that
you must use your eyes, and train them to see
the differences between, we will say, one kind of
leaf, or flower, and another. This will be a
second step in advance.

Then you will sogn learn that there are many
plants which have just the same shaped leaves
and the same sort of flowers, so that you will
have to use your eyes again, and find out other
differences. When you have found that your
plant has lanceolate leaves, it will be useless to
stop, for you will have to see if they are smooth
or hairy, with long foot-stalks or short ones, and
whether the edge is smooth or notched. This
will be progress, but the end is not yet; for,
supposing that the edge is notched, and, having
been told that leaves are notched in different
ways, you must discover how your leaves are
LAST WORDS. 83

notched, and what name is used for that kind
of notching. In this way you will have to go
on, and learn all you can of every leaf, and
every other part of the plant, before you leave it.

Supposing that you come at last to the
flower, you will soon discover what a terrible
lot of things you have to learn to see. You
may call it the flower, but it has a calyx, and a
corolla, and stamens, and pistil, so that there
are four different parts of the flower, at least,
to be looked at carefully, and all their forms to
be made a note of. The calyx and corolla are
the outside wrappers for the stamens and pistil,
which latter are the essential organs, so we
must first look at the calyx and corolla, if both
of them are present. The calyx may
have separate parts, or sepals, like little |
leaves, or these may all be grown to-
gether into one piece like a cup, with

a toothed edge. I cannot stay to tell



Fria. 15.

you how much you have to learn about Camx win
UNITED

the calyx—whether it is green or col- Ssrars.
oured, whether it is smooth or hairy, whether it
84 LAST WORDS.

is deciduous, or falls away very soon, or whether
it is persistent, and remains after the petals are
all gone—but you must find out all you can
by good use of your eyes. After the calyx we
find the corolla, usually the showy part of the
flower, and we see at once whether it is regular
or irregular; because, if it is regular, all the -
petals, whether three, four; or five, will be of
the same size and shape, never mind the colour.
Having seen that the corolla is regular, the
next point is to learn whether all the petals are
quite separate from each other, or polypetalous ;
or whether they are joined at the bottom in a
ring or a long tube, and therefore monopetalous.
Let us suppose that our plant has a monopetal-
ous corolla, and we remember that there are
several kinds of monopetalous corollas—like a
bell, like a funnel, like a trumpet, like a jug, like
a wheel, or like a wheel and axle—and for all
these there are names. If it is shaped like a
bell, it is campanulate, and in most cases hangs
with the mouth downwards, as a bell would do.
Thus, whatever the form of the corolla, we are
LAST WORDS. 85

bound to find out everything possible about it,
and more especially everything that is different
from other forms of the same kind of corolla, be
the difference ever so small so long as it is
constantly present.



Fic. 16.—Monoprratous Coro tas.

In order to impress the method which has
been adopted in our rambles, I will go on with
the inner, or essential, organs of flowers, and,
having found that both stamens and pistil are
in the same flower, decide that it is hermaphro-
dite, or perfect. Some flowers are imperfect,
because they contain only stamens, or only a
pistil, and these may be on the same or on
another plant. The stamens, or outer circle,

vary in their number in different plants, but are
86 LAST WORDS.

the same in the same species. These organs
must always be carefully looked at, for they
should have a supporting stalk, or filament, and
a head, or anther, which contains the pollen.
The filaments may seem to come out from
underneath the ovary, or they may rise from
the calyx, or be fixed to the petals or corolla.
When they are joined to the calyx, the petals



Fig. 17.—STAMENS AND PISTIL.

will fall off and leave the stamens behind; but
when they are joined to the petals, or corolla,
they fall off with it. Perhaps I had better not
trouble you with the names which are given
to each of these kinds. It is sometimes the
case that the stamens are not all of the same
length, and this must be noted. You will
LAST WORDS. 87

find it to be so in the cuckoo-flower and in the
eyebright, or yellow archangel. In other plants
the filaments may all be joined together in a
tube round the pistil, or nine joined together
and one standing by itself, as in the
pea-flower. More rarely, the fila- a Lif
ments will be joined at the bottom Ws
in three or more bundles, as in Saint- °----\]

John’s-wort. The anthers, too, may



vary ; for some of them may have a eae

horn or a crest, and they may be Staves.

c, Filaments.
fixed to the filament at the middle a, anthers.
or at the bottom ; indeed, as you go on learning
you will find that there is much more to be
learned about the stamens.

I must now call to your memory something
about the pistil, or central column, sometimes
called the female organ. This should have
three parts—a swelling at the bottom, which
is the ovary, and will become the seed-vessel ;
a column standing on the top of it, called the
style, which is sometimes absent; and the sticky

surface, or upper end, to which the pollen grains
88 LAST WORDS.

adhere, and this is the stagma. In many flowers
there is only one ovary, as in the primrose, but
in others it is divided into several campels, as



Fig. 19.—PIistins.
a, Ovary; b, Style; c, Stigma.

they are called, for instance in the buttercups ;
each carpel has its own style, if there is one,
and its own stigma at the top. I think that
this is all I need to tell you now about the
pistil, except that by-and-by, when you have
learned all I have tried to teach you, then you
will want to know something more about the
ovary, and how it grows into a fruit. For the
present you may be content to cut the ovary
LAST WORDS. 89

across, and see the little rounded bodies inside,
which are the ovules, and will grow into seeds.
In some of the ovaries you will find one cell with

its ovules, and in other ovaries several cells.



Fic. 20.--CARPELS AND STYLES. Vic. 21.—Ovu.rs.

I have already told you how the ovules are
made fertile by the pollen grains, and then how
they grow into fruits. I must now have a last
word about the different sorts of fruits ; for they
are all fruits, whatever their shape. There is
this difference in fruits which should be noticed
first, that they may be dehiscent, or open of
themselves, so as to let the seeds escape; or

they may be indehiscent, and not open at all.
90 LAST WORDS.

We will take the last kind first, and talk of
indehiscent fruits, or those which do not open
of themselves. Of course some of these are
dry, and some are pulpy or fleshy; but all
dehiscent fruits are dry. Some of the dry
indehiscent fruits have only one seed, and the
outside husk or coat is called the pericarp. If
we take one of the fruits of a composite flower,
like the dandelion, or a larger one, that of the
sunflower, we have a dry fruit which does not
open, and the pericarp may be shelled off from
the single seed it contains. This is called an
achene, and the sunflower fruit is an achene,
having only one seed. If we take a grain of
wheat, we find that the thin pericarp is joined
and grown to the seed, so that we cannot strip
it off. This is a caryopsis. But there is
an ‘ther kind of fruit in which the pericarp does
not lie close to the seed, as in the sunflower,
but is blown out like a bladder, and there is a
space between the pericarp and the seed. This
is called a utricle, and it means a bladder.
Then there is a kind of dry fruit, which you
LAST WORDS. 91

know very well, enclosing one separable seed ;
but the pericarp is hard, and there are bracts,
or an involucre at the bottom of it. You re-
member the filbert, the bracts of which at first
enclose the fruit; or the acorn, with its cup, or
involucre at the bottom ; and the name given to
these fruits is glans, or more commonly a nut.



Fic. 22.—Guans or FinBert, CHESTNUT, YEW, AND OAK.

Only one other kind is left for me to name,
and that is a dry pericarp with one seed and
a spreading wing, which goes all around the
pericarp in an elm fruit, or is only on one side
of it in the fruit of the ash, called ash-keys, or
in a similar manner in the maple; but two fruits
are joined together at the bottom. All these
92 LAST WORDS.

winged fruits are known by the name of samara.

Thus there is the single samara of the elm and



Fic. 23.—Samara or ELM, In CLUSTERS.
ash, and the double samara of the maple and
the sycamore.
Fleshy indechiscent fruits with only one seed
you will think of at once as the cherry and



Fira. 24.—Samara or ASH.

plum, with a pulpy pericarp, and one hard seed

in the centre. This sort of fruit is called a
LAST WORDS. 93

drupe. The raspberry and blackberry are fruits
with a number of these little drupes clustered
together so as to form a compound drupe.
Fleshy indehiscent fruits with more than one
seed are of two kinds. In the one kind the
seeds are immersed in a pulpy or fleshy mass,
as in the gooseberry and currant. This is called
a berry, and an orange does not really differ
from a berry, nor is the difference
ereat in a melon or a cucumber,
except in having a central cavity â„¢
when fully ripe. In the other
kind of fleshy fruit with many
seeds, the latter are enclosed in
scaly or horny cells, as in the apple
and pear. This kind of fruit is
called a pome, so that apples and
pears are pomaceous fruits.

We are now left with dehis-



cent, or splitting fruits, and all
of these are dry. It will not be ™* 25.—PouE,
difficult to class them under a very few names.

If you know the fruits of the columbine, to be
94 LAST WORDS.

seen in gardens, you will remember that several
little bags are clustered together, open at the
mouth and partly down on one side, showing
them to be packed with shining little seeds.
Hach of these little bags is called a follicle,
something like a pod or legume, but opening
only at the end and on one side. Far more
common is the legume or pod of the pea-flower
family—the pea, bean, lupin, vetch, and a host
of others. These pods split back and front, or
on either side. The seeds at first erow fixed,
on both sides of the back swtwre, or opening.

A more variable kind of dry fruit is called a
capsule, containing many seeds, but opening by
little holes or pores near the top, as in the
poppy; or by valves, as in the foxglove; or by
a lid at the top which falls off, as in henbane
and pimpernel. The fruit of the wallflower
and other cruciferous plants is a capsule of a
peculiar kind, better known as a siliqua. In
shape it is a pod, but there is a flat column
running up the middle which carries the seeds ;

then the valve on each side, like the two halves
LAST WORDS. 95

of a pod, parts away at the bottom, and all the
way up, leaving behind the central column
with the seeds attached on both sides. You
will always be able to know a siliqua
from a legume, or pod, by the par-

tition running down the middle.

he

Only one more kind of fruit has NS eg
Yay
to be named, and that comes under ¥



none of those mentioned: it is the

Fic. 26.
STROBILE OR
Cone or Fir.

cone or strobile of the fir tree and
hop. There is a dense overlapping
spike of scales with seeds at their base, and
these scales are thin, ike a membrane in the
hop, but hard and woody in the fir-cone.

And now I have gathered together some of
the points to be noted in your study of wild
flowers. If you follow on from what I have
taught you, and wish to know more, there are
many who can guide you. Do not ask what is
the use of it, for you can never know what will
be of service to you in the future; and you
should remember that you can never learn too

much, and that whatever you have learned well
96 LAST WORDS.

will never be wasted. If you only know a
little about wild flowers, insects, or animals, it
will always make a country walk the more
interesting and pleasant because of that know-
ledge.
INDEX.

Achene, 90.
Anthers, 53, 87.
Ash-keys, 91.
Axils, 40.

Berry, 93.

Bilabiate corolla, 56.
Blade of leaf, 39.
Blue-bottle, 30.
Bracts, 33.

Campanulate, 84.
Capsules, 16, 94.
Carambola, 46.
Carpels, 88.
Caryopsis, 90.
Catch-fly, 29.
Chickweed, 28.
Chlorophyl, 60.
Clawed petal, 26.
Climbing plants, 62.

Clover head of flowers, 42.

Clovers, 37.

Cockle, 24.
Cock’s-comb, 56.
Cone of fir, 95.

Corn blue-bottle, 30.
Corn-cockle, 21.
Creeping stems, 38.
Cucumber family, 70.

Deciduous calyx, 14, 84.
Dehiscent fruits, 89.
(509)





Dense spike, 49.
Dicecious, 76.
Double flowers, 21.
Drupe, 93.

Dutch clover, 37.

Essential organs, 83.

Female flowers, 35.
Filaments, 87.

Fir cone, 95.

Florets, 33.

Follicle, 94.
Four-leaved clover, 43.

Garden pinks, 28.
Genus and species, 53.
Glans, 91.

Gowk’s siller, 56.
Great plantain, 47.

Hairy poppy capsule, 17.
Hermaphrodite, 36, 85.
Honeysuckle, 62.

Indehiscent fruits, 89.
Inflated calyx, 57.
Inflorescence, 40, 52.
Involucre, 33.
Irregular corolla, 84.

Lamina, 39.

Last words, 80.
98

Leaf-green, 60.
Legume or pod, 94.
Lobes of leaf, 13. -

Male flowers, 34.
Moneecious, 76. *
Monopetalous, 84.

Nectar, 42.
Neuter florets, 35.

Oil from seeds, 20.
Opium, 19.

Opium poppy, 11, 18.

Ovary, 15, 87.
Ovules, 89.

Palmate leaves, 72.
Pappus, 35.
Parasites, 57.

Pea flowers, 41.
Peduncles, 32.
Pericarp, 90.
Persistent calyx, 84.
Pink family, 22.
Pistil, 87.
Plantains, 47.
Pollen, 53.
Polypetalous, 84.

~ Pome, 93.

Poppy, red, 11.
Prostrate stems, 38.
Purple clover, 43.

Racemes, 74.
Radical leaves, 51.
Rattle grass, 59.
Red poppy, 11.



INDEX.

‘| Regular corolla, 84.

Ribwort, 47,
Ringent corolla, 56.
Runners, 38.

Samara, 92.

Sensitive plants, 44,
Siliqua, 94.

Sleep of plants, 40, 46.
Soap roots, 28.

Species of plants, 53.
Stamens and pistil, 86.
Stigma, 15, 88.
Stipule, 39.

Strobile, 95.

Style, 87.

Suture, 94.

Telegraph plant, 45.
Tendrils, 71, 78.
Tetter-berries, 77.
Thistle-head flowers, 36.
Trefoil, 37.

Trifoliate leaves, 39.
Tubular corolla, 66.
Two-lipped corolla, 56.

Unisexual flowers, 72.
Utricle, 60, 90.

White bryony, 70.
White clover, 37.
Wild pink, 23.
Wild vine, 71.
Woodbine, 63.

Yellow rattle, 55.


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xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008725800001datestamp 2008-10-21setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Rambles among the wild flowers : : a book for the youngDown the lane and backThrough the copseStroll on a marshAcross the commonAround the cornfielddc:creator Cooke, M. C. (Mordecai Cubitt), b 1825dc:subject Wild flowers -- Juvenile fiction.Flowers -- Juvenile fiction. -- MorphologyFlowers -- Juvenile fiction. -- ColorPlants -- Classification -- Juvenile fiction.Plants -- Juvenile fiction. -- CompositionUncles -- Juvenile fiction.Nieces -- Juvenile fiction.Outdoor life -- Juvenile fiction.Natural history -- Juvenile fiction.Juvenile fiction. -- Great BritainBldn -- 1898.dc:description "The five parts in one volume."Factual information in a fictional format.Pictorial front cover and spine.Includes indexes.Title page printed in red and black colors.Each part contains a preface, table of content and index.dc:publisher T. Nelson and Sonsdc:date 1898.dc:type Bookdc:format 114, 103, 94, 98, 98 p., 10 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00087258&v=00001002224693 (ALEPH)32523488 (OCLC)ALG4961 (NOTIS)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English