Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Glossary of acronyms and abbre...
 Library locations
 General Caribbean and multi-country...
 Leeward Islands
 Windward Islands
 British Virgin Islands
 Cayman Islands
 St. Kitts-Nevis-(Anguilla)
 St. Lucia
 St. Vincent
 Turks and Caicos Islands
 Bibliographies and other reference...
 Crop index
 General index

Group Title: Working document series Caribbean regional
Title: A partially annotated bibliography of agricultural development in the Caribbean region
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087122/00001
 Material Information
Title: A partially annotated bibliography of agricultural development in the Caribbean region
Series Title: Working document series Caribbean regional
Physical Description: vi, 202 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Zuvekas, Clarence
Publisher: Rural Development Division, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1978
Subject: Agriculture -- Bibliography -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Bibliography -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Bibliography -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliographie -- Antilles   ( rvm )
Agriculture -- Aspect économique -- Bibliographie -- Antilles   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Clarence Zuvekas, Jr.
General Note: Includes indexes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087122
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06580432
lccn - 79603216

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Glossary of acronyms and abbreviations
        Page v
        Page vi
    Library locations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General Caribbean and multi-country studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Leeward Islands
        Page 81
    Windward Islands
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
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        Page 139
    British Virgin Islands
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Cayman Islands
        Page 142
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    St. Kitts-Nevis-(Anguilla)
        Page 170
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    St. Lucia
        Page 178
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    St. Vincent
        Page 186
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        Page 189
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        Page 192
    Turks and Caicos Islands
        Page 193
    Bibliographies and other reference works
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Crop index
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    General index
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
Full Text



*Antigua, Barbados, Belize, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Domi-
nica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts-
Nevis-(Anguilla), St. Lucia, St. Vin-
cent, Turks and Caicos Islands

Clarence Zuvekas, Jr.

Sector Analysis Internalization Group
Office of International Cooperation
and Development
U.S. Department of Agriculture

September 1978



*Antigua, Barbados, Belize, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Domi-
nica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts-
Nevis-(Anguilla), St. Lucia, St. Vin-
cent, Turks and Caicos Islands

Clarence Zuvekas, Jr.

Sector Analysis Internalization Group
Office of International Cooperation
and Development
U.S. Department of Agriculture

September 1978


Under the terms of USDA Contract No. 12-17-07-5-2173, the author has
prepared a bibliography on agricultural development in the Caribbean
Region, defined operationally by U.S. AID as comprising the smaller English-
speaking states in the Caribbean, viz.: Antigua, Barbados, Belize, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts-

began in October 1977 and continued intermittently, both in the field
and in Washington, D.C., until September 1978. I am indebted to a large
number of individuals for giving me access to both published and unpublished
studies in the libraries of their respective organizations.

The author is quick to point out that this bibliography, though
quite lengthy, is not complete. First of all, a decision was made to
include (with relatively few exceptions) only publications since 1960.
Secondly, because of time constraints and the law of diminishing returns,
the search for documents had to leave some stones unturned. Undoubtedly,
studies which should have appeared in the bibliography are not included,
and apologies are offered to their authors.

With a few exceptions, reports by the IBRD, IDB, and OAS--many of
which have a restricted distribution--have not been included in this
Bibliography. They should, however, be consulted by those interested in
a detailed, macroeconomic view of the Caribbean Region. Particularly
valuable in this respect is the IBRD's Caribbean Regional Study (1975)
and its series of reports on the Eastern Caribbean less developed countries,
issued in 1978.

The form in which the bibliography entries appear is (loosely) based
on guidelines provided in the University of Chicago Manual of Style,
twelfth edition; a number of modifications, though, have been made.
For some books and technical reports, the number of pages is indicated.
Library locations, with call numbers if available, are given in brackets.
The library may be identified by consulting the list of abbreviations of
library locations. Both a Crop Index and a General (topical) Index are


Preface i

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations v

Library Locations vii

General Caribbean and Multi-Country Studies 1

Leeward Islands 81

Windward Islands 82

Antigua 89

Barbados 96

Belize 127

British Virgin Islands 140

Cayman Islands 142

Dominica 144

Grenada 156

Montserrat 165

St. Kitts-Nevis-(Anguilla) 170

Anguilla 177

St. Lucia 178

St. Vincent 186

Turks and Caicos Islands 193

Bibliographies and Other Reference Works 194

Crop Index 196

General Index 199






Agricultural Marketing Protocol
Abstracts in Tropical Agriculture
British Development Division in the Caribbean
British West Indies
(British) West Indies Sugar Technologists
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau Abstracts
Caribbean Ecumenical Consultation for Development
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Caribbean Community (also Caribbean Common Market)
Caribbean Free Trade Association
Caribbean Industrial Research Institute
Commonwealth Development Corporation
Caribbean Food Crops Society
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
Canadian International Development Agency
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management,
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad
Dissertation Abstracts International
Diploma in Tropical Agriculture
European Economic Community
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Gross Domestic Product
Guaranteed Market Scheme
Gross National Product
Institute of Caribbean Studies
Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture
Inter-American Development Bank
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas
Institute of Social and Economic Research
Less Developed Country
Organization of American States
Pan American Health Organization
Regional Research Center, University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
United Nations Development Programme
(United Nations) Economic Commission for Latin America
Association of Caribbean Universities and Research Institutes
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
University of Puerto Rico
UoS. Department of Agriculture


UWI University of the West Indies
W.I. West Indies
WIAEC West Indian Agricultural Economics Conference
WINBAN Windward Islands Bannana Growers Association


AID Ref.




B. Min. Ag.












U.S. Dept. State


AID Reference Center, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Caribbean

U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for
Latin America and the Caribbean, Office of Development
Resources, Rural Development Division, Washington, D.C.

British Development Division in the Caribbean, Bridgetown,

Barbados Ministry of Agirculture, Bridgetown

Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute,
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad

Caribbean Community Secretariat, Georgetown, Guyana

Caribbean Development Bank, Wildey, St. Michael, Barbados

Canadian International Development Agency, Bridgetown,

George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of
the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados

Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison

National Agricultural Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C.

Sector Analysis Internalization Group, Office of International
Cooperation and Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C.

Sugar Technology Research Unit, Barbados

U.S. Agency for International Development, Bridgetown,

U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C.

University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados


1. ABBOTT, George C. "The Collapse of the Sea Island Cotton Industry in the
West Indies." Social and Economic Studies 13 (March 1964):157-187.

The author discusses the events leading to a decline in production to
only one-third its 1939/40 level. Since the market is expected to be
weak, and prices therefore low, a continuing decline in production is

2. ----. "The Future of Economic Cooperation in the West indies in the
Light of the Break-up of the Federation." Social and Economic Studies
12 (June 1963):160-178.

Examines the effect of the break-up of the Federation of the West
Indies on the British West Indies Sugar Association. Argues that"there
are centrifugal forces at work tending to bring about a looser form of
economic cooperation among the sugar islands with the possible disinte-
gration of BWISA." The author also finds a movement from regionalism
to individualism in the production and marketing of other agricultural
commodities for which regional associations or agreements exist, or for
which inter-island trade exists.

3. --. "Stabilisation Policies in West Indian Sugar Industries."
Caribbean Quarterly 9 (March-June 1963):53-66.

The author argues that "it is . essential if the industry is to
adjust itself with the minimum social dislocation to changing world
conditions, political as well as economic, that it should have adequate
reserves at its disposal." Some form of stabilization program, he says,
is urgently needed.

4. ----. "The West Indian Sugar Industry with Some Long-Term Projections
and Supply to 1975." Social and Economic Studies 13 (March 1964):1-37.

Reviews changes in acreage and yields and develops 2 separate projec-
tions, based on different methods, which can be regarded as estimates
of technical feasibility. Economic feasibility is then examined in the
light of possible changes in production costs, price considerations,
and marketing problems. The author notes that the region is very
dependent on guaranteed markets and/or premium prices.

5. ABDULAH, Norma. The Labour Force in the Commonwealth Caribbean: A
Statistical Analysis. Occasional Papers in Human Resources, No. 1.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: ISER, UWI, 1977. Pp. 120. [SAIG]

A critical examination of 1960 and 1970 census data and several non-
census sources of labor force data. Notes that conceptual differences
sometimes make it difficult to compare 1960 and 1970 census results.

6. ADAMS, C.D.; KASASIAN, L.; and SEEYAVE, J. Common Weeds of the West
Indies. St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1970. [BDD]

7. ADAMS, Nassau A. Planning to Meet the Caribbean's Growing Food Needs:
Framework for a Regional Food Plan. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: United
Nations Caribbean Regional Integration Advisory Team, 1975. [CDB]

8. ADIGUN, Ebenezer 0. "A Comparison of the Agronomic Performance and the
Nutritive Value of Three Tropical Grasses." Ph.D. Thesis, UWI,
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1975.

These studies involved both yearling Holstein steers and mature
male sheep.

S. "Agricultural Exports from the LDC's." West Indies Chronicle (October-
November 1976).

10. "The Agriculture of the Caribbean and Its Future Needs." The Farmer 76

11. AHMAD, N. "How Well Does the UWI Faculty of Agriculture Serve the
Ceribbean Farming Community?" Journal of the Agricultural Society
of Trinidad and Tobago 71 (December 1971):448-453. Also in Caribbean
Farming 3 (June 1971):4-5.

Discusses the concern of the UWI faculty about the UWI's underutili-
zation as a training institution and the relative unattractiveness of
agriculture to potential students. A comment by Hugh MILLER argues
that research--particularly on vegetable crops--is being neglected.

12. ----; CORNFORTH, I.S.; and WALMSLEY, D. "Methods of Measuring Available
Nutrients in West Indian Soils: III. Potassium." Plant and Soil 39

13. ----, and JONES, Robert L. "Genesis, Chemical Properties and Mineralogy
of Caribbean Grumasols." Soil Science 107 (March 1969):166-174.

14. ----, and PRASHAD, S. "Dispersion, Mechanical Composition, and
Fractionation of West Indian Volcanic Yellow Earth Soils (Andepts)."
Journal of Soil Science 21 (March 1970):63-71.

15. ALI, Desmond A. "The Scope for Utilisation of Industrial and Agricultural
By-Products." Proceedings, WIAEC, 9th (1974):71-78.

The author sees possibilities for utilizing a variety of by-products
but warns that not all of them may be profitable. Careful evaluation
of benefits and costs is called for.

16. ALLEYNE, Frank. "Financing Agrarian Reform in the Commonwealth
Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 7th (1972):8-13.

Argues that agricultural development objectives would best be achieved
if the State became the sole landlord and provided a wide range of
services, including credit tied to extension education. Maintains that
public ownership of all lands would facilitate 3 important changes:
"amalgamation of plots of uneconomic size, thereby checking fragmen-
tation; reduction of the size of farms where the acreage exceeds the
optimum for the particular type of crop which the operator is cultivating;
and finally, engineering works to secure solutions to problems of
erosion." Critizes existing credit institutions, which are said to
favor large farmers.

17. ----. "Some Thoughts on the EEC Sugar Policy and the Future of the
Caribbean Sugar Industry." Bulletin of Eastern Caribbean Affairs 3
(July/August 1977).

Asesses the effects of the Lome Convention on the Caribbean. Questions
the long-run viability and profitability of sugar in the region.

18. ALVAREZ URIARTE, Miguel. "World and Hemisphere Trade Policies Affecting
the Caribbean Area." In Western Hemisphere International Relations and
the Caribbean Area, Vol. II., ed. Maurice WATERS. Mona, Jamaica: UWI,
1969. Pp. 10-25.

19. ANDERSON, A.M. "The Marketing Situation for Fish and Fish Products in
the Caribbean." Cajanus 3 (February 1970):17-31.

Provides data, by country, on total consumption, domestic production,
and imports of fish and fish products in 1967. Discusses various
aspects of marketing and evaluates the prospects for increased fish

20. ANDERSON, Jack W. Cooperative Trade Development Study: Caribbean Region
(Spices and Essential Oils). Washington, D.C.: Agricultural Cooperative
Development International, 1976. [CDB]

21. ANDIC, Fuat. Integration Schemes in and around the Caribbean. Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico: UPR, 1969.

22. ---, and ANDIC, Suphan. CARIFTA: Its Structure, Current and Future
Activities and Recommendations for a Possible Course of Action. A
report prepared for the Ford Foundation. Rio Piedras (?), Puerto
Rico, 1969.

23. ----, ----, and DOSSER, Douglas. A Theory of Economic Integration for
Developing Countries: Illustrated by Caribbean Countries. University
of York Studies in Economics No. 6. London: George Allen and Unwin
Ltd., 1971. Pp. 176. [NAL: HC155 A741

The authors revise traditional customs union theory with the intention
of making it more appropriate to conditions faced by developing
countries. They briefly discuss the economies of 5 Caribbean countries
(Barbados, The Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Surinam and Trinidad-
Tobago) and review integration efforts in the Caribbean through the
1960s. Finally, the authors apply their theoretical framework to the

5 countries studied, based on the several options for economic
integration available to each of them.

24. ARCHER, H.G. "Food and Nutrition Content and Approaches in CARICOM
(Caribbean Community) Media." Cajanus 9 (1976):273-287. [NAL:
RA784 Al C3]

Based on a 4-month screening of newspapers in Trinidad-Tobago, Guyana,
Jamaica, and Barbados (April-July 1976). The Advocate (Barbados) was
found to have "negligible emphasis" on food and nutrition.

25. ARCHIBALD, K.A.E., and ADIGUN, Ebenezer 0. "Potential of Forages for
Ruminants in the Caribbean." Proceedings, Seminar on the Utilization
of Local Ingredients in Animal Feed, ed. J.A. RICHARDS, Jamaica, 1975.

26. ----, and OSUJI, Paschal 0. "Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization and
Harvest Interval on the Production of Tropical Grasses." Proceedings,
CFCS, 13th (1975).

27. ----, and ----. "Prospects for the Improvement of Livestock Output in
the ECCM Countries." Proceedings, WIAEC, 12th (1977):130-147.

Factors responsible for low productivity of ruminant livestock are said
to be deficiencies in land tenure, management, feeding, breeds and
breeding, health, marketing, and credit. The authors make recommenda-
tions for increasing productivity, stressing the unique socioeconomic
and environmental conditions in each country.

28. ARIYANAYAGAM, R.R. "A New System of Pigeon Pea Production." Extension
Newsletter (UWI, St. Augustine) 8 (March 1977):5-7.

29. ARRUNDALE, J. Guidelines for Development of Fish Wholesaling and Retailing
in the Eastern Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados: UNDP, 1971. [BDD]

30. ----, and HERBORG, Lars. Experimental Processing of Shark, Catfish and
Small Shrimp. Based on the Work of Hans HORN. Bridgetown, Barbados:
UNDP, 1971. [BDD]

31. ARTHURTON, Percy, and HENRY, Frank. "Prospects for the Development of
Livestock Production in Montserrat and Antigua." Proceedings, WIAEC,
10th, (1975): Vol. II, pp. 186-196.

Livestock development is seen to have considerable potential for saving
foreign exchange, reducing imported inflation, and providing income and
employment. It is also stated that the rural population prefers livestock
operations to crop farming. Major constraints are said to be lack of
sufficient land with secure tenure for potential livestock operators,
poor management and lack of restraint, and price controls and other

32. ASHWORTH, Ann et al. "Value for Money (Energy and Protein) for Basic
Foods in Jamaica, Barbados and Guyana." Cajanus 7 (February 1974):42-47.

Based on December 1973 prices in Jamaica and January 1974 prices in
Barbados and Guyana. For Barbados data are provided for 35 basic
food items.

33. Associated Industrial Consultants Ltd. The Final Report on the West
Indian Sea Island Cotton Association. London, 1970. [BDDJ

34. ----. Report on the West Indian Sea Island Cotton Industry to the Govern-
ments of Antigua, Barbados, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla and
St. Vincent. London, 1969. [BDDJ

Argues that a substantial potential market exists. The industry can
be revived, the consultants say, if the efficiency of production were
improved and mechanical harvesting adopted. The high cost of labor,
it is said, makes hand picking uneconomical.

35. Association forCo-operation in Banana Research in the Caribbean and
Tropical America. Proceedings of the First Full Meeting, Castries,
St. Lucia, 25-27 May 1970. [BDD]

36. Association of Caribbean Universities and Research Institutes [UNICA].
The Food Supply and the Caribbean Universities. Papers presented at
UNICA IV, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1975. [CDB]

37. ----. Proceedings of the Seminar/Workshop on Horticultural Development
in the Caribbean, Maturin, Venezuela, 12-15 March 1972. Pp. ix+273.

38. AUSTERMILLER, C.J. "Labour Force Participation Rates in Various
Societies." In The Family in the Caribbean, ed. Stanford GERBER.
Rfo Piedras, Puerto Rico: ICS, UPR, 1968.

39. AUTY, R.M. "Caribbean Sugar Factory Size and Survival." Annals of the
Association of American Geographers 66 (March 1976):76-88. [NAL:
500 AS73]

40. ----. "Factory Size and Economies of Scale in the Sugar Industry of the
Commonwealth Caribbean, 1930-1970." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
London, 1973. Pp. 309.

41. AYEARST, Morley. The British West Indies. London: George Allen &
Unwin, Ltd., 1960.

42. AYKROYD, W.R. "Nutrition in the Caribbean." Journal of Hygiene 63
(March 1965):137-153.

43. AYUB, Mahmood A. and CRUIKSHANK, Eric D. "The Political Economy of the
Caribbean." Finance and Development 14 (December 1977):38-41.

Caribbean economies are said to "exhibit many features of a less
developed colonial structure, viz., intersectoral dualism; intrasec-
toral dualism in agriculture; heavy reliance on a few export commod-
ities; and heavy reliance on private foreign capital and governmental
grants-in-aid." The importance of political and social factors in
economic policymaking is stressed.

44. "Background Report on Food and Nutrition in Latin America and the
Caribbean." Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 10
(1976):356-362. LNAL: RA431 P3]

Provides data on nutrition for the countries in the region.

45. BAIN, W. and PILGRIM, E.C. "The Training of Sub-Borrowers inder the Farm
Improvement Credit Programme." A paper presented at the Annual Meeting
of the CDB Farm Improvement Officers, CDB Office, Wildey, St. Michael's,
Barbados, 20-25 June 1977. Pp. 20+4 charts. [USAID/B]

Emphasizes the need to help small farmers improve their agricultural
practices, which the authors regard as being seriously deficient.
Recommends greater use of Ministry of Agriculture extension staff in the
CDB's FIC program. Also recommended are improvements in training
methods and facilities, as well as centralized planning, coordination,
and stimulation of sub-borrower training.

46. BASKETT, [?] et al. Report of the Mission to Advise the University of
the West Indies on the Work of the School of Agriculture, the Univer-
sity of the West Indies (Baskett Report). [?], 1965.

The authors concluded that extension services in countries served by
the UWI need assistance in the form of in-service training in agricul-
tural subject matters, techniques of communication, program planning,
and evaluation. They recommended that the UWI establish a Department
of Agricultural Extension.

47. BAYNES, Ronald A. Annual Progress Report of the R.F.E.P.(W.I.)
Activities in Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and St. Lucia, for
Period August 1, 1972 to July 31, 1973, St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Faculty of Agriculture, UWI, 1973.

48. ----. "Effects of Fertilizer Placement and Time of Application on Corn
Yields on Some Soils in the Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS, 10th

The soils are in Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada.

49. ----. "Hybrid Maize Performance in Some Eastern Caribbean Islands."
Proceedings, CFCS, 7th (1969):212-218.

"In field trials in the 1967 and 1968 wet seasons, the maize hybrid
X304 was grown at 50-650 ft. alt. on 12 different soils in Barbados,
Grenada, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Soils ranged from calcareous
clays in Barbados to markedly acid sands in St. Vincent and the rain-
fall during the cropping season ranged from 20.8 to 31.7 in. Mean
maximum grain yields ranged from 2434 lb grain (15% moisture)/ac on
Woburn clay in Grenada, which experienced unseasonal dry periods
during the experiment, to 4460 lb on Bouldery sand in St. Vincent."

50. ----. "The Ideal Environment for Effective Agricultural Credit in the
Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 12th (1977):175-180.

The author's "major thesis is that agricultural credit by itself is
meaningless. The major task immediately before us is to identify
individuals in our several countries with entrepreneurial skills and

drive and so to set the stage that they would be drawn into the farming
sector. With this accomplished, the supports will follow because, by
definition, the dynamic agro-businessman is a go-getter. The missing
pieces will fall into place when the right men and women are fully
awakened to the untapped potential in Caribbean farming." The author
is an agricultural advisor with Barclay's Bank in Barbados.

51. ----. "The Influence of Plant Density and Low Width on Corn (Zea mays L.)
Yield on Three Soils in the Eastern Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS,
10th (1972):56-61.

The soils are in Barbados, Grenada, and St. Vincent.

52. ----. "Sweet Potato Varieties in the Eastern Caribbean," Caribbean
Farming 3. No. 4(1972):20-21. [NAL: S19 C3]

A brief report on research in Barbados, Grenada, and St. Vincent.
Yield data are provided.

53. ----. 'Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Four Caribbean Islands as
Influenced by Variety and Plant Density." Tropical Agriculture
(Trinidad) 49 (January 1972):37-49.

Presents results of research over a 3-year period on tropical hybrid
maize cultivars and local selections in Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia,
and St. Vincent.

54. ----, and WALMSLEY, D. Fertility Evaluation of Some Soils in the
Eastern Caribbean. Report No. 17. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Depart-
ment of Soil Science, UWI, 1973. Pp. 80. [CARDI]

55. ----, and ----. "Mineral Nutrition of the St. Vincent Groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea L.)." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 51 (January 1974):27-35.

"Plant uptake of mineral numtients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) was
determined at two-week intervals up to harvest at 105 days from
sowing. The data indicate that these nutrients were accumulated in
sufficient amounts for maximum yield of this variety and that lack
of response to fertilizers was attributable to an adequate supply
of nutrients from the soil. Fertilizer requirements to maintain soil
fertility were calculated" [Authors' abstract].

56. BECKFORD, George L. "Agriculture and Economic Development." Caribbean
Quarterly 11 (March-June 1965):50-63.

Argues that economic development in the region can be accelerated by
increasing food production for the domestic market. But for this to
occur, the "built-in bias toward export production" must change.
Structural reform (to dismantle the plantation system) and changes in
trade policies are called for.

57. --, ed. Caribbean Economy. Mona, Jamaica: ISER/UWI, 1975. Pp. 181.

A collection of 7 papers, on various aspects of Caribbean economic
development, together with a bibliography.

58. ----. "Economic Organization of Plantations in the Third World."
Studies in Comparative International Development 7 (Falll972):243-263.

59. ----. "Institutional Foundations of Resource Under-development in the
Caribbean." In Resource Development in the Caribbean. Montreal:
Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill University, 1972. Pp. 21-37.

60. ---. "Land Reform for the Betterment of Caribbean Peoples." Proceed-
ings, WIAEC, 7th (1972):25-39.

Argues that redistribution of land from the plantations to the
peasantry will increase employment, national income, and foreign
exchange earnings, and would result in a significant redistribution
of income. Credit and extension are recommended to accompany redis-
tribution. Argues that freehold tenure systems will always result
in unequal distribution of land and therefore should be abolished.
Recommends state ownership and rental of lands to small farmers on
a long-term basis.

61. ----. "Peasant Movements and Agrarian Problems in the West Indies:
Aspects of the Present Conflict between the Plantation and the
Peasantry." Caribbean Quarterly 18 (March 1972):47-53.

62. --. Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment in Plantation Economies of
the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

An insightful analysis of the economic and social consequences of the
plantation system, which Beckford argues continues to exist to a sub-
stantial degree despite the achievement of political independence in
much of the Caribbean and elsewhere in the Third World. Beckford sees
the escape from persistentt poverty" as coming only from the destruction
of the plantation system and the establishment of a less-open economy
geared more toward production for the domestic market and for a
regional market integrating the individual plantation economies whose
small size inhibits development. Greater control of economic activity
by nationals, and less by foreigners, is urged. This book is required
reading for all students of the Caribbean.

63. ----. "Plantation Society: Toward a General Theory of Caribbean
Society." Savacou 5 (June 1971):7-22.

64. ----. "Socioeconomic Change and Political Continuity in the English-
Speaking Caribbean." Studies in Comparative International Ddvelop-
ment (1977/78).

65. --. "Toward Rationalization of West Indian Agriculture." In Papers
Presented at the Regional Conference on Devaluation, 1968. Kingston,
Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1968. Pp. 147-154. [ISER]

66. --. The West Indian Banana Industry. Studies in Regional Economic
Integration, Vol. 2, No. 3. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1967. Pp. 33.

67. ----, and BROWN, Headley. "Possibilities for West Indies-Canada Trade
in Bananas." In West Indies-Canada Economic Relations. Mona, Jamaica:
ISER, UWI, 1967. Pp. 103-123. [ISER]

68. ----, and GUSCOTT, M.H. Intra-Caribbean Agricultural Trade. Studies in
Regional Economic Integration, Vol. 2, No. 2. Mona, Jamaica: ISER,
UWI, 1967. Pp. 30. [LTC; BDD]

69. BECKFORD, Hansel A., and CAMPBELL, Lewis G. "Lambie Study--Subsequent
Developments (A Programme for Implementation)." A paper presented
at the Seminar on the Use of Sugar Cane as an Animal Feed, Wildey,
Barbados, 1977. [CDB]

70. BELL, W.L. "Piece of Unrepeatable History? The British Development
Division in the Caribbean." Round Table, No. 267 (July 1977):268-276.

71. BENJAMIN, C. "Modification of a Corn Sheller to Shell Pigeon Peas."
Unpublished Special Project Report, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1971.

72. BENJAMIN, M.P. Food Production and Marketing in the Eastern Caribbean.
Technical Report No. 3. Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1971. [CDB]

73. BENNETT, Fred D. "Outbreaks of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zell.)
(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) on Sugar-cane in Jamaica, Barbados and
St. Kitts." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 39 (April 1962):153-156.

"Outbreaks of [this] pest . are recorded for the first time.
These appear to be correlated with the burning of cane trash prior
to or following reaping, and factors which may be responsible for
this association are postulated. The parasites recorded from this
insect sre given and the possibilities of biological control
are discussed."

74. ----, and PSCHORN-WALKER, H. "Recent Investigations on the Biological
Control of Diatraea spp. in Trinidad, the Lesser Antilles and
Barbados." Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane
Technologists, 13th (1968):1321-1330. INAL 65.9 IN84J

"Although some promising results have been obtained with the recent
intensive biological control against Diatraea spp. in Barbados, the
economic impact of parasite liberations has to date been practically
nil. . The reasons possibly for this persistent failure are
discussed and future research on this problem is also suggested"
[Authors' abstract]. There are also brief reports on 8 other islands.

75. ----, and YASEEN, M. "Parasite Introductions for the Biological
Control of Three Pests in the Lesser Antilles and British Honduras."
PANS 18, No. 4 (1972):468-474.

76. BERGMANN, Denis. "Le developpement agricole des Petites Antilles."
Revue Tiers-Monde 15 (April 1974):363-380.

"The Lesser Antilles have special development difficulties: low
resource base-overpopulation; small size-island economies; unemploy-
ment-brain drain. Expansion of tourism increases the cultural
dependence. More self-sufficiency in food through agricultural
progress is thus recommended. This requires structural reform
creating small and medium farms--which will need support. Training
and animation activities should therefore get high priority, as
well as research. Above all, there is need for the political will
to reduce dependence and inequalities" [A.T.A., February 1975].

77. BERRY, Glyn R. "The West Indies in Canadian External Relations:
Present Trends and Future Prospects." Canadian Public Policy
(Guelph) 3 (Winter 1977):50-62.

Discusses aid, trade, investment, and immigration.

78. BEST, Lloyd. "Current Development Strategy and Economic Integration
in the Caribbean." In Caribbean Integration, ed. S. LEWIS and T.G.
MATHEWS. Rio Piedras, P.R.: ICS, UPR, 1967. Pp. 58-76. [ISER]

79. ----. "The Economy of the Commonwealth Caribbean: An Overview." In
West Indies-Canada Economic Relations. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1967.

80. ----; LEVITT, Kari; et al. Externally Propelled Industrialization and
Growth in the Caribbean. 4 vols. Mimeographed. Montreal: Centre
for Developing Area Studies, McGill University, 1968.

81. BETTENDORF, Richard J. A Review of Ocean Transportation in the Upper
Eastern Caribbean with Probable Trends and Their Effects on Port
Development. Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1971. [BDD]

82. BIRD, Edris. "The Role of Women in Social and Economic Development in
the Caribbean." In Report of Consultation on Social and Economic
Development in the Eastern Caribbean held in St. Vincent, November
26-30, 1968. Port-of-Spain,Trinidad: Superservice Printing Co., 1969.

83. BIRLA, S.C. "Feeding Sugarcane and Its By-Products--An Economic
Assesment." A paper presented at the First Regional Livestock
Meeting, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 21-25 September 1975.

84. BISHOP, George. "Sugar 'Bringing About Its Own Downfall'." West
Indies Chronicle (January/February 1975):37.

85. BLENMAN, E.H.Morris. "Transportation and Regional Integration in the
Caribbean." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, 1976.
[DAI 37 (November 1976):3176-A]

Develops a model to show how transportation investments might have
affected the various islands in the region, and then tests the model
against actual experience from 1955 to 1970. Concludes that "initial
endowment accounted for far less, and transportation change for more
of the subsequent inequalities of trade than has been accepted in
the past."

86. BLUME, Helmut. "Die Britischen Inseln iiber dem Winde (Kleine Antillen):
Grundbesitz und Betriebsformen in ihrem Einfluss auf das Bild der
Kulturlandschaft." Erdkunde 15 (1961):265-287.

87. ----. The Caribbean Islands. London: Longman Ltd., 1974. Pp. 464.
[NAL: GF526 B53; U.S. Dept. State: F1612 B55]

A general geographical survey, originally published in German in 1968.

88. ---. "Types of Agricultural Regions and Land Tenure in the West
Indies." Revista Geogrifica (Brazil) 67 (December 1967):7-20.

Argues that "the development of a viable peasantry is the precondi-
tion for the improvement of the social stricture of agriculture.
Peasant farms have given proof that they are able to produce not only
for local markets but also for export."

89. ----. "Wirtschaftslandschaften und Agrarsozialstruktur in Westindien."
Geographische Rundschau: Zeitschrift fuer Schulgeographie 19
(December 1967):449-457.

90. BOX, H.E. "Status of the Moth-borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and
its Parasites in St. Kitts, Antigua and St. Lucia; with Observations
on Guadeloupe and an Account of the Situation in Haiti." Proceedings
of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 10th (1960):
901-914. [NAL 65.9 IN84]

91. BRAITHWAITE, Lloyd. "Social and Political Aspects of Rural Development
in the West Indies." Social and Economic Studies 17 (September 1968):
264-275. (Originally presented at the Third WIAEC, 1968)

Argues that "rural development in the West Indies has largely been
conceived as a spreading out of the superior urban standards into the
rural areas. There is little resistance to the provision of such
amenities. Indeed the problem is one of failure to satisfy the demand
or to render that demand economic. The cultural factors inhibiting
rural development lie largely in the failure to provide sufficient
education related to the every-day life of the people; and the failure
to adapt standards to the way of life of the people."

92. BRATHWAITE, C.W.D. What Is a Nematode? Extension Bulletin No. 29.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, April 1977.

93. ----; PHELPS, Ralph H.; and BENNETT, Fred D., eds. Crop Protection in
the Caribbean. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Protection of
Horticultural Crops in the Caribbean, University of the Wast Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1974(?). Pp. 319. [NAL: SB599 S95 19P4]

Contains 29 papers on issues and research in plant pathology, nema-
tology, weed science, and entomology.

94. BRAZELTON, W. Robert. "The Caribbean: A Survey of Economic Problems
and Policies." In The Family in the Caribbean, ed. Stanford GERBER.
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, ICS, UPR, 1968. Pp. 27-46. [ISER]

95. BRESSANI, R. "The Role of Small Animal Species in
Production (Latin American and Caribbean Diet)."
Pan American Sanitary Bureau 10 (1976):293-300.

Nutrition and Food
Bulletin of the
[NAL: RA431 P3]

96. BREWSTER, Havelock R. "Caribbean Economic Integration Problems and
Perspectives." Journal of Common Market Studies 9 (June 1971):282-298.

Useful background material on the national, regional, and international
politics and economics of Caribbean integration.

97. ---, and THOMAS, C.Y. The Dynamics of West Indian Economic Integration.
Studies in Regional Economic Integration, Vol. 1. Mona, Jamaica:
ISER,UWI, 1967. [ISER]

98. ----, and --. "Trade between the West Indies and Canada." In West
Indies-Canada Economic Relations. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1967.
Pp. 14-61. [ISER]

British Development Division in the Caribbean.
Ministry of Overseas Development.

See United Kingdom.

99. BROWN, Adlith. "Caribbean Mini-States and the Caribbean Common Market."
In Size, Self-Determination and International Relations: The
Caribbean, ed. Vaughan A. LEWIS. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1976.
Pp. 122-157.

100. BROWN, A.; BROWN, H.; and GIRVAN, N. "Patterns of Consumption and
Possibilities for Change." In Papers Presented at the Regional
Conference on Devaluation, 1968. Kingston: ISER,UWI, 1968. Pp. 109-129.

101. BROWN, Headley A. "Import Substitution and West Indian Agriculture."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 4th (1969).

102. ----, and ANDERSON, Errol. "Economic Development in the West Indies
and the Peasantry." Social Scientist (Jamaica) 2 (1963-64):21-24.

103. ---, and McINTYRE, Alister.
Enlarged EEC. N.p., 1972.

Commonwealth Caribbean Bananas and the

104. BROWN, William H. Marine Fisheries of the British West Indies.
Berkeley : Department of Geography, University of California, 1967.
Pp. 106.

105. BROWNELL, Willard N. "New Approaches to Fisheries Development and
Conservation in the Eastern Caribbean." Caribbean Conservation
Association Environmental Newsletter 2 (January 1971):44-46.

106. BRYDEN, John M. The Contribution of Agriculture to the Economic Growth
of the Former Federation of the West Indies, 1955-1965. Occasional
Series No. 3. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, 1968. [BDD]

107. --. "The Impact of the Tourist Industries on the Agricultural Sectors:
The Competition for Resources and Food Demands Aspects (with Special
Reference to the Smaller Economies of the Region." Proceedings, WIAEC,
9th (1974):153-165.

"There is some evidence to suggest that there has been a perverse
relationship between tourism and agriculture in at least some of the
smaller Caribbean islands, where tourism and related construction
activities grew rapidly during the 1960s. The fiscal structure itself,
with its heavy reliance in import duties on necessities places a rela-
tively large part of the burden of financing the contribution of
government to tourist development on the lower income groups."
[CAB/ABS: 530725]

108. ----. Tourism and Development: A Case Study of the Commonwealth
Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ]973.

109. ----, and FABER, Mike. "Multiplying the Tourist Multiplier." Social
and Economic Studies 20 (March 1971):61-82.

Like the LEVITT-GULATI article (1970), this article criticizes the
ZINDER Report (1969) on tourism prospects in the Eastern Caribbean,
pointing out that the multiplier analysis fails to account for import
leakages. It is also stated that the Report totally ignores the
social consequences of tourism.

110. BRYDEN, R.N. "A Study on Fertilizer Use in the West Indies, 1946-64."
D.T.A. Report, UWI, St. Augustine, 1965. Pp. v+43+xvi.

111. BUCK, Wilbur F. Agriculture and Trade of the Caribbean: Bermuda, the
Bahamas, the Guianas, and British Honduras. Document No. ERS-Foreign
309. Washington, D.C., May 1971. Pp. 102. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; NAL
A281.9 AG83]

112. BUCKMASTER, Michael H. "Further Aspects of Land Purchase in the Leewards
and Windwards." Chronicle of the West India Committee (April 1965):

113. ----. "Some Aspects of Land Purchase and Development on the Leewards
and Windwards." Chronicle of the West India Committee 80 (January

1. BUCKMIRE, George E. "The Future Possibilities of Caribbean Export
Crops in the Metropolitan Markets." Proceedings, WIAEC, 6th

115. ---. "Land Use and Agricultural Development in the Commonwealth
Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 7th (1972):40-47.

Describes land use and land use policy. Recommends several measures
needed for a "progressive" land use policy to protect land resources
and regulate ownership and control. Favors zoning of agricultural land.

116. --. "Rationalization as aS Instrument for Development of Caribbean
Agriculture." Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1973):9-21, with discussion,
pp. 22-23.

Argues that "an important and immediate aim of rationalizing agricul-
tural production in the region would be to reduce the current degree
of duplication and competition in agricultural activities and to work
towards the achievement of greater complementarity among national
agricultural programmes." Recognizes that"cooperation in agriculture
will depend, in the final analysis, on political considerations and
the degree of commitment to regional integration."

117. BUCKMIRE, K.U. "Identification and Control of the Major Pests Infecting
Pulses." Extension Newsletter (UWI, St. Augustine) 8 (March 1977):17-22.

"The pulses covered in this guide are beans (Phaseolus vulgaris),
cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and soya bean (Glycine max). Because the
pest situation is constantly changing the farmer should carefully
inspect.his fields at least once weekly and apply insect control only
when the pest population is at a particular level. Notes on the major
pests, their distribution, importance and some chemical and cultural
control measures on fields and during storage, are listed." [A.T.A.,
April 1978]

118. BUTTERWORTH, M.H., and HOUGHTON, T.R. "The Use of Surplus Bananas for
Pig Feeding in the West Indies." Empire Journal of Experimental
Agriculture 31 (January 1963).

119. CACHO, C.P. "A Policy Framework for Rationalization of West Indian
Agriculture." In Papers Presented at the Regional Conference on
Devaluation, 1968. Kingston: ISER,UWI, 1968. Pp. 155-161. [ISER]

120. ----. "Rationale for Changes in the Directional Emphasis of Commonwealth
Caribbean Trade." In Regionalism and the Commonwealth Caribbean, ed.
Roy PREISWERK. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Institute of International
Relations, [19681. Pp. 33-40. [ISER]

121. CAMPBELL, J.A. "Food Legislation in Six Caribbean Countries." Cajanus
8 (1975):115-127.

Briefly reviews food legislation in Trinidad-Tobago, Jamaica, Barbados,
Guyana, St. Lucia, and St. Kitts-Nevis-(Anguilla). Suggestions are
made for additional legislation.

122. ----. "Recommended Dietary Allowances for Caribbean Countries."
Cajanus 7 (February 1974):18-20.

A brief critical comment on FAO/WHO and other recommended allowances
for Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad, and Jamaica.

123. CAMPBELL, Lewis G. "Agricultural Engineering for a Developing Caribbean."
St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1971. [CDB]

124. ----. "Development of Appropriate Farming Systems: The Scope for
Development Assistance." A Paper Presented at the Workshop on Inter-
national Rural Development, Sponsored by the Department of Agricultural
Economics and Management, MacDonald College, Canada, in Cooperation
with the Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 21-22 June
1977. Pp. 15+Tables. [USAID/B; CDB]

Discussed assistance needs in the areas of land reform, manpower
development, marketing institutions, research, extension, and physical

125. --. "Mechanisation of Agriculture in Small, Highly Populated Caribbean
Islands." A paper presented at the 1971 Winter Meeting, American
Society of Agricultural Engineers, Chicago, Ill., 7-10 December
1971. [CDB]

126. --. "Production Methods in West Indian Agriculture." Caribbean
Quarterly 8 (June 1962):94-104.

Stresses the need to increase labor productivity, and suggests that
labor inputs be reduced through mechanization of field work and sim-
plification of field practices.

127. ----. "Strategies for Maximising Self-Sufficiency in Food in the Region."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. I, Pp. 54-65.

A survey of the current state of regional agriculture. The author
argues that local foods need to be better presented, improved in
quality, and in some cases processed. Policy recommendations are
made in the areas of land use, marketing and prices, transportation,
credit, manpower development, transfer of technology, and regional

128. ----. "Technological Implications for Employment Generation in the
Rural Sector of the Caribbean." Paper prepared for a Symposium on
Employment Strategies and Programmes, 29th September-10th October 1975.
Wildey, Barbados: CDB, 1975. [CDB]

129. ----; CRUICKSHANK, Arnold M.; and YANKEY, J. Bernard. Agricultural
Credit in General Rural Development and the Credit Strategy for Small Farmers
in the Less Developed Countries of the English-Speaking Caribbean.
Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1976. Pp. 32. [CDBI

Discusses the role of the CDB . [A]fter identifying the constraints
to the further expansion of small farmer credit, recommendations are
made for using agricultural credit in a package aimed at improving
rural community life" [A.T.A., November 1976].

130. ----; ----; and ----. "Coordination of Credit Activities between
Caribbean Development Bank, National Credit Institutions, and Govern-
ments of the Less Developed Countries of the English-Speaking
Caribbean." Paper presented at the Seminar on Agricultural Credit
for Small Farmers, Paramaribo, Surinam, 2-10 March 1976. [CDB]

131. --- et al. Agricultural Research in the-Caribbean Community Region:
A Report with Special Reference to the Role of the Regional Research
Centre (RRCO. N.p.: Caribbean Economic Community, 2 November 1973.
Pp. 82. [USAID/B; CDB]

An evaluation of existing research programs and recommendations for
change. The authors report that the needs of small farmers in the
production of domestic crops and non-traditional exports have been
grossly neglected. Extension efforts are regarded as weak. A new
research organization, with a region-wide focus, is recommended.

132. Canadian High Comission, Barbados. "Canada and the Eastern Caribbean:
Two Decades of Development." Bridgetown, [1975?]. Pp. 8. [USAID/B]

Brief description of programs for which the Canadian government has
provided assistance since 1958.

133. Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA]. Canadian Co-operation
with the Commomwealth Caribbean: Agriculture. Sector Paper 1.
Ottawa(?), October 1976. Pp. 81+317+41. [BDD; CIDA]

134. ----. Canadian Development Co-operation with the Commonwealth Caribbean:
[Country Chapters]. Ottawa?, 1976. [BDD; CIDA]

Includes country chapters for Barbados, Belize, and each of the
Windwards and Leewards.

135. ----. Barbados Office. [Proceedings of the] Seminar on Sugar Cane
as Livestock Feed. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1973. [CDB]

136. "Cane Mechanization in the West Indies." International Sugar Journal,
No. 898 (October 1973):304-306.

137. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute [CARDI]. CARDI
Newsletter. Monthly since May 1977.

Brief notes on CARDI's programs in through the region.

138. ---. Progress Report of the ODM Project on Virus Diseases of Yams
(October 1, 1974 to September 30, 1975). Technical Report No. 2.
St. Augustine, Trinidad, UWI, November 1975. Pp. 27. [CARDI]

139. ----. Research Report. [St. Augustine, Trinidad], annual. [CARDI]

An annual summary of agricultural research findings.

140. ----. Summary of Work Programme. [St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1976?].
Pp. 48. [USAID/B; CARDI]

A description of CARDI's research programs in food legumes and cereals,
root crops, vegetables, other crops, livestock, as well as its out-
reach programs and special projects in biometrics research and
monitoring of pesticides.

141. Caribbean Community. The Caribbean Community: \A Guide. Georgetown,
Guyana, 20 June 1973. [AID/W: LA/CAR]

142. ---. CARICOM Feeds Itself: Basic Answers to the Questions Most Often
Asked about the Regional Food Plan. Georgetown, Guyana, October 1977.
Pp. 23. [CARDI]

143. ----. A Digest of Trade Statistics of Caribbean Community Member States,
Georgetown, Guyana, September 1976. Pp. 124. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

144. ----. [Proceedings of the] Meeting on the Agricultural Protocol.
Georgetown, Guyana, annual(?). [CDB]

145. ----. Prospective Demand for Food in the Caribbean. Georgetown,
Guyana, 1976. [CDB]

146. ----. Report of the First Meeting of the Livestock Sub- Committee of
Regional Agricultural Planners, Kingston, Jamaica, 12-14 February 1976.
Pp. 25+Annexes. [CARDI]

147. ----. [Report of the] Meeting of the Working Party on Cotton, 2nd,
St. Johns, Antigua, 15-16 November 1976. Georgetown, Guyana, 1976. [CDB]

148. ---. "A Summary of the Revised Country Programmes." Georgetown,
Guyana, 19 March 1976. Pp. 8. [AID/W: LA/DR/RD; SAIG]

149. ----. Export Promotion Training Programme. Export Marketing. Reports
on Regional Seminars No. 4, St. Kitts/Nevis/Anguilla, 25-29 August 1975.

150 ----. ----. Packaging of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. Reports on
Regional Seminars No. 2, Guyana, 9-13 December 1974.

151 ----. ----. Promotion of Non-Traditional Agricultural Products to Extra-
Regional Markets. Reports on Regional Seminars No. 1, St. Lucia,
29 April to 10 May 1974.

152. ---. ----. Report on the CARICOM Marketing Study Tour to Canada and
the USA, 18 October to 13 November 1975. Reports on Regional Seminars No. 5.

153. ----. ----. Report on the CARICOM Marketing Study Tour to Western
Europe, 31 May to 23 June, 1976. Reports on Regional Seminars No. 6.
Georgetown, Guyana(?): International Trade Centre, UNCTAD/GATT, and
Caribbean Community Secretariat, n.d. Pp. 25+ Annexes.

154. ----. ----. Training of Trade Commissioners, Commercial Attaches and
Senior Trade Officials. Reports on Regional Seminars No. 3, Trinidad
and Tobago, 21 April to 2 May 1975.

155. ---- et al. [Proceedings of the] Seminar on the Promotion of Non-
Traditional Agricultural Products. from the CARIFTA/CARICOM Member
States to Extra-Regional Markets, St. Lucia, 29 April-10 May 1974.
Georgetown, Guyana, 1974. [CDB]

156. Caribbean Development Bank. Annual Report.

157. ---. Avocados in the Eastern Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB,
1973. [CDB]

158. --. CDB Agricultural. Policy in the Less Developed Countries of the
Eastern Caribbean. Technical Report No. 7. Bridgetown, Barbados,
February 1972. Pp. 31. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; BDD; CDB]

159. ----. Country Investment Plans (CIPs) for Integrated Agricultural
Development Project in the Less Developed Member States of the
Caribbean Development Bank. Bridgetown, Barbados, 2 June 1977.
Pp. 59. [USAID/B]

Briefly describes economic conditions in the islands and the con-
straints to development in each of the LDCs. Projects activities
under the farm improvement credit scheme and summarizes country
investment plans for sub-projects under the integrated agricultural
development project. Reviews agricultural development proposals and
their estimated capital requirements.

160. ----. Notes on Costs and Returns- for Long- and Short-Term Crops.
Wildey, Barbados, August 1975. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; CDB]

161. ----. The Production and Utilization of Locally Grown Animal Feeds.
Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1972. [CDB]

162. ----. A Report on Developing Agro-Industries in the Eastern Caribbean.
Wildey, Barbados, 24-25 June 1975. Pp. 2. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; CARDI; CDB]

163. ----. "Rural Development and Modernisation of the Small Farming Sector
in the CARICOM Region." Bridgetown, Barbados, 3 January 1975. Pp. 19.

164. ----. Statistics in the Associated States, British Honduras, and
Montserrat. Technical Series No. 6. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1972.

165. Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute. Protein Foods for the Caribbean.
Proceedings of a Conference held at Georgetown, Guyana, July 29-
August 1, 1968. Kingston, Jamaica: Boliver Press, n.d.

166. ----; Pan American Health Organization; and Food and Agriculture Organiza-
tion of the United Nations. Food Composition Tables for Use in the
English-Speaking Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica, 1974. Pp. 115.
[NAL: 500 AS73]

167. ----. Food Balance Sheets for the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica and
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1976. Pp. 159. [CARDI]

Provides data for Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Surinam, and

168. Caribbean Free Trade Association [CARIFTA]. Protocol Laying Down
Agricultural Marketing Arrangements Mentioned in Aticle 13 of the
Agreement for Establishment of the Caribbean- Free Trade Association.
Georgetown, Guyana, 1968. [CDB]

169. Caribbean Industrial Research Institute [CARIRI]. [Annual Report]

170. --. Pilot Plant Development of a Process to Produce Cane Sugar Using
the Comfith Cane Separation System. 1 March 1978. Pp. 54+Annexes.

This study concludes that "there are clear indications that it may
be technically feasible to produce an acceptable sugar on a commercial scale
by direct evaporation of comfith juice to a dry product." However,
"a substantial amount of further development work is required to
produce an efficient, consistent process of the required capacity
(30 TCD)."

171. Caribbean Meteorological Institute. Monthly-Weather Summary.

172. Caribbean Organization. The Banana Industry and Research: Developments
in the Caribbean. A selection of papers prepared for the Banana
Demonstration Tour held in Guadeloupe, February 17-25, 1964. Hato Rey,
P.R., 1965. Pp. 254. [CARDI, BDD]

173. ----. Planning for Economic Development in the Caribbean. Seminar on
Planning Techniques and Methods, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 30 January-
7 February 1963. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1963. [NAL: KC155 S4 1963;BDD]

Contains 10 papers on specific aspects of development planning; among
the contributors are W. Arthur Lewis and Jan Tinbergen. Also contains
short discussions of planning problems encountered by the Bahamas,
Barbados, British Honduras (Belize), the British and U.S. Virgin
Islands, Dominica, St. Lucia, and Puerto Rico.

174. Caribbean Plant Protection Commission. The Major Pests and Diseases of
Economic Crops in the Caribbean. Rome, 1970. Pp. 28. [NAL: SB731
F6; BDD]

175. ----. Plant Pests of Importance to the Caribbean. Secs. I & II. Port-
of-Spain, Trinidad: FAO, 1972.

176. Caribbean Research Council. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition,
Fisheries and Forestry. Caribbean Land Tenure Symposium. Washington,
D.C., 1946. Pp. 377. [U.S. Dept. State: HD403 C3]

177. CARRINGTON, Edwin W., and BLAKE, Byron W. "Tourism as a Vehicle for
Caribbean Economic Development." N.p., [1976?] Pp. 46. [USAID/B]

The authors recommend "the elimination of alienation of lands including
beaches, ensuring local ownership and management of the tourist
industry, promotion of employment of local labour, promotion of inter-
industry linkages and diversification of the tourist market." Existing
inter-industry linkages, it is noted, are weak.

178. CECIL, Robert Gerald, "Spatial and Economic Characteristics of Fishing
Activity in Selected Southeastern Caribbean Islands." Ph.D. Disser-
tation, McGill University, Montreal, 1973.

179. CHAMPION, J. "Reunion de 1lACORBAT en Jamaique (Association de Coopera-
tion de la Recherche Bananiere pour les Caraibes et 1'Am6rique
Tropicale), Kingston, 12-16 juillet 1971." Fruits 26 (November 1971):
723-732. [NAL: 80 F9492]

180. CHARLES, W.B. [Crop Bulletins (18)]. Extension Bulletins No. 11-28.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, November 1974-March 1977.

Extension Bulletins for the following crops:
11. Tomato 17. Cucumber 23. Pigeon Pea
12. Pepper 18. Watermelon 24. Legumes
13. Eggplant 19. Pumpkin 25. Lettuce
14. Onion 20. Cabbage 26. Soyabean
15. Shallot 21. Cauliflower 27. Blackeye
16. Garlic 22. Carrot 28. Okra

181. CHINLOY, T. "Land Preparation and Sugar-caneVarieties in the Caribbean."
Sugar News 49 (April 1973):128-133. [NAL: 65.8 Su36]

182. CHISLETT, Geoffrey R., and YESAKI, Mitsuo. "Spiny Lobster Fishing
Explorations in the Caribbean." Marine Fisheries Review 36 (September

183. CLARK, G.D.N. Report on Land Registration in the-Windward.and Leeward
Islands. [London: Colonial Office, n.d.] [ISER; BDD]

184. CLARKE, L.B., and DURANT-GONZALEZ, V. Agriculture Sector Study. Draft
Final Report, Caribbean Technology Policy Studies Project. Cave Hill,
Barbados(?): Institute of Development Studies, University of Guyana,
and ISER, UWI, 1977. [CDB]

185. CLARKE, Reginald. "Caribbean Development Bank and Agro-Industrial
Development in the LDCs." N.p., 3 August 1976. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

186. ----. "Processing Technology for the LDCs in the Caribbean." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 12th (1977):148-154.

"Based on an analysis for production levels of 2,500 units per day and
current market prices, a food processing facility in the LDCs would
have a financial rate of return of less than 10 per cent--surely not
enough to interest private sector investment. Without such an installa-
tion, however, the existing seasonal gluts will continue with direct
losses to farmers and/or to the government agencies which now function
as guaranteed markets. It is believed that both of these sectors will
have to collabotate to alleviate this situation. The form of collabora-
tion envisaged is a jointly owned processing facility with equity being
held by the farming community and the marketing agency" [CLARKE].

187, -- et al, Agrihusiness Opportunities in the East Caribbean and
Belize., N,p,; Foreign Development Division, Economic Research Ser-
vice, US. Department of Agriculture, and Caribbean Development Bank,
September 1976. Pp. 145. [USAID/B; SAIG]

Discusses general and agricultural development in the region as a
whole and in each of the 8 countries; evaluates existing agribusiness
opportunities; and identifies new investment opportunities.

188. COKE, Lloyd B., and GOMES, P.I. Agriculture. Caribbean Technology
Policy Studies Series. Cave Hill, Barbados: Institute of Development
Studies, University of Guyana, and ISER, UWI, 1977. [CDB]

189. COLLINS, E.C., and CLOSE, E.C. "Caribbean Islands Offer Farm Export
Opportunities." Foreign Agriculture 13, No. 42 (October 20, 1975):
8-9, 16. [NAL: A281.9 F76FO]

190. COLMET-DAAGE, F., and GUILLEMOT, J. "Factors Affecting Quality of
Bananas in the West Indies: Finger Drop." In The Banana Industry
and Research Developments in the Caribbean, ed. Caribbean Organization.
Hato Rey, P.R., 1965. Pp. 36-55. [ISER]

191. Commonwealth Caribbean. Regional Secretariat. CARIFTA and the New
Caribbean. Georgetown, Guyana, 1971.

192. ----. ----. From CARIFTA to Caribbean Community. Georgetown, Guyana, 1972.

193. "Commonwealth Caribbean Rum." West Indies Chronicle CDecember 1969):617.

194. Commonwealth Development Corporation. Agricultural Investigation in the
East Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados?, 1975.

195. "The Commonwealth Sugar Agreement." West Indies Chronicle (January 1972):
7-8. Also in The Farmer (1974):336-345.

196. COOK, Robert. "The Financial Cost of Malnutrition in the 'Commonwealth
Caribbean'." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 14 (June 1968):60-65.

197. ----. "Nutrition and Mortality under Five Years in the Caribbean Area."
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 15 (September 1969):109-117. Also in
Cajanus 3 (February 1970):2-9.

Estimates the number of deaths at ages 1-23 months attributable to

198. "Nutrition in the Caribbean." In Nutrition in the Community,
ed. Donald S. McLAREN. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. Pp. 295-
307. [NAL: TX353 N87]

199. ----, and YANG, Yueh-Keng. "National Food and Nutrition Policy in the
Commonwealth Caribbean." Bulletin of the Pan American. Sanitary Bureau
8 (1974):133-142. Also in Cajanus 6 (April-June 1973)-77-94.

The authors suggest a series of steps for developing a better food and
nutrition policy in the region.

200. CORNFORTF, I.S. "Chlorophyll- Compounds and Nitrogen Availability in
West Indian Soils." Plant and Soil 30 (1969):113-116.

201. ---. "Nitrogen in West Indian Soils."t Proceedings of the Soil Science
Conference, UWI, Cave Kill, Barbados, 1969.

202. --. "Nitrogen Mineralization in West Indian Soils." Experimental
Agriculture 7 (August 1971):345-349.

203. ---. "The Potential Availability of Organic Nitrogen Fractions in Some
West Indian Soils." Experimental Agriculture 4 (1968):193-201.

204. ---. "A Review of Work on Nitrogen in West Indian Soils." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 51 (April 1974):145-153.

"It is concluded that the amount of nitrogen in the soil depends on
vegetation, rainfall and soil drainage and that the supply of nitrogen
available to plants frequently depends on rainfall and on the base-
status of soils rather than on the total amount of N present. This
implies that laboratory tests for nitrogen supplying potential have
little value. Fertilizer dressings should be based on soil type,
climate and crop demand; vegetative crops on long cultivated, base-
deficient soils are more likely to respond to fertilizer N than those
on newly cultivated soils with high base status" [Author's abstract].

205. ----, and WALMSLEY, D. "Methods of Measuring Available Nutrients in
West Indian Soils: 1. Nitrogen." Plant and Soil 35 (1971):389-399.

206. COULTER, J.K. Regional Research Soil Survey. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, UWI, 1961-63.

207. ----. "Soil and Land Use Problems in the West Indies." World Crops 15
(September 1963):349-354, 368.

The author finds that, "though the soil and land use problems .
are serious, there is at least a recognition that such problems do
exist and much thought and money is being given to their solution."
Decreased emigration, it is pointed out, will increase pressure on
the land.

208. ---, and TWYFORD, I.T. "Agronomic Research in the Windwards and
Leewards." Report No. 1. [St. Augustine, Trinidad: Department of
Soil Science, 1961?]. Pp. 25. [CARDI; BDD]

"We have.given a brief resume of the agriculture of each island visited,
and have included what the Departments of Agriculture considered were
the agricultural problems which required investigation. Also included
are some statistics of agricultural production and brief details of
such records of past experiments as we could find. We have summarized
the agronomic problems under different crops and have given detailed
agronomic programmes in the appendices" [COULTER and TWYFORD].

209. CRASSWELLER, Robert D, The Caribbean Community: Changing Societies
and U.S, Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers for the Council on
Foreign Relations, 1972. [NAL: F975 C7; ISER/UWICEC1; U.S. Dept.
State F2161 C74; GWU: F2161 C78]

A general survey of the. Caribbean, with proposals for U.S. policies,
The Commonwealth Caribbean is discussed in Chapter 7,

210. CRICHLOW, K. "Design of a Pigeon Pea Sheller." Unpublished Special
Report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UWI, St. Augustine,
Trinidad, 1972.

211. CROKER, Richard S. The Shrimp Industry of Central America, the Caribbean
Sea, and Northern South America. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
the Interior, 1967. [BDD]

212. CROPPER, John. "Prospects for the Development of Beef and Milk in the
West Indies." Mimeographed. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, 1969.

213. ---. "Some Economic Aspects of Food Crop Production in the West Indies,"
Proceedings, CFCS, 5th (1967):140-149.

214. ----, and EDWARDS, David T. "An Economic View of the Development of New
Production Systems, with Particular Reference to Root Crops in the West
Indies." In The Economics of Root Crops in the West Indies, ed. Kenneth
LESLIE. St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1968. Pp. 57-66. [ISER]

215. ----; SAMMY, George M.; and WILTSHIRE, W.W. "Food Processing and Inter-
dependence of Agriculture and Industry." Paper presented at the
National Consultation on Agriculture, Chaguaramas, Trinidad, 19-23
March 1973.

216. CUMBERBATCH, E.R.St.J. "Prospects for Caribbean Agriculture." Working
paper on Agriculture Related Science and Technology Development, 2nd
Caribbean Seminar on Scientific and Technological Planning, UWI,
Trinidad, 11-17 January 1976. Pp. 29. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

217. ---. "The Trauma of Agricultural Diversification." Keynote address,
Pastors Agricultural Seminar on Mini-Agri-business, UWI, St. Augustine,
Trinidad, 4 September 1973. [CDB]

218. CUMPER, George E., ed. The Economy of the West Indies. Kingston,
Jamaica: United Printers, 1960. [ISER]

219. ---. "Labour and Development in the West Indies." Social and Economic
Studies 10 (September 1961):278-305(Part I) and 11 (March 1962):1-33
(Part II).

"It is the aim of the present thesis to explore the extent to which the
systematic treatment of the social influences on the West Indian worker
can be a fruitful adjunct to economic analysis in a study of produc-
tivity and economic development in this area" [CUMPER]. The study is
based on information for Barbados and Jamaica.

220. ---. "The Relation of Certain Social Characteristics of the Labour
Force to Productivity and to Economic Development in Jamaica and
Barbados." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London, 1959.

221. CUNNINGHAM, R.K. "Applied Soil Science Research in the Caribbean."
Caribbean Quarlerly 12 (March 1966):35-40.

222. DALAL, R.C. "Effects of Intercropping Maize with Pigeon Peas on Grain
Yiels and Nutrient Uptake." Experimental Agriculture 10 (1974):219-224.

223. DALE, S.J. A Review of Work with Livestock in the Caribbean, 1969/70
and Recommendations for the Future. N.p., 1970. [BDD]

224. DALY, P., and BROCHIER, J. "Dixieme congress annuel de la 'Caribbean
Food Crop Society,' Mayaguez et San Juan (Porto Rico), 11-17 juin
1972." Agronomie Tropicale (Paris) 28 (August 1973):798-803. [NAL:
26 AG86]

225. DAVIS, Carleton G. "Agricultural Research and Agricultural Development
in Small Plantation Economies: The Case of the West Indies." Social
and Economic Studies 24 (March 1975):117-152.

Classifies into 6 categories the 27 research organizations in the
region (out of 28) responding to the author's questionnaire. Critically
evaluates their contribution to agricultural development. Notes that
adaptive research is carried out in the region to a much greater
extent than fundamental research. Few biochemical innovations have
been generated. The author recommends that increased emphasis be
placed on domestic crops as opposed to export crops.

226. ----. "The Organization and Economics of Agricultural Research in the
West Indies: Strategy Implications for the 1970's." Ph.D. Disserta-
tion, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1970. Pp. 505. [DAI
32 (July 1971):48-49-A; Order No. 71-18,189]

Fundamental research in the region was limited exclusively to sugar-
cane and cocoa. About half the research organizations devoted their
adaptive research efforts to a single export crop; the others were
working on a great variety of crops. "Experimental research results
indicate that (1) crop varieties released by experimental stations
displayed relatively small yield differential under N-P-K treatment
as against no fertilization, (2) although some recommended crop
varieties increased yields, it was unprofitable for many farmers to
adopt the recommended practices, (3) experimental results for the
best available technology were not significantly better than results
attained by the better peasant farmers using traditional technology
and (4) the only crop varieties that appear to represent improved
inputs are the hybrid maize varieties X304 and X306 developed by the
private Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Company in Jamaica" [DAI].

227. DAVIDSON, Robert Barry. West Indian Migrants: Social and Economic Facts
of Migration from the West Indies. London: Oxford University Press,
1962. Pp. 89. [ISER; U.S. Dept. State: JV7685 W4 D31

228. DEACON, H.F.E. "Experience in the Use and Development of Plantation
Scale Fully Mechanized Harvesting in the Caribbean." Proceedings of
the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 13th (1968):
1496-1512. [NAL: 65.9 IN84]

Discusses the results of harvesting trials in Belize and Trinidad.

229. DE CASTRO, Steve. "Caribbean Integration and the West Indians." New
World Quarterly 5 (1971/3):27-34.

230. ----, and JEFFERSON, Owen. "A Tentative Appraisal of the Tourist
Industry in the Commonwealth Caribbean." In Papers Presented at the
Regional Conference on Devaluation, 1968. Mona, Jamaica: ISER/UWI,
1968. Pp. 179-194. [ISER]

231. DELGADO, P. "Machine Evaluation of the Pigeon Pea Sheller." Unpublished
Special Project Report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UWI,
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1973.

Tests of the machine developed by BENJAMIN (1971) and CRICHLOW (1972)
found that the optimum capacity was 4 pounds of shelled peas per
minute, with no visible grain damage. But as NARAYAN and MacLAREN
(1977: 13) report, the sheller in its present form is too expensive
for commercial use.

232. DEMACQUE, D.J. "Programmes for Self-Sufficiency in Root Crops and Fruits."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1970): Vol. II, pp. 82-90.

A rather general review of production and imports of root crops and
fruits, and of government programs to achieve self-sufficiency.

233. "Demand for U.S. Wheat Expanding in Caribbean Area." Foreign Agriculture
13, No. 50 (December 15, 1975):16. [NAL: A281.9 F76FO]

234. DEMAS, William G. "The Caribbean Community and the Caribbean Development
Bank." Speech delivered at a Seminar on Management in the Caribbean
organized by the Management Development Centre of Trinidad and Tobago,
Port-of-Spain, 2 December 1975. Pp. 23. [USAID/B]

Emphasizes the CDB's role in promoting regional integration. Notes
that the slowness of disbursements of CDB loans is due in part to the
"lack of managerial drive and capacity" in the member countries.
Advocates management training to help overcome this bottleneck.

235. ----. Caribbean Integration and Development. Mona, Jamaica: University
of the West Indies, 1976.

236. ----. Change and Renewal in the Caribbean. Challenges in the New
Caribbean No. 2. Barbados: CCC Publishing House, 1975. Pp. 60.

A collection of 6 addresses, whose common theme is "the need for
changes in values and attitudes and in institutions in the English-
Speaking Caribbean if sounder economies and better societies are to

be created.. . This requires, says the author, "a relevent
Caribbean ideology of development and social change." The address
on "Youth and Development" states that this ideology must motivate
young people "to create employment for themselves, either in sole
proprietorships or in co-operatives and to orient themselves more
towards agriculture and rural development ."

237. ----. The Economics of Development in Small Countries with Special
Reference to the Caribbean. Montreal: McGill University Press,
1965. [ISER]

238. ---. "Employment Policies and Youth Movements in the Caribbean."
Slightly Revised Version of an Address Given to the Third Assembly
Session of the Caribbean Assembly of Youth, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad,
29 January 1977. Pp. 19. [USAID/B]

The author calls for the adoption of a basic needs strategy, with a
strong emphasis on rural development, to help cope with unemployment
which is estimated to be about 50% in the 15-19 age group. He advo-
cates National Youth Services in the various countries and suggests
that 1-2 years of service in meaningful development activities should
be required of all youth prior to university entrance or immediately
after completion of classroom studies.

239. ---. Essays on Caribbean Integration and Development. Introduction by
Alister McINTYRE. Mona, Jamaica: ISER/UWI, 1976. Pp. 159. [SAIG]

240. ---. "National Policies for Increasing the Utilisation of Labour in
the Caribbean." Summary of a Talk given at the Symposium on Employ-
ment Strategies and Programmes, Barbados, 29 September-10 October 1975.
Pp. 14. [USAID/B]

The author argues that the employment problem can be solved only by
drastic changes in income distribution and in access to economic
resources. Agriculture and rural development, he maintains, should
receive higher priority in the allocation of new investment funds and
manpower resources.

241. ----. "Planning and the Price-Mechanism in the Context of Caribbean
Economic Integration." In Caribbean Integration, ed. S. LEWIS and
T.G. MATHEWS. Rio Piedras, P.R.: Institute of Caribbean Studies,
University of Peurto Rico, 1967. Pp. 77-100. [ISER]

242. ----. The Political Economy of the English-Speaking Caribbean: A
Summary View. Study Paper No. 4, Caribbean Ecumenical Consultation for
Development. 4th ed. Bridgetown, Barbados: The Cedar Press, July
1976. Pp. 38. [USAID/B]

This overview includes a discussion of attitudes, institutions, and
natural conditions as obstacles to change. The proposed regional
development strategy calls for greater economic and political inte-
gration, a larger role for the State, and "greater priority to agri-
culture and agriculture-based industries than to 'screwdriver'
industries and luxury tourism."

243. --. "The Prospects for Developing Agriculture in the Small Commonwealth
Caribbean Territories: The Role of the Small-Scale Farmer." Pro-
ceedings, WIAEC, 5th (1970):3-9.

244. ----. "Some Thoughts on the Caribbean Community." Georgetown, Guyana,
18 September 1974 (Revised). Pp. 58. [USAID/B]

An evaluation of the status, strengths, and weaknesses of the Caribbean
Community by its outgoing Secretary General.

245. ----. West Indian Nationhood and Caribbean Integration. Challenges in
the New Caribbean No. 1, ed. David I. MITCHELL. Barbados: CCC Pub-
lishing House, 1974. Pp. 74. [USAID/B]

A collection of 5 addresses. According to DEMAS, "It is obvious to
everyone today that the West Indies (or English-speaking Caribbean)
should, in the interests of their survival, integrate their economies
(and, in as many countries as possible, their politics) and seek to
develop a greater sense of West Indian identity. It is also becoming
obvious that the Commonwealth Caribbean is, even as a collectivity,
too small as an optimum unit for economic integration and that a
wider unit which includes the wider non-English-speaking Caribbean
is desirable."

246. "The Development of the Sugar Economy in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
F.O. Licht's International Sugar Report 109, No. 4 (2 February 1977):
1-4. [NAL: 66.8 L61]

247. DEVENDRA, C. "Barbados Blackbelly Sheep of the Caribbean." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 49 (January 1972):23-29. [NAL: 26 T754]

A brief description of the characteristics of these sheep, whose
origin is unclear. Discusses additional research needed.

248. ----. "Goat Production in the Caribbean." British Goat Society Year
Book, 1972. Pp. 46-49. [NAL: 40.19 B77]

249. ----. "The Mineral Content of Caribbean Feedingstuffs." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 54 (January 1977):29-38.

"The macro-mineral compositions of about 200 randomly selected repre-
sentative samples of feedingstuffs, including 101 grasses, in the
Caribbean, are reported. The calcium and phosphorus contents of the
grasses were generally low and inagequate for dairy cattle but probably
adequate for beef cattle. The magnesium content was adequate for all
classes of livestock" [Author's abstract].

250. ---. "Sheep of the West Indies (Breeds)." World Review of Animal
Production 13 (January-March 1977):31-38. [NAL: 49 W89]

251. ----, and GOHL, B.J. "The Chemical Composition of Caribbean Feeding-
Stuffs." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 47 (October 1970):335-341.

"The chemical composition of about 200 feedingstuffs common in the
Caribbean and of value to the animal [are] presented. With the
exception of grasses, the precise value and mineral status of most of
the feedingstuffs await careful evaluation" [DEVENDRA and GOHL].

252. DIBBS, John L. "Review of the UNDP/FAO Caribbean Fisheries Development
Project, Phase 1, 1965-1969." In Proceedings of the Gulf and
Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 22nd (1970):106-109.

253. DIGBY, Margaret. "The West Indies." In Agricultural Cooperation in
the Commonwealth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell and Mott, Ltd., 1970.
Pp. 125-138.

254. DONEFER, E. Report on a Proposed Sugarcane Feeds Centre for the Faculty
of Agriculture of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
Trinidad. 2 vols. Submitted to CIDA, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Ste.
Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada: MacDonald Campus, McGill University,
July 1975. Pp. 80+Appendices. [CIDA/B]

Provides specific organizational and budgetary proposals. Also
evaluates available technical information.

255. East Caribbean Common Market. Annual Digest of Statistics. St. John's,
Antigua, annual. [1974 Digest in AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

256. East Caribbean Currency Authority. Annual Report and Statement of

Includes a summary of economic trends in the East Caribbean.

257. EATON, George E. "Canada--Sugar and the Commonwealth Caribbean."
Caribbean Quarterly 18 (March 1972):72-86.

258. The Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. Eastern Caribbean and British
Honduras Industrial Survey: Prospects for Canning Fruits and Vege-
tables. London, 1972.

259. ----. Quarterly Review of The West Indies, Belize, Bahamas, Bermuda,
Guyana. [NAL: HC151 Al E33]

Brief summaries of recent economic developments (regional and by
country), together with selected economic indicators and details on
foreign trade.

260. EDMUNDS, J.E. Seedbed and Nursery Soil Treatment for Pest and Disease
Control. Extension Bulletin No. 2. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE,
UWI, August 1970.

261. EDWARDS, David T. "The Development of the Dairy Industry in Jamaica
and Barbados." Caribbean Quarterly 14 (September 1968):50-55.

Argues that "the prospects for an expansion of dairying in Barbados
appear to be quite favorable in the 'long run' both on the production
and consumption sides." Short-run marketing problems, though, need
to be resolved.

262. ----. "Small Farming in the Commonwealth Caribbean." Paper prepared
for the Research Workshop on Problems of Agricultural Development in
Latin America, Caracas, Venezuela, May 1971. [CDB]

263. ----. Some Statistical Tables of West Indian Agriculture. St. Augustine,
Trinidad?: UWI, 1962.

264. ----. "The Study of Small Farm Agriculture: The Experience of the
Commonwealth Caribbean." A paper prepared for the Purdue Workshop
on Small-Farm Agriculture, 1972.

265. --, and CROPPER, John. Agricultural Research in the West Indies:
The Economic Background to Programs of Livestock and Crop Investigations.
Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, February 1967. [BDD]

Recommends that research efforts be concentrated on cattle (milk and
meat), pigs, yams, sweet potatoes, legumes, cereals, and animal feeds.

266. ----, and ----. "An Economic View of the Development of New Production
Systems with Particular Reference to Root Crops in the West Indies."
In Prodeedings of the International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops,
ed. Egbert A. TAI et al. St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1967. Vol.
2(5) :57-66.

267. ----, and STRACHAN, 0.M. "The Future of Small Farming in the Common-
wealth Caribbean: A Preliminary Consideration of Some of the Issues."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 5th (1970):74-77.

Argues that it is dangerous to view the "small farm" as homogeneous,
to define it in terms of land size, and to include tiny pieces of land
in this category. "Due attention should be paid to alternatives to
small farming: to other size units and to various co-operative and
collective farms of farm organization, in order to allow rational
resource allocation in farm development" [EDWARDS-STRACHAN]. Experience
with new land settlement schemes, it is said, should be closely monitored.

268. ELLIOTT, A.P. "The Effect of DBCP on the Nutrient Uptake and Growth of
Banana Plants Grown in a Vermiculite Medium." Nematropica 5 (October
1975):21. (Summary)

269. ----, and EDMUNDS, J.E. "The Effect of DBCP Vapour on the Nutrient
Status of a Sandy Clay Loam Soil." Nematropica 5 (October 1975):21.

270. EMERSON, E.C. "Transportation and Economic Development in the Caribbean."
West Indian Chronicle (July 1969). [BDD has reprint].

271. EMMANUEL, P.; LEWIS, V.; and McINTYRE, A. The Political Economy of
Independence for the Leeward & Windward Islands. Georgetown, Guyana:
CARICOM, 1975. [BDD]

272. ENOCHIAN, Robert V. Prospects for Agriculture in the Caribbean. Foreign
Agricultural Economic Report No. 31. Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1970.
Pp. 31. [NAL: A281.9 Ag8F No. 58]

273. ESSELEN, W.B., and SAMMY, G.M. "Preserving Caribbean Fruits."
Caribbean Farming 4, No. 1 (1972):18, 21. [NAL: S19 C3]

Argues that a number of the region's minor fruits can be processed
into acceptable jellies, preserves, nectars, syrups, and purees, or
can be canned or frozen.

274. FERGUSON, Theodore U. "Agronomic Techniques in Yam (Dioscorea spp.)
Production in the Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS, 12th (1974):5-15.

275. ----. Los Banos Sitao No. 1--A New Variety of Bodie Bean for the
Caribbean. Extension Bulletin No. 8. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
DAE, UWI, July 1973.

276. ---. "The Development Potential for Root Crops in the Caribbean
Region." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp. 63-81.

This valuable review of information on root crops summarizes available
data on existing yields and evaluates the potential for yield increases.
Also examined is the potential for mechanization and for the use of
major root crops as processed foods, as livestock feeds, and in indus-
try. Information is provided on pests and diseases and on the nutritive
value of edible root crops. Argues that "the low level of management
used by farmers is perhaps the greatest limiting factor in root crop
production in the Caribbean region."

277. ----. "The Status and Future of Yams in the Caribbean." In Proceedings
of the International Symposium on Tropical Root and Tuber Crops, 2nd
(1973), Vol. II. Pp. 28-30. [NAL: SB209 IN52 1970]

"The level of agronomic technology practiced in the growing of yams
in the Caribbean region is discussed. It was noted that low yields
of under 12 tons/ha. are normally obtained. With the exception of
Barbados, yams are generally grown by small farmers in mixed stands.
Staking is sometimes necessary but it can be expensive. It is suggested
that future research should be geared toward the production of non-
staking cultivars and to investigate the economics of fertilizer
application and disease control. With the development of processing
methods the future for yam growing in the area seems good" [Author's

278. ----, and CLARKE, R. Cassava Production and Processing in St. Lucia
and St. Vincent. Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, January 1976. Pp. 45+
Appendices. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; CDB]

279. ----, and GUMBS, Frank A. "Effect of Soil Compaction on Leaf Number and
Area, and Tuber Yield of White Lisbon Yam." Proceedings of the Fourth
Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, Call,
Columbia, 1-7 August 1976. Ottawa, Canada: International Development
Research Centre, 1977. PP. 89-93. [CIDA/B]

The White Lisbon yam (D. alata L.) is the principal yam cultivar in
Barbados, Trinidad, and other Eastern Caribbean islands. Soil compac-
tion in both the root and tuber compartments was found to result in
lower tuber yield.

280. FINKEL, Herman J. "Patterns of Land Tenure in the Leeward and Windward
Islands and Their Relevance to Problems of Agricultural Development in
the West Indies." Economic Geography 40 (April 1964):163-172.

Describes the different patterns of land tenure in St. Kitts, Nevis,
St. Lucia, and Dominica. Argues that there is little enthusiasm for
land ownership in St. Kitts and Nevis. The land tenure system in St.
Kitts, where there is little private landholding, is said to be disad-
vantageous for diversification. In Dominica, technology on the large
estates, many of themowned by absentee landlords, is said to be back-
ward; indiscriminate squatting by small farmers leads to soil erosion.
In St. Lucia, the community property system inherited from the French
occupation is said to be a major barrier to agricultural development.

281. ----. Report on Agricultural Development in Dominica, St. Kitts, Nevis
and St. Lucia, with Special Reference to the Utilization of Land and
Water. Mona, Jamaica: UWI, 1962. [BBD]

282. FITZPATRICK, R., ed. An Abstract of Statistics of the Leeward Islands,
Windward Islands, and Barbados. Mona, Jamaica: ISER,UWI, 1966. Pp. 73.

283. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Caribbean
Fishery Development Project: Project Results, Conclusions and Recom-
mendations. Rome, 1972.

284. ----. Feasibility Studies for Multi-National Food Production Schemes
in the Caribbean Community. Draft report of the preliminary mission.
Rome, 1975. [CDB]

285. ----. Fishery Development: Caribbean Region. Interim Report. Rome,
1969. [BDD]

286. ---- et al. Forest Industries Development in the CARIFTA Region.
Prepared for CARIFTA by the FAO/ECLA/UNIDO Forest Industries Advisory
Group for Latin America. Santiago, Chile: ECLA, 1974. [CDB]

287. ----. Nutrition and Applied Nutrition Techniques in the Caribbean, 1966
to 1972: Report to the Governments of Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia,
St. Kitts and Anguilla. Rome: FAO, 1973. [BDD]

288. ----. Report of the FAO/DANIDA Expert Consultations on Extension
Training in the Caribbean and Latin America. Document No. FAO/DEN/
TF 101. Rome, 1973. PP. 55. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

289. ----. Report on the F.A.O. Conference on Agricultural Marketing for the
English Speaking Countries of the Caribbean Area Held at Kingston,
St. Vincent, 1-9 December 1969. Rome, 1970. [BDD; CDB]

290. ----. Seminar on Agricultural Mechanization, Caribbean Region: Project
Findings and Recommendations. Rome, 1976. Pp. 56. [CARDI]

Stresses that mechanization should be selective and must be part of
an integrated approach to agricultural development.

291. ----. Symposium on Investigations and Resources of the Caribbean Sea
and Adjacent Regions, Willemstad, Curagao, 18-26 November 1968. FAO
Fisheries Reports, No. 71.2. Rome, September 1971. Pp. vi+347.
[AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; NAL: SH234 S9 1968]

A major source of information on Caribbean fisheries.

292. ----. Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission. [Papers of the First
Session], Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 20-24 October 1975. Rome, 1975. [CDB]

293. "Food Imports: Wheat." Cajanus 1, No. 1 (February 1968):13-21.

Discusses the region's high foreign exchange outlays for wheat and
flour. Notes that it is very difficult to shift consumer preferences
toward wheat substitutes. Such a shift, in any event, is not always
desirable because the alternatives are uaually more expensive and less
nutritious. Foreign exchange, it is noted, can be saved through
increased in-country milling of wheat. Research on cassava bread,
fortified with peanut or soybean meal offers some hope for a locally-
produced, acceptable product which will substitute for wheat bread.

294. FORDE,'St.C.M.; PAYNE, H.W.; and WALMSLEY, D. Fertility Assesment of
Some Soils in Antigua, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Dominica from Maize
(Zea mays.) Field Trials. Report No. 18. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Department of Soil Science, University of the West Indies, 1975.
Pp. 99+1 Table. [CARDI]

295. ----, and WALMSLEY, D. A Guide to Fertilizer Use on Vegetable Crops
in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Technical Bulletin No. 2. St. Augus-
tine, Trinidad: CARDI, July 1977. Pp. 27. [CARDI]

296. FRAMPTON, A. de K. "Land Tenure in Relation to the British West Indies."
Caribbean Economic Review h, Nos. 1-2 (1952):113-139. [ISER]

297. FRANCIS, F.A., and SUPERSAD, S.M. Tax Policy and Tax Administration
in the Less Developed Countries of the Caribbean Community. Prepared
for USAID, Regional Development Office/Caribbean. Port-of-Spain,
Trinidad, [1977]

A comprehensive review. "Looking specifically at some of the major
administrative deficiencies," the authors report, "it was clear to
us that the effect of these was to increase significantly the relative
burden on the lower income groups and reduce that on the higher
incomes even where government was sufficiently cognisant of these
deficiencies to take steps to introduce new tax measures to compensate."

298. FRANCIS, Gloria. Food Crop Production in Barbados and Its Response
to CARIFTA/CARICOM and the Agricultural Marketing Protocol. Occasional
Paper No. 2. Cave Hill, Barbados: ISER, UWI, 1975. Pp. 59. [SAIG]

"The study attempts to assess the response which the domestic agricul-
tural sector in Barbados has made to the stimulus provided by CARIFTA
(the Caribbean Free Trade Agreement signed in May, 1968) and the
Agricultural Marketing Protocol (AMP)" [CAB/ABS].

299. FRANKS, H.D. "Mechanized Harvesting of Sugar Cane: A Technical, Eco-
nomic and Social Appraisal." D.T.A. Report, UWI, St. Augustine,
Trinidad, 1968. Pp. 55.

300. "Freighting to the Caribbean: A Survey." West Indies Chronicle
(December 1976/January 1977).

301. FRUCHT, Richard. "A Caribbean Social Type: Neither 'Peasant' nor
'Proletarian'." In Black Society in the New World, ed. Richard
FRUCHT. New York: Random House, 1971. Pp. 98-104.

302. GAFAR, John. "The Accuracy of the Caribbean Trade Data." Trinidad and
Tobago Research Papers 7 (February 1974):73-91.

303. ----. "The Terms of Trade Experience of the Caribbean Common Market
Countries." Trinidad and Tobago Research Papers 7 (February 1974):37-51.

304. GARCIA-ZAMOR, Jean-Claude. "Development Administration in the Common-
wealth Caribbean." International Review of Administrative Sciences
36 (1971). [BDD has reprint]

305. GEISER, Hans Joerg. "Regional Integration in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
Journal of World Trade Law 10 (November-December 1976):546-565.

306. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Report of the Working Party
on the Caribbean Community and Common Market. Document No. L/4470.
Geneva, 1977. [CARICOM]

307. GHORMLEY, Clarence E., and ROY, John 0. "Report to the United Kingdom
Containing Recommendations for the Establishment of Pilot Land Use
Projects on the Islands of St. Vincent and St. Lucia, British West
Indies." Washington, D.C.: Soil Conservation Service, USDA, 1954.
14 L. [NAL: aHD451 G51

308. GIBBONS, William J. "Economic and Demographic Factors in Improving
Living Levels in the Caribbean Region." Review of Social Economy
25 (March 1967):61-87.

309. GIRVAN, Norman. "The Development of Dependency Economics in the
Caribbean and Latin America: Review and Comparisons." Social and
Economic Studies 22 (March 1973):1-33.

A review of the dependency literature and its policy implications.

310. ----, and JEFFERSON, Owen. "Corporate vs. Caribbean Integration."
New World Quarterly 4 (Croptime 1968).

311. ----, and ----, eds. Readings on" the Political Economy of the Caribbean.
Mona, Jamaica: New World Publications, 1971(originally published in
1963). [ISER]

312. GIRWAR, S. Norman. "Caribbean Sugar and the European Common Market."
The Farmer 78 (1973):226-240. Also in The Cane Farmer 14 (1973):192-199.

313. ----. "The Common Agricultural Policy of the EEC (European Economic
Community) and the Commonwealth Caribbean (Sugar)." World Agriculture
25, No. 4 (1976):33-35.

Compares the position of Caribbean sugar under the Lom6 Agreement
(February 1975) With that under the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement,
which ended in December 1974. In the author's view, the new agree-
ment has certain disadvantages for high-cost sugar producers in
the Caribbean.

314. ----. The Future of Commonwealth Sugar in an Enlarged EEC. [Trinidad]:
Caribbean Cane Farmers' Association, 1972. [ISER]

315. ----. "[Presidential Address to the 13th Annual General Conference of
the Caribbean Cane Farmers' Association]." The Farmer 79 (1974):412-437.

316. ----. "The Role and Future of Sugar in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the
Light of Britain's Entry into the E.E.C." Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th

Suggests a strategy for negotiating with the U.K. and EEC to protect
Caribbean interests. Also suggests 7 alternatives for maintaining
production by seeking new markets, and briefly considers (not too
seriously) strategies for reducing production. Still, the author,
who is President of the Caribbean Cane Farmers' Association, recognizes
that the heavy commitment of some Caribbean states to sugar production
will not last indefinitely.

317. GODDARD, Lawford L. "A Comparative Study of Land Tenure in Tobago and
the British Virgin Islands." M.Sc. Thesis, UWI, 1972. Pp. 164.

318. ----. "Social Structure and Migration: A Comparative Study of the West
Indies." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.,
1976. Pp. 322. [DAI 37 (April 1977): 6784-A; Order No. 77-7090]

Examines emigration from Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad, arguing that
social forces are more important explanatory factors than individual
values. Emigration since 1945 is attributed to dependence on external
capital and.technology, failure to provide employment for persons at
all skill levels, and a lack of linkages among economic sectors.
Migration is shown to be highly selective of better educated, highly
skilled young adults.

319. GOHL, B.J. Animal Feeds from Local Products and By-Products in the
Eastern Caribbean. Report No. AG/A/Misc./70/25. Port-of-Spain,
Trinidad: FAO, 3 November 1970. [CDB]

320. GOODING, E.G.B. Mangoes in the Caribbean. Technical Report No. 1.
Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1973. [CDB]

321. ----. Regional Peanut Project: Preliminary Report. Wildey, Barbados:
CDB, 1976. [CDB]

322. ----. Reports to Sugar Producers' Council from the Agronomy Research
Unit. Edgehill, Barbados, 1965-.

323. ----, and HOAD, R.M. "Problems of Yam Production." In Proceedings
of the International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops, ed. Egbert A.
TAI et al. St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1967. Vol. 1(3), pp. 137-151.

324. ----, and SARGEANT, V.A.L. "Experience of Animal Feed Production in
Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean." In Proceedings of the Conference
on Animal Feeds of Tropical and Subtropical Origin (1974):311-316.
[NAL: SF95 C63 1974; CDB]

325. GOODING, H.J. "Breeding Studies with the Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)."
Ph.D. Dissertation, UWI, St. Augustine, 1975.

326. ---. "West Indian 'Dioscorea alata' Cultivars." Tropical Agriculture
(Trinidad 37 (January 1960):11-30.

"The need and importance of a survey of West Indian Dioscorea alata
[yam] cultivars is discussed. Sixteen cultivars are distinguished
and a key and detailed descriptions of these are given. A table shows
their distribution and vernacular synonyms in six West Indian islands.
The results of a storage trial show statistically significant differ-
ences among certain commercially desirable 'alata' cultivars and
Dioscorea esculenta, and demonstrate that the 'Lisbon' group possesses
the best keeping quality.. . [T]he potential usefulness of these
cultivars could be partly exploited by the adoption of optimum spacing
and mechanical harvesting" [GOODING].

327. ---. "Yields of West Indian Maize," Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)
37 (October 1960):257-264.

"The results of four maize yield trials are given. These trials invol-
ved Caribbean maize races and two mass-selected varieties. .. A
trial in Barbados showed that all races, except Early Caribbean, and
all top crosses yielded in excess of 'Barbados Selected.' The use
of the races in improved programmes in the Caribbean is discussed."

328. ---, and CAMPBELL, J.S. "Preliminary Trials of West Indian Xanthosoma
Cultivars." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 38 (April 1961):145-152.

"The yields and certain related factors, storage, mechanization and
eating qualities of seven Xanthosoma tanniaa] clones are described"

329. GOWEN, S.R. "Varietal Responses ans Prospects for Breeding Nematode
Resistant Banana Varieties." Nematropica 6 (October 1976)"45-49.

Report on experiments in Jamaica and St. Lucia.

Great Britain. (See United Kingdom)

330. GRIFFITH, Reginald. "Wilt Diseases of Coconuts in the Caribbean."
Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago 77
(March 1977):42-50.

Describes the characteristics and incidence of "Red Ring disease
which is practically under control in Trinidad but present in St.
Vincent, Grenada and on the mainland; Lethal Yellowing which may be
endemic to the area but most destructive in Jamaica at present; and
Bronze Leaf Wilt, a non-infectious disease from which plants recover
generally" [GRIFFITH].

331. GRUHN, I.V. "The Lomd Convention: Inching Towards Interdependence."
International Organization 30 (1976):241-262.

Describes this 1975 agreement governing trade relations between the
EEC and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific States with which it has
a special, preferential relationship.

332. GURNEY, J.M. "Available Data on the State of Food and Nutrition of
the Peoples of the Commonwealth Caribbean." Prodeedings, WIAEC,
10th (1975): Vol. I, pp. 66-75. Also in Cajanus 8 (1975):150-166.

Summarizes available quantitative data. Notes that diets would be
nutritionally good if meat were replaced by cheaper sources of energy
where protein consumption is presently in excess of nutritional

333. ---. "Nutrition Facts on Staples." Cajanus 6 (October/December):
213-216. [NAL: RA784 Al C3]

334. ---. "Nutritional Considerations concerning the Staple Foods of the
English-Speaking Caribbean." Ecology of Food and Nutrition 4 (1975):
171-175. [NAL: TX341 E3]

335. GURNEY, Michael, and COOK, Robert. "The Price of Groceries in the
Caribbean 1972-1973." Cajanus 6 (January-March 1973):40-44.

Price data are presented for a typical "Saturday grocery basket" in
various locations throughout the Caribbean. (See McKIGNEY and COOK
1970 for earlies data.) The price-collection system is crude and
may result in non-uniformity of data.

336. GUY, Henry A., ed. Women in the Caribbean. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad,
1966. Pp. 173.

337. HACKSHAW, James. Social and Economic Planning in the Leeward and Wind-
ward Islands. N.p.: Council Press, 1967. Pp. 35.

338. HAGELBERG, G.B. The Caribbean Sugar Industries: Constraints and
Opportunities. ARP Occasional Papers, No. 3. New Haven, Conn.:
Antilles Research Program, Yale University 1974. Pp. xv+173. [NAL:
HD 114 C252 H33; ISER; U.S. Dept. State: HD9114 M625 H3]

Discusses the changing nature of the plantation and the relative
prospects for sugar and other crops. Data on costs of production,
factor use, and productivity are analyzed. Attention is also given
to the economics of sugar processing.

339. HAILEY, D.G. Meteorological Requirements in the Windward, Leeward and
British Virgin Islands, and in British Guiana. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad:
Caribbean Meteorological Service, 1964.

340. HAMMERTON, John L. The Biology and Control of Nutgrass. Extension
Bulletin No. 10. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE,UWI, August 1974.

341. ----. "Effects of Defoliation on Pigeon Peas (Cajanus cajan)." Experi-
mental Agriculture 11 (1975):177-182.

342. --. "Effects of Growth Regulators on Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)."
Experimental Agriculture 11 (1975):241-245.

343. --. "Effects of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Pigeon Pea
(Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)." Journal of Agricultural Science,
Cambridge 87 (1976):649-660.

344. ---. "Experiments with Cyperus rotundus L.: I. Control and Develop-
ment and Effects of 2, 4-D and Paraquat." Weed Research 14 (1974):

Results of nutgrass control experiments.

345. ----. "Experiments with Cyperus rotundus L.: II. Effects of Some Herbi-
cides and Growth Regulators." Weed Research 15 (1975):177-183.

346. ---. "Experiments with Cyperus rotundus L.: III. Seasonal Variations
in Growth." Weed Research 15 (1975):339-348.

347. ---. "The Future of Soyabean in the Caribbean." Caribbean Farming 3
(January/ March 1971):29-31. Also in Cajanus 4 (1971):303-308.

Discusses experiments conducted at the UWI (Trinidad) since 1967.
Experimental plots have produced satisfactory yields, but there are
no data yet on production costs of soybeans grown on a field scale.
Notes that only Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad-Tobago have
large tracts of land suitable for mechanized production.

348. ----. Herbicides: A Guide to Terminology, Properties and Uses.
Extension Bulletin No. 9. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, April
1974. Pp. 38. [CARDI]

349. ---. "Weed Control Work in Progress at the University of the West
Indies." PANS 17 (June 1971):226-230.

Reports on work with avocados, beans, alfalfa, cucurbits, soybeans,
pigeon peas, maize, and strawberries. Also described are activities
related to the control of woody shrubs, rank grasses, and Cyperus rotundus.

350. --. "Weed Control Work in Progress at the University of the West
Indies: Part 2." PANS 18 (June 1972):173-182.

"The results of screening trials with 13 herbicides in a total of 18
crops are reported., together with field trials in snapbeans, maize,
pigeon pea, peanuts, soyabean, sweet potatoes, beetroot, sour orange,
tomatoes and onions. Work on the persistence in soil of 2, 4-D and
certain results of trials on zero-tillage and Cyperus rotundus control
are briefly reported" [Author's Summary].

351. ----. "Weed Control Work in Progress at the University of the West
Indies--Part 3." PANS 19 (September 1973):383-388.

"Results of replicated trials in dry beans and groundnuts showed that
weeds could reduce yields by 5-50%. Certain herbicide treatments
significantly increased or decreased seed number/pod and 100-seed
weight. Two trials, one a maize herbicide trial, studies soil per-
sistence of a number of herbicides. Preliminary experience with
glyphosate is summarised and work on the control of Drymaria cordata
is described" [Author's Summary].

352. ---. "Weed Control Work in Progress at the University of the West
Indies: Part 4." PANS 20 (December 1974):429-236.

"Twelve harbicides were screened for crop safety in up to 18 crops.
Several . were then tested in field trials in those crops in
which they appeared promising. The results of field trials in maize,
hot pepper, ginger and groundnuts are reported in detail" [Author's

353. HANDLER, Jerome S. "The History of Arrowroot and the Origin of
Peasantries in the British West Indies." Journal of Caribbean
History 2 (May 1971):46-93.

354. HAQUE, Ihsan ul. "The Status of Sulphur in West Indian Soils." Ph.D.
Dissertation, UWI, St. Augustine, 1971.

Investigates the relationships of sulphur, carbon, and nitrogen in
8 West Indian soils.

355. ---, and WALMSLEY, D. "Adsorption and Desorption of Sulphate in Some
Soils of the West Indies." Geoderma 9 (1973):269-278.

356. --, and ---. "Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur in Some West Indian Soils."
Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 6 (1973):173-175.

357. ---, and ---. "Incubation Studies on Mineralization of Organic
Sulphur and Organic Nitrogen." Plant and Soil 37 (1972):255-264.

358. ---, and ---. "Movement of Sulphate in Two Caribbean Soils." Plant
and Soil 40 (1974):145-152.

359. ---, and ---. "Response of Pak-Choi (brassica chinensis L.) to Added
Sulphur in Some West Indian Soils." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)
50 (January 1973):55-61.

The authors report the results of experiments on 8 soils in St.
Vincent and Trinidad. They conclude that "the general crop response
to additions of sulphate to these soils indicates that the use of
sulphur-containing fertilizers in the West Indies is of considerable

360. --, and ---. "Sulphur Investigations in Some West Indian Soils."
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 51 (April 1974):253-263.

Presents results of preliminary research on 8 soils in St. Vincent
and Trinidad.

361. HAQUE, Syed Q. "Status of Virus Diseases of Horticultural Crops in
the Commonwealth Caribbean." Crop Protection in the Caribbean. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: Department of Crop Science, 1974. Pp. 31-40.

Crops surveyed are citrus fruits, bananas, papaya, avocados, mangos,
tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, pumpkins, cowpeas, and eggplant.

362. HAREWOOD, Jack. "Changes in the Demand for and Supply of Labour in
the Commonwealthe Caribbean." Social and Economic Studies 21 (March

The author examines the relative importance of labour supply and
demand in contributing to the decline in economic activity (labor
force) participation between 1946 and 1960. The author admits that
his results must be qualified both because of measurement problems
and the interdependence of supply and demand.

363. ---, ed. Human Resources in the Commonwealth Caribbean. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: ISER, UWI, 1972. Pp. 166. [SAIG]

Contains 11 papers presented at a seminar in Jamaica in August 1970.
Also included are a Summary and Introduction by the editor and 3
discussion group reports.

364. HAWKINS, Irene. The Changing Face of the Caribbean. Barbados: Cedar
Press, 1976. Pp. 271.

A non-technical, socioeconomic survey of the region.

365. HAWLINS, J.C. Report on the Mechanization of Agriculture in the British
West Indies. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Federal House, 1960. [ISER]

366. HAYNES, Patrick, H. "An Integrated Approach to Root Crop Research in
the University of the West Indies." World Crops 22 (January/February

367. HENDERSON, Thomas H. "Agricultural Extension Problems of Horticultural
Development in the Caribbean." Proceedings of the Seminar/Workshop on
Horticultural Development in the Caribbean. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
UWI, 1972. Pp. 210-216.

More than 70% of the extension officers in the Southern Caribbean
stated that training in extension principles and methodology, prior
to their field assignments, would have made their work much more

368. ---. Position Paper of the Department of Agricultural Extension,
U.W.I., St. Augustine, Trinidad. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, 1969.

369. ---. "The Role of Agricultural Extension in Maximizing Regional Self-
Sufficiency in Food Supplies." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975):
Vol. I, pp. 122-130.

The author states that "the chances of extension being able to
successfully execute . programmes will be determined by whether
the planned programme took into consideration the individual needs,
attitudes and capacities of farmers, whether adequate marketing
arrangements have been established for dealing with the increased
production, and how well organised and motivated is the extension
service. An appropriate organisational scheme and a saturation ap-
proach to extension are recommended to ensure effective implementa-
tion of projects."

370. ---. "Selective Extension Workers for the Development of Small Scale
Farming in the West Indies." Proceedings, WIAEC, 5th (1970):66-73.

371. ---. Trained Manpower Needs in the Agricultural Sector: Windward
and Leeward Islands. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, 1976.
Pp. 59. [CARDI]

372. --. "The University of the West Indies and Agricultural Extension
Work in the Caribbean." Agricultural Progress (Shrewsbury) 48 (1973):
102-109. [NAL: 10 AG86]

Briefly traces the history of regional programs in agricultural
extension in the Caribbean, beginning in 1901. Notes that very little
assistance in extension was given to the individual countries by the
UWI (and, before 1962, the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture)
until the late 1960s. A Department of Agricultural Extension,
recommended in a 1965 report (Baskett et al.1965) was formally estab-
lished in 1969. The Department's programs are described.

373. HENRY, K.B. "Canning Potential of Los Banos Bush Sitao No. 1 Variety
of Bodi (Vigna sinensis)." Submitted in partial fulfilment for the
Postgraduate Diploma in Food Technology, Department of Chemical
Engineering, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1973.

374. HICKS, Frederick. "Making a Living during the Dead Season in Sugar
Producing Regions of the Caribbean." Human Organization 31 (Spring

375. HICKS, Ursula K. Fiscal Proposals for Eastern Caribbean Federation.
Cmnd. 1991. London: HMSO, 1963.

376. "The Hidden Cost of Protein." Cajanus 1, No. 2 (April 1968):59-67.

Calculates the cost per 1000 calories and cost per 20 grams of protein
for some 35 food items. The figures are based on average prices in
9 Caribbean states in April, October, and November 1967.

377. HILL,Anthony. "Economic Stability in the Mini-States." In The Sta-
bility of the Caribbean, ed. Robert MOSS. Report of a Seminar held
at Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire, U.K., 18-20 May 1973. Washington,
D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown
University, 1973. Pp. 38-50.

378. HILLS, Theo L. "Land Settlement Schemes: Lessons from the British
Caribbean." Revista Geogr6fica (Brazil) 63 (July-December 1965):67-82.

"For the future West Indian politicians have to address themselves
very seriously and urgently to the question of whether there is in the
long term any economic or social sense in proliferating the minifundia
at the expense of the plantations. A large proportion of the land
settlement schemes can be justified on welfare grounds only.. .
Apart from the land settlement scheme, no alternative to the plantation
system as a means of increasing agricultural prediction has been
seriously considered" [HILLS].

379. ----; ITON, S.; and LUNDGREN, J. "Farm Fragmentation in the Common-
wealth Caribbean: Some Preliminary Observations." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 7th (1972):88-102.

The authors warn against facile generalization regarding farm fragmen-
tation: "There is little doubt that under certain circumstances
fragmentation of the farm is a necessity and may be economically and
socially advantageous." (The authors are referring to multiple plots,
not the process of plot subdivision.) The origins and consequences of
farm fragmentation in the Commonwealth Caribbean are discussed.

380. HODGKINSON, Edith, ed. Development Prospects and Options in the Common-
wealth Caribbean. Report of the Conference jointly sponsored by the
British-North American Research Association and the Overseas Develop-
ment Institute at Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire, February 20-22, 1976.
London: Overseas Development Institute, 1976. Pp. 85. [USAID/B]

The chapter on agriculture, by K.L. ROACHE of Barclay's Bank of
Jamaica, emphasizes regional import substitutions in livestock.
Little attention is given to food crops. It is argued that oppor-
tunities exist for fruit and vegetable processing, but only if export
markets are available.

381. HOPE, Kempe R. "CARIFTA and Caribbean Trade: An Overview." Caribbean
Studies 14 (April 1974):169-179.

Argues that the CARIFTA countries must look beyond intra-regional
trade per se and also cooperate in maritime shipping, strengthening
regional institutions, developing a better investment strategy, and
improving factor mobility.

382. HOROWITZ, Michael M., ed. Peoples and Cultures of the Caribbean. New
York: Natural History Press, 1971. Pp. xi+606. [U.S. Dept. State:
F1602 H67; GWU: F1602 H67]

383. HOSEIN, I. "Citrus Virus Diseases of Trinidad, Jamaica, and British
Honduras." Proceedings of the Conference of the International Organ-
ization of Citrus Virologists, 2nd, ed. W.C. PRICE. Gainsville, Fla.:
University of Florida Press, 1965.

384. HUIZER, Gerrit. Rural Extension and Peasant Motivation in Latin America
and the Caribbean. FAO Agricultural Education and Training Service,
Human Resources and Institutions Division, Occasional Paper No. 2.
Rome: FAO,July 1973. Pp. 25. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

385. HUNTER, L.J. "Sugar: An Appraisal of Market Prospects and Investment
Requirements in the Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1973):131-142.

Argues that expansion of sugar exports is possible and profitable if
steps are taken to rationalize production through greater investment
in the industry. External sources of financing, it is said, will
be needed.

386. INNES, Frank C; ITON, S.; and HILLS, T.S. "Socio-economic Institutions--
Plantations and Small-Scale Agriculture." In Resource Development in
the Caribbean. Montreal: Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill
University, 1972. Pp. 133-155.

387. "The International Sugar Agreement." The Farmer 79 (1974):360-371.

388. "The International Sugar Agreement, 1968." In Summary of Proceedings
United Nations Sugar Conference, 1968. New York, 1968. Pp. 56-75. [ISER]

389. "International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops, Trinidad, April 2-8,
1967." World Crops 19 (June 1967):65-75.

This symposium, organized by the UWI, examines both agronomic and
economic issues.

390. JAINARAIN, Iserdeo. Trade and Underdevelopment: A Study of the Small
Caribbean Countries and Large Multinational Corporations, Georgetown,
Guyana: Institute of Development Studies,University of Guyana, 1976.
Pp. xvi+390. [NAL: HFl414 J3]

Focusing on Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad-Tobago, this
detailed study focuses on the peculiar problems faced by small countries.

Part I is devoted to theoretical concerns; Part II conatins country
chapters plus 5 chapters on various economic sectors or subsectors;
and Part III discusses internal, regional and external strategies
for promoting development.

391. JEFFERS, W. de Courcey. "Implementing Food Production and Marketing
Programmes in a Developing Tourist Economy-Some Agro-Meteorological
Considerations." Proceedings, WIAEC, 12th (1977):121-122.

Calls for research to determine the feasibility of growing vegetables
in suitable upland areas. Few data on temperature, humidity and
rainfall in these areas are available and will need to be collected.

392. JEFFERSON, Owen. "The Comparative Merits of West Indian Association
with Canada, the European Economic Community, the Latin American Free
Trade Association and the Central American Common Market." Paper
prepared for the Canada-Commonwealth Caribbean Conference, July 1966.

393. ---. "The Economic Situation of the Commonwealth Caribbean." Caribbean
Quarterly 18 (March 1972):87-99.

394. --. "The Terms of Association between Countries at Different Stages
of Development as Reflected in Some Recent Trade Agreements." Paper
prepared for the Canada-Commonwealth Caribbean Conference, July
1966. [ISER]

395. ---, and BOYCE, Darcy. "The Effect of Inflation on Caribbean Economies."
In Inflation in the Caribbean, ed. Compton BOURNE. Mona, Jamaica:
ISER, UWI, 1977. Pp. 72-98.

Examines data for Barbados, Dominica, and Jamaica. The authors note
that "with . inputs [including domestic wages] rising in price,
the cost structure of agriculture in the region rose significantly
and it is not clear whether the inflation has increased the overall
profitability of the sector. As far as some crops are concerned,
costs might even have risen faster than prices, thus reducing

396. JELLIFFE, D.B. "The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute." West
Indian Medical Journal 20 (March 1971):51-59. Also in American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23 (November 1970):1409-1411.

397. ---. "Gufa para la alimentaci6n del nino de corta edad en areas del
Caribe." Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana 69 (December
1970):490-499. [NAL: 449.9 P192B]

398. JELLIFFE, E.F.P. "A New Look at Weaning Multimixes for the Caribbean-
A Means of Improving Child Nutrition." Cajanus 4 (1971):185-228.
[NAL: RA784 Al C3]

Provides nutritional and cost information, as well as recipes.

399. ---- "Nutritional Status on Infants and Pre-School Children: A
Review of Surveys since 1960." West Indian Medical Journal 20 (Sep-
tember 1971) :145-149.

400. JETHA, Nizar, and PEERA, Nurali. "Tax Structure and Policy in the
Windward and Leeward Islands of the Caribbean Community." Bulletin
for International Fiscal Documentation 25, No. 5 (1977):209-220.

Notes "the coexistence of a relatively high rate of investment with
negligible domestic savings." The authors argue that "an improvement
in the operation of income tax on the agricultural sector, and sub-
stitution of the existing land taxes by those on market values should
form the key elements of a strategy for an adequate taxation of
agricultural incomes." An increase in export taxes is discouraged.

401. JOHNSON, Harry G. et al. "Symposium on the Report of the Trade and
Tariffs Commission (Croft Report)." Social and Economic Studies 9
(March 1960):1-40.

The Croft Report is concerned mainly with devising a unified tariff
structure to replace the 10 independent systems of the Federation

402. JONES, Edwin, and MILLS, G.E. "Institutional Innovation and Change in
the Commonwealth Caribbean." Social and Economic Studies 25 (December

The authors argue that "state bureaucratic structures in the Common-
wealth Caribbean function largely in the interest of powerful econ-
omic and political groups, as well as in favour of the bureaucratic
bourgeoisie. One result of the authoritarian elitism of this system
has been the perpetuation of fundamentally inegalitarian forms of
administrative institution-building."

403. JONES, M.R. "An Approach to Cocoa Rehabilitation in Trinidad and
Grenada." D.T.A. Report, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1968.

404. JUHL, Rolf. "Fishery Resources of the Caribbean and Their Potential."
In Microbial Safety of Fishery Products, ed. C.O. CHICHESTER and
H.D. GRAHAM. New York: Academic Press, 1973. Pp. 25-40. [NAL:
RA602 F5 C5]

405. ---. "Status and Potential of the Fishery in the Caribbean." In
Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 23rd

406. KASAHARA, Hiroshi, and IDYLL, C.P. Caribbean Fishery Missions: Report
to the Managing Director. New York: United Nations, 1962. [BDD]

407. KASASIAN, L. "Five Years of Weedkiller Research in the Caribbean."
Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago 65 (December

408. ----, and SEEYANE, J. "Weed Control in Root Crops Grown in the West
Indies." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tropical
Root Crops. St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1968.

409. ----, and ----. Weedkillers for Caribbean Agriculture. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: Regional Research Center, UWI, 1968. Pp. 44.

410. KAWAGUCHI, K. "Exploratory Tuna Longline Fishing in the Caribbean and
Adjacent Waters." Marine Fisheries Review 36 (September 1974):61-66.

411. ---. "Handling and Longtime Explorations for Snapper and Related
Species on Caribbean and Adjacent Waters." Marine Fisheries Review
36 (September 1974):8-31.

412. KEIL, E.R. "Land Use Planning in the Caribbean Area." Proceedings of
the Soil Conservation Society of America 26 (1971):26-30. NAL: 56.9

413. KEIRSTEAD, B.S., And LEVITT, Kari. Inter-Territorial Freight Rates
and the Shipping Service. Mona, Jamaica: ISER,UWI, 1963. [BDD; ISER]

414. KEOGHAN, J.M. "Forage Legumes for Drier Parts of the Caribbean
(Varieties)." In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Canadian
Society of Agronomy 22nd(1976):24-37. [NAL: 64.9 C162]

415. KERSHAW, Melba. "The University of the West Indies: Its Contribution
to Agricultural Development in the Caribbean." Tropical Science 8

A brief description of the UWI's teaching, research, and community-
service activities.

416. KERTON, Robert Richard. "Labor Theory and Developing Countries: The
Individual's Supply of Effort in the Caribbean." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Duke University, 1969. Pp. 290. [DAI 30 (December 1969): 2236-A;
Order No. 69-22, 065]

Neo-classical theory was found to be far more useful in understanding
labor behavior in the Caribbean than the so-called theory of natural
indolence. "The disseration investigated the way that the supply
of effort depends on family organization, where the relevant unit
was defined as the primary emphathy group. One important prediction
that has been derived on logical and empirical grounds is directly
opposite to one made by the Usual Theory of the extended family;
it was found that more effort will be offered by an individual when
his primary empathy group is more extended than when it is less
extended" [DAI].

417. KIRKWOOD, Robert. "The Fight for Caribbean Sugar." West Indies Chronicle
(November 1972):449-450. Also in The Cane Farmer 13 (1972):412-417.

418. KNIGHT, Franklin W. The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented National-
ism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Pp. xiii+251. [U.S.
Dept. State: HC155 K58]

419. KUNDU, A. "Rice in the British Caribbean Islands and British Guiana,
1950-1975." Social and Economic Studies 13 (June 1964):243-281.

Briefly describes conditions and supply trends in the 3 producing
countries (Guyana, Trinidad, and Jamaica), and also examines trends
in demand from 1950 to 1960. Discusses major issues relating to trade
restrictions, quality, price, cost of production, mechanization, milling,
and world market conditions. Projects demand and supply through 1975.

420. LAKE, Edwin B. "Agricultural Aspects of Water Resources in the Caribbean."
In Resource Development in the Caribbean. Montreal: Centre for
Developing Area Studies, McGill University, 1972. Pp. 195-200.

421. Lambie & Company. Can@fed Livestock Study in the Less-Developed Terri-
tories of the Caribbean. Feasibility Report prepared for Caribbean
Development Bank. Kingston, Jamaica, September 1975. Pp. 183+Appendix.

Argues that canefeed can now be commercially used in the diets of beef
cattle but not for sheep and goats. Projects are recommended in
Belize, Nevis, and St. Vincent, with St. Lucia and Antigua as alterna-
tives if future developments make conditions less attractive in Nevis
and St. Vincent.

422. LAURIE, C.K.; JAMES, L.A.; and MAYERS, J.M. "New Perspectives for Sugar
Cane." Proceedings, WIST Meeting (1973):344-354.

423. Leeward and Windward Islands. Regional Council of Ministers. Census of
Agriculture, 1961, Leeward and Windward Islands. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1963.

424. LESLIE, K.A. "Contribution of Agriculture to Economic Development--A
Case Study of the West Indies: 1950-1963." Proceedings, WIAEC, 1st

Discusses differences in GDP growth rates within the region. Notes
that agriculture's share of regional GDP declined from 25% in 1950 to
15% in 1961. It is argued that most of the productive resources going
into industrial development came not from agriculture (which suffered
a cost-price squeeze, particularly for export crops) but from abroad.
Agriculture in the West Indies, it is argued, cannot be carried by
the rest of the economy but must be revitalized to make a positive

425. LEVENESS, Frank. Caribbean Integration: The Formation of CARIFTA and
the Caribbean Community. Papers in Government and Politics, Research
Series No. 2. N.Y.: Department of Government and Politics, St. John's
University, August 1974.

426. LEVITT, Kari, and GULATI, Iqbal. "Income Effect of Tourist Spending:
Mystification Multiplied: A Critical Comment on the Zinder Report."
Social and Economic Studies 19 (September 1970):326-343.

Argues that the Zinder report (The Future of Tourism in the Eastern
Caribbean) "is seriously misleading insofar as it grealty exaggerates
the tertiary incomes by the operation of 'multipliers'. The multi-
plier analysis used in the report, the authors point out, fails to
allow for import leakages. It is argued that the report is a product
of the metropolitan tourist lobby which promotes the kind of growth
that widens inequalities in the developing countries.

427. LEWIS, Gordon K. The Growth of the Modern West Indies. New York:
Monthly Review Press, 1968. [ISER]

428. LEWIS, Sybil, and-P1THEWS, Thomas, eds. Caribbean Integration: Papers
on Social, Political and Economic Integration. Rio Piedras, Puerto
Rico: ICS, UPR, 1969.

429. LEWIS, Vaughan et al. "Essays on Caribbean Unity: The Case for Integra-
tion of the Windward and Leeward Islands." Caribbean Quarterly 18
(June 1972).

430. LEWIS, W. Arthur. "The Caribbean Development Bank." Proceedings, WIAEC,
7th (1972):3-7.

A brief description.of the CDB's resources and programs in agriculture.
Notes that "in most of our LDC's the public has already accepted the
idea that agriculture is doomed"--a view not shared by the CDB.

431. ----. "Competition and Regulation in the West Indies." In Economic
Systems of the Commonwealth, ed. Calvin B. HOOVER. Durham, N.C.:
Duke University Press, 1962. Pp. 501-518. [GWU: HC259 E18]

A brief summary of the structure of the Caribbean economies and the
role of government in economic activity. Notes that government
generally accounts for a relatively small share of GNP but plays a
major role as a regulator of economic activity, particularly in agri-
culture where entrepreneurship is said to be weak. Notes that all
large employers negotiate with trade unions, which have gained much
higher wages and much better working conditions than generally avail-
able in non-union employment.

432. LIVERPOOL, Leslie. Livestock Feed Production, Consumption and Trade
Statistics of the Commonwealth Caribbean. [A project of the DAEFM,
UWI]. Scheduled for publication (1976?) by Scope Publishing Caribbean
Ltd., Trinidad.

This study concluded that livestock development has been constrained
by the limited availability and high cost of feeds. To overcome this
obstacle, it is argued, policies are needed to encourage local feed
production and processing as part of both national and regional live-
stock programs.

433. ----. A Survey of the Commonwelth Caribbean Livestock Feed Industry.
St. Ann's: Scope Publishing Caribbean, 1975. [CDB]

434. LOW, Doreen Iris Deen. "Evaluating Nutrition Education Programs 6n Two
Caribbean Islands." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California,
Berkeley, 1970. Pp. 286. [DAI 32 (July 1971):398-B; Order No. 71-15, 827]

This study of Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP) in St. Lucia and St.
Kitts concludes that ANP was "chiefly responsible for improvement
in food habits reflected in better height-weight-length of Pilot
participants" [DAI].

435. LOWE, S.B., and WILSON, L.A. "Preliminary Evidence for the Existance
of Different Susceptibility to megastes grandalis (Guen) Infestation
in West Indian Sweet Potato Cultivars." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)
49 (October 1972):361-363.

436. LOWENTHAL, David. West Indian Societies. London: Oxford University
Press, 1972. Pp. 385. [U.S. Dept. State: HN192 L6; GWU: F1629 Al F6]

A detailed survey of social characteristics in the region. Included
is a review of the literature on external migration and its economic
consequences. The bibliography is quite extensive.

437. LUNDGREN, Jan 0. "Agricultural Marketing and Distribution Arrangements
with Respect to the Resort Hotel in the Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC,
6th (1971):158-175.

438. LYON, Janice J. The Caribbean Community. A Study Prepared for the
Department of State under Its External Research Program. [Washington,
D.C.], May 1974. Pp. 40+Appendices. [USAID/B]

Describes the background to the formation of CARICOM, assesses the
impact of the common external tariff, discussed CARICOM's effects on
the United States, and assesses future prospects. The author argues
that closer regional cooperation will probably have little effect on
regional economic development.

439. McCALMON, John C.E. "Prospects for Intra-Regional Trade in Fish and
Fish Products." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp. 112-123.

"On the whole," the author concludes, "the prospects seem favorable
for the establishment of a viable intra-regional trade in fish and
fish products if the.major constraints are removed. The resources of
the region might not be sufficient to meet total needs but could
certainly go a far way towards satisfying these demands." Major
constraints are identified as lack of vessels and maintenance facilities,
inadequate processing and storage facilities, lack of regional refriger-
ated transport, poor distribution facilities, untrained personnel,
and consumer resistance to regional products.

440. MAcCOLL, Donald, ed. West Indies Sugarcane Varieties. Barbados: BWI
Central Sugar Cane Breeding Station, 1971. [B. Min. Ag.]

441. McDONALD, Vincent R., ed. The Caribbean Economies: Perspectives on
Social, Political and Economic Conditions. New York: MSS Information
Corp., 1972. Pp. 196. [U.S. Dept. State: F2161 C74; GWU: HC155 M32]

"This book is a compilation of 13 readings on various aspects of the
Caribbean countries, with emphasis on general economics, politics
and international trade. One paper, by G. Beckford, is entitled
'Towards an-Appropriate Theoretical Framework for Agricultural Develop-
ment Planning and Policy' and deals, among other things, with the
characteristics of the plantation system of agricultural production
as against other systems" [A.T.A., April 1975].

442. ----. "Group [sic.; should be Crop] Insurance and Regional Economic
Growth among Caribbean Countries." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975):
Vol. II, pp. 309-319.

Proposes a crop insurance scheme.

443. ----. "Innovation: The Basis for a Program of Rationalisation of
Caribbean Agriculture (with Special Reference to the Livestock Sector)."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1973):95-106.

The author sees possibilities for innovations in food crop production
for local and regional markets; fishing; forestry and forest products;
multiple-cropping techniques; increased emphasis on sugar by-products
rather than rude sugar; land use and land tenure arrangements; trans-
portation; research; identifying new by-products and markets; and
fiscal stimulus to agriculture.

444. ----. "Transportation: An Infrastructural Variable in Caribbean Econ-
omic Development." Proceedings, WIAEC, 6th (1971):147-156.

445. McFARLANE, Dennis. "The Foundations for Future Production and Export
of West Indian Citrus." Social and Economic Studies 13 (March 1964):

Through past performance in the industry has been disappointing, the
author projects a significant rate of growth because of higher yields
from plantings coming to maturity, new plantings under the Citrus
Development Plan and a general increase in productivity. Notes the
continued dependence of the industry on the U.K. market.

446. ----. "The Future of the Banana Industry in the West Indies." Social
and Economic Studies 13 (March 1964):38-93.

Argues that unless the region continues to have access to the protected
U.K. market, banana production is unlikely to be competitive with other
sources of supply. If access to the U.K. market is maintained, and
consumption there continues to rise, most of the increased supply is
projected to come from the Windward Islands rather than Jamaica.

447. McINTOSH, Curtis E. "Food Marketing in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
PAG Bulletin (UN) 5 (December 1975):22-25.

"This paper attempts a short review of the development of the food
marketing system in the Commonwealth Caribbean and discusses the
pricing practices of food firms in the region" [A.T.A., November 1976].

448. ----. "Marketing Constraints to Agricultural Rationalisation in the
Caribbean." Cajanus 8 (1975):237-244.

Identifies marketing constraints and offers suggestions for over-
coming them. Argues that commitment by individual states to intra-
regional trade is weak and should be strengthened by allowing "a free
play of market forces in determining production, location, and mar-
keting flows." Opposes minimum guaranteed price schemes and the type
of price fixing that occurs under the Agricultural Marketing Protocol.

449. ---. "The Nutrient-Cost Concept in Caribbean Food Economics." Cajanus
8 (1975):309-317.

The author regards nutrient-cost data as valuable inputs in policy
formulation but notes that "in order to make fair comparisons among
foodstuffs, attention must be paid to the subsistence factor (produc-
tion for consumption factor) in arriving at the nutritional cost,
the state of preparation of the foods, and the extent of subsidies,
duties and taxes among competing commodities." Some data are provided
for Jamaica and St. Lucia.

450. ---, and LIM CHOY, M. The Performance of Selected Marketing Agencies
in the Caribbean. Occasional Series No. 11. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
DAEFM, UWI, 1975. PP. 105. [SAIG]

An evaluation of marketing agencies in Barbados, Jamaica, St. Vincent,
and Trinidad and Tobago. Performance is regarded generally as poor.

451. McINTYRE, Alister. "Aspects of Development and Trade in the Commonwealth
Caribbean Countries." Economic Bulletin for Latin America 10, No. 2

A general survey of economic trends, focusing on Barbados, Belize,
Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad-Tobago. Discusses the desirability of
increased trade between Latim America and the Caribbean.

452. ----. "Caribbean Economic Community: Some Issues of Trade Policy in
the West Indies." New World Quarterly 2 (Croptime 1966):1-20.

453. ---. "Decolonization and Trade Policy in the West Indies." In The
Caribbean in Transition, ed. F.M. ANDIC and T.G. MATHEWS. Rio Piedras,
P.R.: ICS, UPR, 1965. Pp. 189-212. [ISER]

454. ---. The Problem of Compensation for the Loss of Preference. Studies
in Regional Economic Integration, Vol. 2, No. 1. Mona, Jamaica: ISER,
UWI, 19??.

455. ----. "Reflections on the Problem of Unemployment in the Commonwealth
Caribbean." In..The Commonwealth Caribbean into the 1970s, ed. A.W,
SINGHAM. Montreal: Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill Uni-
versity, 1975.

456. ----. "Some Issues of Trade Policy in the West Indies." New World
Quarterly 2 (Croptime 1966):2-20.

457. McKIGNEY, John I. "Economic Aspects of Infant Feeding Practices in
the West Indies." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 14 (June 1968):55-59.

458. ---. "Food Economics in Nutrition Policy and Planning (with Special
Reference to the English-Speaking Caribbean)." Nutrition Newsletter
7 (October/December 1969):16-24. [NAL: QP141 Al N8]

459. --. "Food Imports: Milk." Cajanus 2 (August 1969):257-265.

Notes that imports of dairy products in 1966 accounted for 85 percent
of the total supply in Barbados and 95 percent in St. Vincent. Dis-
cusses measures for increasing domestic supplies.

460. ---, and COOK, Robert. "The Price of Groceries in the Caribbean Area."
Cajanus 3 (December 1970):315-319.

Provides price data, in various locations in the Caribbean, for a
typical "Saturday market basket" that a middle-income family might

461. MADRAMOOTOO, Chandra A. "Irrigation and Soil Conservation Practices
for the Small Farmer in the Eastern Caribbean." A paper presented
to a joint Caribbean Development Bank/St. Lucia Agricultural Bank
Workshop on Agricultural Production Credit Scheme, Castries, St.
Lucia, 21-22 September 1977. Pp. 7. [CARDI]

462. MAHADEVAN, P. "Animal Protein Supplies for the Caribbean." Cajanus
[1], No. 6 (December 1968):2-12.

Discusses supply and demand factors, with projections to 1975.

463. ---. "The Future for Dairying in the West Indies." Tropical Science
9 (1967):5-12.

"The prospects for the growth of dairying in the West Indies are
based on Jamaica Hope, Holstein and Holstein x Zebu cattle selected
for productive ability, reproductive preformance and efficiency of
feed conversion. The adoption of new grazing routines, new patterns
of fertilizer application and heavy supplementary feeding of concen-
trates together with the injection of further capital should make it
possible to raise the productivity of the dairy industry very rapidly"
[Author' s abstract].

464. ---. "The Role of the UWI Faculty of Agriculture in Relation to the
Food Needs of the Caribbean." Cajanus 1, No.1 (February 1968):27-30.

The research program emphasizes root crops and grain legumes.

465. --. "The School of Agriculture of the University of the West Indies."
World Crops 22 (January/February 1970):42-44.

Historical and contemporary description of activities by the School's
Dean. Major research activities are carried out in root crops, grain
legumes, horticultural crops, and livestock.

466. --. "The University's Faculty of Agriculture." Caribbean Quarterly
ll(March-June 1965):36-49.

The author suggests that "the work of the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture, the Regional Research Centre and the University Faculty
of Agriculture has not made as great an impact on agricultural devel-
opment in the West Indies as might reasonably be expected, largely
due to the lack of an organisation within our University institution
specifically charged with responsibility for ensuring that there is
two-way communication between the University School of Agriculture
and the territorial Ministries of Agriculture."

467. ---, and EDWARDS, David T. "A Strategy for Agricultural Research and
Development in the West Indies." Proceedings, OAS Seminar on the
Development and Progress of the Agricultural Sector, May 1967. Mimeo-
graphed. Pp. 10.

468. MAILLARD, Jean Claude. "La banane en Jamaique et dans les Windward
Islands." Cahiers d'Outre-Mer 22 (July-September 1969):313-324.

Discusses the expansion of banana production in Jamaica and the Wind-
ward Islands, which by 1967 were supplying 51.6% and 45.5%, respec-
tively of the U.K.'s banana imports.

469. MALIPHANT, Gordon K. "Citrus Research in Some Caribbean Territories."
Tropical Science 8 (1966):107-114.

"The work of the [Citrus Research Unit, UWI] involving the study of
rootstocks, viruses, nematodes, pests, diseases, and nutrition is
described, Special mention is made of the fruit fly problem . ,
leaf-cutting ants . and leaf analysis with reference to fertili-
zer needs" [Author's abstract]. Research is conducted in Belize,
Dominica, Jamaica, and Trinidad-Tobago.

470. MANNERS, Robert A. "Remittances and the Unit of Analysis in Anthropo-
logical Research." Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 21 (Autumn

"While all remittance figures for the Caribbean must be treated with
extreme caution, it is clear that the islands' economic ties to out-
side areas are very close and that significant amounts of cash filter
into the area in the form of contributions from insular immigrants"
[MANNERS]. Data are provided for 7 Caribbean countries, including
Barbados, St. Vincent, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, and Montserrat.

471. MANTELL,S.H., and HAQUE, S.Q. "Incidence of Internal Brown Spot
Disease in White Lisbon Yams (Dioscorea alata) during Storage."
Experimental Agriculture 14 (1978):167-172.

472. -- et al. "Some Observations on Internal Brown Spot and Virus-Like
Symptoms of Yam (.Dioacorea spp.) in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
Proceedings, CFCS, 12th (1974):68-73.

473. -- et al. Virus Diseases of Yams in the Commonwealth Caribbean.
Technical Report No. 3. St. Augustime, Trinidad: CARDI, June 1977.
Pp. 46. [CARDI]

474. MARSHALL, lone. Inventory of the Resources of the CARICOM Region. [Port-
of-Spain, Trinidad]: United Nations Caribbean Regional Integration
Advisory Team, 1975. [CARICOM]

Data on human and livestock population, natural resources, energy
resources, and social and economic infrastructure, generally for the
period 1960-74.

475. MARSHALL, 0.R. "West Indian Land Law: Conspectus and Reform." Social
and Economic Studies 20 (March 1971):1-14.

Reviews the land laws of the independent nations, associated states,
and Crown colonies and makes recommendations for reforms. Recommends
a large-scale, interdisciplinary research project in this field.

476. MARSHALL, Woodville K. "Notes on Peasant Development in the West Indies
Since 1838." Social and Economic Studies 17 (September 1968):252-263.
(Originally presented at the Third WIAEC, 1968)

Argues that the West Indian peasant does not neatly fit conventional
definitions of the peasant which emphasize historical traditions and
ties to the land. Discusses the development of the peasantry since
1838 and briefly evaluates government policies toward the peasantry.

477. --, and BECKFORD, George. "Peasant Movements and Agarian Problems
in the West Indies"--Part I: "Aspects of the Development of Peasantry"
and Part II: "Aspects of the Present Conflict between the Plantation
and the Peasantry in the West Indies." Caribbean Quarterly 18 (March

478. MASON, George. "The Potential of Horticultural Development as a Means
of Economic Progress in the West Indies with Some Reflections on
Farmers of Small Holdings." In Resource Development in the Caribbean.
Montreal: Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill University,
1972. Pp. 211-215.

479. MATHEWS, T.G. et al. Politics and Economics in the Caribbean. Rio
Piedras, P.R.: ICS, UPR, 1966.

480. MAY, Jaques Meyer, and McLELLAN, Donna L. The Ecology of Malnutrition
in the Caribbean: The Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and
the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, the Lesser Antilles, and Trini-
dad and Tobago. New York: Hafner Press, 1973. Pp. 490. [NAL:TX360
C35 M38]

481. MAYERS, John M. "The Marketing and Demand for Meat in the Commonwealth
Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 6th (1971):115-125.

Notes that meat production is an insignificant part of total sector
output. Obstacles to increased production include the high proportion
of land in permanent crops, the low livestock population, and the high
cost of imported feed. Marketing of domestic meat generally is un-
organized. Price controls are sometimes used to hold down the price
to consumers. The author argues that market research is necessary
to devise better marketing procedures.

482. --. "Some Aspects of Rationalisation and Livestock Development in
the Commonwealth Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1969):71-77.

The author argues that "the field of livestock production in the
Commonwealth Caribbean is open for considerable development.. .
It is the author's view that no regional master plan will solve the
problems of livestock production, but that each territory must attempt
to use its own resources to maximum advantage."

483. --, with the assistance of BLADES, H. Meat Production and Consumption
Statistics of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Occasional Series No. 5.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, 1970. Pp. 204. [BDD]

Provides data on meat consumption and meat prices, by island and by
type of meat, for the period 1950-68.

484. ---, and CROPPER, J. The Cattle Industries of the West Indies: Charac-
teristics and Potential for Expansion. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
DAEFM, UWI, January 1969. [BDD]

485. MEYER, J.P. "Influence de l'ablation de mains sur le rendement en poids
des regimes de bananes par categories de conditionnement aux Antilles."
Fruits 30 (November 1975). [NAL: 80 F9492]

486. --, and SCHOCH, P.G. "Besoin en eau du bananier aux Antilles: Mesure
de l'evapotranspiration maximale." Fruits 31 (January 1976):3-19.
[NAL: 80 F9492]

487. MILLER, H.C., ed. Report on the Caribbean Conference on Agricultural
Extension. Jamaica: Agricultural Information Service, Ministry of
Agriculture and Lands, 1966.

488. MILLERD, F., and VIDAEUS, L. Fish-Food and Investment. Bridgetown,
Barbados: UNDP/FAO Caribbean Fisheries Development Project, July 1969.

489. MILLS, Frank L. "Planning for Greater Agricultural Production within
Rainfall Limits." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp.
290-298. [ISER]

Illustrates statistical techniques for determining rainfall reliability.

49Q.. MITCHELL, Harold. Caribbean Patterns: A Political and Economic Study
of the Contemporary Caribbean. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Halsted Press, 1972. Pp. 583. [NAL: HC155 M5 1972; ISER; U.S.
Dept. State: HC155 M55 1972]

491. MITCHELL, J.F. The CARIFTA Marketing Protocol: Its Creation and
Maintenance." Tropical Science 14 (1972):11-18. Also in Journal of
the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago 72 (September 1972):

The Agricultural Marketing Protocol (the AMP) of the CARIFTA agree-
ment has been examined. Factors limiting the present and future
trade in the 22 listed commodities indicate the need for fundamental
reappraisal of agricultural production in the Caribbean region"
[Author's abstract].

492. MOHAMED, N.A., and MANTELL, S.H. "Incidence of Virus Symptons in Yam
(Dioscorea spp.) Foliage in the Commonwealth Caribbean." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 53 (July 1976):255-26i. [NAL: 26 T754J

493. --, and --. "A Preliminary Study of a Virus Disease of Yam Foliage
in the Eastern Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS, 13th (1975).

494. ---, and --. Report on a Survey of Virus Diseases Affecting Yam
(Discorea spp.) Foliage in the Commonwealth.Caribbean. Technical
Report No. 1. St. Augustine, Trinidad: CARDI, August 1975. PP.
23. [CARDI]

Provides data for Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia,
St. Vincent, and Trinidad.

495. MOMSEN (n&e HENSHALL) Janet D. "Crisis in the Caribbean Sugar Industry."
Geography 56 (November 1971):338-340.

"The sugar industry still employs more persons than any other industry
in the Caribbean, and sugar is the major export of Barbados and St.
Kitts. There appears to be a general consensus that the industry
must be saved from complete collapse but the rescue attempt will not
be easy. Rationalization of the industry combined with improved
agronomic practices may enable the Caribbean sugar industry to weather
the present crisis as it has done other crises in its long history"

496. ----. "A Factor Ecology of Peasant Agriculture in the Eastern Caribbean."
A paper presented at the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers,
University of Calgary, 1973. Pp. 4. [LTC]

497. ---. "The Geography of Land Use and Population in the Caribbean with
Special Reference to Barbados and the Windward Islands." Ph.D.
Thesis, University of London, 1969.

498. ---. "Small-Scale Farming in Barbados, St. Lucia and Martinique."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 5th (1970):78-84.

The author notes that small-farm agriculture in the West Indies does
not conform to the "general model" used by sociologists and anthro-
pologists, which assumes ties to the land built up over centuries,
lack of knowledge of the outside world, and resistance to innovation.
This study, based on a random sample of about 200 farms in each
island, uses factor analysis to examine relationships among the
32 variables for which data was obtained. The analysis suggests
that "small scale agriculture in Barbados, St. Lucia and Martinique
is not intrinsically different but rather at different stages of
development along a continuum characterized by the increasing
commercialization of land use and rising technological levels of
inputs" [MOMSEN].

499. MONTAGUT, G., ahd MARTIN-PREVEL, P. "Besoins en engrais des bananeraies
antillaises." Fruits d'Outre Mer 20 (1965):265-273.

500. MOTTA, Sam, and BLADES, Hayden. "A Preliminary Design for a Regional
Livestock Complex." Prepared for the CARICOM Secretariat. Georgetown,
Guyana, November 1975. Pp. 46. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

501. MURPHY, Tom. "A Way Out of the Sugar Doldrums?" West Indies Chronicle
(October 1972):407-410.

502. MURRAY, D.B. "The Role of Tree Crops in West Indian Agriculture."
Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago 67 (September

503. ----, and JONES, M.R. "Cocoa Rehabilitation Schemes in Trinidad and
Grenada." Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago
70 (June 1970):145-152. [NAL: 8 T73]

Reports the results of a survey of 24 farmers in each island. Notes
that greater success has been achieved in Grenada than in Trinidad,
despite fewer incentives. This is attributed to better soils, better
management, and better organized extension services.

504. NANTON, W.R.E. "The Census of Agriculture and Related Surveys in the
Eastern Caribbean Territories." Proceedings, WIAEC, 1st (1966):134-162.

Describes sampling and other statistical procedures used in the 1956-
60 surveys and the 1961 census.

505. NARAYAN, C.V., and CRICHLDW, K. "Report on the Pigeon Pea Harvester."
Progress Report prepared for CARIRI. Department of Mechanical Engin-
eeing, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1975.

As reported by NARAYAN and MacLAREN (1977:13-13), design modifications
and other developments are necessary if the harvester is to become
commercially viable.

506. ----, and MacLAREN, P. "The Need For Research and Development of Small
Agricultural Machinery." 'Paper for Research and Post-Graduate Sub-
committee Seminar, Faculty of Engineering, UWI, St. Augustine, February
1977. Pp. 17+Appendices. [CARDI]

Includes comments on several types of small machinery developed for
use in Caribbean agriculture.

507. NESTEL, Barry. Economic Development in the Eastern Caribbean Islands.
Series 1--Livestock Development. Cave Hill, Barbados: ISER, UWI, 1964.

508. NICHOLS, F.B.B. "The Organisation of the Citrus Industry in the British
Caribbean." Unpublished study. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1960.

509. NIDDRIE, David L. "Land Use and Settlement in the Caribbean." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Manchester, 1965. Pp. 318.

510. ODLE, Maurice. The Significance of Non-Bank Financial Intermediaries in
the Caribbean. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1972. [ISER]

511. O'LOUGHLIN, Carleen. The Coconut Industry of the West Indies. Technical
Report No. 9. Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, November 1972. Pp. irreg.

A detailed study with both a regional focus and chapters on individual
countries (Jamaica, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia, Dominica,
St. Vincent, Grenada, and Belize). Evaluates the prospects for this
industry, for which there is considerable potential but also numerous
risks. Existing coconut oil refineries were found to be operating at
low percentages of capacity.

512. ----. Economic and Political Change in the Leeward and Windward Islands.
Caribbean Series No. 10. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.
Pp. 260. [NAL: HC155 Oh; U.S. Dept. State: HC155 037]

A valuable survey of economic and political conditions through the mid-
1960s. The author maintains that "underlying the need for economic
development in the Leeward and Windward Islands is the search for a
form of nationhood, and it has been impossible to detach the one prob-
lem from the other." The author sees considerable scope for increasing
agricultural productivity if a "realistic policy of education, research,
and propagation, land tenure reform, and, above all; the provision of
credit is carried out."

513. ----. Methods and Sources of the National Income Statistics of the Lee-
ward and Windward Islands. Bridgetown, Barbados: ISER, UWI, 1966.

514. ----. A Study of Supply Conditions in Oils and Fats in the West Indies.
Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1961.

515. ----. A Survey of the Economic Potential and Capital Needs of the Lee-
ward Islands and Barbados. [?]: Department of Technical Co-operation,
1963. [BDD]

516. OMAWALE. "Kicking the Wheat Habit: The Caribbean Must Find a Home-
Grown Substitute for this Imported Luxury." Pan American Heklth 8
(1977). [CARICOM]

517. ----. "Some Nutritional Implications of Wheat Substitution in the Caribbean."
Cajanus 8 (1975):254-259. [NAL: RA784 Al C3]

Argues that a wheat substitution policy can improve nutrition among the
poor if it is based on a program providing low income farmers "land,
credit, extension services and guaranteed prices for these crops; with
the high income elasticities of demand for food characteristic of such
groups, dietary and nutritional improvement is inevitable."

518. ---. "Wheat Substitution in the CARICOM Region: The Case against an
Imported Luxury." Cajanus 10 (1977):89-96.

Notes that the apparent relative cheapness of wheat in the Caribbean is
due partly to the fact that wheat is subsidized. Argues strongly that
staple foods should be indigenous foods. Particular attention is given
to recent efforts in Guyana to use cassava as a substitute for wheat.

519. OSBOURNE,' D.F. "The Introduction of Pangola Grass into the Caribbean
Islands." Journal of the British Grasslands Society 24 (1969):76-80.

520. OSUJI, Paschal 0. "Crops with Potential for Livestock Feeding." Extension
Newsletter (UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad) 8 (June 1977):13-19.

"This paper gives suggestions for using by-products . in livestock
feeding: sugar-cane tops, comfith, molasses and bagasse; citrus pulp,
seed meal and molasses; cocoa shells and pods; coconut oil meal; cotton
seed and seed hulls; coffee pulp and polishing; pineapple bran or pulp,
and bananas"'[A.T.A., April 1978].

521. ----. "The Use of Local By-Products in Complete Diets for Ruminants."
A paper presented at the First Regional Livestock Meeting Sponsored by
the Department of Livestock Science, U.W.I., St. Augustine and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Trinidad and Tobago, 21-
25 September 1975. Pp. 17. [CARDI]

Argues that the cost of livestock feeds in the Caribbean can be sig-
nificantly lowered by using locally available by-products.

522. ----. "The Utilization of Agricultural Products for the Livestock
Industry in the Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II,
pp. 197-217.

Argues that livestock production in the Caribbean should be based on
the optimum utilization of local feed sources. "There are appreciable
quantities of agricultural crops and by-products in the region, what
is needed is the rationalization of their collection, supply, handling,
transportation, processing and utilization by the livestock industry."

523. ---. "Utilization of By-Product Feeds by Ruminants in the Caribbean."
A paper presented at the Seminar on the Utilization of Local Ingredients
in Animal Feed, Jamaica, 6-18 April 1975. Pp. 46. [CARDI]

524. ----, and ARCHIBALD, K.A.E. "The Nutritive Value of Some Caribbean
Feedingstuffs." Scientific Paper No. CARDI/AN/1/76. Presented at the
International Symposium on Feed Composition, Nutrient Requirements and
Computerization of Animal Diets, Utah, 11-16 July 1976. Pp. 42. [CARDI]

Reports the results of research on the use of feeds from sugarcane,
flour mill, and brewery by-products for sheep and cattle.

525. PARASRAM, S. Control of Insect Pests of Some Food Crops in the Caribbean.
Extension Bulletin No. 7. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, January
1973. Pp. 29. [CARDI]

526. ---. "The Pepper Flower Bud Moth in the Caribbean--An Evaluation."
Proceedings, WIAEC, llth (1973):466-470.

527. ----. Pesticides in Common Use in the Commonwealth Caribbean (1).
Extension Bulletin No. 3. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE,UWI, Decem-
ber 1971.

528. ---. "Pigeon-Pea Pod Borers in the Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS, llth

529. ---. "The Scarebee, A Major Pest of Sweet Potato in the West Indies."
Caribbean Farming 2, No. 1 (1970):18-19.

530. PARTRIDGE, I.J. "A Review of Fertilizer Experiments on Food Crops in
the British Caribbean Territories, 1935-1963." D.T.A. Report, UWI,
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1965.

531. PAUVERT, P., and JACQUA, G. "Etude critique de quelques Helminthosporium
isols de Panicum, de Pennisetum, et de canne A sucre aux Antilles."
Annales de Phytopathologie 6 (1974):285-296. [NAL: SB599 A51

532. PAYNE, Horace W. "The Role of Mini-Research Stations in Increasing Farm
Productivity in the Caribbean." Caribbean Quarterly 18 (March 1972):

533. PEACH, Ceri. West Indian Migration to Britain. London: Oxford University
Press, 1968. [ISER]

534. PEACOCK, Nigel. Lesser Antillean Fisheries: Their Management and
Development. London: Overseas Development Ministry, 1976. [CDB]

535. PEARCE, S.C. "The Control of Environmental Variation in Some West Indian
Maize Experiments." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 55 (April 1978):

"Data are studied from 56 similar maize fertilizer trials from a range
of dissimilar sites in the West Indies with a view to comparing ways
of allowing for the effects of environmental differences within the
area of an experiment" (Author's abstract). Discusses the pros and cons
of 3 methods: use of blocks, adjustment by neighboring plots, and row-
and-column designs.

536. PEARSE, Andrew. Assistance to the Less Developed Countries of CARICOM
in Agricultural and Rural Development, Integration and Training:
Notes and Observations on Problems of Rural and Agricultural Develop-
ment in the Windward and Leeward Islands. FAO Project Document CAR/
74/001/C/01/12. Oxford, 1975. [CDB]

537. PERSAUD, Bishnodat. An Abstract of West Indian Banana Statistics with
Special Reference to the Windward Islands. Statistical Series No. 3.
Bridgetown, Barbados: ISER,UWI, 1966. Pp. 62. [ISER; BDD]

538. ---. Access Conditions for Commonwealth Sugar in the EEC. London'
Commonwealth Secretariat, 1974. [ISER]

539. ---. "Agricultural Diversification in the Commonwealth Caribbean:
Some Basic Issues." Proceedings, WIAEC, 4th (1969):3-7, with discus-
sion, pp. 8-13.

Argues that the problem in agriculture "is not export orientation as
such but perhaps too much dependence on export crops in terms of exis-
ting economic opportunities." The author believes that the scope for
import substitution in agriculture is limited.

540. ---. "The Agricultural Marketing Protocol of CARIFTA and the Economic
Integration of Agriculture." Proceedings, WIAEC, 4th (1969):107-111,
with discussion, pp. 112-113.

The author argues that the AMP offers only limited scope for integrating
regional agriculture. He then suggests measures for achieving greater

541. ----. "Market Prospects for Caribbean Sugar in the E.E.C." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 8th (1973):61-68. [ISER]

"Whether there is a global arrangement for sugar or not, it is important
that the Commonwealth Caribbean should be treated as one unit for quota
purposes and be allowed to redistribute shortfalls. The area is likely
to be faced with a decline in production in some countries and with
expansion in others. Unless shortfalls are met within the area, the
Commonwealth Caribbean allocation will decline with time because of
the inability of some countries to meet quotas" [PERSAUD].

542. ---. "Problems of the Commonwealth Caribbean Sugar Industry." Cajanus
3 (June 1970):132-139.

Argues that the immediate problems are not markets and prices but high
production costs, due largely to government policies and trade union
actions. Mechanization, the author believes, is essential if the
sugar industry is to be competitive.

543. ---. "Some Preliminary Considerations on the Implications for the
Banana Industry of the U.K. Joining the European Common Market."
Mimeographed. Bridgetown, Barbados: ISER, UWI, n.d.

544. PERUSSE, Roland I. A Strategy for Caribbean Economic Integration. San
Juan, P.R.: North-South Press, 1971. [ISER; BDD]

545. PETERKIN, F.A. "Sanitary State of Fish and Fishery Products in Developing
Countries of the Eastern Caribbean." In Microbial Safety of Fishery
Products, ed. C.O. CHICHESTER and H.D. GRAHAM. New York: Academic
Press, 1973. Pp. 234-241. [NAL: RA602 F5 C51

546. PHELPS, Ralph H. Some Chemicals Used in the Control of Fungal and
Bacterial Plant Diseases. Extension Bulletin No. 5. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: DAE, UWI, June 1972.

547. ---, and HAQUE, Syed Q. "Some Diseases of Important Food Crops in the
Southern Caribbean." Departmental Paper No. 7. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Department of Crop Science, UWI, 1973. Pp. 10. [CARDI]

548. ---- et al. CALYPSO: A Tomato Variety for the Caribbean and Tropics.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: CARDI, n.d. Pp. 4. [CARDI]

A tomato variety development program was begun in 1970 as a cooperative
effort of the University of Florida, the Montserrat Department of Agri-
culture, and the Regional Research Center (CARDI's predecessor). Field
experiments were initiated in Antigua and Montserrat. Calypso is a
high-Yirding variety well-suited as a dry-season crop but not recommended
as a wet-season variety.

549. PHILIPS, A.C. "Control of Fruit Rot in Boxed Bananas by Thiabendazole."
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 47 (January 1970):1-7.

Naturally infected boxed bananas shipped from St. Vincent and St. Lucia
to the U.K. were treated with TBZ with generally positive results.

550. PHILLIPS, Winston J. "Some Interpretations of Banana Statistics Relating
to the E.E.C. Markets and the Commonwealth Caribbean Industry." Pro-
ceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1973):107-122. [ISER]

Comparative data (which are poor) shows that production costs are higher,
and yields considerably lower, than in Colombia, Ecuador, and Costa Rica.
Demand conditions and import provisions in the EEC countries are reviewed.

551. PIERRE, R.E. "Grain Legumes with Development Potential for the Caribbean
Region." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp. 221-228. [ISER]

Evaluates the development potential of pigeon peas, dry beans, cowpeas,
soybeans, and peanuts. Agrues that a development strategy should be
based primarily on large-scale mechanized cultivation. Also recommended -
are construction of storage and processing facilities, marketing and
distribution improvements, and development of new processed products.

552. PIGDEN, W.J. "Derinded Sugarcane as an Animal Feed." World Animal
Review (FAO), No. 11 (1974):1-5.

"Feeding trials showed that sugar-cane not processed for sugar, but
harvested and subjected to a special cane separation process, provides
a high energy feed in the form of comfith (derinded sugar-cane) suit-
able for ruminants and non-ruminants, and chopped cane tops, used
ensiled or fresh in combination with comfith" [A.T.A., April 1975].

553. ----. Evaluation of Comfith as a Commercial Livestock Feed in the
Caribbean. Report prepared for the CDB. Ottawa, Canada, 15 December
1974. [cDB]

554. PLUMLEE, Carl H. Ocean Cargo Movements 1971: Eastern Commonwealth
Caribbean. An analysis of ocean cargo movements by places of origin
and destination, kinds of cargo and shipping services; and statistics.
Report No. ECLA/POS/74/2. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: ECLA, 1974. [BDD]

555. POWELL, David, compiled from a study by HAWKINS, Irene. Problems of
Economic Development in the Caribbean. London: British-North American
Committee, November 1973. Pp. 7T. [NAL: HC155 P6]

A review of economic conditions and of trade, aid, and investment
relations with Europe and North America. Presents policy recommen-
dations in the fields of education, tourism, agriculture, trade, aid,
and foreign investment. Argues that "without a special guararanteed
quota assurance there seems little hope of most Caribbean countries
having the encouragement necessary to establish competitive agricultural
and manufactured export lines on any significant scale."

556. PREISWERK, Roy, ed. Regionalism and the Commonwealth Caribbean. Papers
presented at the Seminar on the Foreign Policies of the Caribbean
States, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1968.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: UWI, 1969. Pp. 273. [NAL: HC155 S42 1968]

Various aspects of political and economic integration are discussed
in the editor's introduction and in 19 other papers presented at the

557. Preliminary Proceedings of the Regional Technical Meeting on Agricul-
tural ResearchSystems in the Antilles. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Depart-
ment de l'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles, et de D6veloppement
Rural, and IICA, 28 November-2 December 1977.

Includes a country report for Barbados; papers on the research programs
of the CFCS, CARDI, CATIE, CIAT, CIP, CIID (Canada), IICA, and UWI;
and a paper on the CDB.

558. PSCHORN-WALCHER, H., and BENNETT, Fred D. "Host Suitability Experiments
with Three Tachinid Parasites of Diatraea spp. in Barbados and Trinidad,
West Indies." Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane
Technologists, 13th (1968):1331-1341. [NAL: 65.9 IN84]

Discusses available data on field parasitism and compares them with
the results of the laboratory studies.

559. PULLEN, J. "Control of the Banana Weevil in Latin America and the
Caribbean with Pirimophus Ethyl." PANS 19 (1973):178-181.

560. RAJBANSEE, Joseph. "Politico-Administrative Aspects of Agricultural
Development: A Caribbean Perspective." Indian Journal of Public
Administration 18 (October-December 1972):492-504.

Discusses, at a rather general level, policy and administrative
shortcomings in the region.

561. RAMSARAN, Ramesh. "Commonwealth Caribbean Integration: Progress,
Problems, and Prospects." Inter-American Economic Affairs 28, No.
2 (1974):39-50.

A brief review of the status of integration efforts.

562. ---. "Integration and Underdevelopment in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
Intereconomics (July-August 1977):197-200.

563. RAMSUNDAR, P. "Design of a Machine for Sorting Tomatoes by Colour."
Unpublished Special Project Report, Department of Mechanical Engin-
eering, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1974.

The prototype was not completed, but MARAYAN and MacLAREN (1977:15-
16)-report that limited testing indicated its [technical] feasibility.

564. RAMTAHAL, George, and AKONOBY, Mathis. "Possibilities and Problems of
Machinery in Agriculture and the Role of Intermediate Technology."
In Resource Development in the Caribbean. Montreal: Centre for
Developing-Area Studies, McGill University, 1972.

565. RANKINE,.Lloyd B. Comparative Economics of Root Crop Production in
Selected Countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean--Part I: Cost and
Returns for Specified Root Crops. Occasional Series No. 8. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, 1972. Pp. 190. [CARDI; SAIG]

Provides data on production and marketing costs in Barbados, St.
Vincent, Jamaica, and St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla. Crops for which
estimates are provided are yams, sweet potatoes, tannias, eddoes,
and (for Jamaica only)Irish potatoes and dasheen Includes infor-
mation on labor use, labor productivity, and farmers' responses to
price changes.

566. ----. "Comparative Performance: Large Scale Production vs. Small
Scale Production of Yams and Sweet Potato in the Caribbean." Pro-
ceedings of the Third International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops.

567. ---. Extra and Intra-Caribbean Trade in Root Crops. Occasional Series
No. 9. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAEFM, UWI, 1973. Pp. 73. [SAIG]

Examines market institutions and marketing processes in Barbados,
Jamaica, St. Vincent, and (briefly) St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla. The
crops studied were yams, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, dasheen,

and eddoes. For root crops as a whole, the export trend was slightly
downward, especially for intra-Caribbean trade.

568. ---. "Factors Limiting the Production of Major Root Crops in Selected
Areas of the Commonwealth Caribbean." Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Tropical Root and Tuber Crops, 2nd (1970): Vol. I, pp.
157-160. [NAL: SB209 IN52 1970]

S. . the discussion drew on data collected from over 800 farms
scattered throughout the region. It was found that labor shortage,
lack of farm credit, and low wholesale and retail prices were the
most limiting factors" [RANKINE].

569. ----. "Some Features of the Market for Root Crops Produced in the
Commonwealth Caribbean." Proceedings, CFCS, 10th (1972):103-112.

Data for Barbados, Jamaica, and St. Vincent.

570. REBEL, Thomas P. "Sea Turtles and the Turtle Industry of the West
Indies, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico." Rev, ed. Coral Gables, Fla:
University of Miami Press, 1974. Pp. 250. [NAL: SH399 T9 R4 1974]

571. RENNIE, Noel. "The Present Problems of Industtial Relations in the West
Indies." Proceedings of the 1973 WIST Meeting. Pp. 25-34.

572. "Report on the Conference 'Recent Trends in Food and Nutrition in the
Caribbean'." Cajanus 1, No. 4 (August 1968):2-39.

Contains summaries of the papers presented at the conference.

573. REUBENS, Edwin P. Migration and Development in the West Indies. Studies
in Federal Economics No. 3. Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, n.d.

574. RICHARDS, J.A. "Productivity of Tropical Pastures in the Caribbean."
In Proceedings of the International Grassland Congress, llth (1970):
A49-A56. [NAL: SB197 15 1970]

575. RICHARDSON, Bonham C. "The Agricultural Dilemma of the Post-Plantation
Caribbean." Inter-American Economic Affairs 26, No. 1 (Summer 1972)1

The author argues that "the plantation is so deeply imbedded in the
culture of the West Indies that agricultural change will be difficult."
Discusses the uncertain future for regional exports in the light of
the U.K.'s entry into the EEC.

576. ROBERTS, G.W. Fertility and Mating in Four West Indian Populations.
Mona, Jamaica: ISER, UWI, 1976.

Based on 1960 census data from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados,
and St. Vincent, and on survey data from Trinidad and Barbados.

577. ---. "A Note on Recent Migration from the West Indies to Canada."
Paper prepared for the Canada-Commonwealth Caribbean Conference,
July 1966. [ISER]

578. ROGERS, C. "Inter-Island Schooner Transport on the Eastern Caribbean."
B.A. Thesis (Geography), UWI, Mona, Jamaica, 1976.

579. ROYES, W. Vernon. "Testa Pigments in Cajanus Cajan: Canning Quality
and Flavor." In Nutritional Improvement of Food Legumes by Breeding,
ed. Max MILNER. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1975. PP. 297-
298. [CARDI has reprint]

An experiment was successful in improving the appearance of canned
pigeon peas (appearance is very important to consumers), but the taste
was unsatisfactory.

580. RUBENSTEIN, Hymie. "The Utilisation of Arable Land in an Eastern
Caribbean Valley." Caribbean Journal of Sociology 1 (1975):157-167.

581. RUNGE, Peter. "The West Indian Sugar Industry." Journal of the Royal
Society of Arts 109 (January 1961):91-104.

582. SAMMY, George M. "The Development of New Processed Agricultural Products
for Import Substitution and Export Expansion." Paper presented at the
International Marketing Seminar, St. Lucia, 29 April-19 May, 1974.

583. ---. "Food Technology Development at the University of the West Indies."
Proceedings, CFCS, 10th (1972):89-92.

584. ---. "A Model for Agro-Based Industries in the L.D.C,'s of the Caribbean
Commonwealth--Fruit and Vegetable Processing." Paper prepared for the
Standing Committee of Commonwealth Caribbean Ministers of Agriculture,
CARICOM Secretariat, Georgetown, Guyana, May 1974. PP. 16. [AID/W: LAC/

585. ----. "Root-Crops Processing Research at the University of the West Indies."
Proceedings, CFCS, 12th (1974):43-50.

Research has indicated that breakfast foods can be made from yams and
sweet potatoes.

586. ---. "The Scope for the Development of Food Processing." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 9th (1974):61-68.

Given the region's high food import bill, the prospects for food
processing are viewed as great. Food self-sufficiency is regarded as
a moral imperative, and little attention is given to the costs of
processing where the local market is extremely limited. The author
argues that profitability concerns must give way to concerns for human

587. ----. Short Courses in (1) Introduction to the Canning of Fruits and
Vegetables and (2) Handling, Packaging, Storage and Marketing of Fresh
Fruits and Vegetables. Faculty of Engineering, UWI, St. Augustine,
Trinidad, 8-19 July 1974 (1), and 29 July-9 August 1974 (2). Canada
Plus-One Project and UWI, Food Technology Series No. 14. St. Augustine,
Trinidad, April 1975. Pp. irreg. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

588. --. "The Status of Composite Flour Research at U.W.I., St. Augustine,
Trinidad." Paper presented at the International Conference on the
Production and Marketing of Composite Flour, Baking and Pasta Products,
Bogota, Colombia, 1972.

589. ----. "Studies in Composite Flour--l. The Use of Sweet Potato Flour in
Bread and Pastry Making." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 47 (April

"Sweet potato flour prepared from cultivar '049' may be used without
any difficulty as a substitute for wheat flour at a rate of up to 15
per cent in bread making and at 20 to 30 per cent in pastries. Bread
containing 20 per cent was also acceptable though less so than that
containing 15 percent. Flour of this cultivar was of poor quality for
bread and pastries" [SAMMY].

590. ---. "The Time to Replace Wheat by an Indigenous Carbohydrate is Now."
Cajanus 8 (1975):5-11.

Argues that import substitution is desirable to save foreign exchange;
create employment; provide a lower-cost, more nutritious staple for low
income groups; and promote a new, indigenous technology. The cost of
a substitute is not estimated.

591. SAMUELS, G., and GONZALEZ TEBERA, E. "Recent Research Findings on Pine-
apple Growing in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Islands, 1970-75."
Acta Horticulturae 57 (october 1976):241-246. [NAL: 80 AC82]

592. SANDERSON, Agnes G. The Agriculture and Trade of the West Indies.
Report No. FAS M-103. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agri-
culture, 1961. Pp. 35. [LTC]

593. ---. Notes on the Agricultural Economies of Dependent Territories in
the Western Hemisphere and Puerto Rico. Publication No. ERS-Foreign
145. Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1965.

594. SARGEANT, V.A.L. "The Regional Field Experimental Programme--An Approach
to Soil Fertility Investigations." Proceedings, CFCS, 6th (1968):148-153.

595. ----, and HARRICHARAN, H. "Financial Constraints to Livestock Develop-
ment iri the West Indies Region." A Paper Presented at the Eirst
Regional Livestock Meeting, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 21-24 Sep-
tember 1975. Pp. 18. [USAID/B; CDB]

To overcome existing financial constraints, the authors recommend
"greater use of feeds based on readily available local materials,
removal of price controls on the more expensive better quality cuts,
closer control of the importation of products from extra-regional
sources, greater use of small stock and a changed approach to livestock
production as an investment."

596. SCHIEBER, E., and ZENTMYER, G.A. "A New Bean Disease in the Caribbean
Area." Plant Disease Reporter 55 (March 1971):207-208. [NAL: 1.9 P69PJ

597. Scion Associates. A Review of the Development Finance Corporations of
the Leeward and Windward Islands. Conducted for the Canadian High
Commission in Barbados. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, June 1977 (Draft).
Pp. irregular. [CIDA/B]

The consultants recommend (1) education of investors, government
officials, and DFC staff on the role of DFCs; (2) expansion of DFC
staffs and upgrading of skills; (3) an in-depth portfolio review to
identify projects for which assistance is needed to ensure financial
viability; (4) more stringent overall reviews and management controls;
(5) regular independent preformance reviews, using an approach that
would improve the CDB's image in the eyes of the DFCs.

598. SEERS, Dudley. "Federation of the British West Indies: The Economic
and Financial Aspects." Social and Economic Studies 6 (June 1957):

The author describes the federal arrangements then under consideration,
and examines the effect on the Federal Government's power to promote
economic development and implement social welfare programs. Argues
that the proposed Federal Government may not have the powers in the
fields of economic and social policies that new political leaders in
the islands believe necessary.

599. SEGAL, Aaron. "Economic Integration and Preferential Trade: The
Caribbean Experience." World Today 25 (October 1969):415-427.

Discusses and evaluates 5 "formulas" of preferential arrangements which
account for more than 90% of the value of Caribbean agricultural exports.

600. ----. Politics and Population in the Caribbean. Rio Piedras, P.R.:
ICS, UPR, 1969. [ISERJ

601. ----. The Politics of Caribbean Economic Integration. Rio Piedras,
Puerto Rico: ICS, UPH, 1968.

602. ----, ed. Population Policies in the Caribbean. Lexington, Mass.:
D.C. Health and Company, Lexington Books, 1975.

603. SEMPLE, J.A.; GRIEVE, C.M.; and OSBOURN, D.F. "The Preparation and
Feeding Value of Pangola Grass Silage." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)
43 (July 1966):251-255.


Pangola grass is the principal pasture grass in the Caribbean, and
this study reports on an experiment to test its production and feeding
value. "Silage was prepared successfully from fresh Pangola grass;
it was consumed readily by sheep in amounts that would provide for
maintenance or near maintenance of sheep and cattle. The addition of
molasses to frash and wilted grass resulted in a lower feeding value
of the silage, but this may have been caused by inadequate compaction
on the silage material."

604. SESHAGIRI RAO, P. "Effects of Flowering on Yield and Quality of Sugar-
cane." Experimental Agriculture (UK) 13 (October 1977):301-388.

"By comparing flowered and non-flowered plants of the same age (where
flowering was inhibited by photoperiod control), cane yield gains due
to prevention of flowering were estimated to be 57% in a plant crop
and 34% in a ratoon crop. Sugar gains aue to prevention of flowering
was 69% in the plant and 35% in the ratoon crop. The influence of
loss of growth, side-shoot production and pithiness on the yield of
flowered canes are discussed" [A.T.A., February 1978].

605. SHEPHERD, C.Y. Peasant Agriculture in the Leeward and Windward Islands.
St. Augustine. Trinidad: Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture,
1945. [ISER]

606. SHEPHERD, K. "Banana Breeding in the West Indies." PANS, Section B,
14 (1968):370-379.

607. SHERLOCK, Philip M. West Indian Nations: A New History. New York:
St. Martin's Press, 1973. Pp. 362. [U.S. Dept. State: F1621 S45]

608. SHILLINGFORD, John D., and BLADES, H.W. "Prospective Demand for Food in
the Commonwealth Caribbean." Proceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. I,
pp. 40-53.

The authors' economic analysis of food demand projects demand for high-
calorie commodities to grow by 2.5% annually. Demand for high-protein
foods is projected to grow by 5.1% annually.

609. SIFFLEET, Nora M. "The National Income and the National Accounts of
Barbados; Antigua; St. Christopher, Nevis & Anguilla; Dominica; St.
Lucia; St. Vincent and Grenada." Social and Economic Studies 1 (July

National accounts data for 1949, based on field research by the author,
are provided for these 7 States.

610. SIMMONDS, F.J., and BENNETT, Fred D. "Recent Investigations on Biological
Control of Sugar Cane Pests in the West Indies." Proceedings, BWIST
Meeting (1966):301-303. [ISER]

611. SIMMONDS, N.W. "The Growth of Post-war West Indian Banana Trades."
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 37 (April 1960):79-85.

The author makes a mechanical projection of banana exports in 1963
on the basis of trends during the period 1947-58.

612. SIMMONDS, N.W. "Toward a Strategy for Sugar Cane Smut (Ustilago scitaminea)
Control in the West Indies." International Sugar Journal 935 (November
1976):329-330. LNAL: 65.8 IN8J

613. SINGH, N.D. "Evaluation of Chemicals for the Control of Nematode Popu-
lation in Cabbage." Proceedings, CFCS (1973).

614. ----. "Evaluation of Nematode Population in Pigeon Pea." In Tropical
Diseases of Legumes. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1975. Pp. 147-149.

615. ---. Root-Crop Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and Their Control. Technical
Bulletin No. .. St. Augustine, Trinidad: CARDI, September 1977. Pp.

A manual for controlling root-crop nematodes in the Caribbean.

616. ----. Some Chemicals for Controlling Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Extension
Bulletin No. 4. St. Augustine, Trinidad: DAE, UWI, March 1972.

617. ----, and CHARLES, W.B. Cotton Growing. Technical Bulletin No. 4. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: CARDI, December 1977. Pp. 17. [CARDIJ

618. "Situaci6n nutricional y alimentaria en los pauses de Am6rica Latina y
el Caribe." Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana 80 (June
1976):498-528. [NAL: 449.9 P192B]

Provides nutrition data for LatinAmerican and Caribbean countries.

619. SKEETE, Charles A. "Association and the Agricultural Policies of the
E.E.C." Proceedings, WIAEC, 8th (1973):56-60.

A review of options regarding Association with the EEC. The author
makes no recommendations.

620. SMEDLEY, David. "The Availability of Climatological Information for the
Caribbean Area." In Proceedings of a Conference on Climatology and
Related Fields in the Caribbean, Mona, Jamaica, 20-22 September 1966.
Edited by Barry FLOYD. N.p.: Technical Service, Scientific Research
Council, 1967.

621. SMITH, G.D. Study of the Correlation of the Soils of the Former British
Territories in the West Indies. St. Augustine, Trinidad, Department
of Soil Science, UWI, 1974.

622. SMITH, G.W. "The Soil Moisture Status of Some Islands of the West Indies."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London, 1965.

623. SMITH, Henry. Study of the Cost and Structure of Distribution in St.
Lucia and Grenada. Cave Hill, Barbados: ISER, UWI, 1967. Pp. 46.

624. SMITH, Louis L. Critical Evaluation of the Performance of the ECCM
Countries under the Agricultural Marketing Protocol (AMP) and the
Guaranteed Market Scheme (GMS). Document No. ECLA/POS/74/16. Port-
of-Spain, Trinidad: ECLA, 1974. [CDB]

625. SMITH, Pat. "Cane Payment System--Where Are We Going?" Barbados Sugar
Industry Review, No. 22 (December 1974):12-16.

"This article discusses the following factors in relation to the imple-
mentation of a cane payment system: quantity of clean cane; quality of
the cane; and efficiency of the factory" [A.T.A., September 1975].

626. SOMMEIJER, M.J. "Investigations on the Occurrence of the West Indian
Fruit Fly in the Lesser Antilles and Trinidad." FAO Plant Protection
Bulletin 23 (December 1975):185-188.

"The results of surveys indicate that the prevalence of the West Indian
fruit fly . is rather disjunctive in the eastern Caribbean. It is
very common in most of the Caribbean islands, but has not been detected
in Antigua, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and Carriacou . .
[A.T.A., January 1977].

627. SORIANO-RESSY, Mario; DESMARAIS, A. Paul; and PEREZ, Jose P. "A Comparison
of Environments of Rain Forests in Dominica, British West Indies, and
Puerto Rico." In A Tropical Rain Forest: A Study of Irradiation and
Ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico, ed. Howard T. ODUM. Oak Ridge, Tenn.:
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1970. Pp. B329-B346. [NAL: QK938 F603]

628. SPENCE, J.A. "The Importance of Diseases in Relation to the Grain Legume
Research Program in the Eastern Caribbean." In Tropical Diseases of
Legumes, ed. Julio BIRD and Karl MARAMOROSCH. New York: Academic
Press, 1975. Pp. 151-155. [NAL: SB608 L4 T76]

629. ----. Report on the Grain Legume Programme (Eastern Caribbean) for 1973.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Faculty of Agriculture, UWI, February 1974.
Pp. 41. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

630. ---. "The Status and Future Prospects of Edible Aroids in the West
Indian Region." Proceedings of the Second International Symposium
on Tropical Root Crops, Vol. 1, pp. 45ff.

631. SPENCE, J.R. "Report [on Cotton in Barbados, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis
and Montserrat], 5 November 1971." Bridgetown, Barbados: BDD, 1971.

632. STANDARD, K.L. "Child Nutrition in Two West Indian Islands, Jamaica and
Barbados." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London, 1962.

633. STEVEN, D.M. "Marine Resources." In Resource Development in the Caribbean.
Montreal: Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill University, 1972.
PP. 73-79.

634. STEWART, W.G. "Programmes to Improve Marketing and Increase Food Production."
Cajanus 1. No. 2 (April 1968):23-33.

The author argues that "the most important single obstacle to increased
production is the lack of effective and attractive marketing arrangements."

635. THEAKSTON, F.H. "Caribbean Agriculture in Transition." AIC Review
(Agricultural Institute of Canada) 25 (May/June 1970):27-28. [NAL: 7 AG8]

636. THOMAS, Clive Y. "Projections of Cocoa Output in Grenada, Trinidad and
Jamaica. 1960-1975." Social and Economic Studies 13 (March 1964):94-117.

Argues that the principal problems faced by the industry are on the
supply side rather than the demand side. He assumes, though, that
current rehabilitation and expansion schemes will soon bring large
number of high-yielding trees into production. Thus cocoa output in
the 3 countries is expected to be 2 times higher in 1975 than in 1960.
The author believes that a higher percentage of cocoa will be processed

637. THOMAS, R. "The Prospects of Countering the Labour Displacement Effects
of Agricultural Policy in the Commonwealth Caribbean." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 4th (1969):132-135.

In the author's view, the prospects are not good. Both macro- and
micro-level solutions, it is argued, should be sought.

63d. THOMLINSON, F. "The Caribbean Sugar Industry: Planning for Future
Success." Proceedings of the WIST Meeting (1973):35-60.

639. THORNE, Alfred P. "Economic Background of the British West Indian
Islands." In Politics and Economics in the Caribbean, ed. T.G. MATHEWS
and F.M. ANDIC. Special Study No. 8. Rio Piedras, P.R.: ICS, UPR, 1971.

640. TODMAN, McW. Report on a Customs Union of Barbados, the Leeward and Wind-
ward Islands. Bridgetown: Government Printing Office, 1963. [BDD]

641. TYNDALL, Joseph A. The Development of the Caribbean Free Trade Area.
Georgetown, Guyana: Commonwealth Caribbean Regional Secretariat, 1970.

642. UCHEGBU, P.E.A. "The Caribbean Development Bank: Implications for
Integration." Journal of World Trade Law (1973).

643. United Kingdom. British Information Services. Britain and the Developing
Countries: The Caribbean. London: Central Office of Information,
January 1973. Pp. 49. [NAL: HC155 G71

Provides a brief review of conditions in the Commonwealth Caribbean and
discusses British trade, investment, and aid.

644. ----. Ministry of Overseas Development. British Development Division
in the Caribbean. Census of Agriculture, 19'3-74: Associated States
and Dependent Territories of the Commonwealth Caribbean--[Enumeration
Manual, Editing Instructions, and General Notes]. Bridgetown, Barbados,
1973. [BDD]

645. ----. ---- --. Economic Survey and Projections--Dominica, Grenada,
St. Kitts, St. Vincent: Comparative Data. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1967.

646. ----. ----. ----. Report of the Tripartite Economic Survey of the
Eastern Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1967. [U.S. Dept. State:
HC157 B79 T7; BDD; ISERJ

647. ---. --. ---. West Indies Census of Agriculture 1966: Report of
the Eastern Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados: Government Printing
Office, 1968.

648. ----. Tropical Products Institute. Processing Lime Fruit in the West
Indies. TPI Report No. 53/62. London, 1962. [BDD]

649. United Nations Development Programme. "Project of the Governments of
Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia,
St. Vincent: Sub-Regional Agricultural Development Integration and
Training." Mimeographed. N.p., [1977]. Pp. 50+Annexes. [USAID/B]

Background and description of the proposed project.

650. United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America. Office for the
Caribbean. Agricultural Statistics of the Caribbean Countries. Docu-
ment No. ECLA/POS 74/11. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, August 1974. Pp.
115. [CARDI]

651. ---. ----. --. Agricultural Statistics of the Caribbean Countries. Document
No. ECLA/POS 76/5. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: August 1976. Pp. 214 [SAIG]

652. --. ---- ----. Directory of Associations of Producers/Exporters of
Agricultural Products. Document No. CEPAL/CARIB 78/3. Pp. 113. [SAIG]

653. ----. ----. ----. Economic Activity, 1974: Caribbean Community Countries.
Document No. ECLA/POS 75/4. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 30 September 1975.
Pp. irreg. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

654. ----. ----. ----. Economic Activity--1976--in Caribbean Countries. Docu-
ment No. ECLA/CARIB 77/5. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 15 July 1977. Pp.
irreg. [USAID/B]

655. ----. ----. ----. Report on Harmonization of Fiscal Incentives to Indus-
tries in the CARIFTA Territories. Document No. E/CN. 12/845. [Port-
of-Spain, Trinidad], 1969. Pp. 99. [NAL: HJ865 E2]

Describes existing tax incentives and evaluates their economic impact.
Also evaluates the effectiveness of policy administration. Recommends
a regional incentive policy and outlines a harmonization scheme.

656. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation [UNESCO].
Social Research and Rural Life in Central America, Mexico and the
Caribbean. Paris, [1966]. [ISER]

657. United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service.
Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Leeward Islands, Windward Islands,
Barbados, and British Guiana: Projected Levels of Demand, Supply,
and Imports of Agricultural Products to 1975. Document No. ERS-Foreign
94. Washington, D.C., June 1966. Pp. 22. [AID/W: LAS/DR/RD]

658. ----. ----. ----. Summary and Evaluation of "Jamaica, Trinidad and
Tobago, Leeward Islands, Windward Islands, Barbados, and British Guiana:
Projected Levels of Demand, Supply, and Imports of Agricultural Products
to 1975." Western Hemisphere Supply and Demand Study, Summary Report
No. 1. Document No. ERS-Foreign 148. Washington, D.C., June 1966.
Pp. 50. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

659. "U.S. Food Products Find Wide Acceptance in Three Caribbean Markets."
Foreign Agriculture 11, No. 9 (February 26, 1973):9-10, 16. [NAL:
A281.9 F76FO]

660. University of Guyana. Institute of Development Studies; and University
of the West Indies. Institute for Social and Economic Research. Secon-
dary Agro-Based Industries-ECCM and Barbados. Caribbean Technology
Policy Studies Series. Cave Hill, Barbados, 1977. [CDB]

661. University of the West Indies. Annual Report on Cocoa Research. St.
Augustine, Trinidad.

662. ----. Departmental Reports. (Annual.) [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD (1973/4.only)]

663. ----. Report of the Mission to Advise the University of the West Indies
on the Work of the School of Agriculture of the University of the West
Indies. Mona, Jamaica, 1965. LBDD]

664. ----. Department of Agricultural Extension (St. Augustine). Extension
Newsletter. Quarterly since 1970.

Contains extension information and excerpts from recent research
studies and other documents.

665. ---. Department of Crop Science (St. Augustine). Annual Reports.

666. ----. Department of Extra-Mural Studies; and Jamaica. Ministry of Agri-
culture. Report on the Caribbean Conference on Agricultural Extension,
July 18-22, 1966. Jamaica: Ministry of Agriculture, n.d. Pp. 100.

667. ----. Forage Legume Research Program. "Progress Report for the Period
January 1975 to May 1976." Mimeographed. Pp. 21. [CARDI]

6b8. --. Institute for Social and Economic Research. An Abstract of
Statistics of the Leeward Islands, Windward Islands and Barbados.
Cave Hill, Barbados, August 1971. [USAID/B]

669. ----. ----. Methods and Sources of the National Income Statistics of the
Leeward and Windward Islands. Cave Hill, Barbados, 19b6. Pp. 76.

670. ----. Regional Research Centre. Agricultural Research and Its Organiza-
tion in the West Indies. St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1962. [BDDJ

671. UNSWORTH, E.F.; and OSUJI, P.O. "Variations in Final Molasses Composition
in the Eastern Caribbean and Guyana and Their Possible Effect on Beef
Cattle Performance." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 53 (April 1976):

672. VENNER, Dwight. "The Advantages of Economic Integration in the Windward
and Leeward Islands." Caribbean Quarterly 18 (June 1972):16-27.

673. VIDAEUS, Lars. Caribbean Fishing Industries, 1960-70: A Summary Report
of a Series of Country Studies. Bridgetown, Barbados: UNDP, June
1971. [BDD]

674. "Vigilancia de la rabia en el Caribe." Boletfn de la Oficina Sanitaria
Panamericana 80 (June 1976):541-543. [NAL: 449.9 P192B]

675. WADDELL, D.A.G. The West Indies and the Guianas. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967. [ISER]

676. WAGNER, D.P. "Results of Live Bait Pole and Line Fishing Explorations
in the Caribbean." Marine Fisheries Review 36 (September 1974):31-35.

677. --, and WOLF, R. "Results of Troll Fishing Explorations in the Caribbean."
Marine Fisheries Review 36 (September 1974):35-43.

6,78. WALKER, D.I.T., and HUDSON, J.C. "Re-Examining Experimental Design for
Sugar Cane." Proceedings, WIST Meeting (1969):48-60.

679. WALLACE, T. et al. Report of the Scientific Team Appointed to Investigate
the Research Needs of the Citrus Industry in the British Caribbean Area.
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Citrus Research Unit, UWI, 1965.

680. WALMSLEY, D. "Selecting Methods of Soil Analysis for Routine Use in
Barbados and the Windward Islands." Proceedings of the Soils Seminar,
UWI, Cave Hill, Barbados, 1969.

681. ----, and BAYNES, R.A. "Assessment and Calibration of Soil Analysis
Methods for N,P and K using Data from Field Experiments with Maize in
the Eastern Caribbean." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 51 (July

Based on 87 experiments in Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

682. ---, and CORNFORTH, I.S. "Methods of Measuring Available Nutrients in
West Indian Soils: II. Phosphorus." Plant and Soil 39 (1973):93-101.

68j. ----, and FORDE, St.C.M. "Further Studies on the Evaluation and Calibra-
tion of Soil Analysis Methods for N, P and K in the Eastern Caribbean."
Tropical Agriculture (St. Augustine) 53 (1976):281-291.

"The usefulness of soil tests (five each for N, P and K) in predicting
crop response to fertilizer was assessed using yield data from 70 NPK
field trials with maize in the West Indian islands of Antigua, Dominica,
Montserrat and St. Kitts. The analytical methods were also calibrated
against field response data and a critical test value (CTV) for each
method determined" (CAB/ABS].

684. ---, and TWYFORD, I.T. "The Zone of Nutrient Uptake by the Robusta
Banana." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 45 (April 1968):113-118.

This study is based on experiments on a heavy clay soil in St. Lucia
and a sandy loam in St. Vincent. On the basis of research findings,
the authors make recommendations for fertilizer placement at different
stages of growth.

685. ----; --; and CORNFORTH, I.S. "An Evaluation of Soil Analysis Methods
for Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, using Banana." Tropical Agri-
culture (Trinidad)48 (April 1971):141-155.

Based on 32 experiments carried out in Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
St. Lucia, and St. Vincent over a 3-year period. The authors suggest
that the recommended methods be used in routine analysis of farmers'
samples as part of an advisory service to banana growers in the region.

686. WALTER, C.J. "Groundnut Productionin the Less Developed Countries of
the Caribbean Common Market: Constraints and Potential." Proceedings,
WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp. 267-270.

Despite favorable ecological conditions and regional agreements, the
CARICOM region continues to be a net importer of peanuts. Production
possibilities in the various LDCs are evaluated and constraints iden-
tified. Measures to overcome constraints are briefly discussed.

687. WARKENTIN, B.P. "Physical Properties Related to Clay Minerals in Soils
of the Caribbean." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)51 (April 1974):

"Physical properties, particularly index properties and water relations,
are discussed using measurements on Caribbean soils, mostly from the
islands of Nevis, Antigua.and Dominica" [Author's Abstract].

688. WATSON, Beverly. Supplementary Notes on Foreign Investment in the Common-
wealth Caribbean. Working Paper No. 1. [Bridgetown, Barbados?]: ISER,
UWI, 1974. Pp. 92. [SAIG]

Discusses data, by economic sector, for Barbados, Dominica, and Guyana.
Of particular interest are the discussions of land alienation in these
countries, particularly in areas suitable for tourism.

689. WATSON, Hilbourne Alban. "The Political Economy of Foreign Investment in
the Commonwealth Caribbean since World War II." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Howard University, 1975. Pp. 676. [DAI 36 (January 1976):4740-A,
Ordes No. 75027,762]

Applies Marxian tools of economic and political analysis to problems of
what are termed underdeveloped capitalist countries. Argues that
"Commonwealth Caribbean governments have, on account of the class nature
of those states, promoted policies under capitalism, that will not lead
to the transition from underdevelopment to dynamic structural transfor-
mation. The problem lies in the relations of production and, more
specifically, those governments have neither the will nor the interest
to promote such structural transformation" [DAI].

690. WEIR, C.C. "Correction of Magnesium Deficiency of Citrus Trees in the
Caribbean Area." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 48 (October 1971):351-356.

Based on field fertilizer trials in various types of soils in Belize,
Jamaica, and Trinidad-Tobago.

691. ----. Investigations on the Mineral Nutrition of Citrus in the Caribbean
Area. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Citrus Research Unit, UWI, 1969. [BDD]

692. ----, and DAVIDSON, J.G. "The Effect of Retarding Nitrification of Added
Fertilizer Nitrogen on the Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Pangola Grass
(Digitaria decumbens)." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 45 (October

"Splitting the nitrogen fertilizer into two or three dressings signifi-
cantly increased yields of forage and recoveries of applied nitrogen
more than the single dressing. Mixing the nitrification inhibitor with
urea, applied as a single dressing, significantly increased yields of
forage and recovery of applied nitrogen" [WEIR and DAVIDSON].

693. ----; HOSEIN, I.; and JONES, R.L. "The Influence of Citrus Rootstocks on
the Nutrient Compostion of 'Valencia' Orange Leaves." Tropical Agri-
culture (Trinidad)47 (October 1971):331-334.

"Results of studies conducted in Jamaica, Trinidad and British Honduras
revealed that the concentration of K, Ca, Mg, and B in the leaves was
greatly affected by the type of rootstock used; whereas the contents of
N, P, Cu and Zn seem to be unaffected. It was difficult to draw any
firm conclusion as regards the effect of the rootstocks on the leaf
content of Fe and Mn" [WEIR, HOSEIN, and JONES].

694. Weir's Agricultural Consulting Services Ltd. Small Farming Survey in
the Less Developed Member Territories of the Caribbean Development Bank.
2 vols. Prepared for the CDB. Kingston, Jamaica(?), 1976(?). Pp.
xxii+441 [I(a)]; xvi+144 [I(b)]; and xv+153 [II]. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

Volume I consists of two parts: (a) country reports on the 8 "LDCs"
in the region (Antigua, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St.
Kitts-Nevis-(Anguilla), St. Lucia, and St. Vincent; and (b) results of
a survey of small farmers in Dominica, St. Vincent, and Montserrat.
Small farmers were defined as those having from 1 to 25 acres; thus
large numbers of farmers with less than 1 acre were excluded. The
survey provides much valuable information (there are few other studies
of this nature), but the income data are weak and other data could
have been presented in more usable form. Volume II, whose contents
are confidential, is an evaluation of the CDB's Farm Improvement
Credit Scheme.


695. WELCH, B. "Economic Institutions: Local Co-operatives and Growers'
Associations." In Resource Development in the Caribbean. Montreal:
Centre for Developing Area Studies, McGill University, 1972.

696. West Indian Sea Island Cotton Association. The Final Progress Report on
the West Indian Sea Island Cotton Industry. London: Associated Indus-
trial Consultants, Ltd., 1970. [BDD]

697. West Indies. Council of Ministers, and British Development Division in
the Caribbean. West Indies Census of Agriculture, 1961: Report of the
Eastern Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados: BDD, 1968. Pp. xlii+261.
[NAL: HD1831 A5 7100; LTC]

Provides data for Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis-
Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and the British Virgin Islands.

698. ----. Federal Statistical Office. Agricultural Statistics. Series 2,
No. 1, Section II. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad,1960.

Presents 1960 survey results for Montserrat, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

699. ----. Ministry of Natural Resources and Agriculture. Agricultural Statis-
tics. Series 1, Nos. 1-8. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 1959-60.

Document No. 1 discusses the scope and method of the 1956-58 surveys.
Documents 2-7 present survey results for Montserrat, Nevis, Grenada, St.
Vincent, St. Lucia, and Dominica, respectively. Document No. 8 is an
assessment of techniques and results.

700. West Indies Sugar Association. Annual Report. [NAL: 286.3659 W52 (in-

701. ----. Proceedings of the [Annual] Meeting of the West Indies Sugar
Technologists. Bridgetown, Barbados, Annual. [NAL: HD9118 W8 W8]

A major compendium of technical papers on research, cultural practices,
cane processing, etc.

702. WILLEMS, W.B. "Memorandum on Certain Aspects of Marketing in the Wind-
ward & Leeward Islands and on Matters Appertaining Thereto." Bridgetown,
Barbados, 1969. [CDB]

703. WILLIAMS, Holman E. "Animal Health Limitations with the [CARICOM] Region."
A paper presented at the Seminar on the Utilization of Local Ingredients
in Animal Feedingstuffs, Jamaica, 1975. Extracted in Extension News-
letter (UWI, St. Augustine) 7 (September 1976):16-19.

704. WILLIAMS, S.J.A., and SPENCE, J.A. "Out of Season Production of Pigeon
Peas." Extension Newsletter (UWI, St. Augustine) 6 (June 1975).

705. WILSON, L.A. "Improvement of the Yield Potential in Caribbean Sweet
Potato Cultivation." Proceedings, CFCS, 12th (1974):16-32.

706. WILTSHIRE, Rosina Elizabeth. "Regional Integration and Conflict in the
Commonwealth Caribbean." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, 1974. Pp. 202. [DAI 34 (May 1975):7375-7376-A; Order No.

"The balance of forces of integration and stress in the Commonwealth
Caribbean has made and will continue to make integration a very fragile
experiment. Caribbean policy integration in crucial economic spheres
remains, however, one of the only avenues of survival and change for
societies in which the political leadership has renounced a radical
alternative" [DAI].

707. WINT, Douglas. Roads in Antigua and St. Kitts. Economic Development in
the Eastern Caribbean, Series 2. Bridgetown, Barbados: ISER, UWI, 1964.

708. WINTERS, Harold F., and MISKIMEN, George W. Vegetable Gardening in the
Caribbean Area. Agricultural Handbook No. 323. Washington, D.C.:
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, August
1967. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD]

709. WOLF, R.S., and CHISLETT, G.R. "Trap Fishing Explorations for Snapper and
Related Species in the Caribbean and Adjacent Waters." Marine Fisheries
Review 36 (September 1974):61-66.

710. ----, and RATHJEN, W.F. A Summary of Exploratory Fishing Activities of
the UNDP/FAO Caribbean Fishery Development Project, 1965-71. Bridge-
town, Barbados: UNDP/FAO Caribbean Fishery Development Project, 1971.
Also in Marine Fisheries Review 36 (September 1974):1-8.

711. WOOD, D., and FOSTER, M. Manpower Planning in the Eastern Caribbean. A
Report prepared for the Eastern Caribbean Common Market Secretariat.
2 vols. April 1976. [USAID/B (Vol. II)]

Vol. I reviews the manpower situation in-the region and describes the
type of manpower planning the authors believe is best suited to the
Islands. It also recommends changes in the statistics collected by
the island governments and suggests how improved statistics can help
formulate appropriate employment policies. Vol. II provides detailed
reports on each of the LDCs in the Eastern Caribbean.

712. WOOD, Hubert E. "The Need to Rationalize a Caribbean Fishery." Pro-
ceedings, WIAEC, 10th (1975): Vol. II, pp. 157-163.

In the author's view, "unless fisheries development is nationalized
on a Caribbean basis, a few of the countries will develop to some
extent and struggle with each other for the markets."

713. YANKEY, J. Bernard. "Financial Intermediaries as a Mechanism to Facili-
tate the Integration of Production and Marketing in the Agricultural
Sectors of Small Island States." Proceedings, WIAEC, 12th (1977):162-173.

Argues that financial institutions in the region, "with a bad history,
[will] have to establish an impressive record if they are to attract
funds from regional and international banking institutions, bilateral
lending agencies, the public sector and very important, the indigenous

private sector (rural as well as urban). If this record can.be estab-
lished early, then whatever constraints that may be imposed by outside
sources of finance must be seen as short term."

714. ----. "Fiscal Incentives to Agriculture--The CARICOM Perspective." A
paper presented at a meeting of the Caribbean Association of Industry
and Commerce, Roseau, Dominica, 25 June 1976. [CDB]

715. ----. "Notes on Proposed Areas for Government Intervention in Agriculture."
Bridgetown, Barbados: CDB, 1975. [CDB]

716. ----. "Problems and Techniques of Measurement and Valuation in Rural
Areas or Subsistence Economics Related to Output." Paper presented at
the Sixth Conference of Commonwealth Government Statisticians, Nassau,
Bahamas, 27 November-5 December 1974. [CDB]

717. YASEEN, M. "A Further Note on the Introduction of Heliothis Parasites
into the Lesser Antilles (Biological Control)." PANS 21 (June 1975):
155-157. [NAL: SB950 Al P31

718. ----, and BENNETT, Fred D. "Distribution, Biology, and Population
Dynamics of the Green Cassava Mite in the Neotropics." Proceedings
of the Fourth Symposium of the International Society for Tropical
Root Crops, Call, Columbia, 1-7 August 1976. Ottawa, Canada: Inter-
national Development Research Centre, 1977. Pp. 197-202. [CIDA/B]

Identifies the distribution of this mite in the Caribbean and in the
Latin American tropics. Discusses control measures.

719. YATES, P..Lamartine, and BUCKMIRE, George E. Agricultural Trade and
Development in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Draft report of a joint
Commonwealth Caribbean Regional Secretariat and UNDP/FAO Mission in
July 1971. [Bridgetown, Barbados: UNDP], 1971. [CDB]

7?0. YATES, R.A. "Field Experiments on the Chemical Ripening of Sugar-cane
in Jamaica and Belize in 1970." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 49
(July 1972):235-244.

Discusses results of experiments with 4 compounds selected as potential
ripening agents from glasshouse screening trials.

721. YORK, Fred. "A Discussion of the Agency for International Development
Project Paper on an Integrated Agricultural Development Program for
Selected Territories in the Commonwealth Caribbean." Mimeographed.
Binghamton, N.Y., April 1976. Pp. 26. [AID/W: LAC/DR/RD; SAIG]

722. YOUNG, Ruth C. "Political Autonomy and Economic Development in the
Caribbean Islands." Caribbean Studies 16 (April):86-114.

723. ----. "The Structural Context of Caribbean Agriculture: A Comparative
Study." Journal of Developing Areas 10 (July 1976):425-444.

This interesting statistical study of agriculture in the Caribbean
challenges the view of plantation agriculture as "a 'total institution'
that has controlled the political structure, established a rigid
social class structure, and maintained a stranglehold on the entire
economy of nations where it prevails."

724. ZEPHIRIN, M. "Developments from the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Insti-
tute 1970 Technical Group Meeting on Dietary Services for the Contem-
porary Caribbean." Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 34
(Winter 1973):169-173. [NAL: 389.9 C1632]

725. ZINDER, H., and Associates. The Future of Tourism in the Eastern
Caribbean. Prepared for the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Washington, D.C., May 1969. [ISER]

A controversial study that seems clearly to have overestimated the net
benefits of tourism to the region. For critical comments on this
study, see BRYDEN and FABER (1971) and LEVITT and GULATI (1970).


726. Barclay's Bank, D.C. & 0. The Leeward Islands: An Economic Survey.
London, 1962. [BDD]

727. Caribbean Ecumenical Consultation for Development [CADEC]. "Motivation
for Agriculture in the Leewards." Report of a CADEC Survey. [?], 1973.

728. FORDE, St.C.M. "The Evaluation of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.
Capital) Varieties in the Leeward Islands." Proceedings, CFCS, llth

729. ----. "Evaluation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Varieties in the Lee-
ward Islands." Proceedings, CFCS, llth (1973):449-455.

730. ----. "The Evaluation of Tomato Varieties in the Leeward Islands: A
Progress Report." Proceedings, CFCS, 8th (1970):29-33.

731. ----. "Factors Affecting Tomato Production in the Leeward Islands:
Time of Planting." Proceedings, CFCS, 10th (1972):46-51.

732. University of the West Indies. Regional Field Experiment Programme
(Leeward Islands). Annual Report, August 1966-July 1967.

733. WALMSLEY, D.; CORNFORTH, I.S.; and AHMAD, N. Methods of Estimating
Available Nutrients in Leeward Islands Soils. Report No. 16. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: Department of Soil Science, UWI, 1969. [BDD]

See also References No. 112, 113, 183, 208, 271, 280, 337, 339, 371,
400, 423, 429, 512, 513, 515, 536, 597, 605, 640, 657, 658, 660, 668,
669, 672, 702.


734. ADAIR. D., and GILES, P.H. A Project to Promote Improvement of Copra
Production,Storage and Processing in the Windward Islands. Bridgetown,
Barbados: BDD, 1970. [CDB]

735. Barclay's Bank, D.C. & 0. Windward Islands: An Economic Survey. London,
1964. [BDD]

736. BAYNES, RONALD A. Grain Corn Production in the Eastern Caribbean: A
Practical Guide for Farmers. RFEP Windward Islands Bulletin No. 1.
Cave Hill, Barbados: UWI, 1970. [BDD]

737. BECKFORD, George L. "Commentary: 'Crisis' in the West Indian Banana
Industry." Caribbean Quarterly 10 (June 1964):16-18.

Argues that Jamaica and the Windward Islands need to cooperate, not
compete, in banana marketing.

738. ----. "Issues in the Jamaica-Windward Islands Banana War." New World
Quarterly 2 (Dead Season 1965):3-11.

739. ----. "A Preliminary Appraisal of the Scope for Rationalisation of the
West Indian Banana Industry." Proceedings, WIAEC, 1st (1966):210-241.

Notes that average yields in Ecuador and Colombia are twice those in
Jamaica and the Windward Islands; in the French West Indies yields are
3 times as high, and in Costa Rica they are 4 times as high. Protection
given to the West Indies by the U.K. has discouraged cost-reducing
measures. But since protection is not likely to continue indefinitely,
it is argued that the West Indies needs to become more competitive.
Argues that "the principle of zoning must be extended to all agricul-
tural activity."

740. BOLT, A. "Green Gold: Bananas in the Windward Isles." World Crops
12 (August 1960):304-306.

Describes increased banana production and export activities following
the export agreement signed in 1954 between Geest Industries and
growers' associations in Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

741. CLARKE, S.St.A. "Some Aspects of the Banana Industry in Latin America."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 2nd (1967):2-26, with discussion, pp. 27-34.

Includes export data for Caribbean countries (1959-64). It is estimated
that the supply of bananas available for export from the Windward

Islands could double between 1964 and 1970. In the discussion it is
noted that banana growers in the Windwards receive about twice as much
as Latin American producers for their bananas. This, it is said, is
causing Latin American countries to pressure the British government
for lower protection in the Windwards.

742. EDMUNDS, J.E. "Association of Rotylenchis reniformis with 'Robusta'
Banana and Commelina sp. roots in the Windward Islands." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 48 (January 1971):55-61.

Rotylenchis reniformis was found in large numbers. "Laboratory and green-
house studies showed that under natural conditions the nematode caused
distinct lesions around its feeding site; it is capable of completing
its life cycle in the roots of both host plants and it lays a large
number of eggs" [EDMUNDS].

743. ----. Banana Nematode Control. Windward Islands Banana Research Scheme
Advisory Bulletin. Roseau, St. Lucia, 1969.

744. ---. "Effects of Fallowing on Banana Nematodes and on Crop Yields."
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 47 (October 1970):315-319.

"Yield data at the end of one year indicated that despite reduction in
nematode population due to fallowing, there was no concomitant increase
in average bunch weight or total production. Fallowing proved to be
an uneconomic venture. Chemical nematode control and continuous banana
production is recommended" [EDMUNDS].

745. ---. "Nematodes Associated with Bananas in the Windward Islands."
Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 45 (April 1968):119-124.

All areas sampled were found to contain at least one pathogenic nematode
species. "The banana feeder root system was found to support a much
higher nematode population than the primary roots, thus suggesting the
importance to nematodes in contributing to the severe rotting of the
feeder roots and the subsequent effect on water and nutrient uptake"
[EDMUNDS]. Additional research is recommended.

746. ---. "Plant Nematode Problems of the Windward Islands." In Nematodes
of Tropical Crops, ed. J.L. PEACHEY. Technical Communication No. 40.
St. Albans, Herts.: Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, 1969.

747. GOWEN, S.R. Control of Nematode Pests of Bananas. Advisory Bulletin.
Castries, St. Lucia: WINBAN, 1976. Pp. 12. [CARDI]

748. ---. "Nematicidal Effects of Foliar Applications of Oxamyl to Banana
Seedlings." Nematropica 5 (October 1975):22. (Summary)

749. ----. "Some Preliminary Findings on the Value of Granular Nematocides
for Improving Banana Production in the Windward Islands." PANS 20
(December 1974):400-402. [NAL: SB950 Al P3]


750. GRIFFEE, P.J., and BURDEN, O.J. "Fungi Associated with Crown Rot of
Boxed Bananas in the Windward Islands." Phytopathologische Zeitschrift
85 (February 1976):149-158. [NAL: 464.8 P562]

751. ----, and PINGAR, J.A. "Fungicides for Control of the Banana Crown Rot
Complex: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies." Tropical Science 16 (1974):107-120.

"Using benomyl and thiabendazole as standards, 10 chemicals were tested
for the control of banana crown rot which is caused by several fungi."
The in vivo tests were carried out in the Windward Islands; the in vitro
screening was done in England [A.T.A., July 1975].

752. GUMBS, F.A. Report to Candaian International Development Agency on Irri-
gation Research Project Assistance for WINBAN Research. N.p., 30 March
1976. Pp. 22. [CIDA/B]

Critical evaluation of a planned irrigation trial.

753. HENDERSON, Thomas H. Conflicts in the Role of the Agricultural Extension
Officer in the Windward Islands. Extension Bulletin No. 1. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: UWI, 1970.

754. ----. "Preliminary Summary Report of a Study of the Extension Services
of the Southern Caribbean." Unpublished paper. St. Augustine, Trini-
dad: UWI, 1971.

Reports that 72 of 85 extension workers in the Windward Islands had
no formal training from an agricultural education institution.

755. ---- et al. Constraints to the Adoption of Improved Practices in the
Windward Islands Banana Industry. A Summary Report of Phase I of the
ODA-Sponsored Windward Islands Extension Communication Research Project
(WIECRP). St. Augsutine, Trinidad: Department of Agricultural Exten-
sion, UWI, August 1975. PP. 59. [CARDI; SAIG]

756. HUNT, D.J. Annual Report of the Regional Nematologist (TCC). [Castries,
St. Lucia]: WINBAN, October 1976. Pp. 38. [CARDI]

757. KERSHAW, Melba. "The Banana Industry in the Windward Islands." Tropical
Science 8 (1966):115-127.

Discusses the role of the Windward Islands Banana Growers' Association
(WINBAN), owned jointly by the growers' associations in Dominica,
Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Attention is also given to the
role of Geest Industries, Ltd., sole purchasers for the export market.
Low yields are attributed to insufficient fertilizer use. Other topics
discussed include disease control and future prospects for the industry.

758. LEONCE, F. Guidelines for the Use of Gibberellin to Improve the Quality
of the Windward Islands' Bananas. [Castries, St. Lucia]: WINBAN,
March 1978. Pp. 8. [CARDI]

759. LOOS, C.A. "Blackhead Disease of Bananas in the Windward Islands."
Unpublished Study, 1960. [UWI/St. Augustine].

760. MESSING, J.H.L. "Indication of Sulphur Deficiency in Windward Islands
Soils." In Proceedings of the Soil Seminar, U.W.I., Cave Hill, Bar-
bados, 29-30 May 1969.

761. ---. "Long Term Changes in Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium Content
of Banana Plants and Soils in the Windward Islands." Tropical Agri-
culture (Trinidad) 51 (April 1974):154-160.

"In the Windward Islands, a considerable improvement in exchangeable
potassium content of the soils in noted and high analysis for this
nutrient is recorded for many recent leaf samples. A constant and
somewhat alarming decrease in magnesium, often accompanied by a
decrease in calcium, is recorded for both leaf and soil samples.
There is an increasing incidence of magnesium deficiency in the area.
The need for greater attention to the balance of nutrients when formu-
lating fertilizer advice is suggested" [Author's abstract].

762. ---. "Response to Sulphur in Windward Islands Soils." Proceedings of
the Meeting of the Association for Co-operation in Banana Research in
the Caribbean and Tropical America, Jamaica, 12-16 July 1971.

Found that tomato plants showed significant increases in growth in
two-thirds of the 51 soils studied.

763. MOMSEN (nee HENSHALL), Janet D. Report on a Banana Acreage Survey of
the Windward Islands. London, n.d. Pp. 50.

764. ORDISH, G., and HOUGHTON, R. Disease Control in Bananas, Windward
Islands, West Indies. London: Ministry of Overseas Development,
1965. [BDD; ISER]

765. PEARCE, S.C. Windward Islands Banana Replanting Incentive Scheme:
Recommendations for Evaluation. N.p., 1968. [BDD]

766. PERSAUD, Bishnodat. "Economic Problems of the Windward Islands Banana
Industry." Proceedings, WIAEC, 2nd (1967):35-55.

The author argues that there is an urgent need to increase the competi-
tiveness of the banana industry and provides recommendations for doing
so. Results of the author's 1965 cost-of-production study in St. Lucia
are reviewed, and new data, based on regular visits to 30 farms through-
out 1965, are presented. The author argues that "management is the
major problem and not scale of production, [so] there is no need for
re-organisation into large-scale production."

767. PHILLIPS, C.A. "Fruit Quality Problems of the Windward Islands Banana
Industry." PANS 16, No. 2 (1970):298-303.

768. ---. "The Effect of Plant Density and Spacing on the Growth and Pro-
duction of Robusta Bananas." M.Sc. Thesis, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad,
1967. PP. 252.

The author finds that highest yields are obtained with very high
densities, but profits are maximized with relatively low densities
and large amounts of fertilizer.

769. TWYFORD, I.T. An Agronomic Research Programme on Bananas for the Wind-
ward Islands. St. Augustine, Trinidad: RRC, ICTA, 1960. [BDD]

770. ---. "Economic Aspects of Banana Research in the Windward Islands."
Proceedings, WIAEC, 2nd (1967):71-81, with discussion, pp. 82-88. [ISER]

Describes the WINBAN Research Scheme. Argues that more sophisticated
production techniques should be adopted to lower production costs.
This will require considerable improvement in farm management. In the
discussion, the author argues that one major obstacle to the adoption
of new techniques is that "the average person has not got high enough
demands for a better standard of living."

771. ----. "Soil, Nutrition and Fertilizers." In Combined Annual Report 1963
and 1964, Windward Islands Banana Research Scheme, Castries, St. Lucia, 1961

772. ----, and WALMSLEY, D. "The Mineral Composition of the Robusta Banana
Plant: I. Methods and Plant Growth Studies." Plant and Soil 39

773. ---, and ----. "The Mineral Content of the Robusta Banana Plant: II.
The Concentration of Mineral Constituents." Plant and Soil 41 (December

774. ----, and ----. "The Mineral Compositionof the Robusta Banana Plant:
III. Uptake and Distribution of Mineral Constituents." Plant and Soil
41 (December 1974):471-491.

775. ----, and ----. "The Mineral Composition of the Robusta Banana Plant:
IV. The Application of Fertilizers for High Yields." Plant and Soil
41 (December 1974):493-508.

776. ULG Consultants Limited. The Windward Islands Banana Industry. 4 vols.
Submitted to the Ministry of Overseas Development. London, January
1976. Pp. 60+97+75+57. [CIDA/B]

Provides a series of management recommendations for the growers'
associations and WINBAN. Also calls for modifications in WINBAN's
contract with Geest Industries.

777. United Kingdom. Ministry of Overseas Development. British Development
Division in the Caribbean. Replanting Incentive Scheme for Windward
Islands Banana Association. Bridgetown, Barbados, 1967. [BDD]

778. WALMSLEY, D.; CORNFORTH, I.S.; and AHMAD, N. Methods of Estimating
Available Nutrients in Windward Islands Soils. Report No. 15. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: Department of Soil Science, UWI, 1969. Pp. 23.


779. ----, and TWYFORD, I.T. "The Mineral Composition of the Robusta Banana
Plant: V. Sulphur, Iron, Manganese, Boron, Zinc, Copper, Sodium and
Aluminum." Plant and Soil 45 (1976):595-611.

780. ----, and ----. "The Translocation of Phosphorus within a Stool of
Robusta Bananas." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 45 (July 1968):

"In experiments using 32P as a tracer, it was shown that there is a
ready transfer of this nutrient amongst the components of a Robusta
banana stool over a wide range of stool development" [WALMSLEY and
TWYFORD]. The authors make recommendations to growers based on these

781. ----, and ----. "The Uptake of 32P by the Robusta Banana." Tropical
Agriculture (Trinidad) 45 (July 1968):223-228.

"The purpose [of the experiment] were to determine the minimum quantity
of radioactivity, given as a soil dressing, which would produce easily
detectable amounts in the plant and also to find out which banana
tissue would be most suitable for sampling" [WALMSLEY-TWYFORD].

782. WALSTON, Harry. "The Windward Islands and Bananas." Third World 2,
No. 5 (1973):15-16.

783. Windward Islands Banana Growers Association [WINBAN]. Banana Growers'
Manual. Castries, St. Lucia, 1966.

In printed and pictorial versions, the Manual explains recommended
practices. These practices are used by WINBAN agents on demonstration

784. ----. Integrated 5-Year Development Plan for the Windward Islands Banana
Industry (1st April 1977-31 May 1982). Castries, St. Lucia, 1977.

785. ----. Monthly Production Figures. Castries, St. Lucia, monthly.

786. ----. WINBAN News. Castries, St. Lucia, quarterly.

787. ----. WINBAN Research Scheme: Annual Reports.

Includes reports of research findings.

788. WRIGHT, J.D.E. Report on the Artificial Insemination of Cattle in the
Windward Isles, 30th September-30th November 1968." Bridgetown, Bar-
bados: BDD, 1y68. [BDD]

789. YANKEY, J. Bernard. An Outline of the Proposed Regional (LDC) Agricul-
tural Project to Develop Facilities for Providing Fertilisers and Other
Import Services in the Less Developed Countries, with Special Reference
to the Windward Islands. Wildey, Barbados: CDB, 1976. [CDBJ


See also References No. 66, 112, 113, 183, 208, 271, 280, 337, 339,
367, 371, 400, 423, 429, 446, 468, 497, 512, 513, 536, 537, 543, 550,
597, 605, 640, 657, 658, 660, 668, 669, 672, 680, 702.


190. ADIAR, D. "Examination of Soils from Claremont Irrigation Scheme." St.
John's, Antigua: Government of Antigua, 1963.

791. Antigua. Antigua: Development Strategy 1976/77-1979/80. St. John's,
1976. [CDB]

792. ----. General Development Plan for the Island of Barbuda, State of
Antigua. St. John's, 1968?. [BDD]

793. ----. Proposed Industry for Antigua: Chicken Processing Plant. St.
John's, 1966. [BDD]

794. ----. Agricultural and Livestock Development Committee. Report . .
1968. St. John's, 1968. [BDD]

795. ----. Chief Minister's Office. Development Plan 1966-70. St. John's,
1966. [ISER; BDD]

796. ----. Ministry of Agriculture. ["Survey of Small Farmers, February-
March 1977: Preliminary Results"]. Mimeographed. [St. John's,
1977]. Pp. 4+10. [See also Reference No. 833]

797. ----. Ministry of Finance. Statistics Division. Statistical Yearbook.

798. ----. Office of the Premier. Report on the Sugar Industry, 1972. St.
John's, 1972. [ISER]

799. ARRUNDALE, J. Marketing of Fish, Fruit, Vegetables and Meat in Antigua.
A Report to the British Development Division in the Caribbean. Bridge-
town, Barbados: UNDP/FAO, 1971. [BDD]

800. AUGELLI, John P. "Pattern and Problems of Land Tenure in the Lesser
Antilles: Antigua, B.W.I." Economic Geography 29 (October 1953):

"Most of the better land in Antigua had been alienated by plantations
long before the bulk of its . population had acquired the right
through emancipation to own land. With the exception of the land
settlement scheme which 'is not impressive either in magnitude or
achievement,' the predominant systems of land tenure and tenancy are
only slightly modified forms from the pre-emancipation days. The
result is a large landless peasantry which lives under constant econ-
omic distress, and which is becoming restive in its demands for land

801. BERLEANT-SCHILLER, Riva. "Environment, Technology, and the Catch:
Fishing and Lobster-Diving in Barbuda." In Fishing Cultures of the
World, ed. Bela GUNDA. Debrecen, Hungary: Ethnological Institute of
the University, forthcoming.

802. ----. "Production and Division of Labor in a West Indian Peasant
Community." American Ethologist 4 (1977).

Based on research in Barbuda.

803. ----. "Social and Economic Role of Cattle in Barbuda." Geographical
Review 67 (July 1977):299-309.

The author finds that "far more than any other cash or subsistence
pursuit, cattle keeping provides a way for Barbudans to adjust to
environmental change, to strengthen social bonds and community soli-
darity, to create a prestigious social and economic place for men in
a society with scanty resources, and finally to extend economic
involvement with the world beyond Barbuda." Inadequate rainfall
makes cash crops unattractive. "[Barbuda's] system of open-range
husbandry and communal land tenure successfully protects social
organization and economy against the effects of long drought."

804. ---. "Subsistence and Social Organization in Barbuda, West Indies."
Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1974.
Pp. 375. [DAI 35 (July 1974):6-A; Order No. 74-15,460]

"A customary system of communal land tenure operates in response to
the needs of free-ranging cattle, shifting cultivation, and timber
harvest. Other cash and subsistence pursuits are fishing and lobster-
diving. These pursuits, the basis of Barbuda's post-Emancipation
economy, are adaptive to specific environmental features, especially
shallow soils and periodic drought. Environment and history limited
Barbuda's development as a plantation island, making Barbuda the
corporate community of peasant producers we now find" [DAI]. Barbudan
society is described as unstratifiedd."

805. BORDEN, R.W. "A Method for Determining the Irrigation Requirement in
Antigua, West Indies." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 53 (January
1976):4l-45. [NAL: 26 T754]

806. ----. "Soil Properties and Irrigation Ratings for Some Antigua Soils."
M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 1972.

807. ----, and WARKENTIN, B.P. "An Irrigation Rating for Some Soils in
Antigua, West Indies." Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 51 (October

"Criteria for establishing the irrigation suitability of soils in
Antigua, West Indies, were developed by re-evaluating criteria developed
for temperate climates to take into consideration the soil physical
property differences that result from a tropical environment and the
specific local conditions" [Authors' abstract].

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