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Biographical Stories of Great Americans
for Young Americans
James BaLpwin, Ph.D.
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GEORGE WASHINGTON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
DANIEL WEBSTER, ABRAHAM LINCOLN
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PATRICK HENRY, ALEXANDER HAMILTON,
ANDREW JACKSON, U. S. GRANT
By ALMA HOLMAN BURTON
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FRANCE AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
THE FRIEND OF AMERICAN LIBERTY |
ALMA HOLMAN BURTON
Author of â€˜â€˜ The Story of Our Country,â€â€™ â€˜â€˜ Four American Patriots "â€™ etc:
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
JAMES BALDWIN, Ph.D.
WERNER SCHOOL BOOK COMPANY
NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON
By Werner ScHoot Boox Company
Marquis do Lafayette
EL. FORD, ve
The story of the Marquis de Lafayette.forms one of the
most interesting chapters in the history of human liberty.
To understand clearly the nature of Lafayetteâ€™s services,
both to America and to the whole world, we must first
think of the conditions of life at the beginning of his
career, and then contrast them with those which now
prevail. One hundred and forty years ago, when Lafayette
was a child, the world was not so pleasant a place to live
in as it is in our own time. Even in the most enlight-
ened countries of Europe, the majority of the people were
downtrodden and oppressed. Men had scarcely so much as
heard of liberty. Outside of England and her colonies, the
idea of popular freedom was unknown. < :
This idea, as you may have learned etsewheser-sÃ©ems to
have been a sort of birthright of the Anglo-Saxon race. Ever
since the barons of England forced King John to grant them
a charter of rights, the peoples of that race have defended
and cherished it. Like a spark of fire in the midst of gen-
eral gloom, it has oftentimes been almost extinguished; and
yet, no matter how its enemies have tried to stamp it out,
it has survived and been rekindled.
The American colonists, because this idea of liberty was
implanted in their hearts, rebelled against the tyranny of
George III., and boldly demanded their rights as freeborn
Englishmen. Frenchmen, at that time, would not have done
this. They would have tamely submitted to every form of
oppression, not yet having learned that the common people
have certain rights which even kings must respect. Indeed,
at the very time that the American patriots were refusing to
obey the unjust laws of their English rulers, the common
people of France were suffering from oppressions ten times as
great; and yet they had no thought of resistance, but sub-
mitted silently, as creatures whose only duty was to obey their
masters. At the very time that our forefathers were resisting
the payment of the tax on tea, the common people of France
were paying all the taxes for the support of the French king
and his nobles.
So burdensome were these taxes that they consumed the
greater part of every manâ€™s earnings. The people had no
voice in the management of public affairs, nor had they any
rights save to toil unceasingly for those who had set them-
selves over them. Every year thousands of persons died of
starvation, because the earnings of labor, instead of providing
food for the laborers, were taken for taxes. Meanwhile, the
nobles, or privileged classes, who owned all the land, were
living in ease and luxury; they did no work of any kind;
they paid no taxes; they seemed to live for no purpose but to
gratify their own pleasures and do honor to the king.
Such was the condition of France at the time Lafayette
was preparing to aid the cause of liberty in America. Do
you ask why he did not first help the oppressed in his own
country? They were not yet ready to be profited by such
assistance. The time was not ripe for any movement against
the tyranny of the king and his court. To the downtrodden
people of France, liberty seemed a thing so impossible that
they had not even so much as dreamed of contending for it.
Lafayette was not one of the peopleâ€”he was a member
of the nobility, and we should naturally expect to find him
arrayed on the side of the oppressor rather than on that of
the oppressed. But here his patriotism seems all the more
praiseworthy because it was wholly unselfish, What could he
expect to gain by befriending the American colonists ? They
could not even offer him a salary as an officer in the con-
tinental army. Did he hope to win fame by great achieve-
ments in war? There were in Europe other and more promising
fields for the display of military genius. In only one way can
we account for his ardor in behalf of American liberty, and
that is by saying that he was imbued with the true spirit of
freedom, and was, therefore, a friend to all mankind. He
thought that he saw in America the first opportunity to do
good by striking a blow at oppression. The results were
greater than any one could have dreamed. Without his aid it
is hardly possible that our revolution would have succeeded;
without it, the American colonies might have still remained
under the control of Great Britain. But his friendship for
American liberty turned the tide and made the history of the
nineteenth century very different from what it would otherwise
have been. The success of the* American cause aroused the
long-oppressed people of France to a sense of their rights and
_ urged them to a similar resistance to tyranny. Thus, through
lending aid to the colonists, Lafayette found the surest means
of doing service for his own countrymen, and the people of
two continents thereby became his debtors.
What has been the final result of these uprisings for
liberty? The spirit of freedom has extended its blessed influ-
ence over the whole globe, and to-day there is hardly a
country under the sun from which tyranny and oppression
have not been banished. The right of every man to life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is no longer disputed; for
men everywhere have learned the true meaning of liberty and
have acquired the courage to stand up fearlessly in its
To the great leaders, statesmen, and warriors, through
whom American independence was won, the whole world
owes a debt of gratitude. And, while every American citi-
zen takes pleasure in commemorating the deeds of Washing-
ton, our greatest patriot, let the place next to him in our
affections be reserved for that brave friend of American liberty,
_ the Marquis de Lafayette.
Tue CoLonies IN NortH AMERICA
Tue Younc Marquis
Tur DInNER Party .
Ture DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA
Lovis XVI. Promises A FLEET
Tur FurLoucH .
Tur Victory at YorKTOWN
A Visit To Mount VERNON
Tue NationaL ASSEMBLY
Tue FrencH REVOLUTION
An EXILE AND IN PRISON
Tue Man or Two Wor.ips
Tue Last Days or a PatrioT
Portrait OF LAFayETTE : : : f ; frontispiece
Map or Our Country IN 1750 ; a & : : : pumas
GerorceE III. : 5 : : a : s : . 18
CHATEAU DE CHAVANIAC : F : : : Â¢ : . 20
Louris XVI. 4 : : 5 : â€˜ : : : : 26
A BritTIsH SOLDIER : ; : : 5 3 5 aor
Baron DE Kaz . A : ; : Ã© : ; a 34
Stas DEANE . : ; i : : : : : 5
GEORGE WASHINGTON . ; : : : : : : 39
ALEXANDER HAMILTON . : : : 3 â€˜ : : . 40
WASHINGTON AT VALLEY ForGE : : i : : : 43
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 5 : : : : : : ; PaaS
LAFAYETTEâ€™S SwoRD . ; ; â€™ : : : : : 50
Brenepicr ARNOLD . : : : : 3 : : â€˜ eh 2
GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE . t 3 : ; : 5 a 53
Lorp CornwWALLis . 5 eT : : . : : peo.
Mount VERNON . : : : d - : ? : _ 56
FREDERICK THE GREAT . : : : E : : â€˜ Leh
THOMAS JEFFERSON : ; : : : . : : : 62
TuE BAsTILLE : : : ; f : : : : . 64
Marie ANTOINETTE. : : â€˜ : : : . : 66
James Monroe. : : . : . . : . : 70
NapoLeoN BONAPARTE . ; i : : i ; i eel
La GRANGE . â€˜5 s Ã© : â€˜ : % : _ Ã© 72
STATUE OF LAFAYETTE . : j : 3 3 2 ; Beker A:
Joun ADAMS : s fei : : 3 : : : 70)
Bunker Hitt MONUMENT. : - : : : â€˜ 3 77
DANIEL WEBSTER. z A 2 : Z : : i 78
Louis PHILIPPE . : : : 5 : 3 : : : 82
LAFAVETTEâ€™s GRAVE , : : 3 : 3 : toh)
Liperty ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD . : : q ; â€˜ 85
MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
I.â€”Tue Cotonres In NortH AMERICA.
One hundred and fifty years ago North America was
Florida, Mexico, and the country west of the Rocky
OUR COUNTRY IN 1750,
glaimed by three kingdoms of Europe.
16 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
Mountains; France claimed Canada and the vast region
between the Rocky Mountains and the Alleghanies;
and England claimed a wide strip of land extending
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida, and running
straight through the territories of France and Spain, as
far west as the Pacific Ocean.
Now Spain did not fear Englandâ€™s pretensions in the
least. The Pacific slope was an unknown region beyond
the Rocky Mountains, and no one dreamed that an Eng-
lishman would ever cross the trackless wilderness and
climb those dizzy heights. But France knew very well
that whenever the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic
coast became densely settled, the English would try to
seize the fertile valley of the Ohio. And so, while
English colonists were cultivating farms and building
towns east of the Alleghany Mountains, French soldiers
were setting up a strong line of forts west of them.
At last, some English traders ventured across the
mountains. They built rude huts, and were laying the
foundations of a fort, where the city of Pittsburg now
stands, when a company of French soldiers attacked
them and drove them away.
â€˜â€œâ€˜Such impudence must be punished immediately,â€
THE COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA. 17
said the English; and General Braddock, with an army of
British regulars, was sent to recover the fort. He met
with sore defeat at the hands of the French and Indians,
and but for George Washington, a young lieutenant of
Virginia, the army would have been wholly destroyed.
Thus a long war began between England and France.
The English conquered Canada, and because Spain had
helped France in some European wars, they also seized
the Spanish island of Cuba.
In 1763, envoys from France, England, and Spain
met at Paris to sign a treaty of peace. They were very
polite to one another, and took a great deal of snuff, after
the fashion of the time; but, for all that, each envoy was
determined to get the best terms for his king that he could.
In the end, the map of the New World was greatly
altered. England had exchanged Cuba for Florida,
while France had ceded Canada and the country between
the Mississippi River and the Alleghany Mountains
to England, and all west of the Mississippi to Spain.
This treaty of Paris gave to England and Spain
the exclusive ownership of North America. There was
not a foot of the land which the French could call their
18 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
The king of France grieved over the loss of his
possessions. He said he hoped the thirteen colonies
would prove so unruly that the English king would
wish the French back in Canada to help keep them in
Now, if George III. of England had proved to be
a good and worthy king, perhaps this hope would never
have been realized. At the begin-
ning of his reign, his colonies were
prosperous and contented. They cele-
brated his birthdays, set up his
statues in public parks, and offered
prayers for the members of the royal
family. But, after a time, he began
to oppress them by levying unjust
taxes, and when they refused to pay the taxes he sent
an army to punish them.
The Americans then resolved to fight for their
rights. In 1775, delegates from the thirteen colonies
met at Philadelphia in a Continental Congress. They
called for troops and elected George Washington com-
mander-in-chief of the army.
Of course, all the monarchs in Europe were anxious
THE COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA. 19
to see how this quarrel between George III. and his
colonies would end. The French king was more
interested than any other. Some people said he would
equip a fleet to aid the Americans; yet he was in no
haste to adopt such a bold policy as that.
â€˜It would not be wise,â€™ he said, â€˜â€˜to try to assist
those who are too weak to assist themselves;â€™â€™ and he
waited to see what George Washington, at the head
of the Continental troops, would do.
But one of his courtiers, the Marquis de Lafayette,
was not willing to stand idly waiting while the Amer-
icans were fighting for their liberties. He said to
his friends: â€˜â€˜Let us join these patriots in their
struggle against the tyranny of an unjust king. We
may be defeated; but we shall have the satisfaction
of knowing that we have fought on the side of justice
and the right.â€™â€™
In the following pages you may read of some
of the events in the life of this young French
nobleman, who helped to secure the independence
of the American Colonies, and afterwards laid
the first cornerstone of the present republic of
zo STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
II.â€”Tue Younc Marguis.
The chateau of Chavaniac was in the province of
Auvergne, in the south part of France. It was a lofty
castle, with towers and narrow windows from which
=a Th if
CHATEAU DE CHAVANIAC, LAFAYETTEâ€™S BIRTHPLACE.
cannon once frowned. down upon besieging foes.
There was a deep moat around it, with a bridge
which was drawn up in time of war, so that no man,
on horseback or on foot, could pass in at the gate with-
out permission of the guard.
Low hills, crowned with vineyards, stood near the
THE YOUNG MARQUIS. 21
castle, and beyond the hills stretched mountains
whose peaks seemed to pierce the sky. In all France
there was not a more charming spot than Chavaniac;
and among all the nobles of the court there was no
braver man than its master, the Marquis de Lafayette.
Sometimes the king left the pleasures of his palace
to spend a day at this castle; and whenever the young
marquis and his beautiful bride went to Paris, they
were treated with the greatest respect.
One day, the drawbridge was let down over the
moat, and the gallant marquis rode away to the war
in Germany. After taking part in several engage-
ments, he was shot through the heart in a skirmish
at Minden. His comrades buried him on the field.
The drums were muffled, the band played a funeral
dirge, and three rounds of musketry announced that
the heroâ€™s body had been lowered into the grave.
When swift couriers carried the news of his death to
Chavaniac, the sorrow of his family and friends was
most grievous to see. The castle was like a tomb;
the rooms were darkened; and the servants, clad in
black, went about on tiptoe, scarcely daring to whisper
to one another.
22 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
In the midst of this mourning, on September 6,
1757, the only son of the dead marquis was born.
The little orphan was carried to the chapel and
christened Marie Jean Paul Roche Yves Gilbert- Motier
de Lafayette. That seemed a very long name, indeed,
for the tiny baby lying so quietly in the good priestâ€™s
arms; but it was the custom in France to remember
distinguished ancestors at a christening, and there
were so many of these that the loving mother really
thought the name should be longer than it was. She
said that his everyday name should be Gilbert.
When Gilbert was old enough, she walked with
him instead of leaving him to the care of servants.
Sometimes they climbed a high hill to see the sun set
over the towers of the chateau. Then she told him
how the de Lafayettes, long before Columbus discovered
America, had driven the Arabs from France, and how
â€œthey had helped to banish the English kings from
France, and how his own father had died for the glory
_ Sometimes, as they walked through the halls of the
castle, she showed him the coats-of-mail which his
ancestors had worn, and she told him about the swords
THE YOUNG MARQUIS. 23
and banners and other trophies which the de Lafayettes
had won in battle.
â€œIT would not have you less brave than they, my
son,â€™â€™ she would say.
The boy longed for the time to come when he
might show his mother how very brave he was. He
grew tall and strong, and carried himself like a prince.
He wanted to be worthy of his great ancestors.
The year he was eight, there was much excitement
about a wolf which prowled in the forest, killing the
sheep in the pastures and frightening the peasants
nearly out of their wits. Gilbert made this wolf the
object of all his walks. He would persuade his mother
to sit in some shady spot while he should go a little
way into the forest.
â€œT will return in an instant, dear mamma,â€™â€™ he
always said; and, lest he might alarm her, he walked
quite slowly until a turn in the road hid him from
view. Then he marched quickly into the dark
He did this for many days, seeing only frisking
squirrels and harmless rabbits. But one morning, as
he sped along a narrow path, his eyes wide open and
24 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
his ears alert to catch every sound, he heard a cracking
in the underbrush.
The wolf was coming! He was sure of it. His
mind was made up in an instant. He would spring
forward quicker than lightning, and blind it with
his coat, while with his arms he would choke it to
â€œIt will struggle hard,â€ he thought. â€˜â€œâ€˜Its feet
will scratch me; but I shall not mind, and, when all is
over, I shall drag it to the feet of mamma, and she
will know, and the peasants will know, that I can rid
the country of these pests.â€™â€™
He stood listening. His breath came fast. Again
he heard the breaking of the bushes, â€˜â€˜I ought first to
surprise the beast by coming up on it quickly,â€™â€™ he
He tore off his coat, and held it firmly as he hurried
on. Soon he saw the shaggy hide, and the great eyes
shining through the thicket. He leaped forward with
outstretched coat, andâ€”what do you think?â€”he clasped
in his arms a calf that had strayed from the barnyard!
It was a rude shock to the boy. He returned to
his mother, who was already alarmed at his absence,
THE COURTIER. 25
and confessed that he had tried to kill the wolf but had
found only a calf.
â€˜â€˜Ah, you were brave, my son,â€™â€™ she said; â€˜â€œâ€˜I am
quite sure that you would have ended the days of that
terrible wolf had he but given you the chance.â€
When Gilbert was twelve years old, he was sent
to school at Paris. His teachers knew how the king
had loved his father, and they were very kind, although
they did not always give him his own way.
Once, when a prize was offered for the best essay
on â€˜â€˜A Perfect Horse,â€™â€™ he tried to excel. He described
a beautiful animal. Its eyes were large and intelli-
gent, and its nostrils trembled with desire to speed
away at the first word of its rider; but when the master,
instead of speaking gently, raised a whip to strike it,
the horse threw him to the ground.
The teacher said that a perfect horse should have
been better trained, and gave the prize toa boy whose
horse endured the lash of an unjust master.
26 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
â€œTâ€™d rather lose the prize than describe a horse
that would tamely submit to injustice,â€™ wrote Gilbert
to his mother.
He received many letters from his mother telling
him how she loved him and how sure she was that he
would always do his duty.
One week no letter came;
but, instead, the family car-
riage drew up at the gate of
the school. The coachman
and footman on the box
looked very sad, and his old
nurse sat within, crying. She
told him his mother was so
ill that he must hasten home.
His dear mother died. A
few weeks later, his grandfather also died, and he was
left sole master of Chavaniac. He was called the
â€˜â€œâ€˜Marquis de Lafayette,â€ and the peasants knelt humbly
by the roadside whenever he passed. The king soon
sent for him to appear at court, and, when he saw
what a fine, manly fellow the young marquis was, he
made him a page to the queen.
THE COURTIER. 24
A few years later, Lafayette became a member of
the Royal Guards, and, just about that time, he married
the daughter of a powerful duke.
When the old king of France died in 1774, Louis
XVI. and Marie Antoinette were crowned with much
pomp. The young queen was beautiful and gay.
The king loved her so dearly that he tried in every
way to make her happy. If she wearied of one palace,
he calied his courtiers together, and, on horseback and
in carriages and sedan chairs, they went to another.
His favorite palace was at Versailles, a few miles
from Paris. It was in a splendid park, where fountains
played and birds sang all day long.
One room in this palace was so large that hun-
dreds of people could dance together in it; and its
walls were lined with mirrors in which the lords and
ladies might see themselves as they smiled and bowed
The queen once gave a masquerade ball in this
mirror room. The Marquis de Lafayette was there,
with his wife. He was dressed in a coat-of-mail
which his great-great-grandfather had worn in a war
with the Turks.
28 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE,
He was tall, and his face was very pleasant, with
its high forehead and clear brown eyes. As he walked
down the long room, his wife said to herself: â€˜â€˜He is
just like a knight of the olden time!â€™â€™ She smiled
when she saw him glance into the mirrors. She thought
he was a little vain of his good looks.
But the young marquis hardly noticed himself.
He was gazing at the shining armor and wondering if
he would ever have achance to fight in a just cause,
as his great-great-grandfather had done.
IV.â€”Tue Dinner Party.
The Marquis de Lafayette soon tired of the idle
life at Versailles, and, in 1776, when he was just nine-
teen years old, he went to Metz, a town then in France,
as captain of an artillery company.
He was a born soldier. He loved to hear the
boom of cannon and the rattle of muskets on the drill
ground. The very first time he called off orders to
his men, he felt that, if he were only in battle, he
could add some glory to his already famous name.
THE DINNER PARTY. 29
But he said to himself: â€˜â€˜Kings make war for
conquest. I wish that I might enlist my arms for a
more worthy object.â€™
That same year an English nobleman, the royal
Duke of Gloucester, chanced to visit Metz. He had dis-
pleased his brother, King George III., and for that
reason had been banished from England.
The commandant of the garrison gave a dinner-
party in honor of the royal guest. '
Lafayette and the other French officers were in
full uniform; but the Duke of Gloucester was the
most splendid of all who sat about the table. There
was much laughing and drinking of toasts and speech-
making, until a guard announced that a messenger was
at the door with despatches for his royal highness.
â€˜â€œâ€˜Ah, news from England!â€™â€™ exclaimed the duke.
â€œâ€˜Show the man in,â€™â€™ ordered the commandant.
A courier, with dust on his garments, entered the
room, and, bowing low, delivered a bundle of letters.
â€œTI beg your Highness to read without ceremony,â€
said the commandant.
The duke glanced over the papers for some time
in silence. He looked grave. At last, he said: â€˜â€˜My
30 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
courier has brought despatches about our colonies in
â€˜â€˜Ah,â€ said one; â€˜â€˜are the colonies acting badly?â€™â€™
â€œYes, they demand to vote their own taxes.â€â€™
â€˜â€˜How absurd! Why, the people in France do not
vote their own taxes.â€â€™
â€˜You must know,â€™â€™ said the duke, â€˜â€˜that many years
.ago, one of the kings of England gave a charter to our
people which granted them the right to impose their
own taxes. They now elect representatives to a par-
liament, where they decide how much money should be
used by the government. Sometimes, when the king
asks for more money than he really needs, they refuse
to increase the taxes; but they are usually quite willing
to pay whatever he asks.â€â€™
â€œWhat do these Americans complain of, then?â€™
â€˜Taxation without representation,â€™â€™ answered the
duke. â€˜â€˜They insist that, as loyal subjects, they should
be allowed either to send representatives to our Parlia-
ment, or to have a Parliament of their own. Neither
privilege has been granted. Our Parliament imposes
taxes on them, and, when they refuse to pay the
THE DINNER PARTY. 31
taxes, the king sends an army to force them to do so.
These despatches inform me that the rebels have
driven our troops out of a town called Boston, and that
delegates from the thirteen colonies have met at another
town called Philadelphia and adopted a declaration of
â€œThe rabble!â€™â€™ cried one of the French
â€œYour fine troops will soon crush the
- rascals,â€™â€™ cried another.
â€˜â€˜My brother, the king, is stubborn,â€â€™
said the duke, with a smile. â€˜â€˜He ban-
ished me, gentlemen, because I disobeyed a sores
him. He will conquer these disobedient ar tee
colonies; but, since our common people are not will-
ing to fight their cousins, he has hired Hessians from
Germany to help our soldiers.â€â€™
â€œWhat, your highness!â€™â€™ exclaimed Lafayette, who
could hardly believe that he had heard aright.
â€˜Yes, many thousand Hessians are now on their
Way across the sea.â€™â€™
Lafayette thought it was cruel for a king to send
a foreign army against his own subjects; but he remem-
32. STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
bered that the English king was the dukeâ€™s brother,
and he said nothing in reply.
â€œTIT am not so sure, gentlemen,â€™â€™ said the duke,
after a pause; â€˜â€˜I am not so sure but the Americans
are in the right. They are fighting as freeborn
â€œThe Americans are in the right,â€ said Lafayette
to himself; and, while the other officers were making
merry about many things, he was silent. As soon as
he could do so, he excused himself from the table.
He hastened to his room and locked the door.
â€œThis is, indeed, the hour I have sought,â€™â€™ he
He sat down to think, and then he arose and paced
the floor until it was almost morning. When, at last,
he threw himself on the bed to sleep, he had resolved
to leave the pleasures of rank and fortune, and even to
separate, for a time, from the wife he loved, that he
might use his sword in the defense of liberty.
V.â€”Tue DEparTURE FOR AMERICA.
As soon as the young captain of artillery could get
leave of absence from duty at Metz, he hastened to
THE DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA. 33
Paris. Here he found everybody talking of Englandâ€™s
war with her colonies.
Now, the French people hardly knew whether Bos-
ton was the name of a town or of a whole state; but they
were so delighted because the haughty English generals
had been defeated there that they had â€˜â€˜Bostonâ€™â€™ whist,
and â€˜â€˜Bostonâ€â€™ tea, and â€˜â€˜Bostonâ€™â€™ snuff.
Lafayette sought out some American agents who
were buying arms secretly, and the more he heard
about the unjust taxes, the more determined he was
to help the patriots resist them.
His father-in-law opposed his plans; but, to
strengthen his resolution, Lafayette adopted the
motto, â€˜Cur non?â€™â€™ which means â€˜â€˜Why not?â€™ â€˜Cur
non?â€â€™ he said, when he saw his wife in tears.
â€˜â€œCur non?â€™â€™ he would say again, when his baby girl
stretched out her tiny arms as if to hold him back.
With Baron de Kalb, an officer who had been in
America, he organized a Boston club, to talk about
raising an army.
When Louis XVI. heard this, he was displeased.
He said that if any French noblemen joined the rebels
it might cause England to declare war against France,
34 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
Late in the fall, news came of a battle on Long
Island, in which the patriots were badly defeated.
â€˜You see,â€™â€™ said the king; â€˜â€œâ€˜those Americans are
only a mob. They will soon be disarmed;â€™â€™ and he
forbade the meetings of the Boston club.
â€œCur non?â€ said Lafayette;
and the meetings were held
About this time, the Ameri-
can Congress sent Silas Deane,
of Connecticut, to France, to
seek aid; and Lafayette asked
De Kalb to go with him to
BARON DE KALB.
visit the envoy. When the
two men met, they shook hands; but, as neither under-
stood the language of the other, they said nothing.
De Kalb, who could speak both English and French,
told Silas Deane that the Marquis de Lafayette wished
to join the American army.
â€œWe have no money to pay our officers,â€™ said
â€œI will serve without money,â€™â€™ repeated De Kalb
THE DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA. 35
â€˜â€œWe have no ship to carry you and your men,â€â€™ said
â€œT will buy a ship,â€ was the answer.
Still, the American hesitated to accept the services
of such a boyish-looking officer.
Then the modest Lafayette
would have blushed if he had
understood what his friend said
â€˜in his behalf. De Kalb told of
his wealth and rank, and explained
what a powerful ally he might be-
In the end, Silas Deane gave Lafayette a contract
to sign, in which Lafayette promised to serve in the
army of the United States whenever he was wanted.
When the venerable Benjamin Franklin came to
Paris, Lafayette was among the first to greet him. He
was enchanted with the famous philosopher, whose
simple manners and plain dress befitted well the herald
of a republic.
â€˜â€˜Now, indeed, is our time of need,"' said Franklin.
Lafayette waited to hear no more. He bought a
ship, and ordered it to be equipped for the long voyage.
36 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
While the ship was being made ready, he visited
England, where his uncle was the French ambassador.
George III. feared that Louis XVI. would aid the
Americans in their rebellion, and tried to be friendly
to France. Lafayette was treated with distinction
He met some English officers who were just ready
to start for America, and was invited to Portsmouth
to see the ships set sail with troops; but he refused
â€œâ€œT cannot be a hypocrite,â€™â€™ he said to himself; â€˜â€˜I
shall soon have my own ship launched for America.â€™â€™
While at Lord Rawdonâ€™s, who had just returned
from New York, he heard how General Washington,
on a Christmas night (1776), had captured the Hessians
at Trenton. He expressed such delight over the news
as to arouse suspicion, and, when he found that his
movements were watched, he returned to Paris secretly.
The ship was not yet ready. Meantime, George III.
heard about his plans, and wrote to Louis XVI.
against the expedition; but, when the letter reached
Paris, Lafayette, with De Kalb and eleven other offi-
cers, had already set out on his journey.
WASHINGTONâ€™S AIDE-DE-CAMP. 37
King Louis sent messengers in pursuit, and then
Lafayette disguised himself as a courier, and galloped
ahead of his friends to order the relays of horses.
In one town, during a wait of three hours, he lay
concealed in the straw of a stable. In another town,
when he was recognized by the innkeeperâ€™s daughter,
he made her a sign to be silent just as the pursuers rode
up tothe door, and she sent them away by a different
At last, he reached Pasages, on the Spanish coast,
where his good ship Victory was anchored. And,
when the kingâ€™s messengers arrived at the edge of
the water, all covered with the dust of their swift pur-
suit, the sails were already spread, and the Marquis de
Lafayette was on his way to America,
The voyage across the ocean was stormy and long.
Lafayette spent most of the time trying to learn to
The Victory cast anchor near Charleston, South
38 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE,
Carolina, and the party landed about midnight. As
Lafayette and De Kalb stood on the beach, they clasped
each other's hands, and, looking up to the stars,
vowed they would conquer for liberty or die on foreign
They found shelter at a farmhouse, and, on the
following day, proceeded to Charleston. Here Lafay-
ette purchased carriages and horses to ride nine hun-
dred miles to Philadelphia, where the Continental
Congress was in session. When the carriages broke
down because of the bad roads, the officers mounted
the horses and continued their journey.
Lafayette could not talk much with the people
whom he met, but he soon saw that America was quite
different from France. There were no beggars lying
by the roadside; the farmers did not kneel when fine
carriages passed, and one man really seemed to be just
about as respectable as another.
â€˜â€˜T am more determined than ever,â€ he said to De
Kalb, â€˜â€˜to help these people preserve the liberties they
He reached Philadelphia on July 27, 1777.
Now, King Louis had directed Franklin to write
WASHINGTONâ€™S AIDE-DE-CAMP. 39
to the Congress requesting it not to give Lafayette a
commission in the army; but the shrewd envoy had
taken no pains to hurry his letter, and, as it had not
been received, Lafayette was given the rank of major
i The outlook for the Americans was not very
encouraging. Washington had
retreated from New York, and
the British general, Sir William
Howe, was preparing to attack
' Lafayette first met Washing-
ton in the Quaker City, and knew
him at once by his noble face.
He had a talk with the comman-
der, who took him to inspect some fortifications, and
invited him to cross the Delaware to see his
When Lafayette arrived at the camp in New Jersey,
â€˜the troops were on the drill-ground. Many of them
were ragged and barefooted. Even the officers lacked
suitable uniforms, and the guns were of all shapes and
40 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
â€œâ€œWe should be embarrassed at thus showing our-
selves to a French officer,â€™ said Washington.
â€œAh!" replied Lafayette, with tears in his eyes;
â€˜â€œâ€˜men who fight for liberty against such odds will be
sure to win.â€
Washington was so pleased with the modest zeal of
the young marquis that he brade him one of his aides-
de-camp. Lafayette was then just
twenty years old.
Another aide of about his
age was Alexander Hamilton.
Hamilton spoke French almost
as wellas Lafayette, and the two
officers became devoted friends.
General Howe sailed up Chesa-
peake Bay, and, landing, marched to attack Philadel-
phia. Washington, with his army, went to meet him,
and there was a terrible battle near Brandywine Creek.
Lafayette was in the thickest of the fight until he
was forced to fall back on account of having received
a musket ball in the calf of his leg.
â€œTake care of the marquis as though he were my
own son,â€ said Washington to the surgeon.
WASHINGTONâ€™S AIDE-DE-CAMP. "41
The Americans were badly defeated at Brandy-
wine, because the British were better disciplined, and
had superior arms. Washington retreated, and Phila-
delphia was taken.
His wound confined Lafayette to his bed for six
weeks. During this period of idleness he spent much
of the time writing letters to his wife.
â€˜â€˜Now that you are the wife of an American gen-
eral,â€™â€™ he wrote, â€˜â€œâ€˜I must give you a lesson. People
in France will say, â€˜They have been beaten.â€™ You
must â€˜answer, â€˜It is true; but with two armies, equal
in number and on level ground, â€˜old soldiers always
have an advantage over new ones; besides, the Ameri-
cans inflicted a greater loss than they sustained.â€™
â€œThen people will say, â€˜Thatâ€™s all very well, but
Philadelphia, the capital of the colonies, is taken.â€™
You will reply, politely, â€˜You are foolish; Phila-
delphia is a poor city, open to the enemy on all sides.â€™ â€™â€™
The devoted little wife repeated these words
at court, and thus helped the American cause in
When Lafayette was again able to mount a horse,
he led an expedition against a post of the Hessians
42 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
with such skill that he was given command of the
After some battles around Philadelphia, Washington
made his winter quarters at Valley Forge, about twenty
miles away; and, while the British were enjoying
themselves in the best houses of the Quaker City, the
Americans suffered great privations in tents and rude
This was in the winter of 1777. The weather was
very severe. Some of the soldiers were without shoes,
and their feet bled as they walked over the frozen
ground; yet, all through the stormy days, the little
army drilled and worked on the fortifications, while,
at night, those without blankets sat around the camp
fires to keep from freezing to death. Lafayette, who
had been used to luxuries all his life, willingly shared
these hardships, and went limping about from tent to.
tent with a pleasant word for everybody.
Meantime, a British general, Sir John Burgoyne,
having attempted to invade New York from Canada,
was forced to surrender his whole army to General
Gates, at Saratoga.
â€˜You see,â€ said some of the American generals,
WASHINGTONâ€™S AIDE-DE-CAMP. 43
who were jealous of Washington, â€˜â€˜the army in the
North is successful; but just look at the army in the
South! It has lost Philadelphia, and is only freezing
to death at Valley Forge.â€
WASHINGTON AT VALLEY FORGE,
These jealous generals plotted to remove Wash-
ington from command, and tried in every way to induce
Lafayette to favor their evil designs. One night, they
invited him to a dinner. After toasts were offered in
honor of several officers, Lafayette was grieved to
44 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
note that the name of Washington had been omitted.
He arose to his feet. :
â€˜â€œGentlemen,â€™â€™ he cried, â€˜â€˜I drink to the health of
George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Amer-
The toast was honored in silence. The treacherous
men saw plainly enough that the Marquis de Lafayette
would never join in a plot against his general.
VII.â€”Lovts XVI. Promises a FLEEt.
Now, all this time, Benjamin Franklin was at
Paris, working for the colonies. He found that very
many of the French people wanted to aid in the war
The noblemen said: â€˜â€˜England robbed us of our
colonies, we should now seek revenge.â€
The manufacturers and shopkeepers said: â€˜â€˜England
never allowed the Americans to buy goods directly from
us, and, if we help them win their liberty, we shall
get most of their trade.â€™â€™
The wretched peasants did not understand what
LOUIS XVL PROMISES A FLEET. 45
liberty meant, but they knew all about unjust taxes,
and were glad the Americans were refusing to pay them.
But the French king hesitated to send his armies
across the sea. He did not believe that the Americans
were strong enough to win a
single great battle.
â€œAs for helping King
Georgeâ€™s subjects set up a
republic,â€™ he said, â€˜that
would be a dangerous experi-
ment which my own subjects
might wish to try.â€™â€â€™
Franklin despaired of se-
curing aid from France. One
day, as he sat alone, won-
dering what plan he must next pursue, an American
courier arrived from Boston. Franklin met him at the
â€œSir,â€™? he asked, without waiting for the man to
speak, â€˜â€˜is Philadelphia captured?â€â€™
â€œIt is, sir,â€™ answered the courier.
Franklin turned sadly away. All.seemed lost.
â€œBut, sir, I have better news than that!'â€™ exclaimed
46 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
the courier, and he showed despatches from Congress
which told of the battle of Saratoga, and of Burgoyneâ€™s
surrender of six thousand men.
Franklin was overjoyed, and hastened to court with
â€œReally,â€â€™ said the king to himself, â€˜â€˜this is the
time to give John Bull a fine dose of bitters; these
rebels may yet become a great nation.â€™â€™ And so he
acknowledged the independence of the United States,
and promised to send a fleet to America.
Lafayette was delighted when he learned that his
king had recognized the independence of the United
States and had concluded a treaty of alliance.
The event was celebrated on a May day with a
grand parade at Valley Forge. There was a salute of
thirteen cannon, followed by a volley of musketry, and
then the army, drawn up in two lines, shouted: â€˜â€˜Long
live the king of France!â€™â€™ and gave loud huzzas for the
new American States.
THE FURLOUGH. 47
A few days later, Lafayette had occasion to show
his skill. It happened in this way:
Washington had sent him, with two thousand
men, to occupy Barren Hill, half-way between Valley
Forge and Philadelphia, and he was directed to fall on
the rear of the British if they should attempt to leave
the city. He had hardly chosen the camp, near a stone
church, with the Schuylkill River on one side and a
wood on the other, when spies reported his arrival.
The British general, who was attending a grand military
ball at Philadelphia, laughed aloud at the news.
'â€œHa, ha! He, he!â€™ he laughed. â€˜â€˜That will
make a fine close for our dance.â€™â€™ And he went about,
saying to the ladies: â€œI invite you to my house on
to-morrow night to meet the Marquis de Lafayette.â€â€™
Before daylight, nine thousand red-coats were on
the march. One division was sent round bya circuitous
route to cut off retreat to Valley Forge, while two
other divisions approached Barren Hill.
â€˜The little French boy is in a trap,â€™â€™ chuckled the
British general, as he pushed his way through the mists
of the early dawn.
Meantime, scouts brought word to the camp that
48 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
the â€˜â€˜Bloody Backsâ€™â€™ were coming. The patriots were
in a panic. They ran hither and thither, crying, â€˜All
is lost! We cannot escape!â€â€™
Lafayette perceived the danger; but he calmed their
fears with a jaunty air, and smilingly said: â€˜â€˜We will
now lead the British a livelier dance than they had last
He had studied the ground and discovered a ford
which the enemy knew nothing about. He laid his
plans well. He boldly advanced a few columns as if to
give battle, and, while the red-coats were preparing to
attack them, he hurried the rest of the army across the
ford; then he quietly withdrew those who were in the
pretended line of battle, and, when the British charged
up Barren Hill from opposite sides, they only met one
The affair was so very ludicrous that, when the nine
thousand marched back to Philadelphia, they were the
sport of everybody.
The British general, hearing that King Louis was
sending over a fleet, abandoned the Quaker City.
Washington pursued him across New Jersey, and there
was a hard-fought battle at Monmouth. In this battle,
THE FURLOUGH. 49
Lafayette bore himself heroically all day long, and, when
night came, with the victory undecided, he slept on the
field by the side of Washington.
The enemy retreated to New York, and Washing-
ton stretched his lines from Morristown, New Jersey,
to West Point, on the Hudson.
While the patriots thus kept watch of New York,
Lafayette was granted a furlough. It was thought
that he might obtain more aid from France. When
he reached Paris, he was placed under arrest; for
King Louis had once promised the English ambassador
to put the bold young marquis in prison if he should
And what do you think his prison was?
It was the house of his own family, and the chains
that were bound tightly around his neck were the arms
of his loving wife.
He was forbidden to enter the kingâ€™s presence
for a week as penance for having disobeyed royal
orders; but, at the end of that time, he was again
restored to his old place of honor. It is said that the
queen and every lady of the court kissed him on both
50 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
Lafayette turned this whirlwind of favor .to the
advantage of the patriots. He said that no European
army would sufferthe tenth part of what the American
troops did, and boldly declared that the cost
of a single royal ball would equip the whole
He talked much about Washington.
â€œDo you know, Doctor,â€™â€™ said the queen
one day to Franklin, â€˜â€˜ that Lafayette has
really made me in.love with your General
Washington? What a man he must be!â€
When, at last, Lafayette was ready to
return to America, he went in the uniform
of an American general to bid the king
good-bye. At his side hung a sword, with
handle of gold and blade of steel, engraved
with his arms and his motto, Cur non? It
had been presented to him by Franklin in
the name of the American Congress.
When he landed at Boston, the bells of the
churches rang a welcome, while the citizens marched
in line to escort him to General Hancockâ€™s house on
THE VICTORY AT YORKTOWN. 51
As soon as he could do so, Lafayette went to army
headquarters on the Hudson. There Washington
greeted him as if he had been his own son; but he
looked anxious and sad.
â€˜â€˜Alas, my boy,â€ he said, â€˜â€˜there is bad news for
you. We have been defeated in the South. Our con-
tinental money is so counterfeited by the enemy that
it is almost worthless, and our sick and starving sol-
diers are without supplies.â€™â€™ 3
â€œAh!â€™â€™ cried Lafayette, with a joyous laugh, â€˜â€˜I
have remembered my general during my absence.
There are six thousand land troops, under Rochambeaun,
now on the way, and money, and clothing, and arms.â€™â€™
IX.â€”Tue Victory at YORKTOWN.
Not long after Lafayetteâ€™s return, he went with
Washington to inspect the fortifications at West Point.
While they were there, Washington discovered that
Benedict Arnold, the commander of the fort, had been
bribed to betray it to the British.
West Point was saved; but Arnold, the traitor,
52 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
escaped toa British ship, and enlisted in the service of
the enemy. This was in September, 1780.
A few months later, Arnold led a British army into
Virginia, and Lafayette was ordered
south to attack him.
â€œLook before you leap,â€™â€™ were
Washingtonâ€™s parting words.
Lafayette remembered the warn-
ing, and moved forward with caution.
BENEDICT ARNOLD. : -
At Baltimore, he borrowed ten
thousand dollars from some merchants to supply his
men with shoes and hats, and to buy the linen which
the women of the city made into summer garments.
Then he marched to Richmond, Virginia. Arnold
soon sent a letter to the camp about an exchange of
prisoners. Lafayette said to the messenger: â€œI will
answer the letter of any British officer; but I will not
even read a letter from Benedict Arnold, the traitor.â€™â€™
A few days later, the British general, Cornwallis,
took command of Arnoldâ€™s troops.
â€œThe Frenchman cannot escape me!â€™â€™ he said.
The youthful major general warily avoided an
engagement with Cornwallis. He joined his forces
THE VICTORY AT YORKTOWN. 53
with those of Anthony Wayne, and followed the British
at a distance.
Some of the best young men of Virginia and Mary-
land had hesitated to take up arms
against the king; but, when they
saw the skill and courage of this
stranger, they mounted their own
horses and joined his ranks. Thus
Lafayetteâ€™s army kepi daily increas-
ing. GENERAL ANTHONY
Now, just at this time, all Europe age
was awaiting events on two rivers in America. The
Hudson, in the North, lay between Clinton and Wash-
ington; and the James, in the South, held on its banks
the opposing armies of Cornwallis and Lafayette.
â€˜Whose army will conquer?â€™â€™ was a question which
King George and King Louis anxiously asked.
It was not long before they had an answer.
Cornwallis threw up fortifications at Yorktown,
and moved his camp there. Then, Washington and
Lafayette agreed to unite their armies to attack
Soon a French fleet, under Count de Grasse, moved
54 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
up Chesapeake Bay, and anchored before Yorktown.
Lafayette and Wayne marched nearer and nearer,
until Cornwallis was surrounded by land and
De Grasse urged Lafayette to make the attack at
once. It was a temptation for the
young major general. He knew
that Europe would ring with his
name if he should win the victory
alone; but, when he thought of
the patient commander in the
North, who had borne the bur-
dens of the long war, he said to
De Grasse: â€˜â€˜No, if we strike the
enemy now, our losses will be too great. I shall await
the arrival of Washington. To him alone should belong
the honor of giving Cornwallis this final blow.â€â€™
Meanwhile, Washington left the Hudson. Rocham-
beau, with the French troops, joined him, and together
they marched to the South. When the united armies,
under the command of Washington, stood in front
of Yorktown, Lafayetteâ€™s division was the first to storm
THE VICTORY AT YORKTOWN. 55
Cornwallis surrendered October 19, 1781; this ended
the war, and America was free.
Lafayette received a leave of absence to return to
France. When he reached Versailles and found that his
wife was attending a ball at the palace, he sent her a
message. The tidings of his arrival ended the dancing.
Everybody stopped to tell everybody else that the Mar-
quis de Lafayette had returned from America; and the
queen called her own carriage to accompany the happy
Honors were showered on the hero; but he modestly
declared that most of the credit of victory belonged to
Washington. Whenever he dined with the French
officers, he proposed a toast to the health of Washing.
ton, and when his son was born, he named him George
Washington. After the treaty of peace between Eng-
land and America had been signed, he wrote to Wash-
ington: â€˜â€˜As for you, my dear general, who can truly
say that all this is your work, what must be your
Later, he wrote: â€˜â€˜The eternal honor in which
my descendants will glory will be to have had an
ancestor among your soldiers.â€™â€™
56 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
X.â€”A Visir tro Mount VERNON.
In 1784, Lafayette visited Washington at Mount
Vernon. The two friends spent many happy days
together. They rode after the hounds, or walked on
the banks of the Poto-
mac River, or sat in the
library musing over the
battles they had fought
for liberty. They talked
much about the thirteen
MOUNT VERNON. new states, which had
not yet formed a permanent union.
â€˜There are three things I wish,â€ said Lafayette;
â€œfirst, that France and America form an alliance; second,
that the thirteen colonies be united under one govern-
ment; and third, that the slaves in the colonies
Washington agreed with Lafayette about all these
measures. The two visited the battlefields of the
South, and lingered at the grave of De Kalb, who had
fallen at Camden, in South Carolina.
When, at last, Lafayette started north to resign
A VISIT TO MOUNT VERNON. 57
his commission, Washington. accompanied him as far
as Annapolis. On returning to Mount Vernon, he
hastened to write: â€˜â€˜In the moment of our separation
and every hour since, I have felt all that love, respect
and attachment for you with which length of years
and your merits have inspired me. I often asked
myself, as our carriages separated, whether that was
the last sight I ever should have of you.â€
It was, indeed, the last time they met on earth.
Lafayette returned home. He was kept busy for years
by important events, and when he again visited America
the noble Washington was in his grave.
Perhaps the best service of Lafayette to our country
was the good name he gave it in Europe. He also did
what he could to improve our trade by finding new
markets for our products.
The fishermen of Nantucket were so grateful for
his help in the whaling industry that they held a public
meeting. Every man present promised two milkings
from his cow to make a cheese. Barrels of milk were
accordingly collected, and a great round cheese, weighing
five hundred pounds, was made; and one day it arrived
at Chavaniac, not a whit the less fragrant for its long
58 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
voyage across the sea. The planters of Virginia were
so much pleased with Lafayetteâ€™s efforts in behalf of
the tobacco trade, that they ordered Houdon, the sculp-
tor, to make two marble busts of him. One was placed
in the capitol at Richmond, and
the other was presented to the
city of Paris.
Now, the kings of Europe
did not like the new ideas about
liberty which had spread over the
world after the American revo-
lution. Frederick the Great, of
FREDERICK THE GREAT.
Prussia, invited the Marquis de
Lafayette to his court for a visit. In one of their
talks, King Frederick said: â€˜â€˜By and by, the United
States will return to the good old system of monarchy.â€
â€˜â€˜Never, sire, never,â€™â€™ replied Lafayette; â€˜â€˜neither
monarchy nor aristocracy can ever exist in America.â€â€™
â€œSir,â€ said Frederick, with a penetrating look, â€œI
knew a young man who, after he had visited countries
where liberty and equality reigned, conceived the idea
of establishing the same system in his own country. Do
you know what happened to him?â€
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. 59
â€˜â€˜He was hanged.â€™â€™
Lafayette looked up with a calm smile; but he did
not betray to the anxious king what his thoughts were.
XI.â€”Tuer Nationa ASSEMBLY.
It was, indeed, time for the monarchs of Europe
to be concerned about the safety of their thrones.
Nowhere was the danger greater than in France.
While King Louis had been helping King George's
subjects, his own subjects were suffering. They were
grievously taxed to support the splendor of the king
and his nobles. Whole counties were reduced to
starvation, and thousands of wretched creatures wan-
dered over the kingdom, begging or robbing as they
Louis XVI. saw little of all this misery. He was
happy himself, and he wondered why everybody else
was not happy. If he chanced to see a pallid face
through the window of his coach, he said: â€˜â€˜That poor
fellow is ill,â€™â€â€™
60 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
No one spoiled his drive by telling him the man
The thoughtless king kept asking his ministers for
more money, until they told him the treasury was
empty. Then the taxes were increased. The people
began to hear how the Americans had won the right
to vote their own taxes. They asked one another why
the French might not have that right too. It really
began to look as if there might be a revolution in
When Lafayette returned from his visit to Mount
Vernon, he advised the king to call an assembly of the
nobles to decide what should be done. The assembly
was summoned. Lafayette was one of its members.
He declared that there must be less extravagance at
court instead of more taxes on the workingmen.
â€œCitizens ought to be allowed to vote their own
taxes,â€ he said. â€˜â€˜Let us call a national assembly
with the common people represented in it.â€™â€™
â€œWhat!â€ cried the other nobles, â€˜â€˜would you dare
to put that request in writing for the king to read?â€™
â€œI dare do anything that may broaden the liber-
ties of my fellowmen,â€™â€â€™ replied the patriot.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 61
He wrote a petition asking that his majesty permit
the people of France to elect representatives to help
make the laws. He was the only one who was bold
enough to sign the paper.
â€œThe marquis will be sent to the Bastille,â€™â€™ whis-
pered the nobles to one another, and they expected
to see him seized by the guards. :
King Louis did not send Lafayette to prison; but
he gave no heed to the petition.
Things went from bad to worse until at length
the king consented to summon a national assembly
to meet at Versailles.
Lafayette represented the nobles of his province
and took his seat on May 1, 1789. It was just one
day after the inauguration of Washington as President
of the United States.
XII.â€”Tue Frencu REVOLUTION.
The members of the National Assembly marched
in a body to the Church of Saint Louis for prayers.
The representatives of the common people walked
62 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
first, dressed in black; then the noblemen came, in
silk and velvet and lace with gold chains about their
necks; and last of all came the king and the highest
officials of the court.
It was a magnificent pageant, attended with the
clang of trumpets and the chant of
priests. The streets were crowded
with sight-seers, among whom was
Thomas Jefferson, the American
minister to France.
Now, the men in black had
come from all parts of the kingdom
to right the wrongs of the people;
yet at the first meeting they heard of nothing but the
kingâ€™s need of more money.
They grew desperate, at last, and boldly declared
that there must be better laws. The king listened
in silence; then he put on his gold-laced hat; the
nobles did the same, and thenâ€”whdt do you think?
â€”the men in black put on their caps!
The king was amazed, and the nobles stared at
one another in astonishment; for the common people
had never before dared to wear caps in the presence
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 63
of royalty. But the men in black did not stop at
that. They held a meeting among themselves and
resolved not to return to their homes until the king
had signed a written constitution for the government
Lafayette drew up a Declaration of Rights. It
was something like one which the American Congress
had sent to George III. Louis XVI. agreed to make
reforms. Perhaps he tried to do so; but he really
did not know how to change the old order of
While there were bread riots around the public
buildings in Paris, he gave a grand ball at Versailles.
Some one hurried to tell the hungry people about it.
â€˜â€˜Louis mocks at our misery!â€™â€™ they cried.
And the very next day they stormed the Bastille.
They broke down the great doors and set the prisoners
free, and then they battered the massive walls to the
ground. King Louis was afraid to leave his palace at
. Electors met in the HÃ©tel de Ville, or City Hall.
They declared there must be a commander of a national
guard to keep order in Paris, and when one of them
64 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
pointed to the bust of Lafayette which Virginia had
presented, he was elected by a unanimous vote.
The mobs grew wilder in spite of all the new
guard could do. Once when they were raising a
gallows upon which to hang a harmless priest, there
seemed no way to quell their fury.
Lafayette sprang to a platform. Just then his
little boy came to the place with his teacher. He
seized the child and held him high up.
â€œGentlemen,â€ he said, â€˜I have the honor
to present to you my son, George Washington
The name of the American patriot acted like
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 65
magic upon the crowds below. Cheers rent the air,
and, in the confusion, the poor priest escaped.
As winter came on, food became scarcer than ever.
Yet the court at Versailles was feasting. Some one
said that when the queen heard the people had no
bread, she laughingly asked: â€˜â€˜Why donâ€™t they eat
cake then?â€™ and that a nobleman said: â€˜â€˜Nay, let
them eat grass!â€™â€™
The rage of the mobs increased. Lafayette
stationed the National Guard on the road to Versailles
to prevent them from going there. But one day a
fish-woman beat a drum. The ragged and hungry
people ran together, and soon thousands were on
their way to Versailles.
â€œBread! Bread!â€™â€™ they cried.
The guard gave way. The mad creatures reached
the palace. They killed the Swiss guards at the
doors and ran their pikes into the queenâ€™s empty bed.
Lafayette had followed swiftly with the National
Guard. He drove the intruders from the palace and
talked to them until they seemed more calm.
Then he led Louis to the balcony above them.
â€˜â€˜Long live the king!â€™â€™ they shouted.
66 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
â€˜â€œâ€œCome,â€â€™ said Lafayette to Marie Antoinette, She
appeared with the little prince and the princess.
â€œNot the children!â€™â€™ â€˜â€œâ€˜Not the children!â€ they
cried; for they did not wish the innocent to suffer,
The terrified queen sent
the children within. She
stood on the balcony alone.
She expected instant death.
Lafayette stepped for-
ward. He bowed low and
kissed her hand. The people
again forgot their anger.
â€œLong live the queen!â€
â€œLong live the general!â€™â€™ they shouted as they beat
their pikes together.
â€œPerhaps things would mend if their majesties
left this costly palace,â€™â€™ said a grimy blacksmith to a
â€œThey must go to Paris!â€™â€™ screamed the tailor.
â€œOn to Paris!â€™ was the cry from a thousand
The royal family was forced into a carriage. ot
was a strange procession that went back into the great
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 67
city. Lafayette and the guard rode on each side of
the splendid carriage, but, before and behind, marched
men and women with wild eyes and unkempt hair.
Some held on their pikes the pillaged loaves of bread,
and others the bloody heads of the Swiss guards, while
the fish-woman led the van with her drum.
At last, their majesties were safe in the palace at
Paris. Lafayette had rescued them from death; yet
he was â€œfein in his devotion to the liberties of the
people.. He said to the National Assembly: â€˜â€˜If the
king will sign a constitution for the just government of
France, I shall defend him; if he refuses to sign, I will
Soon after this Louis signed a constitution which
was much like that of England. On July 14, 1790,
the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille, the French ,
celebrated the beginning of their freedom. In an
open field where thousands of the people had assem-
bled, the king and the members of the new assembly
pledged to support the constitution.
When Lafayette ascended the steps to take the
oath, in the name of the army, there was loud applause;
and, as he rode at the head of the National Guard ia
68 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
the parade which followed the solemn ceremony, all
eyes were fixed on him. .
In his joy at what seemed to be the end of
tyranny in his native land, he sent to Washington the
key to the fallen Bastille, where men had once been
imprisoned for life without trial by jury. To-day,
you may see the great iron key among the historic
treasures of Mount Vernon.
XITI.â€”An Exine anp IN PRISON.
The French people had not yet learned the first
lesson in self-government. The constitutional mon-
archy soon failed. Mobs imprisoned the royal family
and set fire to the houses of the nobles.
Lafayette was grieved over these events. He had
led the enslaved people toward liberty, but as soon as
they were free they had outrun their guide. Because
he would not join them in their excesses, they called
him an aristocrat and threatened him with death.
He fled from Paris and wrote to his wife to join
him in England. â€˜â€˜Let us go to America,â€™ he said,
AN EXILE AND IN PRISON. 69
â€œand establish ourselves there. Some day, when the
storm is over, I may yet serve France.â€™â€™
But the monarchs of Europe said: â€˜â€˜This Marquis
de Lafayette, who brought these outrageous ideas of
liberty from America, must be silenced.â€
He was arrested on the frontier and imprisoned
in Prussia for a year. Then he was sent to a dungeon
at Olmutz in Austria. He had wretched food. His
clothes rotted with dampness. His bed was a pile of
straw. Yet when he was told he might be free if he
would betray the military strength of France, he
refused to leave his cell. He expected to die in his chains.
One morning he heard a rattle of keys and bars.
He arose from his straw and saw his wife and two
daughters enter beneath the crossed swords of the
guards. The joy was too great. He fell in a swoon.
When he recovered his senses, he tenderly embraced
his loved ones.
â€˜And where is my little George?â€™â€â€™ he asked.
â€˜He is at Mount Vernon with Washington,â€â€™
replied his wife.
â€œâ€˜God be praised for such a friend in our hour of
need,â€ exclaimed the now happy father.
7o STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
When he was strong enough to bear it, the Mar-
quise told him what had happened at Paris. It was a
sad story. ;
The king and queen had been beheaded; her
own grandmother, mother, and sister, with thousands
of others, had been led to the scaf-
fold during a reign of terror. She
herself had been in prison until
released through the efforts of
James Monroe, the new. American
minister to France. After many
trials she had obtained permission
to share his captivity.
The devoted wife remained at Olmutz.
Meanwhile, Washington, Jefferson and _ other
friends appealed to the Austrian emperor to set the
patriot free. ,
â€œIt is impossible,â€ replied the despot. â€˜â€˜Lafay-
etteâ€™s existence is. a menace to the kingdoms of
When, at last, Napoleon Bonaparte, at the head
of his French troops, defeated the allied powers, who
were trying to place another king upon the throne of
-AN EXILE AND IN PRISON. 71
France, he refused to sign a treaty of peace until all
the French prisoners were surrendered.
Lafayette was liberated. He went to Hamburg,
in Germany, with his wife and daughters. His son
returned from America, and
the united family lived for a
time in exile.
When Napoleon became
First Consul of France, he
pledged himself to restore
the constitution for which
Lafayette had struggled so
long. The patriot then re-
turned to his native land.
Most.of his property at Cha-
vaniac had been confiscated, and he made his home
at La Grange, in the province of La Brie.
Formerly the peasants on his estates had knelt when
he passed. -The revolution had changed all that; but
when he taught them self-respect, they showed respect
for others without servility.
The Americans did not forget Lafayette in his
retirement. In 1805, President Jefferson offered to
72 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
appoint him governor of Louisiana; but his wifeâ€™s
health was too feeble to permit of the long voyage.
Two years later the noble wife died. At her
own request she was buried in that part of the
LA GRANGE, HOME OF LAFAYETTE,
cemetery of Picpus which is called the â€˜â€˜cemetery of
the beheaded,â€ because there lay the bodies of her
relatives who had fallen victims to the mobs.
Napoleon did not keep his pledges to obey the
constitution. He made himself emperor of France.
THE MAN OF TWO WORLDS. 73
After a time he was exiled by the allied powers of
Europe, and Louis XVIII. was placed on _ the
Lafayette was a member of the National
Assembly for several years, trying always to preserve
the liberties of the people. Then he retired to La
Grange, where he expected to live quietly with his
children for the rest of his days.
XIV.â€”Tue Man or Two Wor tps.
In 1824, in accordance with a resolution of Con-
gress, President James Monroe invited Lafayette to
visit the United States. He gladly accepted the
invitation, and set out on his journey with his son
George Washington and a private secretary.
â€œTt has been thirty years since I last saw the
people of America,â€™ he said to himself. â€˜â€˜I must be
prepared to meet indifferent glances; for most of my
friends have long since passed away.â€™â€™
He expected to land quietly in New York and
74 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
secure private lodgings; but when he arrived he
found that he was the nationâ€™s guest.
The city was having a holiday in his honor.
STATUE OF LAFAYETTE,
UNION SQUARE, N. Y.
Thousands stood on the wharves
to greet him, while cannon
roared and banners waved.
â€˜â€œWELCoME, Laravette !â€â€™
was inscribed on the arches
beneath which he passed, and
his portrait, stamped on blue
ribbon, was everywhere to be
Lafayette now understood
that he had not been forgot-
ten, and his eyes overflowed
As he went about from
city to city, he aroused the
He limped a little as he
walked. The people said it was because of the
wound he had received at Brandywine, and their
gratitude seemed without bounds. In one public pro-
THE MAN OF TWO WORLDS. 75
cession was the model of a ship with his youthful
pledge: â€˜â€˜I will purchase and equip a vessel at my
In another a chorus of white-robed girls sang:
â€œWe bow not the neck and we bend not the knee,
But our hearts, Lafayette, we surrender to thee.â€â€™
It all seemed like the close of a fairy story where
the armed knight, who had once rushed to the rescue
of young America in distress, returned again after
many years to behold her golden days of prosperity.
The thirteen small colonies had become twenty-
four united states;" the population had grown from
three millions to twelve millions; towns had become
cities; forests had been transformed into farms; and
the ships, ~which sailed on every sea, carried the
products of soil and loom and forge to the markets
of the world.
When, from the well-filled public treasury, Con-
gress presented two hundred thousand dollars to the
hero, he received the gift with touching words of
gratitude; but when the legislatures of Virginia,
Maryland, and other states began to vote large sums
76 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
of money for him, he firmly refused to accept of
He stood at the tombs of Washington, Hamilton,
Franklin, and other soldiers and statesmen who had
helped to establish liberty,
and he visited Jefferson and
John Adams, whose totter-
ing footsteps had almost
reached the grave, to. learn
from their lips the story of
the new republic.
On June 17, 1825, the
anniversary of the battle of
Bunker Hill, Lafayette as-
sisted in laying .the cornerstone of the Bunker Hill
Many thousand people came to Boston to witness
the ceremonies. During an eloquent address, Daniel
Webster turned to the French patriot. â€˜â€˜Fortunate,
fortunate man!â€™â€™ he exclaimed; â€˜â€˜you were connected
with both hemispheres and with two generations!
Heaven saw fit that the electric spark of liberty
should be conducted through you from the New World
THE MAN OF TWO WORLDS. Ti
to the Old, and we, who are now here to perform this
duty of patriotism, have all of us long ago received it
from our fathers to cherish your name and your
â€˜â€˜Those who survived the
â€˜battle of Bunker Hill are
now around you. Some of
them you have known in the
trying scenes of war. Behold
them now stretch forth their
feeble arms to embrace you!
Behold, they raise their trem-
bling voices to invoke the
blessings of God on you and
BUNKER HILL MONUMENT,
â€œOn July 4th, Lafayette was at New York and
listened to the reading of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence. Well did he remember the dinner party at
Metz, nearly fifty years before, where he had first heard
about this Declaration of Independence. And as he
sat upon a high platform and looked down upon the
thousands before him, he smiled in content, for he
thought he saw in their happy faces the fulfilment of
78 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
his youthful dreams. Yet afew weeks later he began
to fear for the safety of the Republic.
There was a tremendous uproar during a political
campaign for the election of the next President. At
the taverns, on busy streets and lene, roads, in every
nook and cranny of the country,
people disputed about whether An-
drew Jackson, Henry Clay, John
Quincy Adams, or William H. Craw-
ford would make the best President.
Public opinion was so divided
that when election day came no
candidate received a majority of votes. The French-
man thought that there really seemed no way to settle
the result except with pistols and swords.
He did not know much about the laws of. the
United States. But he soon learned what a. great
instrument of good government our Constitution
The Constitution provides that when no candidate
has received a majority of the electoral votes, the
three highest names on the list. must come before the
House of Representatives.
THE MAN OF TWO WORLDS. 79
When, at last, John Quincy Adams was chosen by
the House, all factions accepted the verdict.
â€œâ€œAh!â€™â€™ exclaimed Lafayette, â€˜â€˜this is, indeed, a
wonderful nation. It is built on a solid foundation,
and cannot fall.â€™â€™
The more he traveled in the United States, the
more he was impressed with the greatness of its
future. When he sailed up the Mississippi and the
Ohio and saw the rude cabins on their banks, he
said: â€˜â€˜These are the beginnings of cities.â€
When he drove over the National Pike Road or
made a voyage on the new Erie Canal, he said:
â€œThese are the beginnings of yet greater highways
which will one day uniteâ€™â€™â€”Do you think he said the
Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean? No, he did
not say that, because in 1825 the Mexicans claimed
most of the territory west of the Rocky Mountains.
He saidâ€”â€˜â€˜which will one day unite all sections of the
Lafayette spent more than a year with his friends.
When his visit was over, he embarked in a new
American frigate, the Srandywine, and the prayers
of millions followed him as he sailed away for the
80 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
last time from our shores. So much honor had been
shown this guest of the nation that, for many years
after, if any one received special attention, he was said
to be â€˜â€˜Lafayetted.â€â€™
Nor was the hero forgotten in his absence. Old
places in the East and new places in the West and
South remembered him until, to-day, there are over
ninety towns and counties in the United States whose
names recall him or the home of his old age.
The boys and girls who are so fortunate as to live
at La Grange, or Lafayette, or Fayetteville, or
Fayette Hill, or any other Fayette, must surely think
often of the gallant young French marquis who came
to the rescue of our thirteen struggling colonies.
XV.â€”Tue Last Days or a PATRIOT.
When Lafayette arrived in France he was received
with open arms by his countrymen. They called him
the protector of their Constitution. And, indeed, just
at that time the French Constitution needed pro-
THE LAST DAYS OF A PATRIOT. 81
During Lafayetteâ€™s absence Louis XVIII. had died
and Charles X. had come to the throne. King Charles
was determined to restore the old order of things.
He destroyed the liberty of the press, dissolved the
National Assembly, and chose his favorites as ministers.
The members of the Assembly met again of their
own accord, and declared they would resist these
unconstitutional measures. Then the people of Paris
rushed together. They barricaded the streets, defeated
the royal troops, and drove the king from the city.
Lafayette might have been elected President, but
he refused to accept the office; for he knew very well
that the French people were not ready for a republic.
He desired a constitutional monarchy like that of
England. He visited Louis Philippe, the Duke of
Orleans. This prince had traveled in the United
States and England, and understood what a govern-
ment â€˜â€˜by the people, for the peopleâ€™â€™ meant.
â€œYou know,â€ said Lafayette to the duke, â€˜â€˜that I
regard the Constitution of the United States as the
most perfect that has ever existed.â€™â€™
â€˜I think as you do,â€ replied his highness; â€˜â€˜it is
impossible to have passed two years in America and
82 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
not be of that opinion. But do you believe that the
French people are ready for that?â€
â€˜"No, they are only ready for a throne surrounded
with republican institutions.â€™â€™
â€œSuch is my _ belief,â€™â€™
said the duke.
Soon after this the Na-
tional Assembly met in the
Hotel de Ville. The Duke
of Orleans was there. He
pledged himself to receive
the crown, not by right of
birth, but as the free gift
of the people.
Lafayette led him to an open window and
â€˜â€œâ€œLong live the Duke of Orleans!â€™â€™ shouted the
people who had assembled below to greet him.
Not long after, he was crowned King of France
by the Assembly.
â€œLong live King Louis Philippe!â€™â€™ cried every one.
Lafayette felt that he had at last won his long
fight for the constitutional liberty of his beloved
THE LAST DAYS OF A PATRIOT. 83
country. The aged patriot retired to La Grange,
where he lived yet a little longer among his children
and friends. In his favorite room hung the portraits
of Washington and
Franklin and a paint-
ing of the siege of
Yorktown; and here
he loved to sit and
muse over the exciting
scenes of his early days.
One beautiful morn-
ing, May 20, 1834, he
died at Paris, sur-
rounded by his family;
and there was mourn-
LAFAYETTEâ€™S GRAVE AT PICPUS.
ing throughout France,
His remains were placed with great pomp by the side
of those of his wife in the cemetery of Picpus. As
the casket was lowered, earth from America, mingled
with that of France, was strewn upon it.
â€˜Lafayette was a man of two worlds,â€™â€™ said the
Paris papers which were banded in black.
Church bells tolled in his honor in many countries.
84 STORY OF MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.
In the United States, Congress wore mourning for
thirty days, and, by order of President Jackson, the
same honors were paid to his memory by the army
and navy as had been paid to that of George Washing-
As the years went by, the French people learned
to govern themselves. They created a republican
government, and to-day the Republic of France is one
of the great powers of Europe.
As for the United States, the government has
grown steadily stronger and greater upon the founda-
tions which Lafayette helped to build.
It was Washington who said: â€˜â€˜Lafayette deserves
all the gratitude which our country can render
And on October 19, 1898, the anniversary of the
victory at Yorktown, young patriots in every city,
â€˜town, and village in our country remembered these
words. They held memorial services in Lafayetteâ€™s honor,
and contributed funds to erect, in the city of Paris, a
noble monument to his name. And all agreed that
the monument should be dedicated on July 4, 1900,
the anniversary of our Declaration of Independence.
THE LAST DAYS OF A PATRIOT. 85
For it was the news of Libertyâ€™s birth which first
taught the young captain of artillery at Metz what his
mission in life should be.
LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD.
Presented by the People of France tothe Republic of the United States.
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "