A treatise of painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Translated from the original Italian, and adorn'd with a great number of cuts. To which is prefix'd, the author's life; done from the last edition of the French.

Material Information

A treatise of painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Translated from the original Italian, and adorn'd with a great number of cuts. To which is prefix'd, the author's life; done from the last edition of the French.
Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519
Place of Publication:
J. Senex etc.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Literary collections -- New England ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- New England

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
030557423 ( ALEPH )
03313935 ( OCLC )


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Full Text


11 I B ,W
C 0LEtnoIl



I tv .

1IE 0 WAR1D 0




da I7IncIs

Tranflated froii
The OriginalItalia ,
And adorn'd with a great Number of Cuits

To which is prefix'd,
Done froni
The taft Edition of the Frenchb

Printed for J. S E i x, at the Globe in Salisbury
Court; and W. TAY L o R, at the Ship in Pater,
Nofter-Rowm MDGGXXI;



S i,
A Man of Leonardo da in
ci's Charader, can no
where be fo properly fhelter-
ed, as under a Man of Tours .
That Merit which recom-a
mended him to the World,
will be fure of making him ac-
ceptable to Tou; Nor can that
Countenance, and Prote6tion
which you always vouchfafe
A 2 to

The Dedication.
to the Deferving, fail of being
fhewn to Leonardo.
Oiia Survey of the fol ow-
iing Treatife, Icou'd fee no--
thing wanting to make it po-
pular, or to give it Credit in
the World, but to appear un-
der your Patronage: A Piece
like this, Sir, cou'd not receive
any New Advantage, except-
ing from a Name like Tours:
'Tis now, I think, compleat,
and, may venture abroad with
Affurance ; for who will que-
ftion the Merits of a Work,
that has one of the greatest
Genius's of a former Age, for
its Author, and one of the beft
Judges of the Prefent Age for
its Patron.

The "Dedication.
Leonardo, I know, Sir, is 'no
Stranger to You: The Won-
ders of his Pencil you are al-
ready acquainried with, (Oneof
Ihis Paintings beig feen miyour
Noble Coiledion;) Pleafe,
now to caft an Eye on thofe of
his Pen: Twillbe no difigree-
able AmuiTmert to compare
them together; to fet the
Theory in opposition to the
Practice; and to consider
,thofe admirable Rules in the
One, which have had fo hap-
,py an Effect in the other.
Our Author, I'm persuaded,
Sir, will give you Pleafure, in
Exchange for the Reputation
you give him:'Twas the Con-
lideration of this mutual Be-
A 3 nefit,

The Dedication.
nefit,that firft determined me
to offer him into your Hands:
If I had any further View, it
was only that of showing the
World, that I have the Ho,
nour to be, S R,

Tour moft Humbe and

Obedient Ser ant,

JoN1 Senex


Tranflator's PR E FAC E.

fo happy in his Genivs, fo confum-
mate in his 'ProfeffioZ, fo accom-
plished in the oArts, fo knowing in the
Sciences ; and withal, fJ much efteemed
by the oAge wherein he liv'd, his Works
Jo highly applauded by the RAges which
have ficceeded, and his Name, and Me-
mory fill preserved withfo much Veneration
by the preSent SAge : That, if any thing
cou'd equal the Merit of the Man, it muff
be the Succefs he met with.
Scarce ever, perhaps, was there a Man
-of fo extensive, and yet of fo accurate a
Thought ; who cou'd range o'er fuch va(
Fields of Science, and, at the fame
time, attend fo clojely, to the minutefi Cir-
cunmfances: 'Tis this that feems to make
up Leonardo's CharaFTer ; 'tis thi that
diflinguifhes him from the reft of Mankind ;
and in this View, he fands, not only above
the greateft Painters, but on a level with
the greatefi Men.


The Tranflator's Preface.
'Ts not to befpeak the Reader's Favour
in behalf of the following Treatife, that
we introduce it with an Elogy on its QAlu-
thor : On the contrary, the Merit of the
eluthor, if need were, might be fairly
argued from the excellence of the Treatife
oAnd indeed, they are Jb well matched, the
one to the other, that, as Leonardo cou'd
not have written a lefs maflerly Tiece, fo,
neither cou'd that have come from the
Hands of a lefs able Mafter.
eA Alan who compares the following eAc-
count of his Life, with the Work to which
it is prefix'd, will clear theHif/iorian of
all Flattery, or falfe Colouring ; There be-
ing Jcarce any thing advanced in his Fa-
vour, in the former, but vhat feems au-
thoriz'd by the latter : fo
that theje without any great Im-
fropriety, may be faid to be Counter
parts, to each other.
How vafi, how Immenfe an oArt is
Tainting, as considered and handled by
Leonardo i Scarce any thing in the whole
Syfiem of Nature, but comes within its
Compafs. Not the Minutenefs of the
fmalleft Things, not the Magnitude of
.the largeft thatfecures them from itsCogni-
zance Nay, as if the various eAppear-
ances of tke Material World, were too
jcanity, too limited a Sphere ; it reaches
put into the Intellectiual W!orld; takes in
thfe Jotions rand Tafiios of the Human

The Tranflator's Preface.
Soul; and by the Force of Light end Sha-
dow, makes the Operations of an incorpo-
real eAgent, the vifible ObjeFts of a corpo.
real Organ.!
The Province of a Painter, as our eAu-
thor has fix'd its Boundary, feems too wide
andfpaciot to have been ever discharged
in its full Extent, by any Man but himself.
The Management of the Pencil, and the
mixture of Colours, with the I(powledge
of Terfpeiive, and a habit of 'Defigning,
wherewith mofi Painters feem to content
themselves, make but a part of the tArt,
as underflood by Leonardo. To tbefe he
calls in the 0Affifiance of other oArts ;
eAnatomy, Opticks, Meteorology, Mecha-
nicks, &c. Searching attentively into the
Powers of Nature, in order to form an
eArt that may imitate her; and from the
'Depths of Thilofophy, drawing Means for
the improvement of Painting.
'Tis not in fPainting alone, but in Thi-
lofophy too, that Leonardo has furpafJed
all his 'Brethren of the Pencil ; nor does
it appear in the leaft improbable, but that
'twas his uncommon Skill in the latter, to
which, in good Meafure, he owed his fur-
prizing Succefs in the former. The truth
ie, thefe are two Faculties, that may be
nearer akin, than every one, perhaps, is
aware of: Nor would there be any thing,
inethinks, very daring in the eAffertion,
bou'd I affirm, that PhiloJfphy is absolutely
zfceffary,b) way of reliminarytoPainting.
-, -

The Tranflator's Preface,
To Taint,'tis allowed is to imitate Nature:
'0ut, is not the Knowledge of Nature,
evidently re.yidfite to the Imitation there-
of? eAnd, muff it not be pleafaNt, to fee
Men about to reprefent Natural Objecs,
who are unacquainted with the Nature,
.andTroperties of the ObjeHs to be repre-
fented? Quacks, indeed, there may .e in
fainting, as well as in other Trofeffions.;
but to become a Regular Painter, 'tis in-
difpenfibly neceff ary that a Man ferve an
'fpprenticefhip to Thilofophy. We hav'
People who pretend to cure 'Difeafes,
'Without knowing any thing of the AAnimal
Economy, or of the Towers of Medicines ;
'afd we have others, who wou'd be thought
to Taint, by the mere Mechanifm of a
Hand, and a Tencil moving in this and
*hat'pireHion: tut, as the College will
xrver allow the former to be Thyficians;
fo, Ifee no reason why the latter 1hou'd be
Complemented with the Title of Painters.
The Example, and Succefs of Leonardo,
',anvot fail, fure, to animate our Painters
to the Study of Thilofophy, and Mathema-
ticks. If their Great Mafer could turn
'the old 'Philofophy of his eAge to fo good
-an Account in Tainting; what might not
}e ype eHd from the S)flenm of Nature, as
it ffands under its preftnt Improvements
''" the Modc:..s? We e eewhat Laudable
147's he malWes, eiven of a defeH ive'cDo-
'erine of Light : To. what a pitch wou'd
'b have,carred his eArt, had be been ac-

The Tranflator's Preface.
quainted with the New, the Noble, the
Newtonian Theory of Light and Colours.?
what Improvements wou'd not he .have
made, had the 'Difcoveries of za Ba-
con, or a Boyle been known in his Days,
or had it been his Fortune to have lived imi
ours ? I know not how our Painters will
.anier it, if their eAitfjould feem to de-
cline, at a time, when the I(nowledge of
Nature, and of Geometry wbich are the
very Ba/is whereon it is built, is fo wona
derfully improved: 'But this I dare ven-
ture to pronounce, that they will never reach
Leonardo in 'P.;..rti.g, 'till they have frfl
rival'd him in Thilofophy.
The Reader is not to expeff, in the fol-
lowing 'Pages, to find, ajuft, a Methodi-
cal Inflitution of the Art -of Painting::
what he has to look for, is a noble Cole-
Hion of useful Precepts, and curious Obfer-
vations on the several 'Parts of that oArt.
Infiead of treating uw with a dry, an infi.
fid S)f/em, dully drawn out into its Vivi-
fJons and Subdivifions, our eAuthor ho/ijp
tably leads us into his Clofet, fets before
uV, the fine/f, and moft valuable parts, of
his I(,owledge, and.entertains wu with the
precious Fruits, of all his Labours, his hard
Studies, and long Experience. 'Twas not
for a Man of his Genimu to floop to the A
B C of his Art ; to take the Rawu 'upil
into his Tutorage, and to lead him flep
yflep, from Stage to Stage; that were
the proper Province .of ome heavy Te-

The Tranflator's Preface.
dant, and cou'd never fruit with a Man of
Leonardo's Mercury. Yet does he not
leave, the Toung Painter absolutely at
large, or abandon him entirely to the Mercy
of his Stars; but wanting Leifure to at-
tend him, himself, he very civilly gives him
'DireHions for his ConduHt: Thwu, at the
'Beginning of his Work, we fnd him in.
firuHing the Novice in a method of Ytudy,
talking out the Courfe he is to fleer, and
pointing out the several 'Dangers to be
SIf any ObjeRions lie again/f Leonardo's
'Performance, they muff be drawn, either
from the loofenefs, and inaccuracy of his
Stile, or the want of Order, and ConneZ-
ion in his Periods: 'Both of which, are
.not only, easily accounted for, but, all
things considered, easily excufed too. For
the Treatife, 'tis own'd, never had the f-
mifhing Hand of its sAuthor ; and though
he might intend it for the Prefs, 'tis evi-
dent, that it was never prepared for it.
So that we have here, the Elements of a
Work, not the Work it felf, mature, and
nfifb'd; We have the Matter, but the
form is wanting. Leonardo, we are af-
fur'd, knew, too well, the Powers of Sym-
metry, and Proportion, to have fent any
thing into the World that might appear
disorderly and indigefied: Nor will his
Talent at Stile and Elocution admit of the
leafi 'Difpute : I'm much miflaken in the
Man, if he cou'd not have written as cor-
S, reRly

The Tranflator's Preface'
reFly as he painted ; and have flruck the.
Imagination as warmly with his Pen, a his.
Pencil : But when a Man considers that
bufy Scene of Life wherein he adled; that.
amazing variety of Studies, and Exercifes
which he went through, and of Underta-
kings that he atchiev'd, 'tis fo far from
being flrange, methinks, that his Writings
are not elaborate and fini'd; that, 'tis
next to a Miracle he should ever have
written at all.
In the Original of the following Trea-
tife, it muft be own'd there are fome things
fo very dubious, and obscure, that a Mant
who reads it, find Occafion for his guefing
Faculty, oftner than he wou'd wifh. 'But
this is not all ; for in fome places, 'tis not
bare Obfcurity, but mere Midnight 'Dark-
nefs : The Stile, which at beft is very neg-
ligent, is sometimes fcarce conjtfient : So
that one wou'd be tempted to think, that
the oAuthor, were sometimes, writing for
his own fake,rather than that of the World;
and that he were taking down loofe Notes
to eafe his own Memory, rather than wri-
ting ajuft Treatife for the ufe of the Pub-
oAs to the want of Method, which
makes the other ObjeHion againfj. the
Work, though it flows from the ame Source
with the want of Stile, )'et is it more ea-
fily forgiven: For this, brings somewhat
of Merit along with it, to compensate for
its Failure. Thus, If we have not ajuf

The Tranflator's Preface.
Order, ad a flrid Chain running through
ihe tWork; neither are we troubled with
Tofe 'Dull, thofe Formal Tranjitions,
which in that care wou'd be unavoidable :
If we lofe somewhat, by having things of
like kind disjoyn'd, and promifcuo.fliy in-
termingled with others, to which they
bear no relation, yet we are gainers in an-
ether jenfe; fitce, the Scene, by this
Means being often, and unexpeHedly flift-
ed, we are agreeably amufed, our oAtten-
tion is kept alive, and we are fecured
frno finking into that "Dullnefs, and Indo-
dolence, to which a more formal, more
Methodical Indudion wou'd be apt to be-
tray uz. The 'PrJped, here, never palls
&pon the Eye; 'tis ever new, ever chang-
ing : no fooner is its Novelty gone, and the
Edge of the Curiofity taken off, bit it va.
kifhes, and the Mind is opportunely re-
lieved, with the eAppearance of a new
Again, If we consider the RAge where-
in the eAuthor wrote, we jfall find our
elves furnmi'd with one further eArgu-
ment, in favour of his want of Method :
For, as the Work now fiands, loofe, and
'nconneHed ; fuch of the Olfolete Dog-
iiata of thofe Days, a7s occur, lie entirely
at the Readers Mercy, and ray be thrown
by, and paffed over, without the leaf' Da-
nage to the ref/ of the Work : Whereas,
had the whole been woven into a Regular
Sfiefn,l there had been vo taking out, with-

The Tranflato'ds reface:
Out tearing; the drawing of a few Threads,
wou'd not only have disfigured the RefO,
but have even endangered the wuravteling
of the whole Piece. 'Tis for this Reafo*
perhaps, that my Lord Bacon's Silva Sil-
varum, which is written perfeRly in Le-
onardo's manner, continues fliU inUfe d il
Efheem ; while the more Methodical Tro-
duRions ofmoft four Syflemt-Mongers, are
become antiquated and out of 'Date.
Having faid thus much eoncerniqg it
eAuthor, and his Work, the Reader 'wil
now give me leave to put in a Word co*-
cerning my felf, and my Performance. The
'Brevity, and Abruptnefi of the Original,
made a firin Traflation altogether u#.
advifeable ; it being frequently imxpoffiba
to express the i Author's Meaning, in atn
tolerable Englifh, without the help of a
little Teriphrafis. That, however, is a
Liberty which I have never taken, but on
the mofti urgent Occafions; nor even the#*
but with as much Moderation as might be.
My Predeceffor, Monfr. Chambr6, thb
applauded eAuthor of the French Tranflda
tion has taken the fame Meafures ; I wi,
it may only prove with the fame fueccet.
That Gentleman's Terformance, I mft'
own, indeed, to be maflerly, beyond mol
Tranflations I havefeen ; and yet with al
its Virtues, it cannot be denied but that it
has its Failings, too. In the Courfe of jyi
Tranflation, I found my fePf, pFetty fre
quently under a Necejfity of dyenting

The Tranflator's Preface.
from him, and of putting Conftrulions of
my o4uthor, very different fro-m what i
found in his Verfion. But, Miftakes of this
kind, ought, perhaps, to be laid at the
Printer's, or the Tublifber's 'Door, rather
than at his; it appearing in no wife pro-
bable, that thofe happy Turns- which are
fen n in ome Places, and thofe glaring
Overfights which appear in others, fhou'd
come from the fame Hand. eAs to the Fi-
gures, a bare Out-line, we thought fufi-
cient for the Turpofe : To have given f-
wiphed 'Defigns, wou'd have added confide-
rably to the Trice of the Book, without
any Addition to its real Value; thefe be-
ing in no wife neceffary, excepting where
the Relievo of a Body, the 'Diminution of
a Colour, or the Quality of Stuffs in a
'Drapery, are concerned; and on thofe Oc-
cajions we have never failed to make ufe
of them. Inftead of dividing the Book in-
to Chapters, and prefixing Titles to each,
as they flood in-the former Editions, it hua
been thought proper, barely to throw the
Work into diftind Paragraphs, and to
affix the fubjeF Matter on the Margin:
for, in the former Cafe, besides that the
Courfe of the Reading was too much inter-
rupted; the fhortnefs of the Chapters, and
the length of the Titles, would have pro-
ved matter of Raillery to fome Readers;
who might have been fcandalized ts fee
the Head, fometimes,as big as the Body.




Eonardo da Vinci was born in
the Caffle of Vinci, fituate in
SL 1 the Valley of Arno, a little
S below Florence. His Father
was Tietro da Vinci, a Man of
a very narrow Fortune; who having obfer-
ved his Son's Inclination to Painting, by
federal little Draughts, and Sketches which
he made while he was a Child, resolved to
give him what further helps he was capa-
ble of. With this view he carried him to
Florence, where he placed him under the
care of his Friend tAndrew Verocchio, a
Painter, of fome Reputation in that City.
QAndrew already faw something very ex-
B traordinary

2. The LIFE of
traordinary in the young Man, and was
engaged to be careful of his Education, not
only by the Friendfhip which he owed his
Father, but by the fweetnefs and vivacity
which appeared in the Son. Here Leonar-
do found wherewithal to fatisfie the strong
propenfity which he bore to all the Arts
that depend upon Drawing; for his Mafter
was not only a Painter, but an Engraver,
Architee&, Carver, and Goldfmith: and fo
great a Proficient did the young Leonardo
become, that in a little time he exceeded
Verocchio himfelf.
This was firft discovered in a Painting
of our Saviours Baptifm, which eAndrew
had undertaken for the Religious of Valom-
brofa, without Florence. He would needs
have his Pupil affift in the Performance,
and gave him the Figure of an Angel, hol-
ding fome Drapery to Paint : But he foon
repented his forwardnefs, for Leonardo's
Angel proved the finest Figure in the Piece,
and vifibly difcredited all the reft. &An-
drew was fo deeply mortified on this occa-
fion,,that he took his leave of Painting;
and from that time, never meddled with
Palet or Pencil more.
Leonardo thought now, that he needed
not a Mafter, and accordingly quitting Ve-
rocchio, he goes to work by himself. Se-
veral Paintings which he made about this

time,are fill tobefeen in Florence.Helikewife
Painted a Carton, for the King of Portugal,
wherein oAdam and Eve were represented
in the Garden. This was a finifh'd Piece,
the two Capital Figures were extremely
Graceful, the Landskip full of Beauty, and
the very Shrubs and Fruit were touched with
Incredible exa&nefs. At his Father's requeft,
he made a Painting for one of his old Neigh-
bours at Vinci; it confified wholly of fuch
Animals as we have naturally an averfori
to, and thefe he joyn'd fo artfully together,
and difpofed in fuch humorous attitudes,
that like Medufa's Head, it truck thofe who
faw it with horror and amazement. His
Father eafily perceiving that this was not a
Prefent for a Country Farmer, fold it to
fome Merchants: of whom it was after-
wards bought by the Duke of Milan, foik
three Hundred Florins.
He afterwards Painted two very valuable
Pieces; in the one was represented our La-
dy, and besides her, a Veffel of Water,
with Flowers standing out of it: In this he
showed a great deal ofaddrefs, the Light
refle&ed from the Flowers, being made to
throw a Pale rednefs upon the Water. This
has been fince in the Poffeflion of Pope Cle-
ment the Seventh.
The other was a design which he made
for his Friend eAntonio Segni. In it he
B 2 had

7 The LIFE of
had represented Neptune, in his Carr,
drawn by Sea-Horfes, and attended by Tri-
tons and Sea Gods ; the Heavens appeared
overfpread with Clouds, which were driven
to all Parts, by the violence of the Winds;
the Waves were feen to Roll, and the
whole Ocean appeared in an uproar.
This Piece was perfealy in the Characl-
er and manner of Leonardo; for his Genius
was vaft, and his Imagination lively; and
though he knew that ajuft Proportion, was
the Source whence all real Beauty proceed-
ed, yet was he to a Degree fond of any
thing whimfical or uncommon; infomuch,
that if he chanced to meet a Man with any
thing odd or ridiculous in his Perfbr, he
would not fail to follow him, till having
view'd the objea with attention, and fix'd
the Idea in his Mind, he cou'd make a
Draught of it at his own Lodgings. Taul
Lomazzo in his Treatife of Painting, affures
us, that oAurelo Lovino had a Book of
Draughts, wholly performed by Leonardo,
in this kind : one may judge of his Talent
this way, by a Painting f1ill to be feen in
the Palace Royal at Paris. The Figures
are two Horfemen engaged in Fight, and
firugling to tear a Flag from each other.
Rage and Fury are fo admirably exprefs'd,
in the Faces of the two Warriors, their Air
appears fo wild, and the Drapery is thrown

into fo unusual, tho' at the fame time fo
agreeable a Diforder, that a Perfon who
lodks on them, is truck with horror, and
tickled into Laughter, at the fame time. I
pafs over a Medufla's Head which he Pain-
ted; and another Piece representing the
Magi doing Hommage; though there are
fome fine Heads in the latter : But his Fan-
cy being extremely brisk and volatile, he
left both there, and federal others of his
Works unfinifh'd : Befides, he had fo
awful an Idea of Painting, and his Know-
ledge in each Part of it was fo Confummate;
that with all his Fire and Vivacity, he
needed a great deal of Time to finish what
he had begun.
Never was Painter more knowing in the
Theory of his Art, than Leonardo. He
was well skil'd in Anatomy, a Mafter in
Opticks, and Geometry, and apply'd him-
felfto the Study of Nature and her Opera-
tions, both on Earth, and in the Heavens,
with wonderful Alacrity. So many diffe-
rent Studies and fuch variety of Reflecti-
ons, as they present, furnifhed him with
all the Knowledge which a Painter could
wifh for, and rendered him the ableft Per-
fon that his Profeffion has ever known.
However his Studies did not terminate
here, but having an Univerfal Genius, and
a Tafte for all the Polite Arts, he apply'd
B 3 himself

6 The LIFE of
hlimfelfto them all, and excell'd in every
one. He was a good Architect, an able
Carver, and extremely well Verfed in the
Mechanicks. He had a fine Voice, un-
derftood Mufick well, Sung to a Miracle,
and played better than any Mufician of his
time. Had he lived in the Fabulous Ages,
the Greeks wou'd doubtlefs have made him
the Son of Apollo; and wou'd have been
the more confirmed in their Opinion, in that
the fame Infpiration which made him a
Painter and Mufician, made him a Poet too;
and that the several Talents which are fha-
red among the Sons and Difciples of that
God, were all united in him. The follow-
ing Sonnetto is all that is left us, of his

Sonnetto Morale.
Chi non puo quel che vuol, 'uel che puo voglia,
Che quel che non fi puo folle e volere.
eAdunque faggio e l'Huomo da tenere,
Che da quel che non pub fuo voler toglia.
Tero ch' ogni diletto nofiro e doglia
Sta Infi e no Saper voler potere,
eAdunque quel fol pub che co7l douere
Ne trahe la Ragionfuor di fuajoglia.

Nefempre e da voler quel che l'Huomo puote,
Speo par dolce quel che torna eAmaro.
Tianfigia quel ch'io volfi poi cb'io 'hebbi.
eAdunque tu, Lettor, di quef/e Note,
S'a te vuoi efjer buoio, e a gl' altri car&,
Vogli Semper poter quel che tu debbi.
It was furprizing to fee Leonardo take fo
much Pleafure in Exercifes, that appeared
absolutely foreign to his Profeffion. He was
very Skilful in the management of a Horfe,
and took delight in appearing well Moun-
ted. He handled his Arms with great
Dexterity; and for Meen and Grace, might
contend with any Cavalier of his time. his
Behaviour was perfe&ly Polite, his Conver-
fation Charming, and his Speech agreeable,
fo many extraordinary Qualities meeting to-
gether, rendered him the moft accomplifh'd
Perfon of the Age he liv'd in : His Compa-
ny was coveted by all that knew him; and
no Man ever enjoy'd it without Pleafure,
or left it without regret.
His Time being shared in fo many several
Exercifes, may be one Reafon why fo many
of his Works are left unfinished; and in all
probability has contributed as much thereto,
as the quicknefs of his Fancy, which glanced
lightly from one thing to another; or even as
his Ability it felf, which wou'd never fuffer
him to take up with any thing that was indif-
ferent. B 4 Leonar-

8 The LIFE Of
Leonardo's Reputation foon fpread it felf
over all Italy, where he began to be known
for the firft Man of the Age in all tie Po-
lite Arts. Lewis Sforza, Sirnamed the
Moor, Duke of Milan, called him to his
Court, and appointed him a Penfion of
five Hundred Crowns. This Prince having
immediately before, eftablifh'd an Acade-
my for Architeaure, prevailed with Leo-
nardo to enter himfelfas a Member. This
proved the greatest Service to the Compa-
ny that the Duke could poffibly have done :
Leonardo was no fooner entered than he ba-
nifh'd all the old Gothick Fafhions, which
the former Academy eftabliflh'd under Mi-
chelino, above an Hundred years before,
had till preferv'd; and reduc'd every thing
to the happy Simplicity and Purity of the
Ancient Greeks and Romans.
About this time, Duke Lewis formed a De-
fign of fupplying the City of Milan with Wa-
ter, by a new Canal. The execution of this Pro-
jet was deputed to Leonardo, and he acquit-
ted himself of the truff, in a manner that fur-
pafs'd all Expe&ation. The Canal goes by the
nameofMortefana ;being extended in Length,
above two Hundred Miles: and navigable
throughout, it paffes through the Valteline
and the Valley of Chiavenna, conducting the
Waters of the River eAdda, to the very
Walls of aMilan; and enriching both the Ci-

ty and the adjacent Campaign, by its com-
munication with the To and the Sea. This
was a Noble and a difficult Enterprize, eve-
ry way worthy of Leonardo's Genius. He
had here several Difficulties to grapple with,
much beyond what had been met with, in
digging the Ancient Canal, which conveys
the Waters of the Tefino to the other fide
of the City, and which had been made
above two Hundred Years before, while
Milan was a Republick. But Leonardo
Surmounted all Oppofition, he happily at-
chieved what fome may think Miraculous:
rendering Hills and Valleys Navigable with
In Order to accomplish his Defign, he re-
tired to a Seat of his Friend Sig. Malzi's
at Vaverola. He there fpent several Years
in the Study of Thilofophy and Mathematicks;
applying himfelfwith double Ardour to thofe
Parts that might give him Light into the
Work he had Undertaken. To the Study of
Thilofophy, he joyn'd the Searches of Anti-
quity and Hiffory ; and by the Way, Ob-
ferved how the Ptolomys had conduded the
Waters of the Nile through several Parts
of Egypt; and in what Manner Trajan had
opened a Commerce with Nicomedia, by
rendering Navigable the Lakes and Rivers
lying between that City and the Sea.


10 The LIFE of
After Leonardo had been Labouring for
the Service of Milan in Quality of ArchiteH
and Engineer; he was called by the Dukes or-
der, to Adorn and Beautifyit with his Pain-
tings. That Prince appointed him to Paint
our Lord's Supper, for the Refetory of the
'Dominicans of St. Maria delle Gratie. Leo-
ardo furpafs'd himfelf, in this Performance.
All the Beauties of his Art are here fhewn
in a Manner perfealy furprizing. The
pefign, is Grand, but Correa; the Expreffi-
on Noble; the Colouring, Charming; and
theHeads admirably well varied. There was
a Majefty and Sweetnefs in each of the A-
poftles Faces; but beyond the reft, in thofe
of the two St. James's : That of our Savi-
our was never finished; Leonardodefpairing
to express the Idea he had conceived of a
G oD Incarnate; or even to reach a more
exalted Beauty than he had beflowed on
fomie of his Followers. While Leonardo
was employed in this Piece, the Prior of
the Convent, thinking his. Progrefs too
Slow, wou'd be often importuning him to
bifpatch; but all his Solicitations proving
vain, he at length had the Affurance to
carry his Complaints to the Duke; upon
this Leonardo is fent for, and being ex-
amind about the Painting, he affured his
Highnefs that there were but two Faces
wanting to Compleat the Piece; the one be-

ing our Saviour's,and the other that of Judas:
As to the former he own'd himself unable
to finifh it; being at a lofs how to Paint
the Majefty and Beauty of fo amiable and
Auguft a Perfonage. But promised very
fpeedily to Compleat the Latter; fince to
draw the Avarice and Ingratitude of Judar,
he needed nothing but to Reprefent the
Prior of the Dominicans, who had fo barely
rewarded him for all the Pains he had taken.'
This Work has always been efteem
ed Leonardo's Mailer-Piece. It was ac-
commodated to that Part of the Hiftory
wherein our Saviour declared to his Apoftles
that one of them ~fould betray him. The
Sentiments which ought to arife in the
breafts of his Difciples are finely reprefentr
ed : The Expreffions of Grief, Fear, Suf-
picion, Inquietude, and Love, are admirable.
Judas bears all the Marks of a Traytor
ad a Villain; the Treachery that lurks i~
his breaft fits confefs'd in his Face, and
the firft Glance of the Eye fingles him out
from the reft. Leonardo, has here fhown
that he perfeEtly understood the Motions
of the Soul, knew what Effects they have
upon the Body, and was able to Exprefs
them in all their Force and Energy upon
the Face. In this Part of Painting indeed
he was Inimitable ; and not only excelled
all the World, but himself too.

12 The LIFE of
Francis the Firff, was fo charmed with
this Piece when he faw it at Milan, that
he was not satisfied till he had tried all means
poffible, for its Removal into France. In
the end however, this was found ImpraEai-
cable, the Hiffory being Painted on a thick
Wall, and taking up no lefs than thirty
Square Feet in Area. The Copy of this Pain-
ting now to be 'een at St. Germains, was
made by order of the faid Francis the Firft;
who finding the Original out of his reach,
refolv'd to have something as like it as he
could get. There is another Copy of it in
large, made by Lomazzo, one of Leonardo's
Pupils, and ftill preserved in the Church of
St. "Barnabas at Milan. 'From thefe two
Copies, the curious may Form fome Idea
of the Beauties of the Original, which
is now utterly defaced. For' Leonardo
having Painted it in Oil, and upon a'Wall
not fufficiently fecured from Moifture;
the Dampnefs of the Place has mix'd it
felf with the Colours, and diluted them
to that Degree, that the Wall is now re-
duc'd to its primitive nakednefs. In the
fame Refedtory of the Dominicans, may
be feen another Piece of Leonardo's, repre-
fenting Duke Lewis, and 'Beatrix his Dutch-
efs; both upon their Knees. On fide of
them appear their Children; and on the other

a Crucifix. About the fame time he like-
wife Painted our Lord's Nativity for the
Duke: which laft Piece is now preferred in
the Emperor's Cabinet.
Leonardo's skill in Anatomy proved of infi-
nite service to him: this enabled him to give
a peculiar force to his Figures, and to dift-
inguifh them by their strength, from thofe
of any other Mafter. This he feem'd fen-
fible of, and accordingly took all Oppor-
tunities of improving it. He held frequent
Conferences on the Subje& with eAnthony
de Tour, Anatomy Profeffor at Tavia: and
made abundance of Draughts from the
Life, many of which have been fince Col-
le&ed into a Book by his Scholar, Francis
Melzi. He drew a Book of Combats for
the Ufe of his Friend Sig. Borromee, Mafter
of Arms; in which were represented all
the several Kinds of Engagements both on
Horfe-back and on Foot. He likewise
composed several Treaties for the Ufe of the
Painters of the new Academy ; of which
he had sometime before been Chofen Di-
reaor,and which through his Extraordinary
Care and Condu&, was now in a very
flourifhing Condition. After Leonardo's
Death, his Writings lay a long Time
at Vaverola in the Hands of Sig.
Meli; till at length being freed from

14 The LIFE of
their obscurity, it was their Fate, to be
difpers'd to different Parts; as we fall
hereafter have occasion to obferve.
Leonardo frequently retired to Vaverola
for the Conveniency of his fludies. He there
found himself perfectly at eafe; his Repofe
being neither interrupted by theVifitsof his
Friends, nor the Cares of the Academy;
and it was in this Retreat that he Com-
pos'd the greatest part of his Works.
But the Wars of Italy began now to break
in upon his quiet : he found his Patron the
buke engaged in an unhapyy War, and
not only the Academy but even the State
in Danger. The Event proved altoge-
ther as Melancholly as the Prefage had
been: Duke Lewis was Defeated, taken
Prifoner, and Carried into France, where
he died in the Caftle ofLoches. The Ac-
cademy in fine, was deftroy'd, the Profeffors
turned adrift, and the Arts effeaually
banifhed out of Milan.
Italy however, proved a gainer by thefeMis-
fortunes ofthe Milanee ;forLeonardo's School
being now broken up, the Scholars fpread
themselves over the whole Country. Se-
veral of them were Perfons of Extraordi-
nary Abilities, and knew how to imitate
their Mafter fo well, that People ofmoderate
Judgement have been sometimes at a lofs
to diftinguifh the Copy from the Original.

He had made Painters, Carvers, ArchiteECs,
Founders, and Engravers in Criftal and
Precious Stones. Out of his School came
Francis Melzi, Cefar Seflo, 'Bernard Lovino,
oAndrew Salaino, Mark Uggioni, /Antho-
n)y Boltraffo, Gobbo an Extraordinary
Painter and Carver, oAnnibal Fontana
a worker in Marble and Precious Stones,
"Bernazzano an excellent Painter of Land-
ships, Paul Lomazzo, and several others.
Sefio and Lovino, were thofe who have had
the greatest Reputation; but Lomazzo
wou'd have furpafs'd them both, had he not
unhappily loft his fight in the very flower
of his Age : Being thus disabled for the
Practice of Painting, he applyed himfelf
to it in Speculation ; and while he was
blind, wrote federal Treatifes, admired by
the moft clear lighted : always appealing to
Leonardo as a Standard, and Recommend-
ing him to all who wou'd Excel in Paint-
ing, as a compleat Model for their Imitation.
In 1499, which was the Year before
Duke Lewis's Defeat, Leonardo being
at Milan, was defired by the Principals
of the Place to contrive fome new
Device for the Entertainment of Lewis the
12th of France, who was then juft ready
to make his Entry through that City. Leo-
nardo consented, and accordingly made a
very Curious e/Automata: It was the Figure

16 The LIFE of
of a Lion, whofe Infide was fo well furnifhf
ed with Machinery, that it March'd out
to meet the King, made a fland when it
came before him, rear'd up on its hinder
Legs,and opening its Breaft, presented aScut-
cheon with Flower de Luces quartered on
it. Lomazzo is Miftaken when he fays that
thisMachine was made for Francis the Firff,
that Prince having never been at Milan,
till the Year i i 1. at which Time Leo-
zardo was at Rome.
The Diforders of Lombardy, and the mis-
fortunes of his antient Patrons the Sforzi,
obliging Leonardo to quit Milan, he reti-
red to Florence. That City enjoy'd all the
Calmnefs and Tranquillity neceffary for the
Polite Arts to Flourifh under. The Magini-
ficence of the Medici, and the good tafte of
the principal Inhabitants were powerful
attraaives, and prevailed more upon Leo-
nardo to fettle there, than the Love he bore
to it as the Place of his Nativity. The
firft thing he undertook here, was the de-
fign of an Altar-piece for the Annunciate:
In this he represented the little yefw with
his Mother, St. oAnne, and St. John. Leo-
nardo rendered himself extreamly Popular
among his Countrymen by this perfor-
mance, which was feen and applauded by
the whole City: Some Years after this, he
carried it with him into France, where

at the Defire of Francis the Firff, he put it in
'Colours. iBut the Piece he took the great-
- eft Pleafure in, and on which. he bestowed
the moft P'ains, was the Piture of.Lifa
commonly call'd la foconde. This w.s a
Divine Piece; fIeanis the Firft was fo char-
ined with it, that he purchased it at the price
bof 4006 Crowns; and it is fill- to be feen
in his Succeffor's Cabinet. This work coft
Leonardo Four entire Years, and yet matter
Iall, is faid to have been left .unfiniflled
,-While lie was empldy'd in Paintirg this
Lady, he had Muficians conftantly a;r-und-
ing ; always Playing upon Inftrument., or
Singing with their Voices to divert her,
and to prevent her from chewing a certain
indolence and Melancholly, which Peopie
but of Action are extreanily liable tom
Leonardo about the fame Time Painted
two dther very Valuable Pitures; The
'ne a Nobleman of Maitua, and the othei
- Daughter of eAmericiis Benci, much ad-
inired in thofe Days for Her Incomparable
-'eauty. Nor mnuft we omit a Flora which
he finished about this Tinie, and which
is fill to be feen in Paris The Figurd
has an dincommon Grace and Sweetnefs iri
its Air ; and might have been reckon'd a
MafterPiece, had it come ftom any other
Hand than Leonardo's.

ig T heLIFE of
In the Year 1503. The Florentines Re-
folving to have their Council Chamber
Painted, Leonardo, by a Publick Decree,
was elected to that O'mce, He had already
made a considerable progress in one fide of
the Chamber, when he had the mortificati-
on to find that his Colours did not flick, but
that as faft as they dry'd they loofen'd from
the WalL Michael oAngelo, in concurrence
:with Leonardo, painted another fide of the.
Room;, Michael tho' he was but a young
Man,yet was he become a very able Painter;
and had already acquired a mighty Repu-
tation: In fomuch that at 29 Years of Age
he was not afraid to vie with Vinci who
was 60. Each had his Friends and Parti-
zans, who far from bringing them to a bet-
ter Underftanding, helped the more to im-
bitter them againfi each other; fo that Mi-
shael and Leonardocommenc'd openEnemies.
About this time Raphael coming fi-efh
out of 'Perugino's School, was led by Leo.
nardo's Reputation to Florence ; the firfi
view of Vinci's Works ftruck him with
Aftonifhment, and wrought a Reformation
in him, to which all the Glory he has fince
acquired, may juftly be afcribed. He began
now to look upon the dry, harfh manner o
his old Mafter Perugino with Contempt;
and to. fet before him the Tendernefs and
Delicacy of Leonardo for his Imitation; and

wvith fuch Incredible Vigour, as well as Suc-
cefs, did he follow his new Maffter ; that he
arriv'd by degrees at the utmoft Pinnacle
of his Art; and to this day, for the foftnefs
'and fweetnefs ofhis Figures, reigns abfolute
and without a Rival.
SLeonardo kept clofe at Florence, till the
'Year i 5r:. The moft considerable of his
Works at that time, were a Piece reprefen.t
ting the Virgin, with her little Son ; and a
'BaptifPs Head : the one now in the Hands
bf the 'Botti; and the other in thofe of Caa
willo oAlbizzi.
Leonardo having never yet feen Rommn
iefolv'd now to make the Tour of that CiA
ty. The Exaltation of Leo X. to.the Ponti-
fi. t, gave him an Occafion of paying his
Refpets to the new Pope; and he had there
tnet with a Countenance and Efteem fuita-
ble to his Merit, but for an unlucky Adven-
ture. Leo, who had an Hereditary Love for
Painting, and the Polite Arts, iefolv'd to
\employ him: Leonardo hereupon fees himself
to the Diftilling of Oils; and the preparing
bf Varnifh, to cover his Paintings withal;
bf which the Pope being Inform'd, faid
'pertly enough, that he cou'd expea. nothing
from a Man who thought of Finifhing his
Works before he had begun them. V(afari
a Zealous Adherent to Michael OAngelo4 afk
fures us, that Leonardo met with many othie
C 2 MortiFi

20 The L IFE O
Mortifcations while he was at Rome; and
relates fome other little Stories of him,
which are the Iefs to be Credited, because
they appear infinitely beneath a Perfon of
Leonardo's Genius, and Were never told
but by a Profefs'd Enemy.
Leonards foon grew weary of Rome, and
having an Invitation from Francis the Firft,
he removed into France. He was above
Seventy Years old when he undertook this
Voyage; but the Honour offering fo great
a King, supported him and feem'd to give
him new Strength. In effea, the French
proved as Favourable to him, as the Romans
had been Injurious; and he found enough
in theGoodnefs of King Francis,to make him
amends for any affronts he had met with at
Rome. The Court was at Fo.tainebleau,
when L eaaardo firft presented hinfelfbefore
the King. Francis received him in the moft
affectionate mariner, and fhow'd him all
the Marks of Efteemi and Veneration which
he cou'd any way Exprefs. 1He was highly
pleas'd to find the firft Painter in the World
at his Court, tho' by veafon of his Age, he
had but little to expect from him. The Fa-
tigues of his Voyage, and the Change of the
Climate, in all probability, contributed to
the Diftemper of which lie died. He lan-
guifhld several Months at Fontainebleau;
during which time, the King went fre-

quently to fee him. This Prince making
him a Vifit one day, Leonardo to fhow his
fenfe of the Favour, rais'd himfelfon his
Bed; at that Infrant he was feiz'd with a
Fainting Fit, and Francis flooping to fip.
port him, he Expir'd in the Monarchs
Leonardo died at the Age of Seventy five
Years, extremely Regretted by all who lo-
ved the Polite Arts, and Honour'd with
the Friendfhip and Efteem of a mighty
King. Nature perhaps never was more
lavifh, than in the Compofure of this great
Man, for the gave him even all that fihe
had. He was extremely Handfom, and
well Shaped, his Strength was furprizing,
and he acquitted himself with uncommon
Applaufe in all Exercifes of the Body.- But
the Talents of his Mind were fill more
extraordinary than thofe of his Perfon;
He join'd to a Polite Behaviour, the
greatest Strength and Elevation of Mind
A furprizing Vivacity, to an unwearied
.Application to Study: a good Stock of
Learning, to a pleading Converfation,
He refrain'd from Marriage, that he might
work with the more Freedom; on which
Occafion one of his Friends faid, that Leo.
nardo wou'd marry no Miftrefs but Pain-
ting, nor Beget any Children but the Works
e qperform'd. In his Riper years, he in-
C 3 dulged

22 The LIFE of
dulged a Philofophical Negligence, letting
his Hair and his Beard grow; infomuch, that
at length he appeared like an Ancient Dru-
id, or a Modern Religious in a Defart.
Some of Leonardo's Paintings are to be
feen in England and other Countries, but
the greateft part of them are in Florence and
France. Besides thofe we have mentioned,
Lornazzo Informs us, that he Painted the
Conception of the Bleffed Virgin, for the
Church of St. Francis at Milan. There are
federal other Pieces in Paris that are known
affuredly to be his; as the Holy Virgin fit-
ting in St. oAnn's Lap, and holding her lit-
tle Son. An Herodiade of Exquifite Beau,
ty, sometime in the Cardinal de Richlieu's
Poffeffion. Another Virgin with her Son.
St. jobh and an Angel, a very valuable
Piece. St. john in the Wildernefs. A Vir-
gin, much efleem'd, heretofore in the hands
pf the Marquis de Sourdis. M. de Charm-
ois Secretary to the Duke of Schomberg,
had another very noble Piece ofLeonardo's
representing Jofph ftruggling to difingage
himself from Potipbr's Wife; the feet!
nefs and modefy of the one, and the Beau-,
tiful affurance of the other, were admirably
exprefs'd, and rais'd all thofe different;
Emotions in the Mind, which a view of
-the real Tranfation would have done.

As to the Difcourfes Leonardo had Com-
pos'd, and the Draughts he had made,
thofe into whofe Hands they are fallen,
.preferring their private Interefts before
thofe of the Publick, frill keep them in Ob-
fcurity. After Leonardo's death they were
digLLed into Thirteen Volumes, all Writ-
ten 'backwards, after the-Hebrew manner,
and in fo very fmail a CharaEter, that the
naked Eye was at a lofs to diftinguifh one
Letter from another. A contrivance with-
out doubt of the Author to fecure them from
becoming too common i The Fate of thefe
prte:iiuis Remains has been as follows.
Lelio Gavardi d' oAjola, Provoft of St'
,eno in'Pavia, and a near Relation of
eAldus Manutius, had the care of InftruE&-
ing Mefs. Melzi in the Sciences: this gave
him frequent Occafions of going to their
Country Seat at Vaverola, where the fore-
faid Thirteen Volumes ofLeonardo's Works
were preferv'd. Gavardi fpying the Books,
begg'd them of his Pupils, obtained his
Requeft, and carried them with him to Flo-
rence, hoping to make a round Sum of
Money, by felling them to the great Duke.
He was disappointed however, for he found
the Duke on his Death Bed when he arrived
there. Upon- this he leaves Florence, and
betakes hinmfelf to Tifa. It was there his
Fortune to meet with Awmbrpfe Mazzenta,
C 4 a Gen.

SThL F E oef
a Gentleman of wl" i.'.; who Expoftulating
the cafe with him, laid before him the bafe-
nefs of taking the Papers out of the felzi's
hands, who knew fo little of their Value,
Gavardi was fo touched with what he
heard, that without more ado, he returns
the Books to Horatio Melzi, then Head
of that Family ; and Horatio to reward the
Care and Friendfhip which Mazzenta had
flown, in procuring their Reftitution,,
gives them back to Mazzenta. This Gen.
tleman taking all Occafions of Extolling
lHoratio's bounty, and expreffing his own
Gratitude, the matter came at length to
the Ear of Tompeio Leoni, Statuary to the
King of Spain. Melzi was foon made to
know the Value of the Papers he had fo
frankly given away; and being promifed a
considerable Poft in the Milaneze, if he
would recover them from Mazzenta, and
Present them to the King of Spain, he hies
to Milan; where by much Entreaty, he pre-
vailed fo far upon Mazzenta, that Seven of
the Thirteen Volumes were delivered him
back again. Of the remaining Six, Car-
dinal 'Borromeo had one, now in the' GAm-
brofian Libraryv; Ambrofe Figgini had ano-
ther, fince descended to his Heir Hercule.
'ianchi; the Duke of Savo', Charles
Emanuel had a Third; and the other Three,
fill to Torpeio Leoni, and have been fince
'.'' .:i ^

Sold by his Heir Cleodore Calchi, to Sig.
Galeas Lonato.
Leonardo's Papers confifted of Draughts
and Difcourfes; the latter, fo many of them
at leaft, as we have any Knowledge of,
are as follows.
A Treatife of the Nature Equilibrium
and Motion of Water. This Work con-
tains many Draughts of Machines for con-
veying, raising, and supporting of Water;
being written on occafion of the Aquedua
at Mortefana.
A Treatife of @Anatomy, already men-
tion'd. This Work was likewife embel-
lifhed with a great number of Draughts,
all carefully done after the Life.
The Anatomy of a Horfe, mentioned by
Vafari, "orghini, and Lomazzo. The Au-
thor had a peculiar Talent at drawing of
thofe Animals; and defign'd this Treatife
for the ufe of thofe, who Paint Battles or
A Treatife of Perfpe&ive, divided into
several Books. Leovardo, in this Piece, de-
livers the Method of drawing Figures lar-
ger than the Life, fo much commended by
n.omazzo, Chap. ir.

A Treatife of Light and Shadows, now
jn the eAmbrofian Library at Milan. It is

q.6 The LIFE of
in a Folio Volume, covered with red Vel-
lom, and was presented by Sig. Mazzenta
to Cardinal Borromeo. Leonardo here han-
dles his Subjea as a Philofopher, a Mathe-
anatician, and a Fainter, and makes men-
tion of this Work, in this Treatife of
Painting. This muft undoubtedly be an
excellent Performance; for Leonardo was
admirable in that part of Painting: He
perfealy understood the effecs of Light
and Colours, and manag'd them with fo
inuch advantage, that his Paintings di-
fcover something of Truth and Nature, be-
yond what is to be found in the Works of
any other Mafter.
In his Treatife of Painting, Leonardo
premifes two other Works. The one on
the Motion, and the other on the Equilibri.
vm of Bodies.
The laff of Leonardo's Treatifes which
we hall mention, is that which we here
offer to the Reader, upon Painting, Vafari
informs us that a Painter of Milan travel-
ing through Florence, fhow'd him this
Work, and promised him to get it printed
at Rome.; But he failed of his Word, and
lef he Honour of firft publishing this inimi-
table Piece to the French. It was in the
Year -165r. that 'an Italian Edition of it
appeai'din Paris ; all imaginable Care ha-
ving been firft taken, to fend it into the

World both Correc and Compleat. And
to render the Book fill more familiar to the
People of France, a Tranflation of it was
made into that Language, by M. Chambre;
a Gentleman of extraordinary Skill in the
Polite Arts, and a Mafter in all the Parts of
That Zeal, which the French on this oc-
cation, fhow'd for the improvement of
Painting, feem'd fo very laudable, that we
thought it worthy our Imitation; and have
accordingly, not only followed their Exam-
ple in publishing a Verfion of this inva-
luable Treatife in our own Language; but
have likewise observed their Advice and
Method in the Performance of it: keeping
with all neceffary Severity to the Senfe of
the Noble Original; without overlooking
the Helps and Affiflances of an excellent
Tranflation. Thus teftifying our Regard
and Effeem for a Work, which for the Dig-
nity of its Subjea, the Excellency of its Pre-
cepts, and the Merit of its Author, de-
ferves Immortality.




Leonardo da Vinci.

However would apply himself td,
Painting, mufft, in the firft Place,
learn Perfp'eaive: This will ena-
ble him to difpofe Things in their
proper Places, and to give the -ihe ,rf
due Dimenfions to each : Having done this he Thing to be
inult learn to Defign ; choosing for that Pur-learned by 4
fpfe foime able Mafter, who, at the fame time,Novice i4
naay give him an Infight into the *- Contours of1t'A1a1
Figures : He ought then to- confult Nature, to.
confirm himfelf in what he has already learnt i
To Draw.
1 The Out-lines defcrjbing any Body ; The Frevch fay,
cliitrurner urn Figure.

J3 40 Treatife of 'Paintihg
and, Laftly, Let him apply himfelfto the Study
and Imitation of the Greateft Mafters, in order
to get a habit of reducing what he has cairnt
into Pra&ice.
in what a To Defign well, and to difpofe the Lights
painter ought and Shadows of Figures fuitably to their Sir 'a-
principally totions, being the moft confideiable Parts of this
ercle him-Art, and thofe on which the greatest ftref, de-
pends; it is in thefe that a Painter who vonI'd
inake any great Proficiency, ought principally
to exercise himself.
Of all Animal Operations we plainly per-
ceive Sight to be the moft quick: It moves
with Incredible velocity, and difcovers a Thou-
fand Obje&s in an Inftant. But then it
fees them very confufedly, and in effecE
does not discern above one at a time. For
the rdei tonfltance, if you glance your Eye over a Page
be obferv'd inof this Book, you will immediately perceive it
teaching a, full of different Characters; but what thefe
oice to e- Chara&ers are, or what is intended by them,
will be ftill a Seciet: Infomuch that to gain
any determinate Knowledge of what you have
feen, you muft consider them Piece-meal, for-
ming the Letters into Words, and thofe agaii
into Periods So a Man who wou'd mount to
the Top of a Building, is content to go up ftep
by ftep, as knowing it impoffible otherwise to
reach it: In the fame manner, a Perfon who
wvou'd attain to a Skill in Painting, muft begin
with the parts ofObje&s, e'er he can proceed
to represent them entire; and mift take them
in order, never advancing to a fecond, e'er he
has got a good habit of doing the firft : For
otherwise, his time will be thrown away, or at
left, his advances rendered extremely Slow and
Imperceptible. He muft further inure him-

feif to work with Patience and Steadinefs, at-
ways remembering that a flow Diligence will
out trip a hafty Negligence.
Some People have a Fancy for Painting, who An Inclnati-
yet want the neceffary Difpofitions thereto ;on not always
This is eafily difcoverable in Children, whoattended with
amufe themselves with drawing Imperfeaftpnn s to
Sketches, never troubling themselves to fha-
dow any thing they undertake,
A Painter deserves but a fall fhare ofRepu-bA PtnierfaO
tAtion who only fucceeds in fome one Branch
of his Art ; as for Inflance in Painting a Niu-
dity, a Head, Drapery, Animals, Landskips,
d&c. fince the heaviest Genius by incelinit plod-
*ding on the fame thing, cannot fail at length,
of performing it well
A Painter muft therefore be Univerfal, and
apply himself to the Study and Confideration
of all Objecs ; but fo as to attend in a particu-
lar manner to thofe parts of each, which are
the moft beautiful and perfea: By this means How a Pais.
his Imagination will become like a Mirrour, re-ter may be--
.prefenting every thing laid before it, in its ome urniva -
:proper Charafter and Colours; a
But further, a Painter who is not equally
pleas'd with all Parts of his Art, will never be-
come Univerfal. My Friend Boticello, for In-
'fance had a peculiar Pique against Landskips,
and thought them much beneath his Applica-
tion; the effef of which was, that being a ve-
ry forry Landskip Painter, his merit in other
.inatters was the lefs regarded. It was a saying
of his, that a Palet full of Colours being thrown
against the Wall, wou'd leave a ftain behind it

A Naked Figure, either of a Man, or Woman; efpe.
.ialy the latter,

S'oA Treatife of Tainting,
properly. enough representing a Landskipi
'Tis true indeed, that by help of a strong fancy,
one may fpy Heads, Battles, Rocks, Sea,
Clouds, Woods, &c. in a Wall fo fimcared
it being here, as in the Ringing of Bells, where
every Body is at liberty to inake them fay what
he pleafes t But then; though fuch a Fortuitous
mixture of Colours may ftart a hint, or give
rife to a new Invention, yet will it not furnifh
the lealt affiffance towards the Execution, or ii-
nilhing any thing it has occafion'd.
A Painter who wou'd appear Unlverfal, and
pleafe People of different Tatis, muft fet off fe-
veral Figures in the fame Piece, both with very
deep and very foft shadows ; taking care by the
way, to make the reason of fich diversity ap-
A Painter taught to have his Mind continu-
ally at work, and to make Remarks on every
Object worthy of notice, that he meets. He
The Courfe sought even to ifand fill in order to view them
take in his with the greater attention and afterwards to
Studies. Form rules on what he has obferv'd, with re-
gard to Lights, Shadows, Place and other Cir-,
cumftarices. Let him make himfelfa Mafter of
the Theory, before he meddle with the Practice,
and be very curious in comparing the Limbs
and yonflures of different Animals with one
another: taking Minutes of every thing he
learns, the better to fix them in his Memory.
A Painter who has no Doubts in his Studiesi
makes but a fmall Progrefs in his Art; It being
an infallible Sign, where all things appear eafy,
Hrow a Pain- that the Wotkman is insufficient, and the Work
ter may judge above his Pitch: But when once a Painter has
ofhis Proici-got a juft Senfe of the whole Difficulties of his
ncy- Work, every new Refledion he makes, will give

'hiim new Strength to {brmount them; in'fo
'-rmnch that if he perfeveres in it, every Day
will contribute something towards his improve-
;ment and Perfeaion.
Let a Novice in the firft Place exercise hisThe manner
'Iland, in copying the Defigns of fome able Ma-of learning td
,fler ; After he has got a Habit of doing this, heDeigSn.
minay proceed to Relicvo's, defining after them
in the Method hereafter to be taught.
The firf- Sketch of a Hiftory Piece miifl be How to
very flight, and the Figures very imperfe&alvskrch ont 4
form'd ; your principal regard being to theHifLory- iecea
juftnefs of their situation : having adjufaed the
-* Ordoinn4nce of the Piece, -you may finish the
Members at your Leifure.
Whenever either your own Refle&ion or the
Information of your Friends, points out any
fault in your work, corre& it immediately.;
left in exposing the Piece to the World, you ex-
pofe your own Weaknefs: Nor flatter your
felf that what Reputation you lofe by letting it
Sefcape, may be retriey'd in your next Perfor-
mance : 'Tis not with Painting as with Mufick, Faults to Ihi
which dies in the Breath that gives it Birth :corceded as
Painting is of a more durable nature, and what- foon as diicd
ever dver-fights of this kind you make Publick,vered
will be standing Reproaches to you ever after-
wards. Nor will it avrail to plead Poverty in
excuse of your Errors, or to palliate the matter
by urging want of Leifure to.finifi what you
.-do : The Study of Virtue it felf will ferve for
F ood to the Body, as well as the Mind: How

o* rdonnancS is the placing regularly the Figures, in re-
Sfpcl of the whole Compofure ; or the particular Dilpo-
1tion of Fig ires, as to the different Groups, MafTls
COntrafs, Decorum, Afped and Situation.

34 e4 Treatife of 'Painting,
many Philofophers born in the midlt of Plef;
ty, have yet abandoned themselves to Penury
and Want, to become the more free and difen.
gaged for Virttie,and the Study thereof.
A Painter ne- Nothing deceives us more than the Judgment
ver to truiI we form of our own Works; nor are the Opi.
his own JudS- ni6onsof our friends much more to be'relied
mct. '" i pon: A Friend is in effe& a fecond felf, artd
therefore to be held in the fame Degree of fif
picion. 'Tis the Critique of our Enemies that
*e ought to form our felves by : This is usually
fiicere; which is more than I can fay either for
ifik elf, or my Friend.
"Amiong other'things, I fall not fcruple, td
deliver a new method of affifting the Invention;
which tho' trifling in appearance may yet be
of c6nfiderable service, in opening the mind,
Aite*s Art ofrand putting it upon the Scent of new Thoughtsi
Invention. and 'tis this; if you look at fome old Wall co-
vered with dirt, or the odd appearance of
fome ftreak'd Stones, you may difcover feveral
things like Landskips, Battles, Clouds, un-
c6mmon Attitudes humorous Faces, Dra-
peries, & c. out of this confused Mafs of Ob'
Jefs the Miid Will be furhilh'd with abuai
dance of Defigns, and Subjeas, perlfe(y new.
The Advan- I have often found it of ife t 6rec6lle& the
tage of recol- Ideas of what I had considered in the day, after
leading in the Iwas reti'd to Bed, and iricompafs'd with the
Night, what Sience arid Obfcurity of the 'Night. For by
hs been u-thii i repediting: the contours, aid other parts of
e in t heigres which require a clifer: attention, their
Attitude implies little more than Adlion and Pofture
tho' it is foietinmes ufed where neither of thefe would be
prope : for Ihfiance, Adlion is noi applicable to a dead
-Citcs; nordo we fay thatfuch a PFigureisin a haridfdi*:
Polit-r, bu't ih a gritcfit Attitude, or Dibpofition.

images are ftrongly iiprefs'd on the Memory,
and familiariz'd to the Mind.
If you intend to become a Proficient, be aure A Man to gd
never todejign any thing lightly hafte;through a
but take time to consider, with. regard to lights, Courfe ofLa-
"" our and Ia-
Which parts receive the ftrongeft, and in fha-~ ~ry -
dows Which are the deepeft; observe how thefecan attain to
mingle together, and ini what quantity, Itilldo Things
comparing the one with the other. As to the with Eafe anA
tontaers, consider towards what part they are Expediddn"
6o be dire8ed, what quantity of light and fha-
dow meet.within the Lines, where they ar4
mnore or lefs ftrpig, larger or fmqller; and
Pltly take care that your lights and shadows
do not terminate abruptly, bdt thai they fall
jpftly into one another, and at Jaft lofe theri-
f~lves, infenfibly like Smoke. .Aftei you havq
once habituated your felf to bei thus puncual
(id exat in your Defgns, Expeditioii and Dif-
patch will come apace .
While a Painter is employ'd. either in defign- aier d
ag, or Painting, he dught to lifted vith atten- covetthe Cpd-
on to the differetit. Sentiments .which diffe-rures ofadiffe
tent People entertain of his Performance rent Perfon3
There being no body how Ignorant ip Painiting on his Wdrkt
peve-, but vho uridergands the Shape of a
lan, and can readily tell whether he be hump-
Back'd, crook'd-Legg'd, have any, thing lorn-
frous in his Hand, or any thie like Blemifh
Why may nrt a Perfon then, who can To well
diflinguifh the defeats of Natiie,, bieallow'd td
judge of thofe of Arts ?
'Tis Ridiculous in a Painter to confide fo far A Pain~ie id
In his Memoty, as to think it Capalle of retain- Defign af.
ing all he has feeri and obferv'd in Nature Nature,rathei
than his od*l
3he Memory is a Faculty too weak, as well;,a, s;
as too narrow for that purpofel and the -only
9 : 2 fure

6 ~a& Teatie of Painting,
fure way, is to Copy as much as poffible from
Nature her felf.
Variety of A Painter lofes a great deal of his Dignity,
Proportions by confining his Genius, and never venturing
to beaffeded.out of his ordinary Courfe : There are fome
for Inftance, who apply thcmfelves to the Pain-
ting of Nudities; but fo, as till. ftrialy to o.l
ferve the fame Proportions, and never introdun
cing the leaft variety: Whercas. they should
consider, that a Man may be well proportion'd,
whether he be thick or lender, flhort or tall,
By difregarding this diversity of proportions,
a Painter feems to caft all his Figures in. the
fame Mould, which is an Error of the firft
No difficult A Painter well acquainted with the Theory
Matter to be- of his Art, may without any great difficulty
fae nve render himself Univerfal For all terrestrial
Animals have this in Common with each other,
that their Members are compofed of Mufcles
Nerves, and Bories; the only Difference be.
tween them lying in their different Lengths,
and Thickneffes, as is demonstrated by the
Anatomifts. AS. to Aquatick Animals, in
which indeed there is a great Variety, I think
a Painter who is well advis'd, will not trouble
himself about them.
The Abfurdi- Thofe who venture on the Pramie4 without
ty of meddle- firft qualifying themselves in the Theory, are
ing with the like Mariners putting out to Sea without e-.
Pradice, be-ther Helm or Compafs, Ignorant what Courfc
ore havin to take. The Pracice ought always to be built
Theory. on a Rational Theory, of which Perfpeaive
is both the Guide and the Gate, and without
which,, it is Impomfble to facceed either in
Defigning, or in any of the Arts depending

A Painter fhou'd never tye himifeli to Imitate One Painter
tfie Manner of any other; his Bufinefs being never fervlelY
nor to represent the Works of Men, but thofe oheatear
of Nature; who at the fame time is fo aburi-
dain in her Produtions, that 'tis Ridiculous to
ha'v. Recourfe to her Servants, who have no-
thi,", but what they borrowed from her; when'
the Miftrefs her felf is fo ready to Entertain
To Defign after Nature, or the Life, you How to de-
muft be removed from the Objc&, three times ign after the
its Magnitude; taking care as you draw each Life.
Sri'..i, to obferve what parts of your +-- Model
mn.t under the Principal, or Perpendicular
"In p:7-+-:--, you muff consider that the Sha- A Caution a-
d6v,'. ot Objets are nct always Simple; but bout Lights
that besides the Principal one there are feveraland Shadows,
othus, thrown like Smoke, or a thin Cloud
upon the Principal Shadow, and for that Rea-
f3n almof imperceptible: This may be feen
tb Experience ; and the Reafon of it fhown by
'Pelci I'.tivc, which Demonftrates, that Spheri-
cil Bodies, receive as many different Lights
and Shadows as there are different Bodies in-
con.malilg them.
iManner, is the Habitude that Painters have acquired,
pot only in the Management of the Pencil, but alfo in
the three principal Parts ofPaintijg, viz. Invention, De-
fign, and Colouring: 'Tis by the manner in Painting
rlha we judge this Piece tp be itian's, Tintorrt's, or Vinci's
Hand ; as by the Stile in Writing, we guefs this Book to
be trli or that Author's.
'.: The Model is generally taken for any Natural Objedc
thli presents it Iclf to be drawn ; in particular, it figni- '
fA., a Statue, Nudity, or the like, fct up in the Acadc-
ai, to be Copied by the Novices in Painting.

38 eA reatife of 'ainthg,
'he Light- A North Light will be the moft proper for a
gropert 4t Painters purpose, as being the Steadieft. If his
0' Chamber be qpen towards the South, it will be
ponvenieit to place an oil'd Safh before it; to
the End that the Light of the Sun which will
be upon it all pay, being moderated, may spread
it felfequally, and without any Senfible alterati-
on. The Light by which he Defigns from the
Life, ought to come from fuch an Altitude
as that -the-Shadows of Bodies projeced on the
Plane, may be equal to their heights.
In representing of Bodies, you muft always give
,them fuch Lights, as are molt fuitable to the
Places they are fuppofed to he in. For Inftance,
if they be fuppos'd in the Country, and in the
ppen Air, the Sun being hidden, they ought
to be incompafs'd with an almost Univerfal
Light if the Sun be feen, the Shadows muft
be very dark with refpeCt to the other Parts
which receive the Light; and all the Shadows
both Primitive and Derivative, muft have their
The Lights Extremities bold, and defined: The Light ac-
proper for Fi- companying theft Shadows, muft be extremely
after ghe faint; becapfe the Air, to whofe Reflexion
o' afre k,.' they owe that little Light they receive, conm-
tiyo. municates at the fame time its own Colour;
weakening the Light it conveys, by mingling
its own Azure along with it. This is eafily ohb
fervable'in White Objecs ; fuch Parts of which,
as are illumined by the Sun, plainly Ippear-
ing tinged with the Colour of that Lumiinary
but difcovers it felf ftill more evidently, when'
the Sun, hidden behind a Cloud, illumines is
with his Rays, and makes it appear Red and
inflamed(;'F6r then all Bodies receiving Light
from the Cloud, will be tinged and coloured
with its Rednefs while the other lides of the
*o d ie ,

6olies, turned frbm the Cloud will appear ob-
fcure, and tinged with the Azure of the Air,
filhthat a Perfon, obferving this Obje& thus dif-
ferntly illustrated, will Imagine it of two Co-
lbiirs. 'Tis a certain Maxim then, founded up-
-on what -we know of Nature, and the Caufe of
there Lights, and Shadows, that to reprefenit
-them aright, they muft participate of that
'which produced them; and that unlefs. we
-make them retain something of their firft
.Cainc, our Imitation of Nature will be Lame
.and Imperfca. But if the ObjeA you repre-
fent, 1e fuppofed in a Chamber a little illunii-
'ned, and that you view it from without, ftan-
di'ng in a Line with the Light that breaks in
tipon ir, the Shadows of that Figure muft of
Nec~iity be very foft, and the Figure cannot
iail, of being very graceful, and of doing:Cre-
lit to the Painter; for the Relievo will be
idild, notwithstanding the foftnefs of the Sha
.dows; and thefe will be the more eminently fo,
on thatr ide of the Chamber which is the moft
'enlightened, the Shadows there being almost
-linrenihle: The Reafon of which hall be delive-
red hereafter.
W here the Light is too harshly cut by the The Lightu
Shadows, it has a very ill Effea : To evade proper for Fi-
which Inconvenience, 'twill be neceflary where f r esm teife
_your Figures are fuppofed in the open Air,
't avoid placing them in the Sun-Shine; rather
feigning a lowering Day, and drawing a few
transparent Clouds between the Sun and your
'Figures: By this Means they will be the more

The Relievo is an emboffed Figure in Sculpture; in
'Vaiming it is ufed for that part which comes boldly out,
.'ia u were really emboffed.
D. 4 weakly

49, Treatife of Tainting,
weakly enlightened, and there will be room-
for the Extremities of their Shadows, to min-
gle and lofe themselves infenfibly in the
How todefig! a In designing a Nudity, obferve firft, to give
a aWity. your Figure its entire Contour ; afterwards chu-
fing that part of it which you think belt, and
giving it a juft proportion to the reft, proceed
to finifh it; for without this Method you will
never be able to join the federal Members toge-
ther with the Symetry required : Laffly, to add
.a fill further Grace to your Figure, obferve
that the Head be never turned-the fame way
with the Stomach; that the Arm and Leg
have never the fame Dire&ion ; that if the
Head be turned towards the Right Shoulder,
it be. made to ftoop a little on the Left Side;
that if the Stomach ftrut forwards, the Head
pnay be turn'd to the Left Side, and the Parts
of the Right Side represented higher than thofe
of the Left.
How to De- A Perfon who wou'd Defign from the Life,
fign form theoughr to place himself in fuch a manner, as that
Li e. his Eye may be in a Level with that of the Fi-
gure he is to Copy fi-om.
Iow todefign Take a Square Piece of Glaft, about the fize
a Landskip of a quarter ofa fheet of Royal Paper, and fix-
from the Life ing it directly between your Eyes, and the Ob-
or to make an.
exar Plan of ljes you wou'd design, remove your felf two
a Country. thirds of your Arms-length, that is, about a
Foot and a half backwards. Having then fixed
your Head, by means of fome Contrivance, fo
firn as not to move or hake a jot, fhut one of
your Eyes, and with the Point of a Pencil trace
every ting upon the Glat, that you fee
through it. When your Eyes are at liberty,
you nay transfer this Defign from the Glafs

upon Paper, and chalking the Paper, make a
fair Copy from it, to be put into Coloursat
your Leifarc but be fure to obferve the Aeri-
al Perfpe&ive.
Landskips ought to be Painted in fuch man- The Lights
n ri, as that the Trees may appear half in-proper for a
li~iht.:-nJ and half Shadowed: The beft time Landskip.
.you can choofe for this Purpofe, is when the
Sun is half covered with Clouds; for then the
)Trees receive on the one Hand, an Univerfal
Li -ht from the Heavens, and on the other,
*an Univerfal Shadow from the Earth and
their Parts will be fo much the darker, as they
dar nearer the Earth.
, When you have no other Light to work by, How to Te-.
:but that of a Candle, observe to place between fign by Can-:.
thi. Light, and the Figure you wou'd Copy, a dleLiht.
L wn Frame, or an oil'd Paper, or at lealt a
pr-.- of plain Paper unoil'd, provided it be ve-
.ry fine and thin ; the Shadows being by this
-means foftned, their extremities will not ap-
pe:r too abrupt and cut off.
SLights and Shadows add a furprizing Grace How in Pain-
;to the Faces of Perfons placed at'the entrance ting a Head'
of a dark Room every body who fees them to give it a".
iill be charm'd, provided they be well difpo-age ofLight
.fed; and fo as that the Shadow'd fide of the and shadow.
;Face, may appear obfcured by the darknefs of
'the Place towards which it is turned; and at
-the fame time the Lightened fide, be further
illumined by the brightnefs of the Air, which
Sis diffifed all over it, and by which Means the
Shadoww become almost infenfible on that fide.:
vThis augmentation of Light and Shadow,
gi\' s Figures a great Relievo, and an uncommon

40 ,A Treatife ofPainting,
The Light For Faces and other Nkdities, you mulf hive
,roper for a- a:Chamber open and expofed to the Air, whole
Carnations in Walls are wafh'd with a Carnation Colour,
general to be The time you are to chufe for Painting, is tkl
Pointed by. Summer, when the $uh is covered with thin
Clouds; but if you feai left it should break out,
-you may take care to'l'ave the South-Wall of
your Chamber raised fo bigh, as to be a Screei
to the Northern one, and io prevent the Su&
Beams from striking up6n it; otherwise the re,
fle ed Rays will make falfe Lights, and fpoi
your Shadows.
The aMethod A Painter muft always consider the Place lii
to betaken Painting is to be difpofed in, and remark the
efigsing the height of the Plan in which he intends his Fi.
Fires -in a
iiftory-piece. gures to be placed ; obferving when he Defigns
that his Sight be as much below the Figure hi
is upon, as the Place where the Piece is totN
exposed, is higher than the Eye of a Spe&ator:
without- this Precaution, his Work will inevit
bly be full of Faults, and can never poflibly havl
a good Effe&.
Hew 'a De- Hold a Thread with a Plummet filfpenlde
Sgn a-Nidity, in your Hand, and obferve what Parts meet it
or -ny other the fame'Perpendicular Line.
bthe troi divide the Head into twelve Degrees, an
the Life.' t,- -
The Meauitrc eaclDegree into twelve Points, each Point iD
or Division ofto, twelve Minutes, the Minutes into Second
a statue. and;fo on-; till fuch time as you have found
Meafiure, equal to the fmnalleft Parts of yo
HowaPainter .Let- r B CTab. r. Fig. 1.] be a Windol
iuflfPaich a through which the Light enters, M the CentI
crgard to the, f the-Light, and C the Model: A Painter nma
Light fiining himself where he pleafes, provided
upon the Mo-____
dcl. A fleli-Colout,

hig Eve be between the Shadow'd, and the En-
lightcn'd parr of the Model: Which Place bl
may find, by difpofing himself ,between the
Point M, and that Point of the Model where
itr.ceafcs to be enlightened, and begins to be
.A High Light, equally diffufed, and nottoo The Light in
glittering, rets off Objeas with the -utmoft which Objeds-.
Grace, and Ihows the finallefl Parts of them to appear, with
the greatell Advantage. the moft Ad-
A Painter who has any thing unfeemly, or vaintge.
difproportionate in the make of his own Perfon, Judgment
will be extremely lyable to beftow the fame fometimesim-
-blemilh on his Figures: This is particularly ob-pored upon by
fervable in the Hands, as being continually be-the Defe&s of
fore our Eyes. A Painter therefore muft apply o.
himself, to corre& any falfe Impreflion, which
an Ohj:ct always present to him, may makeont
his Imagination; and to guard against that ri-
diculons Piece of felf Love, of fancying every
thing Beautiful that resembles himself.
A Painter well acquainted with the Mufcles, Anatomy no-e
Tendons, &c. will know what, and how ma- c brrr ;
ny Mufcles concur to the Motion of any Mem-
ber; what Mufcle contra&ing it felf, occasions
any other to retire; what Tendons and what
Ligaments belong to each Mufcle, and.confpire
to make it aft: And will look with!Contempt
on the ; l.nner of fome Ignorant Painters, who
in all forts of Attitudes, do always make, the
fame Mufcles appear, in tle Arms, BackfSto-
mach, and other Parts.
'Tis a very Grofs tho' a very common Fault, Repetitieo in
tb repeat the fame Attitudes, and the fame the fame Pain-
folds of the Drapery, in the fame Painting; and ting, a Faul-
tb draw all the Faces fo like one another, that
"tey all appear deligndl after the fame Model.
Pa inter,

44 e4 Treatife of Taifztig,
How a Pain- A Painter in the firft place ou t to Defgn
ermay fecurehis Figure from the Mfodel of fome Natural
],imfelf from b i- 71
being abufed Body, the Proportions of which, are allowed
in the Choice to be juft and beautiful ; let him in the next
pfhis Model. place measure himself, and obferve in what
part of his Perfon he differs from his Mgdel,
and how much that difference is: Having once
determined thefe Points, let him carefully
avoid thofe Faults in his Figures, which he
has difcover'd in his own Perfon. A Pain-
ter can never be too circumfpe& on this
Head; for as there is no Objet nearer, or
more familiar to us than our own Body, the
Defe&s of that, do usually pafs unregarded:
Sometimes we are even fond of them, and not
only view them with Delight in our felves, but
in others too; it being a Natural Paflion of
the Soul, to take pleasure in things resembling
the Body it animates 'Tis for this Reafon per-
haps, that there is no Woman how difagree-
able foever fhe be, but who finds her Gallant.
A Fault of A Painter who had Defign'd fome particular
fome Painters, Figure, with ftrong Lights and Shadows, hall
whointroduce frequently either through Ignorance or Inad-
a Figure de-vertency, introduce it. into a Piece, the Scen
fign d for one of which lies in the Country, and demands a
Pi'gt, Light equally diffufed on all fides, and whicl
fed to be en-fhows all Parts of the Object. By this means.
lighted by it comes to pafs, that contrary to the Efta.h
another. lifh'd Rules of the Clair-obfcure, we often fee
deep shadows, where there can be none in N1a-
ture, or at leaft where they are almost Infen-
clair-ohbJure, by the Italians called, ckidro ofcuro, is the
art oFmanaging Lights and Shadows: So when a Painted
chuf s an advantageous Light, and difpoles his Figures lo,
as that they receive the Light which are fet off with deep
Shades, .he is faid to underhand the Oair-olftzure,
fible ;

ByL' EONAR DA ViNCit 4 .
fble ; and +- Reflex's where there cannot poffi-
bly be any at all.
Painting confifts of two principal Parts, the Divi{on of
one is the Defign, that is, the Figure, or Con-Painting.
tour, bounding Bodies, and their Parts: The
other is the Colouring, comprehending the Co- -
lours included within the Contour.
Designing is likewife divided into two Parts: Divifion -of
One whereof is the proportion of the Parts Defigning.
with regard both to one another, and to the
whole which they Conftitute : The other is the
Attitude, which ought to be proper to the
Subjea, and to correfpond with the Intention,
and the Sentiments fuppofed to be in the Fi-
gure represented.
There are three things to be con fdered in Proportion of
the Proportions, viz; :Juftnefs, Suitablenefs, the Parts.
and Motion: Juftnefs takes in the Exa&
measure of the Parts, considered, both with re-
gard to one another, and to' the whole. By
Suitablenefs, we mean the Chara&er proper to
each Perfon, according to its Age, State, and
Condition fo that in the fame Figure there be
not feen Parts, both of an old Man and a young
one; nor thofe of a Woman in the Figure of
a Man ; nor in a beautiful Body, any other than
beautiful Parts. Laftly the Motion, which is
nothing but the Attitude and Expreflion of the
Sentiments of the Soul, requires a Difpofition
in every Figure, that may exprefs what it is
doing, and the manner it wou'd do it in:
For it muft be obferv'd that an old Man never
appear with the brisknefs and vivacity of a

t Reflex is the Return or Rebound of the Light, bring-
ing with it a Colour borrow'd from'the Subjet that fends.
it back.

S 54 T eatife of Painting,
rong one, nor the Force and Vigour of a Ro-
buft one; that a Wonian never have the Air
ofa Man'; and in Ihort, that whatever either
Forceor Delicacy, are fliov:n in the Figure, be
likewise reen in its Motion.
lie'iMot;in All the FigureS in a Painting, ought to bh
ind Exprelion in an Attitude fiitable to the SubjeA they repre-
"6-f."w' fent; 'fo that in Vifwing them, one bay eafily
know *hat they think, and what they Wou'd
fay. To allift your Imaginationj in thus fuit-
Ing the Attitudes to your Figures, consider atten-
tively' the Gefures'of Mutes, who exprefs the
Thoughts and Conceptions of theif Mind, by
the Moti6ns of their Eyes, Hands, and wholy
Body: Nor muft you be furpriied that I fend
ou to a dMater without a Tongue, to learn an
Art of which he is Ignorant himfelf; fince Ex-
perience makes it appear, that he will tea;h you
moae by his A&iods, than all the World be-
fides, with their W6fds and Le&uies. A Pain-
ter therefore, before he fix his Atiiiudes, fhou'd
consider the Quality of thofe who fpeak, to-
gether with the Nature of the Butinefs they
Jpeak on; in order .6 apply the Example of a
MIute, which I here propose, to his Purpofe.
The eoniot' Never draw the onitours of your Figures in
never to be any Colour different from that of the Ground
too harlh andthey:are in ; that is, never make any obfcurc
apparent. *'Prfesi between the Figures and the Ground.

Profie, is that shiclihmarks out the Pearts, Members,
aiid settings out; tc.' of folid Bodies, and is opposed to
the Plan- as when ile fay the Profie of iChurch, vi
mean the Reprefentation of its Hfeight, Depth, an:.
Length, h. .In Sculprure it fignifici 4.Head drawn 94d-
wa} a> id Medals, &c.

The Faults in little Figures, are not fo ea.fily A Fault not
laned as thoCe in larger; the Reafon of"o cafiy di-
ichh is, that the extreme Diminution of themallThing,
r ts of little Figures, does not allow us to ex- ar a large one.
iine ftri.tly into their Proportion: So that
i impoffible to determine wherein thofe Parts
Sdicfitive. For instance, if you look at a
an Three hundred Paces' diftant from you,
it h Delign to examine the Features of his Face,
td tobfcrve whether he be handsome or de-
ricd or of ordinary Appearance; you will
I that with how much Earneftnefs and At-
ntion forever you view him, 'twill be impofli-
e for ono to diliover to which Clafs he be-
ng.s: The Reafon of which, is without doubt
ving to the apparent Diminution of the Parts
the Objeft, occasioned by its great Diftance:
on the Eye. If you doubt whether Diftance
minifhcs Obje's, you may beeafily convinced
Sthe ifolowing Experiment; hold your Hand
Iome distance from your Face, in fuch man-
r, as that pointing up aFinger, the Tip of
may corrcfpond to the'Top of the fame Per-
ns Head, whom you were before observing;
d you will find that your Finger does not on-
covir his Face, length-wife, but likewife a
nidcrable part of his Body; an evident Proof
the apparent Diminution of the Objet&!
The Painters are apt to lament themselves, Why the Re
d quarrel with their own Performa~nces, be-lievo'sin Pain-
fle in copying from the Life, they cannot"n can n.c o
e e Ye -be fo bold,
e their Figures the fame Force and Reliepve,, thofe i
th whichh Images appear in a Mirrour urg- Nature.
g that they have Colours of greater Luflre,
d Shadows much deeper than any theMirroar
hibits; and laying the whole blame of their
iure, upon their own Ignorance, or Unhap-

A8 A' tTreatife of 'teP,; i' ig,
jinefs in the Management of them; but they
herein abufe themfe-lves, and impute that td
their own Weaknefs, which is an Effet purely
Natural: A painted Figure muft of neceffity ap-
pear with lefs Relievo, than a Figure feen in a
Mirror, ( tho' both fuperfitial) unlcfs both
the one and the other be only viewed with a
single Eye ; the Recafon is this: The two Eyes;
A B, [ Tab. T. Fig. 2.] viewing the two Objehfs,
NM one behind another, Mcannot entirely
intercept the Sight of N, the Bafe of the vifkal
Rays being fo large, that the farther Objcd di;
covers it felf beyond the firft; but if you only
make ufe of one Eye, as S, [Tab. T. Fig. 3.] the
Object F will intercept the whole Extent of ,;
bccaufe the Pyramid of Vifual Rays, ifliuing froni
a Point, has the firft Body F for its Bafe; bJi
which means the fecondR, of the fame fize, is
entirely hidden *.
Several Hift- 'Tis an univerfal Fault, iand which Painters
ry-pieces. ne- every day fhn into in Painting the Fronts of
ver to be Churches and Chappels, that after finifiing fome
painted one Hifoty-Piece; with the Landskip, Buildings;
over another &c. they go on to paint other Pieces, ober, and
on the fame by the fide of the first, ftill changing the Per-
ron. fpeive Point; fo that the fame Front hall be
painted with several different Points of View;

SLeonardo is a little obfcure in this Chapter, and may,
perhaps have been mistaken ; the Matter, in a few Words'
feems to be this : Every Painting, is a piece of Perfpe-
tive, and the Figures in it, capable of appearing with as
much Relievo, as the natural Objedfs they represent. But
the Figures in Painting are all flat, fb that we cannot
turn round them, to view their different Sides ; there be-
ing properly but one Point of View, from whence they
may be well feen ; whereas we furvey all the fides of Natu-
ral Bodies; and they always appear with the Rclievo they
really) have."

than which nothing can be more abfurd; the
Point of View in any Painting representing the
Eye of a Spe&ator. If you ask then, how the
Life of any Saint divided into several Hiffories,
may be painted on the fame Front ? I answer,
that you muft place your firft Plan, with its per-
fpefive Point, at fuch a height as may be the
nmoft fuitable to thofe who are to view it below;
representing your principal Hiftory in large, up-
on this firft Plan, and fill diminishing the Fi-
gures and Buildings for the reft of your Subje&,
according to the different Situations they are
placed in. In the reft of the Front towards the
Top, you may paint Landskips, with Trees,
proportionate to the Figures, or Angels, if the
History require it, or Birds, or barely the
Heavens with Clouds and the like Incidents.
Without this Condu&, 'twill be much better for
you to let thefe forts of Paintings alone; for
your whole Work will be falfe, and contrary to
the Rules of Opticks.
The Figures illuminated with fome particular The Light in
Light, fhow a greater Relievo, than thofe en- which Figures
light'ned with an univerfal one. For a parti-a tgreae ft
cular Light produces.Reflex's, which loofen the Reiie~
Figures from the Ground of the Painting. Thefe
Reflex's rife from the Lights of fome Figures,
and Rebound upon the Shadows of thofe oppo-
fite to them, giving them a faint Light. A Fi-
gure however, expofed to a particular Light,
in fome vaft obfcure Place, receives no Reflex;
fo that there are no Parts of -it to be feen, but
what are enlightened: But this is never ufed,
excepting in Night-Pieces, where the Light mulf
be very dim and particular.
The Contours of Figures discover more Skill in Greater variLs
Designing, than the Lights and th.idows: The ty in the
E firft Lights of

;A Treatife of 'Painting,
Shadows of firtf requires the greateff strength of Thought,
ires. than and the latter the greater Extent and Compafs;
Stheir Co- For the Members are confined to a certain'
Number of Motions ; but the Projetions of
Shadows, the Qualities of Light, their Degra-
dations, &c. are infinite.
The Take Notes of the Mufcles and Tendons,
ufed inth, fe- "'hich in different Atritudes, and different Mo-
veral Moiocs tions are either discovered or hidden in each
of rhe ody C her, or at leaft, that are neither the one
to : r-'em nor the other : And remember that this is a'
bre. y a fiudy of great importance to Painters and Sta-
ai1. tuaries, whole Profefion obliges them to Un-
derftand the Mutfles, their Fun&ions and
Ufes. But further, you muft make thefe Re-
marks on the Human Body, in all its Stages,v
from Infancy to Old Age ; obferving the Chan-
ges each Member is liable to; for Inftance, in
growing fatter or leaner, &ce.
A Remark In Acions purely Natural, which we per-
uponExprefi- form without Refletion, but which at the fame
o:, and Atti- time, spring from a firong Inclination, a Pain-
twits. ter thou'd obferve what are the firft Effe&s dif-
S covering themselves in the Body ; and make
Sketches of what he Remarks in this kind; for
by means of thefe, he will be enabled on occafi-
on, to place a Body in the fame Attitude from
whence he may gather, what Parts are concer-
n-ed in the Adion he wou'd represent.
ai ting.ony Painting fhou'd only be view'd from one liin
t 1 e viei' egle Place, as may be obferv'd from the follow-
a& ,-,' ing Example. If you wou'd represent a round
Ene ; r"a Bowl in ;any high Place, you muft' give your Fi-
gure an Oval Contour, retreating backwards till
fuch time as it appear round.
AKeikupa. W-When 'in designing after any Body, you 'find
Ca s.adoi. your felf unable precifely to determine how far'

the Shadows reach ; Be flre to leave therm n-
finifhed in your Painting: By this Ingenuous
piece of Negligence you will at once fhow your
own Modefty, and the ftrianefs wherewith
you imitate Nature.
Children that are to be represented fitting, How to rM
muft fhow very quick Motions, and even Con-prefent little
torfions of Body; on the contrary, if they beChildren.
flandirg, they fhou'd appear timorous and
To represent an old Man landing, you muft How to re-
give him a dull Indolent Attitude, with flow present old
Motions, his Knees a little bent, his Feet ftrad-Men
ling, his Back crooked, his Head ftooping for-
wards, and his Arms rather folded, than fpread
out too wide.
Old Women fhou'd appear eager and pafli- How to res
6nate, fiery and outrageous as Furies: but this present old
Charaaer ought to be expreffed in the Air ofWomen.
the Face, and the Agitation of the Arms, ra-
ther than in the Motions of the Feet.
Women muff appear very modest and refFr-How to re,
Ved in their Air, their Knees clofe together, present Woe
their Arms a crofs, or folded over the Stomach,men.
the Head gracefully bowing, and a little incli-
ned on one fide.
A thing wholly devoid of Light, is nothing ,O to paint
but Darknefs: Now the Night being of thisaNight-piecc
Nature, to make any Nodurnal Reprefenta-
tion, you muft take care that there be a large
Fire, to illumine your Obje&s ; in the-condu&
of which, you muft obferve the following
Rules: Thofe things that are neareft the Fire,
muft be the moft tinged with its Colour, it be-
ing a Natural Property of Bodies, that the
nearer they are to any Objea, the more they
receive of its Light, and. the more they partake
E 2, of

Set>4 Treatife of TPainting,
of its-Colour; and as the Fire appears of a Red-
Colour, every thing illumined by it, muft like-
wife be feen of a Reddifh caft; this Rednefs,
always growing weaker,. and partaking more
of the blacknefs of the Night, in proportion
as the Objeas are farther removed from the
Fire. As to the Figures, obferve that thofe
between you and the Fire, do not appear ifn
the left illumined by it; for on the fide that
you view them, they are only tinged with the
obscurity of the Night, there being no pofli-
bility of their receiving any thing from the
brightness of theFire: the Figures on either fide
fhou'd appear half Red and half Black; and
thofe feen beyond the Fire, muff be all illumi-
ned with a Red Light, upon a Black Ground.
As to the Attitudes- fuch Figures as are neareft
the Fire, fhou'd hold their Hands before their
Faces, and Screen themselves from the fcor-
ching heat of the Fire w-ith the Skirts of their
Cloaths; turning their Faces the other way
as if they were about to fly from it:. Thofe
that are further from the Fire,, fhou'd likewife
appear dazled with the Flame; covering their
Eyes with their Hands, to ffielter them frori
the too powerful Light.
t If you wou'd represent a Tempeft,, consider
-ow to re-
prefent a attentively its effeas. A high Wind,either
Tempef. upon Sea or Land,. forces up every thing it
meets with if not Readily fixed, toffes it con-
fufedly, and whirls it away. In Painting a,
Tempeft therefore, you muft represent the
Clouds driven impetuoufly by the Wind, aid
clashing against each other; the Air filled with
Dufft and Sand, fwept from the Shores, and
gathered into Eddies; Leaves and even. Bran-
ches of Trees, diforderly blended with' other

Tight Bodies, and hurl'd with rapidity over the
.whole Region; Herbs beaten clofe to the
,Ground; fome Trees torn up, their Roots in
the Air, others giving way :to the Wind, their
Boughs broken, or bent contrary to their na-
tural Pofture, their Leaves ruffled, and folded
in different manners; Men overturned, incum-
tbered in their Cloaths, covered with Duff,
.and fcarce to be known, others who keep upon
their Feet appearing behind fome Tree, and
clinging clofe round it, left the Storm thou'd
tranfport them; others covering their Eyes
with their Hands, for fear of being blinded by
the Duft, bending towards the Earth, with
their Drapery irregularly fluttering in the Air,
,or-even flying from them in the Wind. If the
Storm be represented at Sea, the Waves dafh-
ing against eadh other muff cover it with Froth,
which being rais'd up by the Wind, may fill the
Air as with a thick Cloud ; VefTels appearing
in the middle of the Water, muft discover
Sailers holding theends of broken Ropes, fhat-
tered Sails wildly floating, and torn Mafts tum-
bled upon the Deck ; others may be reprefen-
ted upon the Point of Shifpwreck, the Waves
breaking iR, the Mariners flirieking and laying
hold of the remaining Wrecks iof the Veflel.
One may further feign the Air full of Clouds,
impetuoufly driven by .the Winds, ftop'd and
repuls'd by the Mountain-Tops, and having
recolleted themselves, incompaffing them like
Waves broken against a Rock; the Day at the
fame time appearing dark and overshadowed
with Duff, Rain, and thick Clouds.
In the firft place you muft Paint the Smoke rHow to re,
of Artillery, confufedly mingled in the Air,prefcnt a Bar-
Wyith the DUlt arising from the Horfes Feet. de
E 3 In

4 .4 Treatife of Painting,
In exprefling this mixture observe the follow.
ing Rules. Tho' Duft, by reason of its extrcrra
lightness, does eafily mount into the Air, ytr
has it the common affection of all natural Bodie,,
I mean Gravity, by which it returns of ir fdl
towards the Earth; none but the finest and
nmolt fubtle Parts of it continuing to float in th,',
Air : it muff be Painted therefore of a very thin:
weak Colour, and not much unlike to that of'
Air ; the Smoke which mingles it felf with the|
Air and Duft, being mounted to a certain Pitdh,'
will appear like dark Clouds; in the more ek.
vated Parts, it will be much more visible thjn:
the Dullt, and will appear of a Colour f.mewhja
Azure and Blueifh; the Duft always retaining ,
its natural Colour. This mixture of Ail,
Duft, and Smoke, will appear much brighri:
on the fide whence the Light comes, than on the"
oppofite one. The deeper the Combatantn
are funk in this Cloud, the lefs visible they will
be, and the lefs difference there will be between'
their Lights and Sh.dows. The Faces, Per.
fons, Airs, Arms, and every thing about thli,
muff be Painted of a Fiery Red Colour, thii
Rednefs always diminishing as it is further re-
moved from its Origin, and at laft lofing it fell
entirely. The Figures far distant, between yuc'
and the Light, muft appear dark, upon a light|
The Authors Words are, dalla part cbe viene it L.',
parr4`qucfta Miftione d' Aria, fumo, &' Polvere, molto ,;r I-
cidIche dalla oppoita parte. Which the French Trrjnlljcr:.
his taken the Liberty to alter, turning them thus, J. I,-i
lange d'Air, de Fumee, & de Pouj0iere, .fra bdeauc -u ri.'
clair fur l, haut, que vers le bas, i. e. This mixture of .ru.
Smoke, and Duft will be much clearer, at the top thill
towards the bottom. One of thefe two Meanings, we
ho;, cannot fail to pleafe the Reader.
G round,

Around, their Legs being always the leaf dir-
tin& and visible; because the nearer the Earth,
the thicker and grofer -is the Dnft. If you re-
prefent any Horfemen out of the main Battle,
remember to raife a little Cloud of Dult behind
each of them, at the diftalce of each stretch of
the Horfe; taking:care that they weaken and
disappear, as they become further removed
from the Horfe that rais'd them; and obferving
that thofe which are the fartheft distant, be the
higheft, fpread the widefl, and the thinneft;
and thofe nearer the lowest, denfeft, and moft
fenfible. The Air mult appear full of trains of
Fire, darting like Lihniin-., fome upwards
fome down, and others in a level with the Earth.
The Balls discharged from Fire Arms, muft
leave a train of Smoke behind them; and the
Front Figures mlft appear covered with Duft ;
especially their Eye-brows, and other Parts apt
to retainit : The Conquerors muft be reprefen-
ted running, with their Hair fcatter'd abroad,
.and both that, and their Draperies blown about
by the Wind their Faces frowning, their Eye-
brows fwelFd, and drawn near one another;
their Members mufl make a *.Contraft a
among them, fo that if 'the right Foot ftep
the foremost, the left Arm muft be advan-
ced the furtheft. If you represent any one fal-
len, let the Blood trickling from his Wound,
ftain the Dult ; and let the wet Earth all around
be mark'd with the Footlteps of Men and Hor.
fes: You may likewife Paint the Figures of
cbntraj, fignifies Quarrel or Oppofirion; and is afed
to denote the different Afpedis, and Pofitions, either of
the Parts of a Figure, as in the Place hererefer'd to ; or
of the Figures forming a Group, or Affemblage as for
instance, when one Figure fhows it felffide-ways, another
full before you, 4 third on thp other iide, ,c. they make
a Contract. E 4 ElrO'fs,

56 eA Treatife of 'Painting,
Horfes, dragging and tearing their dead Mait-
ers hanging in the Stirrups, and finearing the
Ground they pafs over with Blood: The van-
quifh'd muft appear pale, and aftonifhed, their
Eye-brows high, their Foreheads full of wrink-
-les, their NofRrils lhfunk into an Arch, and fur-
row'd from the tip of the Nofe, to the Eyes;
their Mouths gaping, their Lips turn'd back,
difcovering the Teeth unclench'd, and in a Pof-
ture of fhrieking and lamentation. Let fome
one lying wounded on the Ground, with terror
and amazement in his looks, hold one Hand be-
fore his Eyes, the Palm towards the Enemy;
with the other fix'd on the Earth, fupport-
ing his Body : You may fhow fome turning their
Backs, and flying with open Mouths: the
Field of Battle muft be covered with Arms of
all forts, trampled under Foot by the Comba-
tants; fhatter'd Helms, Bucklers, broken
Swords, fhiver'd Lances, and the like: Among
the Slain may appear fome half covered with
Duft,' and broken Weapons; others as it were
quite buried under them; Streams of Blood
muft be feen Iflling from the wounded, and
flowing into the Duft; and this mixture of
Blood and Duft, muff cover the Earth with a
Purple Mire. Some may be represented in the
Pangs of Death, grinding their Teeth, rolling
their Eyes, clenching their Fifts, and making
several Contorfions of Body, Arms, and Legs':
another may be feen difarmed, and thrown
down by his Enemy, yet fill defending himself
with his Teeth and Nails. A Horfe may be
fhown broken loofe, and running through the
.Enemy, with his Main difpers'd, and floating in
the Wind, beating down all he meets with:
oiom one wounded, may be fecn tumbling to

the Ground, and covering himfelf with his
Buckler; his Antagonift at the fame time ftoop-
ing over him to take away his Life: There may
be likewife represented a whole croud of Men,
confufedly fpread under a dead Horfe: Some of
the Conquerors may be fhown retiring out of
Battle, wiping their Eyes clamm'd up with Duff,
and their Cheeks fmear'd with Filth, formed
out of Sweat and Tears which the Duft had
made to trickle from their Eyes : You may
likewise represent Squadrons advancing to fuc-
cour their Fellows, full of hope, mix'd with
circumfpcaion; their Eye-brows drawn up on
high,fhadowing their Faces with their Hands,the
better to difcern the Enemy through the Duff,
and attentively waiting the commands of their
Leader. TheGeneral muftbe feen with hisTrun-
cheon in his Hand,ranging his Troops,and poin-
ting out, what way each Battalion is to move:
A River may be represented, and Horfemen
feen plunging through it, dashing the Water
all around them, and raising a Froth where ever
they pafs. Nothing in fine muft be feen through-
out the whole Field of Battle, but what is full
of Horror, Blood, and Carnage.
We all allow the Air to be much groffer and How to re-
more denfe in fome Places than in others; and present re-
that in proportion, as it is higher from themotcobjedts'
Earth, it is more fubtil, pure, and transparent:
for this Reafon high Objeas feen at a good Di-
ftance, do not fhow their under Parts, fo clear-
ly as the upper ; the Vifual Rays by meais of
which we view the former, travelling through a
long track of thick foggy Air; whereas' the
VRays, by which we fee the latter, tho' on the
id of the Eye, they begin in a grofs Air; yet

(3 eA Treatife of'Paintiug,
do they terminate in a much purer, and refined
Air on the fide of the Obje& : So that in Pro.
portion, as they remove farther from the Eye,
they become till finer; paffing continually out
of a pure Air, into a Purer. In painting Land.
skips, therefore, a Painter muft obferve to
make his Mountain-tops clearer than the bot-
toms and even his Hillocks rising over one an-
other, muft appear conformable to this Rule:
the farther they are removed, the clearer al-
was muft their Tops be feen; and the higher
they are raised, the more vifible and diftind
uift their Forms, and different Colours difco-
ver themselves.
The lower That part of the Air near our Earth, being
Parts of the groffer than that at a greater Diffance, of con.
Air brighter sequence it muft receive and reflect a greater
than the up- fhare of Light ; This you may obferve by look-
per. ing towards the Weft, when the Sun is riling:
for you will fee a considerable Brightnefs in that
quarter, before any Appearance of Light be
difcoverable over your Head. In painting a
Landskip, therefore, where the Sight is fuppo-
fed to be bounded with a large Plain, the Hea-
vens muft be represented brighter,in proportion,
as they appear near the Earth ; the lower Part,
at the fame time, being feen whiter and more
lucid than the higher, in the fame proportion
because the Rays of Light reflected from the for-
mer, pafs through a larger Track of Grofs,
white Air than thofe from the latter, and of
Confequence muft be more tinged, with the
yhitenefs thereof. But in looking towards the
Eaft, when the Sun rifes, the Air appears more
obfcure, in proportion as it is lower; the Sun-
beams being scarce able to make their way throw'
the Grofs, Vapoury Air, of the lower Regions.

The Figures of any Body will appear loofen'd How to givd
from the Painting, and standing out with a Figures a
great Relievo, when the Ground they are pain- and make
ted on is diversified with bright and obfcure Co- them appear
lours; the greatest variety poflible appearing standing out
about the Contours of the Figures: But it muft from the
be obferved in diffributing thefe Colours, that a Gon ofthe
due regard be had to their Degradation, that is,
to the Diminntion of brightnefs in the white,
and of Obfcurity in the Dark ones.
In representing Ohbj-ts after their natural of reprefent-
bignefs, it muft be o'ferved that the front Fi-ing Objeds in
gures in Pieces of Miniature, be equally finifh'd their natural
and diftina, with the larger Ones in Painting:bignefs.
But then the Figures in Miniature, being fall,
muft be viewed very near, and thofe of Painting
at a much greater Diftance ; by which means,
how different foever they may be in their real
Dimensions, tfiey ought to appear of the fame
bignefs; The Eye, in that Cafe, viewing them,
under equal Angles, as may be thus demonftra-
ted: Let B C be a Painting, [Tab. i. Fig. 4.] A
the Eye, and D E a Glafs through which the
Species of B C pafs to the Eye; I fay that the
Eye A remaining fix'd, the Image of the Paint-
ing B C, thrown upon the Glafs D E, will be
smaller than the Painting, in proportion as the
Glafs is nearer to the Eye, and will be equally
finilh'd and diftin& with the Painting it felf;
because it perfa&ly represents the Painting at
that distance : But if you wou'd make a Copy of
BC upon D E; in that Cafe, the Painting, by rea-
fon of its Diftance, appearing indiftin&, theFi-
gure you m:,ke from it,muft not be equally finilh-
ed and diftint with the Painting ; tho', at the
fame time it muft be more diftin& than another
Figure M N, made upon the Glafs F G For if

4< oA Treatife of Painting,'
the Figure P were as much finished as BC,
the Perfpeaive of th.e former wou'd be falfe;
fince, tho' with regard to the Diminution of th
Figure, it wou'd be right, B C, being reduced
to the Extent P 0, yet wou'd it be too nuild
finished for its Diftance: So that by finifliing '
O, as much as B C, B C will appear at the neii.,
nefs of P and by diminishing BC to t '.
Compafs PO,PO,will appear at the distance EC
What Figures Things that are near, and that are rep elkn-
to be themot ted in the front of a Painting, muft apprejr
finished. more diflin& and finished than thofe fuppofd i.u
be feen at a distance.
Take Care that the Colours of your Fi-
gures be fo matched, as that they may give J
Grace to each other, and when you make anm,
one ferve as a Ground to another, let it l
done in fuch a manner, as that. they may n.r
appear joyn'd or faften'd together, even thoti :I
they be both of the fame kind ; but obferving tor
make their Teinte or Luffre stronger or wacJi:ec
in proportion to the Diftance, and to the Zioll:
nefs of the Air, interpofed between them : arn
by the fame Rule, proportioning their Cot.n i..
making them more or lefs bold and diftin&t as
the Figures are nearer, or farther removed.
What Light The Light, striking on the Faces of Pet tfns
etrs Faces off placed between dark Walls, makes them zapr.idr
with the moft very graceful, and with a great Relievo ; c Ci-
Advantage. cially if the Light comes on them, from on high:
The Reafon of this Relievo is, because the molt
forward and advanced Parts of thefe Faces, are
illuminated with the universal Light of the Air
before them, fo that the Parts thus enlightened
have Shadows that are almost infenfible; the
parts farther removed, being, at the fame time,
shadowed by the Obfcurity of the Walls, and

receiving fill more of this Shadow, as they are
farther removed from the advanced Parts, anid
deeper involved in the Shade. Obferve farther,
that the Light, coming from on high does not il-'
luminate all Parts of the Face, but that fome
are skreened by the Relievo of others; as the
Eye-brows keep the Light from the hollow of
the Eye, the Nofe from part of the Mouth,
and the Chin from the Throat.
Reflex's of Light, proceed from clear tranfpa- of the Re
rent Bodies, whofe Surfaces are polished and verberation
moderately denfe; For a Ray of Light striking o Refex's of
upon one of thefe Bodies, rebounds like a Ball, Light.
and refleas upon the firft Body that appears its
The Surfaces of Denfe Bodies are incompafs'd Paces here
with Lights and Shadows of very different refleded.
Qualities. Of Lights there are two kinds ; the.
one Original, the other borrowed : Original
Light, is that inherent in any Body, and which
it does not receive from any other; as Fire, the
Sun, and even the Air, which laft, however,
though it be well ftored with Light, yet does
it in effea receive it all from the Sun : Bor-
rowd Light, is reflected Light; that which a Bo-
dy has not in it felf, but receives from another.
To come to the Purpofe then; There can be no
Reflex of Light from that fide of a Body on which
it is fhadow'd ; that is, from that fide turned to-
watds any dark Body, or Place, as Thickets,
Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and the like; For
though each Leaf and Branch, receives the
Light towards which it is turned, yet does the
great Quantity of Leaves and Branches, form
an Body, which the Light cannot pene-

Reflex' si

62 Treatife of Paintig,
Of Reflex's. Reflex's will partake more or lefs of the Co-
lour of the Objeft on which they are produced,
and of the Colour of that which produced them,
as the Objec that receives them, has a more or
lefs polifh'd Surface, than that which produces
d Reflex's If the Light illumining any Body be reflect
thrown upon ed upon the Shadows incompaffing it, the Re-
Shadows. flex's formed thereby, will alleviate, or enligh-
ten the Shadows, in Proportion as their Light
is stronger or weaker, and as they ate nearer or
more Remote, from the Body whence the Light
proceeds. This Obfervation is made Ufe of by
fome, and as much defpifed by Others : The
Painters have even divided themf1Aves intd
MFaions about it, each Expofirig and Ridiculing
the other. If you would keep a juft Mean,
and fecure your felf from the Cenfure of either
Party, make the proper ufe of both Opinions,
Observing never to make any Reflex's, but
where the Neceflity of thofe Reflex's, and their
Colours may be evident; nor ever omitting to
intake them, but where the Reafon of fuch 0-
iniflion, may be eafily perceived by every one.
Where Re- The Reflex's of Light are more or lefs briglhr,
flex's appear that is, they are more or lefs apparent, iii Irr'
the mof, and portion as the Ground on which they are fen,
re the s more or lefs obfcure. When the Ground i,
darker than the Reflex, the latter will apjl.ui
strongg and fenfible, the former fcrving as a
Foil to it: fo where the Reflex is found on 1
Ground brighter than it felt, it mult of Couim
appear the more Dim, by reafon of the White-
nefs surrounding it, becoming, by this means al-
ar oft Imperceptible.
a Relex wllf The Reflex will be the moft b eight and vivid
be the bright.1in that part which receives its light between
ttberh~bh -thc

tie moft equal Angles; for Example, fuppofe N
the Center of Light [ Tab. i. Fig. 5. ] and A B
the enlightened part of the Body A B CFE D,
from whence the Light is refle&ed all around
the fhadow'd Concavity of the fame Body ; fup-
pofe likewise, the Light reflefed on E to have
been tranfinitted between equal Angles, or An-
gles nearly fo : In this Cafe the Reflex E will not
Shave Angles fo equal at the bafe, as the Reflex
F; as may be eafily feen from the great inequa-
lity between the Angles E A B and E B A
Thus the Point F will receive more Light than
the Point E, and the Reflex F will be brighter
than the Reflex E, fince, though the Angles Fand
Have the fame bafe, yet the Angles oppofite
to the Point F, approach nearer to an equality,
than thofe opposite to the Point E. Further,
the Point F, by the Rules of Perfpeaive, muft
be more enlightned than the Point E, because
it is nearer the Luminous Body A B, whence,
they receive their Light.
The Reflex's of a Carnation, receiving their Of the Co-
Light from fome other Carnation, will be of a lour refledet
redder more vivid and more. Vermilion Colour from Fle.l
than any other Part of the Body : The Reafon
is, because the Surface of any Opake Body par-
takes more of the Colour of the Body from
whence it has its light, as that Body is nearer it,
and lefs as it is further removed: It likewife'
participates more or lefs of it, as the Opake
Body is greater or smaller; because being large,
it intercepts the Species of the adjacent Bodies,
and prevents them from mingling their Colours
By Carnation is sometimes meant barely a Colour ; at
otherr times it fignifies a naked Part of a Figute, uncover-
'd with tire Draperyi

64 4A Treat;ie of Painting,
with its own; which, were it fall, wou'd in.
fallibly be the cafe. Sometimes, however, it hap.
pens that a Reflex partakes more of the Colour
ofa fall Body, that is near it, than of a larger
more remote; the effeas of the latter being
rendered lefs fenfible, by reafon of its distance.
Where Re- Of all Reflex's, that which is feen on the
flex's are the darkeft Ground,muft appear the boldeft and molt
mot fenfible. fenfible; and on the contrary, that appearing
on the brightest Ground the dimmeft and leaa
diftina: this arifes from the ContraFk between
things of different Obfcurities ; the leaft obfcure
of thefe serving to fet off the others with the
greater Luftre, and the brighter to render the
others fill darker and lefs perceptible: Jul
like two things of unequal whitenefs, which
when oppofed to each other, the whiteft cafts a
dimnefs and foil on the other, beyond whatit
had of it felf.
Double Reflex's are more powerful than single
Of Double ones, and the Shadows interpofed between the
and Triple incident Rays and thefe Reflex's are fcarcely fen-
Reex' fible. A simple Reflex is that which is formed
by one enlighten'd Body alone; whereas a
double Reflex receives Light from two, and a
triple one, from three. To come then to the
proof of our Propofition, let A be a Luminous
Body, [Tab. i. Fig. 6.] A N and ASdirea Re-
flex's, N and S parts illumined by A, O and F
parts of the fame Bodies, illumined by the Re-
flex's, A N E a simple Reflex, and A N 0 and
AS O a double Rcflex: the simple Reflex E is
formed by the enlightened Body B D, and the
double Reflex O by the two enlighten'd Bodies
B D, and D R; hence the Shadow of the double
Reflex will be very thin, and fcarce perceptible,
being found between the Incident Light and that
of the Reflex NO S 0. One

One Body refle&ing light upon another, does The Colour
not communicate its Colour to that other Body, R le
.. r *" l om lim ple.
fitch as it appears in it felf but tires it with but mixed out
a mixture of federal Colours resulting from dif-ofrfveral Co
ferent parts of the firft Body, upon the fame lours.
Point of the second. For Example, let A be a
Y:l .,. Colour, [Tab. i Fig- 7. reflected upon
the part 0 of the Spherical Surface C O E, and
let the Blue Colour B have its Reflex upon the
fame Point 0 ; by the mixture of thefe two Co-
lours in 0, the Reflex will be converted into a
Green if the Ground be white; it appearing
from Experience, that Blue and Yellow mingled
together do form a very beautiful Green.
It feldom happens that a Feflex is either of the The Colourl
Colour of the Body whence it proceeds, or ofoa Re&Bx
the Colour of that upon which it flls ; thefC two conpofed of
Colours ufially mingling themselves together,the Colour o
and but of the mixture forming a third. For In- the Body
fancle, fuppofe the Spherical Body D FG E, be ceeds, and of
of a Yellow Colour, [Tab. i. Fig. 8.] the Objet thaton which
B Cofa Blue one, and let H be the Point where it falls.
a Reflex fent from C B, strikes upon D F G E:
The Point H in this cafe will become Greern,
when illumined by the Light of the Sun difiufed
in the Air.
Among Reflex's which have the fame Figure, r what place
Force, and Extent, that will fhow it felf with a Reflex is
the greateft or leaft Strength, which terminates the moft vi-
on a Ground the moft or leaft Obfcure. vid and tlnfi
The Surfaces of Bodies partake more of the ble.
Colours of Obje&s, as their Images are refleaed
upon them, under Angles nearly equal. Of Co-
lours, refle&ed by Obje&s upon opposite Bo-
dies, between equal Angles, that will be the moft
vivid, whofe Reflex comes from the left Dift-
0Pce, Among the Colours of different Obji&s,
F fending

.66 iA Treatife of Painting,
fending their Reflex's from the fame distance;
and at the fame Angles, upon opposite Bodies,
that will be refle&ed with the greatest force,
whofe Luftre is the ftrongeft. The Objet re-
fleCting its Colour with the greatest Vigour ip-
on an opposite Body, is that which has no Co-
lour around it, but of its own kind : And on
the contrary, of all Reflex's, that produced by the
greatest number of Obje&s of different Colours,
will be the moft dim and confused.
The Colour neareft any Reflex will commtni-
cate more of its Tinaure, than thofe at a great.
er Diftance.
Laftly, a Fainter muft tinge the Reflex's of his
Figures, with the Colours of fuch Parts of the
Drapery, as are neareft the Carnations on which
thefe Reflex's are thrown ; always obferving that
there refle&ed Colours do not appear too vivid
and diftina, unlefs where there is fome parti-
cular Reafon for the contrary.
OfRtefleted All Refle&ed Colours are lefs vivid, and ap,!
Colours. pear with lefs force, than thofe which recciv i
their Light direly; the direa :or i ,cid.u:
Light, bearing the fame Proportion to iht
Light reflected, which the Luminous Bodiii
occafioning them, bear to one another in bright
nefs and Luftre. A Reflex proceeding 'fi oni
Body more obfcure than that which receives ir,
will be weak and almost infenfible ;; on the con-
trary, where the Ground on which it is received,
is darker than the Surface-whence it proceeds, it,
will be bolder and more visible : Laftly, It will
be Rill more fenfible as the Grourid is more ob.
fcure; and dimimer, as it is more bright.
Ofthepofiti-. As much as the left fide qf the Nudity, DA,
n off figures. is horten'd on account of the Pofition of:the
Figure, fo much the oppofite Side B C, is length-
en'd ;


13 L



len'd; that is, in proportion as that part of the
Figure between the left Shoulder D, and the
Waite A, is diminished, the part on the Oppo-
fite fide, from B to C is augmented; the Navel
or the middle of the Body always continuing in
the fame height. This diminution of Parts on
the left fide of the Figure, arifes from its refuting
' I the left Foot, which by this means becomes
Ihi Center of the whole Body : Hence it comes
to pafs that the middle Point, which is under
the Throat between the two Clavicles, quits the
Perpendicular in which it was found when the
Body was Eref, and enters into another which
pafces through the left Leg, and terminates in
the left Foot; and the farther this Line deviates
from the middle of the Body, the further, like.
wife will the Horizontal Lines which traverfe it,
recede from Right Angles; fill declining to-
wards the left fide, on which the Body refts.
When you understand Perfpeaive and Anato-Preliminarie3
my well, and have a tolerable Notion of theto the Paint-
Parts and Members of Bodies, take all Occai-ing of Hif-
ous of obferving the different Attitudes and Ge-rryPieces
futures of Men, in different A&ions. For Ex-
ample, in your Walks, when the Mind is free
and difingaged, observe the Motioq of thofe a-
bout you; whether they be converting famili-
arly together, difputing one among another,
quarreling, or even coming to Blows: Obferve
the Behaviour of thofe about them, whether
they be indeavouring to separate them, or a-
mufing themselves with the fight of the Scuffle;
and whatever you remark in this kind, Defign
upon the Spot. For this Purpofe, it will be con-
venient to have a Pocket-Book always about you,
the Leaves of which may be faften'd in fuch
manner, as to take out without Tearing. For
F 2 thefe

:8 A Treatife of Tainting,
thefe are things that you cannot preserve with
two much Care; the Memory it felf being far
unequal to that Infinity of Objc&s, which pre.
fent themselves to a Painter, aud which he may
find Occafion to make Ufe of, in his future Per-
The height of the firR Figure in a Hiftory.
potio. tPr Piece, muff be lefs than the Life, in Proportion
Height of the as it is removed behind the firft Line of the Pla
firft Figure in of your Painting; the fame Rule holding in the
a Hiftory- Diminution of the Reft, which muft be all cor-
Piece. respondent to the Diftance of the Plan they are
placed in.
Of the Relie- That Figure in a Hiftory-Piece, which is
vo of Figures fuppofed to be neareft the Eye, ought to have
in a Hiftory- the greatest Relievo. The Reafon is evident,
Piece. fince in several Parcels of the fame Colour, that
muft of neceffity appear the boldeft and moft
perfect, which has the left Air interpofed be-
tween it felf and the Eye that views it: 'Tis for
this Reafon that the Shadows which discover the
Relievo of Opake Bodies, are always ftronger
and more obfcure, in proportion as they are
nearer; the Eye viewing them at a Diftance,
being confounded by the Air, and unable to
diftinguifh .them from the Colours of Objeas;
whereas, when they are viewed near at Hand,
they appear in all their Force, and give each Bo
dy a Relievo, in proportion to their deepnefs and
Of the Short- When a Painter has only a single Figure to
nings of Fi- represent in a Piece, he should avoid all Short-
gufes, enings, both of particular Members, and.of the
whole Body; fince otherwise he will be every
Minute expofed to the impertinent Queftions
of fuch as are unacquainted with his Art.; But
iiin Compofitions, where a great N1mnber

of Figures are found, he may ufe his Freedom;
and especially in Battles; where there muff of
neceffity appear an. infinite variety of Motions,
and Contortions, in the Figures engaged in a
Scene fo full of Horror and Confufion.
In large Hiffory-Pieces, it will be neceffary to f Diverity
introduce Figures of various Kinds, with re-of Figures in
gard to Shape, Complexion,' Carnations and At- a Hiftory.
titudes. Some muft be represented Fat and Bur-Piece.
ly, others Thin and fhrivel'd; fome Thick and
Short, others Tall and Slendor ; fome Gay and
Sprightly, other thoughtful and Melancholly;
fome muff have lank Hair, others Curld; the
brisk and lively Geftures of fome, muf make a
Contrag with the flow and graver Motions of
others: In a few Words, there muft be variety
in the Form, Colour, Drapery, &c. Of every
thing that enters into the Compofition of the
When you underftand the make of a Human How to Itu
Body, its Members, YonSures, and the several d the Mo-
PoFitions thefe are capable of, apply your felf to ions of HU-
the Study of Motion. And here you will find it m odi
of considerable Service to draw flight Sketches,
of any thing in the Aaions ofthofe about you,
thefe may be worthy of notice; taking care by
the way that the Perfons be not apprized of
what you are doing, fince by this means they
will infallibly come ihort of that Force and Spi-
rit in the A&ion, which otherwise they wou'd
express. Thus when two Men are enraged,
with what Violence and Fury do they rufh upon
each other ? Their Eye-brows move with brisk-
nefs, and their Arms fwing impetuoufly every
way, and every Gefture and Motion they fhow,
confelfes the Rage, Choler, and Paffion that
tranfports them. Now it will be
F 3 Makj

pO oA Treatije of Tainting,
make a Model exprefs the Zeal and Fervour,
with which a Genuine Rage is attended; or
even to represent the Effe&s of any Real Paflion,
as Grief, Admiration, Fear, Joy, or the like:
A Man is not fo much Mafter of his Paffions as to
raife and lay them when he pleafes. Let a Pain-
ter therefore take his Motions and Attitudes
from Nature her felf, rather than from thole
who wou'd appear to Mimick her; always re-
membring, that a juft Contour, and a lively Ex-
preJ.lon are the moft Important parts of his Art.
The Method Your firft Eflay towards Painting a Hiftory-
to be taken Piece, fhou'd be the Sketching out a few flight
in learning toFigures, and difpofing them together; but you
Pait Hiftory muft firfl be able to design them well on all fides,
Piece. and to manage the Shortenings and Extenfions of
each Member with addrefs: You may then ven-
ture to make a Group of two Figures fighting to-
gether with equal Courage; obferving to repre-
fent them in different Manners, and Attitudes:
laftly, you may proceed to Paint a Combat be-
tween a brave Cavalier and a Coward; taking
occasion in all thefe Pieces, to Introduce Variety
of fuch Accidents and Paflions, as may require
Expreffion, and enrich the Subje&.
Of the Vari- In Pieces of Fiftory, a Painter muft fhow
ety necelrary something of a Genius and a Talent at Inventi-
in Hiftory- on, by the abundance and variety of his Fi,
Pieces. gures; ftudioufy avoiding all Repetition of the
fame thing, and ftriving to pleafe the Eyes of
his Specators, by an appearance of Novelty.
Where the Subjea will bear it therefore, let
him venture to mingle Men different in Age,
Air, and Drefs, with Women, Children, Dogs,
Horfes, Buildings, Landskips, Hills, and the
like; taking care that there be something of
Dignity in the appearance of a Prince, or a Per-

fon of Quality, and that he be diftinguifh'd from':
the Populace. He muft further obferve, that in
the fame Group, be never feen the Gay and
Sprightly,mix'd with the Penfive and Melanchol-
lick; it being natural for People of jovial Difpo-
pofitions, to affociate with thofe of their own
kind, and on the contrary, for the ferious and
grave to ihun thofe of a different Humour.
'Tis a Fault, to which the Italian Painters are The Faces iii
extremely liable, to wit the introducing entire a Hiftory-
Figures 6f Emperors and others, imitated from piece to be
the Ancient Statues, into their Pieces ; or at left lYerifi~
the giving their Figures, the Air and Appear-
ance by which fome of the Ancients are diftin-
guih'd : to avoid this Fault, remember never to
repeat the fame thing, nor ever give the fame
Face, to two Figures in the fame Painting. And
in general you may take it for granted, that the
more your Defign is Diverfified,, by having that
which is ugly, placed near that more beautiful,
an Old Man near a Young one, a Robuft Man
near a Weak one, the more pleading your Pain-
ting will prove. It often happens that a Painter
having designed fome Animal, will make every
ftroke of it ferve for his Purpofe; but herein he
is overfeen, for the Members of the Animal
while he was designing it, were usually in a
Pofture by no means conformable to the A&ioa
represented in the Painting; thus having fi-
nilh'd the Figure with a great deal of care and
SGroup, An Affemblage or Knot of Figures, gathered
together in one Peloton, Globus, or Bottom, as it may be
called. One may illustrate it by a Confort of Voices in
Mufick, which altogether fuftain one another, and from
which, if you take away any one the Harmony, becomes
defective ; fo if a Group be not well balanced with
fqjnehing or other will appear difagreeable.
F 4 uftnes

,j4 1A Treatife of PaiIt'i,
juftnefs, he has the Mortification at lafi, of fnd'
ing himfalf undcr a necenty of edacing i, and
fupplying its place with another.
How to If you wou'd h.lve tl 'Neighbourhood of one
match the Colour, give a Grace to another, imirtte Na-
Colours in tore, and d.- that wirth vyon Prncil. which the
fuch aman- Rars of the Sun do upol a Cloud, in forming .a
net as that Rainbow ; where the Colours fal. fweetly into
they give 2 '. -'
ce toeac ne another, without anFy ii; appearing in
cGrace to eachI an
other, their extremes.
Obferve further, the following Remarks re-
lating to Colours. i. In reprefenting adep dark-
nefs, be fure you oppofe to it a ffronm? White;
and to Let off a White with the greater force
and Lufre, let there be a deep dark oppoFed to
it. 2. Red will appear more vivid near a pale
Yellow, than near a Violet. 3. You mu!ft diftin-
guifh between Colours, which fet one another
ot with a greater force and b-ig :tnf:, and
thofe which only add a Grace to each other;
thus Green gives a Grace to Red, ard at the
fame time takes it from Blue. LalLy a pc :Yel-
low or a White, n'atches very ili with an Azure;
the .Union of theft CGolburs as well of fome
others. hereafter mentioned, being of mutual
di PT- ice.,
How to make -You mult alwa ,:i -. a very White Ground
cnour as- for Colours wh ch you dciire to appear bright,
pear vivid. provided they "be transparent ; for others a
White Gro!;nd is by no means fhitable ;. as is
found by Exrer nce, in Painted Glafs, the Co-
lours of which ,,.etr extremely Il,:t;fi.l when
I\ ber,'-en thei Eye and the Light, but lofe
,all their TALitre when held to a thick dark Air,
.or an Cpak-e rody.
Ofthe Colr The Shi"adow of any Colour, muft always par-
oftheS !ado1wtipate of the Colour of its Object and that in
of any Colour a greater

a greater or lefs Degree9 as the Obje& has more
or lefs Light, and as it is nearer, or further dif-
tant from the Shadow.
Among Colours more obscure than the Air,The Varief
that will appear the moft vifible, which is feen bfervable in
at the greatest diftance ; and on the contrary.,thleyurs, as
atth. .nr~rithey are near-
among thofe brighter than the Air, the furthefter, or more
removed will be the dimmeft and leaft diftin& :remote,
Thns all things in general, may be faid to change
the Nature and Quality of their Colour, by be-
ing view'd from a great diflance; the brighteft
in that cafe, appearing more obfcure, and the
dimmeft more vivid.
A Body lofes its Colour at a greater or lefs At what io
distance, as the Eye and the Objef are at affancethcCo-
greater or lefs height from the Earth : This Pro-lour of a Bo-
pofition I thus demonstrate; The Air bein rddifappeCas
More or lefs denfe as it is nearer or more remote
from the Earth, it follows, that where the Eye
and the Objef are but a little elevated above"
the Surface of the Earth, the groflhefs and den-.
fity of the Interpofed Air muft weaken and ob:
fcure the Colour of the Obje : But when both
the Eye and the Obje& are considerably rais'd
above the loweft Region of the Air, the pure-
nefs and fibtilty of the Medium,will yield an eafy
PT- ige to the Species of the Objef, fo that the,
Eye will receive them without any fenfible Di-
minution of their Luftre. In fine, that variety
and degradation, obfervable in the Colour of an
Objef, is not only owing to the Light, which
at different Hours of the Day is unequally fplen-
did, but to the different Rarity and Denfity of
the Atmofphere, through which the Colour is
transmitted to the Eye.
The Shadow of White expofed to the Air, The Colout
Will appear bordering upon Blue. The reason of the Sha-
i dow of Whie.;

4 A treatife of 'ainting,
is owing to this, that White is not properly a
Colour of it felf, but only the Subje& or Recep-
tacle of other Colours,: Now having already
fhown, that every Body partakes of the Colour
of its Objea, that part of a White Surface op-
pos'd to the Air, muft of neceffity appear tinged
with.its Azure.
hat Cdlour The Shadow bordering the molt upon Black,
Produces theis that which is caft on the Whiteft Surface;
darkeft Sha- and this Surface is more peculiarly difpofed to
dow. produce variety of Shadows, than any other;
For White being no Colour of it felf, but bare-
ly a difpofition to receive all Colours indifferent-
ly, White Surfaces partake more intenfely of the
Colour of their Objets,and render it more vivid,
than a Surface of any other Colour : This is par-
ticularly obfervable where the Obje& is Black,
or of any obfcure Colour, far removed from
White; in which cafe the White appears fenfi-
bly clouded, and there is a vifible difference be-
tween the principal Lights, and principal
A Colour It may sometimes happen, that the fame Co-
fometimes lour Ihall not receive any alteration, tho' view'd
enewit eat different diftances; this mut be the cafe,when
fame force at
different Di- the several denfities of the Air, and the several
dances, and diftances whence the Colours are feen, bear the
in Airsof dif-fame proportion : The Proof is as follows; let
rent Denfi- A be an Eye, [fab. i. Fig. 9. ] and H any Colour
tVes. that you pleafe, placed one Degree diftant from
the Eye, and in an Air four Degrees denfe;
now,becaufe the second Degree above,A M NL
is twice as fubtile as the Degree beneath, the
Colour muft be twice the diftance of A H, remo-
ved from the Eye in A MNL, to make it ap
pear the fame that it did in the former Degree;
and ofcourfe mult be placed in thePoint G: fur-

other, if the Colour be raised to a Degree twice at
fubtile as the second, viz.; to 0 MP N, it muft
be removed to the distance E in which cafe the
Line of its distancee A E, will be Equivalent in
quantity of Air, to the distance A G, as will
appear from the following demonstration; if in
the fame density of Air, the distance A G inter-
pofed between the Eye and the 'Colour, take up
two Degrees, and A two Degrees and an half,
that difference, is enough to prevent the Colour
G,from undergoing any alteration in its removal
to E ; because the two Degrees AC and A F,
being in the fame density of Air, are alike and
equal; but the Degree of Air C D, though equal
in length to the Degree F G, is nevertheless un-
equal to it in, denfity, because it is found in an
Air twice as fubtile as that below ; one half De-
gree distance of which laft, intercepts as much
of the Colour, as a whole Degree of the former:,
By calculating therefore, firft the densities of
the Air, and laftly the diifances, you will find
the Colours to have changed their places, with-
out any alteration in their Luftre: the density
of the Air you may calculate thus; The Colour
H is placed in an Air four Degrees denfe, the
Colour G in two, and that E in one; now let us
fee whether the diftances be in a Reciprocal pro-
portion, but converfe; the Colour E is diftant
from the Eye two Degrees and a half, the Co-
lour G two Degrees, and the Colour H one
but thefe diftances not bearing an exa& proper.
tion to the denfities, we muft proceed to a third
Calculus, fomewhat after this manner; the De-
gree A C, we have already fuppofed similar and
equl to that A F, and the half Degree CB is
finilar, but not equal to the degree A F, as be-
iig but half a Degree in length, which at the
P, M