Title: CMS newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087017/00007
 Material Information
Title: CMS newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Center for Multimodal Solutions for Congestion Mitigation
Publisher: Center for Multimodal Solutions for Congestion Mitigation
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Fall 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087017
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

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Dear Colleagues,

welcome to the special issue of
the CMS Fall 2010 newsletter,
which focuses on the pricing
and economics of transportation systems. This
was the topic of a conference for which the CMS
was the major sponsor. The conference was held
in May at the Royal Plaza hotel in Orlando, Fla.
Other sponsors included the National Science
Foundation (NSF), the Transportation Research
Board (TRB) and the Office of Research at the
University of Florida. Three CMS-affiliated faculty
members organized the conference: Siriphong
(Toi) Lawphongpanich, Ph.D., associate professor,
Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering;
Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., assistant professor, Department
of Civil & Coastal Engineering; and Janet Degner,
director, Florida Transportation Technology
Transfer Center (T2). Conference participants
included nearly 100 economists, engineers,
planners, scientists, mathematicians, and students
from 12 countries and various transportation-
related fields. There were three parallel tracks of
more than 80 presentations addressing various
issues in transportation-system pricing. To
commemorate this conference, the newsletter
features several articles on congestion, pricing,
economics and financing of transportation
systems by conference participants.

I am delighted to report that we have officially
closed our year-one projects and we are closely
monitoring ongoing projects from 2009 and 2010.
Year-one projects and the full reports are posted
at http://cms.ce.ufl.edu/research/completed
proiects.php. In September, the CMS issued its
fourth call for pre-proposals, which yielded 23
submissions, the highest yet in the history of the
CMS. Out of the 23 pre-proposals, evaluated by an
independent project review committee (PRC), 10
were selected for the full proposal stage. Results
will be announced in February 2011.

In August, the CMS, the Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT) and McTrans co-sponsored
the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual Workshop.
The workshop was held at the Royal Plaza hotel
in Orlando, Fla., and was very well-attended by
transportation professionals from Florida, several
other states and as far away as Brazil, Honduras,
and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Our
next workshop is being planned for August 2011,
and it will focus on the use and applications of the
CORSIMT" micro-simulator. Additional information
will be posted soon on our website http://cms.
ce.ufl.edu/news events/conferences.php.

This academic year I am on sabbatical leave in
Greece, and I have had the opportunity to visit
colleagues in Europe and learn more about the
transportation systems in various countries. Most
recently, I visited the Regional Traffic Control
Center in Madrid, Spain (see picture), which is
a very impressive facility that operates several
hundred kilometers of roadways around Madrid.
Their tunnel facilities are remarkable, and their
HOV lanes, which can operate in either direction
depending on demand, are excellent freeway
traffic management tools. I will be providing you
with additional information regarding my visits
of European transportation facilities in the next

In the meantime, I hope you will enjoy reading
this special issue on The Pricing & Economics of
Transportation Systems.

Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D.
Professor & CMS Director


Highway Capacity Manual


n Aug. 12, the University of Florida's Transportation
Research Center (TRC), the Center for Multimodal
Solutions for Congestion Mitigation (CMS) and
McTrans, along with sponsorship support from the Florida
Department of Transportation (FDOT), organized a workshop
on the updated version of the extensively revised 2010
edition of the Highway Capacity Manual. The workshop was

held at the Royal Plaza hotel in Walt Disney World Resort in
Orlando, Fla. More than 60 transportation professionals from
academia, as well as the public and private sectors, attended
the one-day workshop. Speakers included some of the most
knowledgeable professionals in highway capacity analysis:
Ken Courage, University of Florida; Janice Daniel, New Jersey
Institute of Technology; Doug McLeod, Florida Department of
Transportation; Bill Sampson, McTrans, University of Florida;
Scott Washburn, University of Florida; and John Zegeer, Kittelson
& Associates, Inc. Participants came from various states, and
from as far away as Brazil, Honduras, and the Commonwealth of
Puerto Rico. Participants with a Florida Professional Engineer's
license received six professional development hours (PDHs) for



Carme LFALLt 201n0

CMS FALL 20101 03

lizabeth Deakin, professor of city and regional
planning and urban design at the University of
California, Berkeley, was this semester's Distinguished
Academic Lecturer for the CMS. Deakin's presentation was
titled California's New Initiatives to Manage Growth and Reduce
Environmental Impacts.
The seminarwas held atthe UFCollegeof Design, Construction
and Planning and offered as a live Web cast via Elluminate. CMS
Associate Director Ruth Steiner, Ph.D., an associate professor
in the Department of Urban & Regional Planning, and former

graduate student of Deakin, felt that faculty and, especially
students, benefited from her talk.
"We were very excited about Professor Deakin's presentation
on California's initiatives to manage environmental impacts
of transportation," Steiner said. "Professor Deakin represents
a tremendous knowledge base in planning research and
education.Thefocusof her presentation on reducing greenhouse
gas emission in California is a cautionary tale for states that are
addressing these issues at the local level. Meeting this challenge
will be of great relevance and importance in Florida and many
other states in the next few decades."
Deakin spoke about the recently enacted legislation that
mandates the reduction of greenhouse gasses, the creation of
new transportation fuels and more efficient vehicles, and called
upon metropolitan regions and local governments to develop
"Sustainable Community Strategies." For an online video of
Deakin's presentation and a bio, visit http://cms.ce.ufl.edu/
news events/distinquished lecturer seminar series.php.

l I

/niversityofFlorida transportation studentscaptured
third place during the Grand Championship at the
ITE International Collegiate Traffic Bowl, which was
held Aug. 11 in Vancouver, British Columbia. The UF team, led by
Brett Fuller, a graduate student in the transportation program,
included Clark Letter, Philip Haas and Jorge Uy, also graduate
students in the transportation program. They won the district-
level competition, which in turn qualified them for participating
in the Grand Championship held in Vancouver. The UF team
performed diligently in the competition that tested their
knowledge on topics related to transportation, engineering and
"The Traffic Bowl is a jeopardy-style competition based
on transportation knowledge," Fuller said. "Questions came
from the Highway Capacity Manual, the Manual on Uniform
Traffic Control Devices and various Institute of Transportation
Engineers manuals."
Traffic Bowl participants included teams from Texas A&M,
Georgia Tech, University of Manitoba, University of Purdue,
University of Delaware, Portland State University, University
of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the University of Massachusetts-
Amherst. The team from Texas A&M won the championship.
Teams from the University of Manitoba and UF came in second
and third place, respectively.
Fuller is credited with assembling the team from UF. As the
UF ITE student chapter president, he thought participating in
the traffic bowl competition would be a "fun" way to promote
the student chapter. He said it also gave them a chance to
network with transportation students and faculty from other
In addition to considering the traffic bowl a learning
experience, team member Jorge Uy made good use of the
networking opportunities that the trip offered. "This even
granted me an opportunity to be able to connect with
transportation companies and learn to communicate as a
professional in this field," Uy said.

Regarding the competition, team member Clark Letter said
the UF team members' overall goal was to do their best and
have a good time. He was glad the UF team won third place. "We
did not have very high expectations going out there, so to win
third place was a nice surprise," Letter said. "I think we raised the
bar for the next year's team to go and win the competition."
Siva Srinivasan, an assistant professor in the Department of
Civil & Coastal Engineering, is the current faculty adviser of the
UF-ITE student chapter. Srinivasan is excited about the team's
third place finish and looks forward to the chapters continued
overall excellence.
"We have a great group of officers and members, and I expect
the UF-ITE to be a very active student organization," Srinivasan
And as for Vancouver, the students were amazed with its
beautiful scenery and local culture.
"British Columbia was amazing," Fuller said. "Everything was
great: the food, the weather, thecity. Especially the weather, after
dealing with 90 degree temperatures all summer [in Florida] it
was nice to have a week were it was in the 60s and 70s all day."

From left: Clark Letter, Brett Fuller and Jorge Uy

04 1 CMS FALL 2010


Now on the Web!
Final reports for the following projects are available at:
http://cms.ce.ufl.edu/research/completed proiects.php.

Central Data Warehouse Configuration, Data Analysis for
Congestion Mitigation Studies (STEWARD)
CMS Project # 2008-001
PI: Kenneth Courage, Professor Emeritus, CCE
Date Completed: December 2009

Development of Simulation Program for Two-Lane Highway
CMS Project #2008-002
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE
Date Completed: August 2010

Simulation-Based Robust Optimization for Actuated Signal
Timing and Setting
CMS Project #2008-003
PI: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Date Completed: December 2009

Characterizing the Tradeoffs and Costs Associated with
Transportation Congestion in Supply Chains
CMS Project # 2008-004
PI: Joseph Geunes, Ph.D., Professor, ISE
Date Completed: December 2009

Multimodal Solutions for Large-Scale Evacuations
CMS Project # 2008-005
PI: Panos Pardalos, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, ISE
Date Completed: December 2009

APricing Approach for Mitigating Congestion in Multimodal
Transportation Systems
CMS Project # 2008-006
PI: Siriphong (Toi) Lawphongpanich, Ph.D., Associate Professor, ISE
Co-PI:Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Date Completed: December 2009

Vehicle-Miles-of-Travel-Based Traffic Impact Assessment
CMS Project # 2008-007
PI: Ruth Steiner, Ph.D., Associate Professor, URP
Co-PI: Siva Srinivasan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Date Completed: June 2010

Implementation of the Statewide Traffic Engineering
Warehouse for Regionally Archived Data (STEWARD)
FDOT Match Project # 72734
PI: Kenneth Courage, Professor Emeritus, CCE
Date Completed: December 2009

Investigation of Freeway Capacity: A) Effective Capacity of
Auxiliary Lanes and B) Segment Capacity as a Function of
Number of Lanes and Merge/Diverge Activity
FDOT Match Project # 73157 & 74022
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE
Date Completed: March 2010

Field Data Collection and Analysis for Freeway Work Zone
Capacity Estimation
FDOT Match Project # 67207
Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D., Professor, CCE
Date Completed: June 2008

Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida
FDOT Match Project # 77415
PI: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D., Professor, CCE
Date Completed: January 2010

Multimodal Arterial LOS Modeling and Testing
FDOT Match Project # 76279 & 76293
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE
Title: Date Completed: March 2009

Trip Generation Characteristics of Special Generators
FDOT Match Project # 76173
PI: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Date Completed: March 2010

New Projects
The CMS's Year 4 projects from the most recent RFP issued this
fall will be posted on the center's website after the selection
process has been completed in February 2011. Ongoing CMS
projects, including match projects with the Florida Department
of Transportation (FDOT) are listed at http://cms.ce.ufl.edu/
research/. The following are FDOT-funded match projects, which
were initiated this past year:

Managed Lane Operations-Adjusted Time of Day Pricing
vs. Near Real Time Dynamic Pricing (Supplement to FDOT
Match #81551)
FDOT Match Project # 88583
PI: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Co-PIs: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D., Professor, CCE
Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE

Variable Speed Limit (VSL) Best Management Practice
FDOT Match Project # 88592
PI: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D., Professor, CCE
Co-PIs: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, CCE
Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE

Arterial Highway Capacity and Level of Service Analysis for
FDOT Match Project # 90337
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor, CCE

CMS FALL 2010 05

t 0

August 11, 2011 CORSIMTM Workshop
8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. W workshop
Royal Plaza Hotel
Orlando, Fla.
The CMS, the Transportation Research Center (TRC), and Registration fees include conference materials and food
McTrans at the University of Florida have developed this and beverage services:
workshop for CORSIM'" users. Early-birds $245
Participants will learn about: Regular registration $295
Recently added features for CORSIMT' Workshop sponsors $175
Lesser known features of CORSIM'" that can be Sponsorship opportunities are available! There are
used to model unusual scenarios and provide various sponsorship levels that will entitle your company
advanced analysis capabilities to discounted workshop registration and more. Your
Methods for comparing CORSIM'" results to HCM generous contribution will help support this workshop
results and guidelines on applying CORSIMT' to and future technology transfer activities.
FDOT project analyses
Future changes in CORSIM'" For more information, including sponsorship
Six professional development hours (PDHs) will be opportunities and hotel registration, visit Conference
offered for attending the workshop for transportation & Workshops at http://cms.ce.ufl.edu/news events/
professionals holding a P.E. license. conferences.php, or contact Ines Aviles-Spadoni at 352-
392-9537, Ext. 1409 or iaviles@ce.ufl.edu.

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06 CMS FALL 2010

Rethinking the Politics of Freewa)

Congestion Pricin

|by Bob Poole
Director of Transportation Policy at
the Reason Foundation

or several decades,
using variable
pricing to address
freeway congestion has been a goal
of transportation planners. Such
pricing would reduce congestion by
addressing the imbalance between
capacity and rush-hour demand. It would also generate useful
information about where new capacity was most needed, and it
would provide funding to pay for that capacity.

Yet, despite the on-going federal efforts that began in the
1970s and continue now, no urban area has put congestion
pricing onto its freeway system. Doing so is considered politically
impossible, primarily due to the opposition of highway users -
motorists and truckers. These groups argue that paying tolls to
use existing freeways would amount to paying twice (or "double
taxation"). Some doubt pricing would work; others think it
would work so well that hardly anyone could afford to drive. And
because nearly every adult of driving age is a motorist, it's easy
for elected officials to equate "motorist" with "voter."

Even in huge metro areas overseas, congestion pricing
has been implemented successfully only in three places over
three decades: Singapore, London and Stockholm. It has been
defeated in Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, the Netherlands and
Manchester, among others. These overseas metro areas have
much lower car ownership and much larger transit systems than
typical large U.S. metro areas. This suggests that even where
alternatives to driving are more viable, congestion pricing is still
very tough to sell.

The underlying problem is that congestion pricing can easily
produce more losers than winners. Those who pay the toll would
be winners because the time they save would be worth what
they had to pay. But a great many others would be "tolled off"
the freeways, to already-congested arterials. And those already
using the arterials would have an even worse situation by having
extra vehicles diverted to them from the tolled freeways.

To solve this problem, we need to think creatively. All
conventional freeway-pricing proposals make two unexamined
assumptions: that everyone would be charged the same price
and that all lanes would serve all vehicles. Let's re-examine
those assumptions.

Detailed research on the congestion-priced High Occupancy
Toll (HOT) lanes on SR 91 in California by UC-Irvine economist
Kenneth Small finds a very large distribution of values of time
and values of trip-time reliability among all motorists in that
congested corridor. Small and his colleagues modeled several
pricing alternatives for that corridor, including the existing
combination of priced and free lanes, the standard all-lanes-
priced model of freeway pricing, and a dual-price model. The last
of these produced the highest social welfare outcome, because
it provided more total congestion relief without "tolling off"
large numbers of users. Stephen Shmanske of California State
University at Hayward first proposed this approach in 1991,
and modeled a dual-price system for the Golden Gate Bridge in

The other unexamined assumption that needs a fresh look is
that all lanes should be configured as "general purpose," or GP,
lanes. Highway engineers know that throughput is somewhat
higher on two GP lanes than on two parallel, but separated,
lanes. That's because with multiple lanes, faster vehicles can
pass slower ones. And transportation economists can point out
that because of the lumpinesss" of traffic lanes, it's difficult to
provide the right amount of lane capacity restricted to a single
use say buses, High Occupancy Vehicles (HOVs) or trucks.
Most of such specialized lanes are under-utilized.

But we now have more than 15 years' experience with HOT
lanes, most of them single-lane-per direction. Thanks to variable
(congestion) pricing, these lanes can be filled to a target level
of traffic (e.g., Level of Service C) and kept that way. In selected
corridors, there may be enough truck traffic to justify truck-only
lanes, and several such projects are under detailed study around
the country.

My proposal for freeway pricing draws on these points to
suggest that transportation planners should revise their goals.
Instead of one-price-fits-all on GP lanes, we should be aiming at
a three-part system: premium lanes (with premium pricing) for

Continued on page 18
CMS FALL 2010 07

Enabling an Express

Ridesharing Response to


by Paul Minett
Co-Founder, President and CEO of Trip Convergence Ltd.

If the goal of decongestion pricing' is to reduce traffic on
the road, then mechanisms that make it easier for users to
switch between transport modes in response to the charge,
and therefore maintain or increase person-throughput
but with fewer vehicles, should come to the fore. Dynamic
pricing signals, which change based on the traffic at the
moment, create a choice between the paid-lane for a faster
trip and the unpaid-lane to travel in slower traffic. This
article suggests a mechanism by which regular travelers
could respond by spontaneously forming express car pools2
and thus enable dynamic mode shift in response to dynamic
pricing signals.

To build our case we make the following key assumptions and
1. The purpose of decongestion pricing is primarily to reduce
demand on a congested facility during the peak period.
The goal is to shift the demand to different times of travel,
different modes of travel, or non-travel alternatives (including
cancelling thedemand). Revenue from decongestion pricing
is a secondary purpose
2. Successful introducing of decongestion pricing requires
the simultaneous introduction of alternatives so that
people have a choice if they do not want to pay the charge,
or to minimize the impact of the charge. This could be an
alternative time to travel, an alternative mode of travel, or an
alternative to traveling
3. When thinking of work-related travel, 'mode choice'or being
in a single occupant vehicle (SOV or not) is only a choice on
the way to work. The mode alternatives (SOV or not) for the
return journey are generally set by the 'to work' mode. If a
person has driven SOV to work in the morning, it is somewhat
unlikely that he or she would respond to decongestion
pricing by taking transit home in the evening3
1 Also called'congestion pricing'. The author prefers the'decongestion
pricing'becauseitfocuseson whatthosewho payarepurchasing,decongestion,
which has a positive connotation, rather than the penalty implied in 'congestion
pricing'. No-one wants to buy 'congestion'.
2 Express carpooling has previously been called 'flexible carpooling'
by this author.
3 It is unlikely though not unheard-of. Some people have a'station car'
that can be parked at the station at the destination-end to be picked up when
08 1 CMS FALL 2010

4. If public funds are to be used to fund introduction (capital
and/or operating expenditure) of alternative modes in
support of decongestion pricing, the community should
select the lowest-cost alternative modes, all else being equal.
Cost comparisons should be on a 'full life cycle' basis
5. It is less costly (for the transport system and the community)
if people share rides in self-driven personal vehicles, than in
driver-paid public vehicles
6. The main barriers to more carpooling are that it is difficult
to find carpool partners, and it takes too much time to
assemble the carpool
7. Casual carpooling (also called 'slug lines, see more
information below) overcomes these two main barriers:
carpoolers go to meeting places and either pick up the next
rider or get in the next car that is going their way. They do
not pre-arrange who they will ride with. Riders generally do
not pay for the ride. Given that there is a desire to carpool,
and assuming 'sufficient safety, assembling at a meeting
place has a lower cost (effort) for both riders and drivers than
any system with trip-by-trip pre-arrangement

Casual Carpooling (also called'slugging')
Many people are unaware of the scale of casual carpooling. An
estimated 20,000 people participate daily in a system that has built
up of its own accord in two main centers (San Francisco, Calif., and
Washington, D.C.) and with smaller examples in at least one other
center (Houston, TX). The system has never been implemented
anywhere but started and then grew in responseto local conditions.
The meeting-places and destinations for the main systems are
shown in Figure 1.
Figure 11
San Francisco and
Washington, D.C.,
casual carpool
meeting-places and av
i 4 : e$ --

An example of casual carpooling can be found at the North
Berkeley BART station in Berkeley, Calif. (See Figure 2). The day
the picture in Figure 2 was taken, 116 carpools were formed in
an hour, each with three people. That is, 116 people drove to this
location and formed carpools with 232 people who had walked
to or been dropped off at this location. We have estimated that
casual carpooling saves the San Francisco community in excess of
$30 million per year in fuel, reduced emissions, and avoided public
transport costs.

Express Carpooling
We believe that it would be beneficial to establish casual
carpooling in new locations, particularly in supportof decongestion
pricing. However because casual carpooling has never been
implemented as a project, there is no implementation guide or

getting off the bus or train. There is limited capacity for this to be a significant
part of the solution.

Figure 2| Casual
Carpooling at North
Berkeley BART,
January 2009

best practise manual for the
system. Key issues that arise
1. How would a
tran sportation
agency avoid liability
if something went
2. If issue 1 could be
overcome, what sort
of a catalyst would be
needed to kick-start
a system in a new


We have estimated
that casual carpooling
saves the San Francisco
community in excess
of $30 million per
year in fuel, reduced
emissions, and avoided
public transport costs.

We have developed the concept of express carpooling as a
system that overcomes these issues. The liability issue is resolved
by an operator carrying insurance, obtaining disclaimers from
participants, and managing membership. The system will
be kick-started through conspicuous meeting-places and
appropriate marketing. Express carpooling is a formalized version
of casual carpooling. In addition to the meeting -places found
in a casual carpooling system, express carpooling requires: pre-
screened membership, technology for identification and to track
participation, carpool accounting to transfer ride credits from riders
to drivers, incentives, formal routes, conspicuous meeting places
for inbound and outbound travel, consistent branding, marketing,
and operator insurance. Importantly, it retains the 'no trip-by-trip
pre-arrangement' feature of casual carpooling.

An animation of an express carpooling solution can be seen at
www.raspberrvexpress.com. It shows members making their way
to a meeting-place, lining up, getting rides with other members,
and getting dropped at their destination.

Implementing express carpooling to support the introduction of
decongestion pricing would involve:
Setting targets for traffic reduction on the facility
Agreeing the split of this target between time of travel, mode
of travel, and alternative to travel
Agreeing the portion of the mode-change that should come
from carpooling
Establishing sufficient express carpool parking upstream
from the decongestion tolling points)
Establishing express carpooling routes to major
Establishing destination-end pick-up points for the return

Catalyzing participation through outreach, launch, branding,
marketing, incentives, and other benefits such as high-
occupancy vehicle (HOV) discounts (on the decongestion
charge), dedicated carpool parking at the destination end,
and other HOV benefits
An informal example of this system already exists, but it is not
generally recognized to be such. It is the San Francisco Bay Bridge.
There is a toll of $4to cross the bridge in a westerly direction, there is
a 100 percent discount for HOV3+ vehicles, and the HOV3+s always
get green at the ramp meter. Responding to this, and utilizing the
HOV3+ lanes leading to the Bay Bridge, casual carpooling accounts
for as many as 3,000 3-person carpools per day. [Author's Note: From
I July 2010 the Bay Bridge toll was increased to $6, and carpoolers now
pay $2.50. Casual carpooling continues to operate, and some riders
(who used to pay nothing) now pay up to $1.25 towards the toll].

A Worked Example
Imagine solving the congestion problem on a busy bridge. The
bridge is two lanes each way, 5 miles long including on-ramps, the
traffic volumes are in balance in both directions, there are three
hours of congestion during each peak, at each end of the bridge.
Throughput on the bridge is 1,800 vehicles per lane hour, and the
delay is an average of 20 minutes per vehicle.
What if we could implement a variable decongestion charge
to achieve free-flow, with no delay, at 40 mph
We'd need to reduce the traffic by 1,370 vehicles, or 13
percent of current volumes, in each direction
Let's assume the existing bus service has no spare capacity
Let's assume a parallel alternative route will have
decongestion pricing introduced at the same time to
prevent spillage
In this scenario 5 percent of the target vehicles are expected
to shift to different times or cancel travel at the planned level
of decongestion charge
So an alternative mode is needed to serve the balance, 1,300
people, in each direction
We consider two alternative mode options: increased bus
capacity; and express carpooling. The key factors for each direction
We could get the city to increase bus capacity by 1,300,
including developing park-and-ride (PNR) capacity. We
would expect the PNR to have a capital cost of $20,000 per
space. We assume interest on the capital will be 7 percent per
annum. We expect buses cost about $300,000 for 40 seats,
and that we will require an operating subsidy per boarding
of $3 after fares of $2. We expect that buses will be able to
complete three round trips per peak, and will average 75
percent occupancy. The annualized cost including parking,
bus acquisition, operating subsidies, and fares comes to
$6.05 million
We could introduce express carpooling, also including
park-and-rideshare (PNR) capacity. In this case the capital
cost of parking is expected to be 20 percent greater due to
a different layout for the PNR. Our analysis suggests that a
subsidy is required of 20 cents per boarding after user fees
of $1. The annualized cost including parking, operating
subsidies, and fees comes to $3.56 million, or 40 percent
lower than the bus alternative

Continued on page 18
CMS FALL 20101 09

en the nearly universal consensus among experts
that the flat gas needs to be replaced, what could
possibly stop adoption of an alternative approach? In
a word: politics. Yet, this is too vital a national priority to let politics
jeopardize solutions, leading the National Surface Transportation
Infrastructure Financing Commission to include political viability
as a main criterion in evaluating funding alternatives.
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) is being developed with politics in
mind. VMT already faces fierce opposition because its proponents
have focused more on the technical merit of the system and
less on how to build support for it. Avoiding this risk is why our
platform Efficient Vehicle Assessor (EVA, patent pending) is being
developed. This has led to applications with technical merit that
the political class and policymakers are responding to positively.
EVA is an at-the-pump software platform that uses existing
technology such as RFID, barcode decals, transponders
and Bluetooth to capture vehicle data such as the Vehicle
Identification Number, registration data or any data mandated by
policymakers. EVA matches that data with existing government
databases, such as from the DMV, to allow differential pricing or
fee assessment.
Essentially, EVA turns the gas pump into a policy tool, which
is used to address national and state priorities. These include:
environmental (carbon emissions and incenting greener driving
habits), energy/geopolitics (reducing reliance on foreign oil by
rewarding fuel efficiency), transportation funding and state/
local fiscal crises (by capturing millions of dollars in lost revenues
in delinquent fees and fines). It's important to note that EVA is
the enabling tool, not the policy itself. It's "variable-agnostic."
The variables used in calculating the tax are whatever the state
Used as a policy instrument, EVA could serve in several areas.
In addition to an alternative transportation funding solution
that meets the National Surface Transportation Infrastructure
Financing Commission's five evaluation criteria more completely
than a basic VMT, EVA's outcomes could include:

Beyond Transportation: Other Challenges
and Political Allies
> Local andstate budget crisis: By linking to relevant
government databases, EVA could:
Capture lost revenues as much as $4 billion in parking
Reduce delinquent collection costs substantially
Capture state revenues currently lost due to unregistered
vehicles. As many as 25 percent of vehicles on the road in
some states are unregistered
Save insured drivers billions in higher premiums due to
uninsured vehicles (In Texas alone, that pass-along cost
is$1 billion)
Allies: States and local governments that need revenues;

unions for public employees laid off including police,
firefighters and teachers, and insurance companies
> Law Enforcement: In addition to enforcing insurance and
registration requirements, same vehicle data EVA can:
Prevent stolen vehicles from refueling
Reduce use of uninsured and unregistered vehicles
Allies: Law enforcement groups and insurance
> Consumer Protection: Using aggregate data, EVA could replace
inaccurate "manufacturer's estimated MPG" with much richer
actual MPG data, including region, season and vehicle age.
Allies: Consumer advocacy organizations such as Better
Business Bureau, Consumer Advocacy Group and
Consumer Action and others supporting consumer
access to information supporting informed purchases

Reducing Opposition to Alternative Transportation
EVA's versatility makes it possible to win over (or at least disarm)
many opponents to VMT:
Environmentalists believe VMT offers no incentiveto drive
more fuel-efficient vehicles. EVA enables fuel efficiency
as a variable. Using EPA algorithms for carbon emissions,
EVA could be a tool for assessing the carbon tax
Rural advocates criticize VMT as unfair to rural drivers.
EVA can incorporate "rural location" as a variable
Remote commuters: Opposition to the congestion
pricing proposal in New York City was based in part on
the lack of mass transit choices to commuters in the outer
boroughs. One EVA approach could use commuters'
access to mass transit as a variable in determining tolls/
fees paid by motorists so those commuters who have
no mass transit alternative to driving are not unfairly
impacted by congestion pricing, such as was proposed
in NYC
Social advocates: Mitigating socio-economic impact of
new funding systems is one of the main goals set by the
NSTSFC. Policy-makers could mandate socio-economic
Privacy advocates. Across the political spectrum, people
recoil when GPS tracking devices are mentioned. But
the time and location is needed primarily for congestion
pricing, not transportation funding in general. This
important goal, however, could be more achievable if
states could initially choose a non-GPS system, capturing
just mileage without tracking time and location. As the
public gets more comfortable with this simpler VMT, later
use of GPS might not be as objectionable. Applying the
EVA concept makes such a staged transition not only
more politically plausible, but more technologically and,
therefore, financially plausible
Kevin Condon is the managing partner of Verdeva LLC and managing partner of Core

Continued on page 18

10 1 CMS FALL 2010

International Scan

yJohn Q. Do. n

tolled bridges, tunnels
and turnpikes, designed to generate revenue to pay for the
construction, operations and maintenance of these facilities.

More recent innovations in road pricing in the U.S. have been
limited to price-managed lanes due to political, institutional and
public-acceptance concerns. However, variable charges have
been used successfully by many U.S. industries including
hospitality, air travel, utilities and telecommunications.

Internationally, road pricing has been instituted on a broader
basis in other countries, notably Singapore, Germany, the Czech
Republic, the United Kingdom, and Sweden (Figure 1). In
December 2009, a team of 10 U.S. transportation officials met
road-pricing experts under the sponsorship of the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHA) and the
Transportation Research Board (TRB). The team and team and the experts
met in Europe and Singapore to learn first-hand about their
approaches and best practices.

Overall, the experience in each host country showed that
road pricing is an effective tool to manage demand and raise
revenue. Based on discussions and observations made during
and after the scan, the team found the following:

1. Host countries and regions with clearly defined and
well-understood policy goals were able to achieve
their targeted outcomes most effectively.
While there are a number of basic goals underlying a road-
pricing program, two primary purposes of road pricing
emerged: to manage demand and to generate revenue.
Figure 2 illustrates the fact that there are some programs
that emphasize one objective or another, and others that
seek to blend the two objectives into one harmonious
program. Looking through this lens, Stockholm, London,
and Singapore are in the demand-management circle,
while Germany and the Czech Republic fall solidly in
the revenue-generation circle. The Netherlands, whose
national road-pricing program was discontinued in mid-
2010, would be placed in the overlapping area of the
two circles. A clear understanding of the primary policy
objectives behind the implementation of road pricing,and
consistent decision-making aligned with the objectives,
were essential elements for all successful projects.

2. Thorough planning and setting of appropriate
performance measures ensures achievement
of overall goals, manages the pricing program
as an element of overall transportation system
performance, and helps to guide implementation
and operations.
Comprehensive network planning was integral to the
pre-implementation efforts for the road-pricing systems
examined on this scan. In planning the Stockholm
system, internationally recognized traffic experts were
retained to measure network effects of various alternative
configurations of the charging zone to ensure there were
no unintended effects outside of the congestion charging
zone. Meanwhile, Singapore is using advanced analytics
and traffic models to better understand the network
impacts of pricing on parking and transit.

3. Linking the pricing structure to the benefits received
by the user contributes to public acceptance and
helps to avoid the potential negative impacts from
traffic diversion.
To maintain support for road pricing, some of the sites
visited attempt to connect the pricing structure to the
benefits received by the toll payer. In Singapore, charges
are set at levels to ensure that targeted "optimal" speeds
can be maintained for at least 85 percent of all vehicles.
All net funds collected via Singapore's Electronic Road
Pricing (ERP) initiative are placed in the general fund
and redistributed to road users in the form of vehicle

Continued on page 18-19
CMS FALL 2010| 11

Tool for Estimating

Managed Lanes Traffic and

Variable Toll Rates
by Jack Klodzinski, Tom Adler & William T Olsen

Yegional models provide reliable estimates of
overall corridor volumes and the distribution of
(Jj L traffic on a network. However, current regional
traffic forecasting models do not efficiently forecast hour-by-
hour traffic volumes and most forecast only total daily traffic.
Since toll rates and apportionment of traffic between express
lanes and general use lanes can depend heavily on hour-by-
hour traffic conditions, detailed analysis is necessary to properly
representtheseconditions. In addition, express lanetoll rates vary
based on traffic levels and thus the supply-demand equilibration
process needs to include supply functions that allow both time
and cost to vary dynamically. While hourly traffic forecasting
with dynamic tolling could be done with a regional network
model, the required computing time would be substantial and
makes production of multiple scenarios cumbersome.

The post-demand model application described in this article
provides the user with a tool to quickly produce multiple hourly
toll and traffic forecasts for a managed lanes project with a
short turnaround time. The Express Lane Time-of-Day ("ELTOD")
procedure's primary inputs are total daily corridor traffic from
a regional travel forecasting model, geometric configuration of
thefacility, and tolling policy. ELTOD estimates the traffic on both
general use and toll lanes in the corridor by solving for supply/
demand equilibrium for each hour and a suggested hourly toll

The supply side relationship between traffic volume and travel
times is represented by Akcelik curves that estimate the section
travel times separately for the general use and express lanes in
each direction1. These curves were developed based on queuing
theory to more accurately represent congestion levels in over-
capacity conditions. Toll rates are computed for each hour
and direction based on the express lane's volume to capacity
ratio using power curves (Power curves rather than splines or
other piecewise linear forms are used to avoid discontinuities
that could prevent convergence of the equilibration process).
The rates are set so that they fall within a specified minimum
to maximum toll range, with a shape determined by a specified
power curve exponent. These rates can be used as computed,
manually adjusted or a special optimization procedure can be
used to determine the toll rate that maximizes revenue, express
lane volume or any objective function subject to the max/min
rate limits and level-of-service conditions.

The demand side is presented by a binary logit-based toll
route choice model. The model determines the hourly toll
(express lane) share based on the difference in travel times
between the general use and express lanes and on the toll
1 Akcelik, Rahmi, "Travel Time Functions for Transport Planning Purposes:
Davidson's Function, its Time-Depend Form and an Alternative Travel Time
Function, Australian Road Research, 21(3), September 1991, pp 49-59.

amount. Coefficients for the logit equation were taken from a
2006 stated preference survey and choice model estimation
project conducted in Lee and Collier Counties. The time and
cost coefficients from that study reflect a value-of-time of just
over $17/hour. The logit model scale (0) was adjusted so that it
replicated the observed 1999 time-of-day distribution on the SR-
91 facility in southern California. For the choice between general
use and express lanes, the variance is likely quite low because
travel time differences can be easily discerned and there is
little else other than time and cost that distinguishes the two
types of lanes. A higher scale parameter implies lower variance
and results in higher shares being allocated to the alternative
with the highest utility. This is reflected in the ELTOD model by
a scale parameter of 15, which results in relatively low shares
being allocated to the express lanes during off-peak periods,
consistent with the SR-91 experience.

Because the supply and demand functions are both highly
non-linear, the simultaneous solution of these functions is most
conveniently found using an iterative method.

Changing ELTOD parameters can test variable pricing
strategies for demand management to preserve a desired
level of service in the express lanes when there is an adjacent
non-tolled facility as an alternative. This ELTOD application
was used on a managed lanes project in southwest Florida on
Interstate 75. The procedure for estimating hourly Express Toll
Lane volumes and rates successfully produced results that were
reasonable compared to the daily toll rates concluded from
the daily travel demand model. The rates increased in the peak
hours of the day and dropped to the specified minimum or near
minimum rates during off-peak hours. Continued development
and experimentation is anticipated to produce an analytical
procedure that has even more versatility and detailed results for
toll facility project analyses.

12 CMS FALL 2010

FALL 2010

Surface transportation infrastructure funding levels are finite
and must compete for local funding with many other types of
public projects and services. As a result of the unmet demand for
credit toward surface transportation programs at the state, local
and private level, the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S.
DOT) sponsors several programs, including the Transportation
Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program,
State Infrastructure Banks, Section 129 Loans, and the Railroad
Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program.

Although most project sponsors prefer to receive grant funds
instead of loans or other forms of credit assistance, lending
programs offer distinct advantages that appeal to governments
or private companies. First, lending enables project acceleration
by avoiding uncertain grant funding that may not materialize for
many years in the future. Second, credit assistance supports cost
efficient project delivery by speeding construction and avoiding
construction cost increases due to inflation. For maintenance
projects, borrowing funds to perform rehabilitation activities
may decrease overall costs by protecting the infrastructure asset
before additional deterioration significantly compromises it.

The Transportation Infrastructure Finance
and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program
The U.S. DOT's TIFIA program offers applicants direct loans,
loan guarantees, or lines
of credit for projects with
more than $50 million
of eligible construction
project costs and more 00 .
than $15 million of eligible C -
intelligent transportation A' p
system project costs. 'A

The program imposes
an investment ceiling
on the U.S. DOT of no more than one third (33 percent) of the
total project costs. By remaining a minority investor, U.S. DOT
simultaneously limits its risk exposure and encourages significant
non-federal public and private participation. Loan terms are
negotiated among the U.S. DOT and other participating parties.
For direct loans, the interest rate is set at closing to equal to a U.S.
Treasury instrument with a similar maturity.

As of October 2010, 22 projects in have received $7.9 billion in
TIFIA credit assistance. These projects represent a diverse modal
investment portfolio and include public transportation, highways,
intermodal hubs, ferry terminals, rail, and marine cargo assets.

State Infrastructure Banks
State Infrastructure Banks (SIBs) provide revolving loans and

other types of credit assistance to highway and transit projects.
First developed as a pilot program in 1995 with ten participating
states, the program has expanded to include 39 states and the
Commonwealth of Peurto Rico. SIBs enhance the lending capacity
available to transportation projects under the auspices of the U.S.
DOT by providing financing to smaller dollar projects that are not
eligible for TIFIA assistance.

In contrast with the U.S. DOT-managed TIFIA program, State
Infrastructure Banks are operated individually within each
state, which establishes the application criteria, loan terms and
management structure of their program. In order to transfer
federal funds to capitalize a SIB, a cooperative agreement is
required between thefederal governmentand the SIB. Despite the
more rigorous and intricate steps involved in SIB establishment,
SIBs offer greater lending flexibility and are able to tailor their
programs to the specific needs of the state. For example, SIBs
have the ability to offer various forms of credit enhancements
such as credit guarantees, interest rate subsidies, bond insurance,
and capital reserve funds.

As of June 2007, the SIB program has supported 596 loan
agreements and has provided more than $6 billion of project
support in 33 states. Loans have included many different types
of transportation projects, including public transportation assets,
intermodal facilities, roads, and airport facilities.

Section 129 Loans
Section 129 loans allow states to use regularfederal-aid highway
apportionments to fund direct loans to projects with dedicated
revenue streams including tolls, property taxes, sales taxes and
other beneficiary fees. The loan provisions, as amended, are
codified at Section 129(a)(7) of Title 23, and for this reason, loans
under this program are commonly referred to as "Section 129"
loans. Loans must begin repayment within five years after the
project is opened to traffic, and must be fully repaid within 30
years from the date federal funds are authorized for the loan.

The number of completed Section 129 loans has been limited,
due in part to the availability of TIFIA credit assistance for similar
types of projects. However, for projects unable to meet the
cost threshold or other application criteria required for TIFIA
assistance, Section 129 loans are a good alternative. Section 129
loans complement the SIB program by providing the opportunity
to lend funds external to a formal bank loan process. This feature
is important to states unable to utilize or participate in the SIB

Railroad Financing
The Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing
Program offers direct loans and other credit assistance to eligible
freight rail transportation projects. UnliketheTIFIA program,direct
loans may fund 100 percent of a project, with up to 25 years for
loan repayment. As of October 2010, the program has completed
28 loans, with loan amounts totaling more than $1 billion.

Robena Reidjoined the Federal TransitAdministration (FTA) Office of PolicyDevelopment
in 1999 as a financial economist. She has performed a variety of financial management
roles including credit analysis, lending program oversight and loan negotiation for the
Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Credit Program and the
State Infrastructure Bank program.

CMS FALL 2010 13

Atlight on

oranne Downs
District Five Secretary, Florida Department of Transportation

To the beat of her own drum
Before rising to the position of District Five Secretary of the Florida
Department of Transportation- even before she became the first
woman to earn a civil engineering degree from the University of
Massachusetts, (formerly Southeastern Massachusetts University at
North Dartmouth) Noranne Downs just wanted to follow in the
footsteps of her dad.

"My dad was a draftsman and a window engineer, he designed
windows," Downs said. "I was a child who was interested in what he
did, and my dad said 'You are so smart in math, why don't you be
an engineer? You get to do designing, and you could do your art on
the side.' I actually listened to him!"

As the middle child, she grew up in Kingston, Mass. a quaint
town filled with childhood adventures, clambakes and swimming
lessons. "Plymouth" and "Cape Cod" were household names. She
favored drums over the flute, played ice hockey instead of taking
ballet lessons and was good in math but also had an artistic gift.

Two weeks out of college, Downs moved to Florida. "The weather
brought me to Florida," she said. "I loved Massachusetts, I loved the
sun and I loved the ocean, but I hated the cold."

The pathway to success
Ajob opening in Florida carved a path for Downs that led to the
Cityof Daytona Beach,where she began approving drainage permits
and conducting land development reviews. But the Sunshine State's
draw would soon be overtaken by an urge to move west to workfor
a private land development firm in California. There, she designed
a 5-mile quarry access road and learned about the environment.
Then Downs was once again beckoned to the Sunshine State, and
she and her family moved back where she once again worked in a
land development firm. But this time, Downs wanted to dedicate
time to her children.

"I asked God for five years to stay home with my kids and
five years, three weeks later, [the Department of Transportation]
calls me up and they were looking for engineers," Downs said. She
needed good health insurance, so she applied for a structures job
and didn't land it. "But through that," she says, "I found that there
was a whole section in project management, which was myfavorite
class in college. How cool was that!"

In this way, Downs found her way to transportation, taking a
non-professional engineer job though she had earned a RE. -
managing projects related to resurfacing and intersections. Shortly
after, she was appointed head of the project management section
and then to the district design engineer. She rose to the position
as director and eventually to her current job as secretary of FDOT
District Five.

Thoughts on congestion pricing
"As a visionary, I can see that this could be in the future," Downs
said of congestion pricing. "People are smart, and they will make
wise decisions whether it is saving time and saving money. And so
we believe that it is another "tool in the toolbox" as it would give
people an option.
14 1 CMS FALL 2010

Downs said, however, it's not the Department's role to establish
funding mechanisms.

She says many people want to use Interstate 4, a highway that
runs from Tampa to Orlando and continues to Daytona Beach. The
use of variable toll congestion pricing could be an option for four
new lanes down the middle of general use lanes on 1-4. "As District
Five secretary, my role is to go over with the residents, and also the
politicians, all the options that are out there," Downs said. "My job
is to continue to look at all the research to help all the politicians,
counties, cities and citizens figure out what the options are and
how much they will cost, so that they can come up with the funding

Professional accomplishments
If you ask Downs about her major professional accomplishments
in life, she will describe two important events: receiving her P.E.
license and being a public servant. Downs excelled in her classes
while in college, but when it came to taking standardized tests, her
scores did not meet her expectations. In fact, this was true of most
standardized tests.

"I almost flunked the driver license test; I over-think and I have
a fear of test taking," Downs said. "But I am good in class. I was
diligent in class."

That made passing the P.E. exam one of her major
accomplishments, and it allowed her to do what she loved as a
public servant.

Personal accomplishments and hobbies
Downs teaches Sunday school for 3- to 5-year-olds and uses
her painting skills to create murals at her church. On the side, she
remembers several hobbies as a child and she never lost interest
in the drums. Her mom wanted her to play the flute and her teacher
once told her, "Chicks don't play drums." But she stood firmly by her
enthusiasm for the instrument, played triple tom toms in marching
band, tympani in concert band, and is currently learning to play the
drum set.

For another thrill, Downs likes fast cars and bought herself a
Fiat Spider convertible. She eventually moved from that ride to a
VW and then a Mustang saving the best for last, she said. Her
husband bought her a Porsche Boxter, and with it came a day of
learning to drive like a professional racecar driver at a driving track
in Gainesville, Fla. "That was a really fun day," Downs said.

Although Downs enjoys spending time taking a spin in her car
and working on her musical talents, she remains undistracted from
what truly drives her to success.

"I love being an engineer and doing all the calculations, but my
bigger passion is helping people," she said. "I think that with this
job, I can help multitudes of people, I understand them. These are
the things that I would say that if I died tomorrow, I would say I'm
glad I did."


Sam Budzyna (Missouri State University)
Sam Budzyna is a senior majoring in civil
engineering at Missouri State University.
Sam is not new to internships. By the time
he was accepted into TRIP, he had already
interned three times with the Missouri
Department of Transportation. He applied
to TRIP because he wanted to experience
something different. His TRIP adviser was
Ruth Steiner, an associate professor in the Department of Urban &
Regional Planning at UF. The project he participated in was Impact
of Parking Supply and Demand Management on Central Business
District (CBD): Traffic Congestion, Transit Performance Measures and
Sustainable Land Use. The topic was of much interest to Budzyna
because back home, he is a bicycle enthusiast. "I was lucky enough
to work on something I am passionate about," Budzyna said. "In
Missouri, I am a bicycle mechanic, and I commute by bicycle daily.
I got to spend the summer researching bicycle parking." Budzyna
enjoyed meeting the other TRIP interns and the graduate students
working for Steiner. "They're all really amazing people, and I
had tons of fun," he said. As for now, Budzyna does not know if
graduate school is in his future. He is still undecided. "I'm ready for
the real world, but I'm not sure if it's ready for me," Budzyna said.

David Champoux (Clarkson University)
David Champouxisa senior at Clarkson
University. He is majoring in civil
engineering with concentrations in
water resources and transportation
engineering. He is also pursuing a
minorin mathematics. From childhood, -
Champoux recalls having a very real
interest in transportation. "When I
was younger, I loved building different
public infrastructure (e.g. buildings,
bridges and culverts) out of Legos,"
Champoux said. "I even planned a
longer-term project when I was 10 years old. I built an entire
highwayinterchange. Itincluded an on/offramp, beam-bridge,toll
booth structure, six-lane highway and an approach city road to the
interchange." He says he remembers having a tough time figuring
out the best traffic lights to install because setting up the proper
timing pattersfor the electronic signalswas hard; he simply did not
have the knowledge. "The only materials used were cardboard,
tape and construction paper," he said. "l also used to enjoy playing
with those'stop-slow' signs that work zone flagmen use to direct
traffic. I've envisioned being a transportation engineer for many
years now." This time around, however, Champoux got to work
on a real-world project with his TRIP adviser, Associate Professor
Scott Washburn. The title of the project was Analysis ofTwo-Lane,
Two-Way Roadway Lane Closure Operations under General Flagging
Control. Champoux enjoyed working with Washburn and felt that
this experience increased his knowledge base. "Dr. Washburn was
a terrific professor, advisor and mentor," he said. "I learned many
tips from him that expanded beyond the actual technical subject
material. Thanks for a great experience!"

Corey Hill (University of Florida)
Corey Hill is also a senior at UF majoring in
civil engineering. Before applying to TRIP, he
was not completely sold on transportation
engineering. "After reading the flier for TRIP,
I thought it sounded like a great opportunity
to gain some experience and start deciding
which direction to take my career," Hill said.
He wasn't sure what to expect when he was
accepted, but he says that in retrospect, he
had a productive summer and he is now
definitely more interested in transportation
engineering. Hill's internship adviser was
Professor Lily Elefteriadou. The topic he worked on was Variable
SpeedLimits. "I liked howl got to jump in the middle ofan ongoing
actual real-life project that FDOT requested UF do a study on," Hill
said. "In another internship I did two years ago, I felt as though I
was a nuisance, and that my supervisor had to think hard of what
I could work on. This was not the case with this internship." Hill
said he like the program because it was structured as if he were
in graduate school, which meant he had to manage his time and
be self-motivated. He also enjoyed working with the other interns
and graduate students. "The people and friends I met through
the program were an added bonus," Hill said. "I had no idea there
would be four other interns, and that we would do so many fun
things like field trips and other activities outside of working."

Ashlie Kerr (University of Florida)
Ashlie Kerr is a senior majoring in civil
engineering at UF. She applied for the TRIP
program because she was interested in
gaining some research experience before
applying to graduate school. Her internship
advisers were Assistant Professor Yafeng Yin
and doctoral student Dimitra Michalaka.
Kerr's internship project was on High
Occupancy TollLanes and ValueofTravel Time.
What she enjoyed most about the internship
program was its self-paced nature and that
she was able to make her own schedule. Kerr
is quite active in civil engineering at UF. She has been a member
of the UF Steel Bridge Team for the past two years and will be a
co-captain in 2011.

Austin Mattus (Villanova University)
Austin Mattus is from Villanova University.
He is currently a senior majoring in civil
engineering. He has always been interested
in the transportation aspect of his chosen
field of study. "So it was natural for me
to look for an internship in the field of
transportation research," Mattus said. "The
TRIP program was the perfect opportunity
for this, and I'm very glad I did it." Mattus
workedon Ordinal RegressionAnalysis on the
Use of Public Transit Featuring the 2009 NHTS
Data. His TRIP adviser was Assistant Professor Siva Srinivasan. "My
favorite part about the project was learning the program SPSS,
which was very new to me but something I can definitely see
myself using in the future, maybe for my senior capstone project,"
Mattus said. Graduate school is in his future plans and believes
that UF would be his choice.

CMS FALL 2010 15




fr -rt
The CMS students constitute a very diverse, inte
They are the key to the success of the center, and we expect them tc
Here are some of our students z

16 CMS FALL 2010


2 M ...

long with their countries of origin.

CMS FALL 2010 17

> Congestion Pricing- Continued from page 07

cars, light delivery vehicles and commuter buses; regular lanes
with modest peak-period pricing; and in selected corridors,
truck-only lanes. This approach should produce more winners
than losers and therefore be politically feasible.

Moreover, it can be phased in over time, beginning with a
network of premium-priced lanes, as currently planned for
Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, San Diego, San Francisco and Seattle.
Only after that network is operational should planners suggest
theadded benefitsof modest peak-only pricing on the remaining
GP lanes.

Freeway congestion pricing is still a worthwhile goal. But we
are more likely to reach it by working harder on the details.

Robert Poole is Director of Transportation Policy at the Reason Foundation. He is a
member of the board of the Public-Private Ventures division ofARTBA and a member of the
Transportation Research Board's Congestion Pricing Committee. He receivedhis bachelor's
and master's degrees in mechanical engineering at MIT and did graduate work in
operations research at New York University. The New York Times has called Poole "the chief
theorist for private solutions to gridlock." He writes a monthly column on transportation
policy issues for Public Works Financing and publishes the monthly e-newsletter, Surface
Transportation Innovations.

> Enabling an Express Ridesharing Response to
Decongestion Pricing Continued from page 09

This is a thumbnail sketch of the relative costs of two alternative
mode options. Assuming each can be as successful as the other at
reducing the traffic, at an annualized cost potentially 40 percent
lower than the bus alternative, express carpooling should be
carefully considered as a mechanism to support mode-shift in
response to decongestion pricing.

Paul Minett is the Co-Founder, President and CEO of Trip Convergence Ltd, a NewZealand-
basedstart-up thatoffersan express carpoolingsolution. He argues thatformore carpooling we
need meeting-places rather than databases. He isseeking funding andlocations to beta-test the
company's solutions. He lives in Auckland with his wife Ingrid. He travelled to Orlando, Fla. for
the recent Conference on Innovations in Pricing of Transportation Systems. Paul can be contacted

> Efficient Vehicle Assessor- Continued from page 10
Computer Group, specialists in designing and developing transportation databases. He is
also a member of the Steering Committee for the Mileage-Based User Fee Alliance. Earlier
projects have included the creation of the first digital global database of hotels forExpedia.
com, launching the Retail Data Security Conference;publishing the first technical publication
covering CGI, and the first publication covering the Internet; and managing a data company
that included data from more than 40 industry segments. He was chief operating officer of
Reed Elsevier's Entertainment/Media / Communications division and ran the operations
for the launch of Variety Gotham, a daily newspaper in New York City. Politically active in
New York during a nationally covered desegregation crisis, he was described by the press as
instrumental in the negotiations of an affordable housing solution that was the basis for
what was later approved by federal courts. He also helped lead successful efforts to change
the form of Yonkers'city government via a city charterrevision, and helpedleada successful
political reform effort.

> International Scan- Continued from page 11
ownership tax rebates. These rebates reinforces with the
public that the purpose of ERP is not to generate revenue
but to improve service levels during peak hours.

4. Public outreach and communication was a key
component of the program at every stage of the
implementation process.
Both London and Stockholm had years of public debate
about congestion charging before the political decision
to implement was made. London's program benefited
from promotion by business groups concerned about
congestion, while environmental groups spearheaded
the Stockholm program. After the decision to implement
road pricing was made, both programs were carefully
designed to address public concerns, and included a
number of exemptions and discounts to mitigate negative
impacts on particular segments of the public.

Over the past two years, staff and leadership at the Dutch
Ministry of Transport have invested heavily in public
outreach and education. They engaged in a thorough
planning and public-involvement process and developed
clear, salient timely messages about the purpose and
benefits of pricing. A key message for the Dutch is: drive
less, pay less.

5. Interoperability among states and countries is
recognized as a critical issue that needs to be
addressed at high levels.
The EU has adopted Directive 2004/52/EC, which
outlines requirements for member countries to adopt
interoperable standards for electronic tolling, thus
allowing a vehicle to pay road user fees anywhere in the
EU via one contract and with one onboard unit.

Intergovernmental coordination in sharing national
vehicle registry information between agencies is
essential for current operations and enforcement, as
well as for interoperable systems. More agreements to
share vehicle registry information across borders are still

All sites visited have procedures in place between
agencies within their own country to share vehicle
registry data for easy applications of license plate
imaging for invoicing and violation processing.

.6O O S S

18 1 CMS FALL 2010


18 CMS FALL 2010

6. Host countries address equity and privacy concerns
through exemptions, revenue use, technology and
business rules.
Exemptions are used in London and Stockholm to help
address issues of equity. In addition, their emphasis on
using toll revenues to fund transit sends a strong, clear
message about equity and the project purpose.

Privacy was elegantly handled by Singapore's use of a
"smart cash card" that is inserted into an onboard unit
(Figure 3). Since the primary data on the smart card is the
account balance (i.e. stored value), no personal user data
is required for the pricing transaction.

7. The urban area pricing projects integrated public
transit investments and land use planning in order to
manage congestion.
Road pricing policy and public transportation investments
are best coordinated by a single entity. In London,
Transportfor London (TfL) is responsiblefor implementing
the Mayor's Transport Strategy and for managing
transportation services for all modes of transportation
throughout the city. In Singapore, the Land Transport
Authority plans the long-term transportation needs of
Singapore for those who drive as well as those who take
public transportation. The Swedish government is in the
process of consolidating its transportation agencies to
bring all modes under one umbrella.

Based on the key findings, the FHWA/AASHTO/TRB scan team
recommended that additional resources and effort be focused
on the following three areas:

1. Enhanced outreach and communications. In order
to advance the use of road pricing in the U.S., it is
paramount that transportation leaders, policymakers,
key stakeholders and a larger cross-section of the public
understand the benefits and implications of broader road

2. Additional research. There is continued need for
additional research to better comprehend issues related
to public perception, implementation barriers, behavioral
effects and integration of road pricing with multimodal
land use and transit options.

3. Road-pricing toolkit. The transportation profession
lacks a comprehensive decision-analysis tool to assess
the merits of various road-pricing options. The toolkit
would include a module to assist in making design
decisions, development of a guidebook or primer to
assist technical managers in developing financing and
procurement strategies, development of comprehensive
and synergistic transportation plans that incorporate
road pricing, development of concepts applicable in the
U.S. context, and analytical tools to estimate performance
and costs of alternative concepts in comparison with
conventional tax-based approaches. These tools would
help transportation leaders make informed decisions
regarding the relevance and feasibility of road pricing to
address specific mobility and revenue needs.

Note: A 20-page summary report of the International Road Pricing
Scan is available at http://international.fhwa.dot.cov/pubs/
roadpricina/roadpricina.pdf or by contacting John Dodn at
idoan@srfconsultina.com or 763-355-8746.

As the reportfacilitatorfor the scan team, I authorize the CMS at the University of Florida the
rightto publish this excerpt from the scan summary report R/John Doan

CMS FALL 2010 19

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