Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Autoclaved aerated concrete
 Balloon concrete formwork
 Formless concrete construction
 Insulating concrete forms
 Steel systems
 Structural insulated panels
 Tilt-up concrete panels

Title: Alternative residential construction systems
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087013/00001
 Material Information
Title: Alternative residential construction systems
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Bentil, Daniel ( Compiler, Compiler )
Publisher: University of Florida Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2001
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087013
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Autoclaved aerated concrete
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Balloon concrete formwork
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Formless concrete construction
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Insulating concrete forms
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Steel systems
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Structural insulated panels
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Tilt-up concrete panels
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text

Shimberg Center For Affordable Housing
Director Dr. Robert Stroh



Second edition


Compiled By Daniel Bentil

M.E. Rinker, Sr. School Of Building Construction
College Of Design, Construction and Planning
University Of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


The second edition of this manual comes five years on the heels of its highly-
demanded predecessor. It attempts not only to update the information
contained in the first edition but also to introduce the latest innovations in
alternative residential construction. Some systems have adapted to keep up
with an increasingly technologically- minded construction industry while others
have failed to survive for a variety of reasons.

Some have been replaced by newer systems designed to fulfill a broad range
of residential and light industrial construction needs. As a consequence, not
all the systems in the first printing appear in the second. Inclusion or exclusion
in this report is by no means an endorsement or condemnation by the
Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing and the University of Florida.
Information was provided by manufacturers' publications and advertisements.

It would be beyond the scope of this manual to include all the innovative
alternatives the industry offers. Designed as a quick reference guide, this
edition attempts to present a cross-section of available alternative residential
construction and light industrial systems.

Some of the new material in the second edition include the addition of e-mail
addresses and website references when available, and required tools for

Before adopting any alternative construction system for a home-building
project, several factors must be considered. These factors constitute major
barriers to the introduction of new building systems. For example:

(1) Before deciding on a specific system, it is necessary to check with
the local building department to determine if the materials are
acceptable under local construction codes.
(2) Since erecting the building requires a trained work force, it is
important to determine if appropriately trained workers are
(3) As construction proceeds, there may be a need for an additional
quantity of materials due to loss or breakage. It is important to
determine if additional supply is available.
(4) Once the shell of the home is erected, other tradespeople such as
electricians, plumbers, and HVAC system installers must be able to
function. It will be important to determine if the chosen building
system affects their ability to do their job.
(5) After the home is occupied, the home owner will be faced with
maintenance and repairs. Once again, the question of available
skilled work force and adequate supply of materials needs to be
considered when choosing a system.

The Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing hopes that this report will
enhance the reader's awareness about some of the alternatives to lumber and
concrete block for residential construction. It must be emphasized that
assembling this material in one report should not be considered as an
endorsement by the University of Florida, the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of
Building Construction, or the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing.












Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) was developed by Swedish architect
Johann Axel Eriksson in the early 20th century and patented in 1924. The
material is a mixture of sand, lime, cement, gypsum, water and an
expanding agent that is cured in a pressurized steam chamber, called an
autoclave, producing a cellular lightweight material.
Though relatively new to the United States
construction industry, AAC is available from
... different manufacturers throughout the
country. One is affiliated with German
conglomerate Hebel. The company has
committed to full-scale production of AAC in
the U.S. by building a factory in Georgia.
Manufacturers produce AAC in different
block sizes, reinforced and unreinforced
panels for floor, wall and roof systems, pre-assembled wall sections and
specially manufactured shapes. It is an inorganic structural and insulation
material that contains no toxic substances.
Environmental friendliness, insect resistance, fire resistance and thermal
ratings are some of the benefits manufacturers tout. Its light weight also
makes it easy to use, though some masons have complained about using
both hands to handle a piece due to the lack of cells in the block.
Costs range from 1% to 5% more than traditional construction but
manufacturers point to savings realized in low energy consumption,
maintenance, pest control and insurance premium costs as greater than any
initial construction cost disadvantage.

Energy Efficiency AAC construction systems provide excellent
thermal insulation. Energy performance analysis shows a house built
with an eight-inch external wall using an AAC wall system performs
better than a house with a traditional stud wall system with R-30

Simple Construction AAC is easy to use on the construction site.
Conventional woodworking tools can be used to saw or install nails
and anchors.

Fire Resistant An eight-inch AAC exterior wall unit provides fire
resistance ratings of at least four hours, per ASTM E 19 testing.
Four-inch interior wall units have at least a two-hour rating.

Environmentally Safe AAC products are made of environmentally
safe materials. No pollutants or toxic by-products are
produced in the manufacturing process or are present in the final

Lightweight AAC products weigh as little as one-fifth the weight
of standard concrete, resulting in lower transportation and handling

Weather Resistant Structures built with Autoclaved Aerated
Concrete can be designed to withstand hurricanes, high winds or

Pest Resistant Autoclaved Aerated Concrete is impervious to attack
by insects.

Proven Durability Structures built years ago are still sturdy today
and continue to require little maintenance.

Acoustically Efficient Walls, floors and roofs constructed of AAC
reduce the transmission of sound (STC) and meet local building

Versatile Autoclaved Aerated Concrete blocks and reinforced panels
can be used for both load-bearing and nonload-bearing interior or
exterior walls, floors or roofs. AAC also can be shaped for
ornamental and functional architectural details and interior built-ins.

New Product Relatively new in the U.S. market and may require
some further exposure to ensure workers are comfortable when
working with AAC. Some manufacturers offer installation training.

Limited Distribution Presently sold through dealers in the Southeast
and Texas. May not be available in some states or may require
extremely long lead times.

Code Approval Holds compliance report from Southern Building
Code Congress International. Code officials in other jurisdictions
have to approve before use.

Additional Information
Contact the Aerated Autoclaved Concrete Block Association for a list of
AAC producers.
P.O. Box 1533
6652 Highway 41 North
Ringgold, GA 30736
(706) 965-30736
url: www.babb.com

Matrix PAAC, LP
6600 Highlands Pkwy
Suite A
Smyrna, GA 30082

e-mail: bprescott@
url: www.matrixpaac.com

Hebel AAC is produced in a plant in Adel, GA. It is a light weight, precast
building material of a uniform porous structure. Hebel AAC is made from
natural basic materials: silica sand, lime, cement, water and a cell forming
expanding agent.

Product Information

Hebel AAC for residential construction includes high-
precision, wall-construction units, Hebel thin-bed
mortars, lintels, Hebel solid stairways, Hebel ceiling
support units, floor panels, roof panels, interior and
exterior plasters and stuccos, Hebel plaster and stucco
accessories, U-sections and Hebel approved basement
moisture protection.


Hebel provides a full range of tools that are specially designed to assist the
block mason and increase productivity at the job site. These include:

-Rubber Mallet
Hebel Hand Saw
Hebel Square
Sanding Float *-
-Mortar Stirrer

Block laying also will require the following standard masonry tools:
4 ft. Level, masonry string line, standard drill for mixing thin-bed mortar,
steel trowel, small hand brush for cleaning.
Hebel wall units must be laid on an ASTM C270 Type M mortar bed,
while using Hebel thin-bed mortar for vertical joints. Use a felt strip
between the first course and foundation or slab-on-grade to prevent rising
of dampness and to act as a bond breaker. The first course must be laid
with precise alignment and must be level. This step will ensure subsequent
courses are easily aligned and leveled.
Hebel blocks must be laid using Hebel thin-bed mortar. Add only water to
the pre-mixed mortar and use in accordance with the instructions written on
the bag.

SX Hebel thin-bed mortar is applied to the vertical and
/ horizontal surface using a Hebel notched trowel. (Trowel
width = Hebel block width)

A rubber mallet is used to level and align -
the Hebel block. -

A handsaw or electric bandsaw can be used to cut the blocks. Hebel block
can be easily drilled and nailed. Routing for pipes and wires can be done
manually or by using an electric routing tool.

Note: Hebel block can be drilled or notched easily if re-bar is required.
Wall surfaces allow most types of surface finishes, including stucco, plaster
and drywall. Ceramic tiles are applied easily on Hebel wall surfaces using
thin-set tile mortar.

Prices are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

3351 West Orange Blossom Trail
Apopka, FL 32712
1-888-901-ACCO (2226)
407-884-5111 (fax)
e-mail: mstarks@fcso.com
url: www.acco-aac.com

ACCO-AAC is produced in a plant in Apopka, Florida. It is comprised of
roof, floor, and wall panels, block, lintel and U-block configurations.
Blocks larger than 8 inches are available with or without reinforcement
chases. AACO can be used for load and non-loadbearing applications.

Product Information

Roof Panel

Floor Panel

Vertical Wall Panel




Horizontal Wall Panel Up to 20'

(8" and wider blocks
Available with
Reinforcing chases)



6", 8",
9.6", 12"

6", 8"
9.6", 12"

6", 8"
9.6", 12"

6", 8"
9.6", 12"

4", 6", 8"
9.6", 12"

8", 9.6",

8', 9.6", 12"

Length Height
Up to 20'

Up to 20'

Up to 20'


8", (10", 12"

24" std./ 8"

up to 96"

Wall Panels
Precast wall panels are individually designed to specified criteria and
reinforced, accordingly, with corrosion protected steel cages. Equal
amounts of steel reinforcement are provided to both faces of the wall

panels. The edges of wall panels come with a standard chamfer. Panels
without chamfer can be special-ordered. They are available in vertical and
horizontal configurations.

Roof Panels

Precast roof panels can be combined to form a
variety of designs including gables, mansards and
barrel vaults. Panels are produced to design
specifications and reinforced accordingly.
Reinforcement cover is adjusted for specific
serviceability requirements. Chamfers are standard
on the roof panels as well, but can be specially-
ordered without chamfers.

Including labor and finishes, ACCO AAC costs range between $11 to $14
per square foot for wall systems (block and panels). This does not include
structural steel. Roof and floor systems range between $9 to $10 psf. This
does not include membranes, VCT and other components.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.




This system uses a specially-constructed balloon over which foam concrete
is sprayed and kept in place by chemicals. It is marketed by Mankind
Research Foundation Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland as the Instahome
System. It can be used for different construction designs.
The system is based on using an inflated balloon as a single form for a
structure. The balloon is inflated with bumps that form the window and
door holes. The frames for the opening are put in place at this time. One-
half the concrete thickness is sprayed onto the form. Welded wire mesh is
cut to the size of the form and concrete-sprayed in place to strengthen the
structure. The outside concrete wall thickness is then sprayed in place. The
arch of the dome gives added strength to the roof. The balloon is deflated
and removed when the concrete hardens. The concrete mix used is
"Foamcrete" which has a higher proportion of air bubbles.
This technique is best suited to the construction of a series of side-by-side
homes because the balloon can be set up for the next building while
partitions for the previous one are being set in place. The system utilizes
single-sided forms for interior partitions.

Code Conformance Four inch thick "Foamcrete" with welded wire
mesh conforms to the American Concrete Institute Building Code
Requirements for Reinforced Concrete 318.83.
Strength Basically a concrete building with concrete strength and
properties. The welded wire mesh is fabricated with strong steel and
heavy wires welded vertically and horizontally in a grid. This grid
helps distribute the loads and resist cracks. Hooked steel bars are

used to lock floor, walls and roof together. These connections are
designed to withstand 130 mph winds.

"Foamcrete" Extra air is introduced into the mixture giving a
higher air-cement ratio that improves insulation, gives better sound-
proofing and resists cracks.

Low Cost "Foamcrete" is 40% air bubbles, giving 40% more cubic
yards of concrete at no extra cost. The mixture is shortcreted onto
the form (using a pump and hose). This is the quickest way to place
the most concrete with the greatest precision and the least labor.

Construction Speed Because of the high air content, "Foamcrete"
sets faster than conventional concrete allowing subsequent
construction to proceed. Set-up and dismantling of one-sided forms
are quicker than conventional forms.

Mankind Research Foundation
1315 Apple Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910

The Instahome system uses balloon framing technology to construct
different types of buildings including residential structures. The system
includes the concrete mix a proprietary formulation, the forming system,
foaming system, concrete mixer and application method. It is well suited
for multiple home construction.

Product Information
Material: The concrete mix is a proprietary formulation that includes:

Foaming Agent:

Super Plasticizer:

Other Additives:

Forming System:
One-sided Form:

Two-sided Form:

Metal Forms:

Standard Portland Cement #1.
Standard coarse sharp concrete sand.
Proprietary agent that hardens concrete so rapidly it can
be walked on in 30 minutes and forms stripped for re-
use on next section.
Proprietary agent to permit minimum use of water
allowing concrete to dry faster.

As required for specific conditions.

Proprietary system using one or more of the following.
The mix is sprayed under pressure against the form with
a hose.
Conventional with the mix poured into the form.
Set up in the shape of the desired structure. The
concrete mix is sprayed against the form. The balloon is
deflated and removed when the concrete hardens.
With surface patterns (bricks, wood, fieldstone, etc.) to
produce desired effects.

Wooden Forms: With attached proprietary plastic pattern (bricks, wood,
fieldstone, etc.) which can be stripped when concrete

Foaming System: Foam generator using proprietary controlled foaming
agent. The agent is introduced into the concrete during

Concrete Mixer
Computer-controlled mixer producing 60 cubic yards of "Foamcrete" per
hour. Contains all the equipment for storing, measuring all the ingredients
for the recipe, mixing and propelling the mixture to the point of use.

The mixer pumps "Foamcrete" to five hosemen simultaneously working on
four houses. The first hoseman places the slab and foundation for House
#1. The second hoseman places the interior walls for House #2. The third
hoseman places the outside walls for House #3. The fourth hoseman places
the roof for House #4. The fifth hoseman places the sidewalk and curbs.

Using the Instahome system in place of conventional methods saves 45% in
the construction of a 1200 sq. ft. economy home. Most of the savings are
realized in foundation, framing, exterior walls and roofing.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.




Formwork costs for conventional concrete construction can range between
40% to 60% of total concrete costs. While alternatives may cost more,
savings can be realized in the time not spent in setting up and stripping
One alternative on the market involves shortcreting a concrete mix onto a
stay-in-place three dimensional panel. This eliminates the time element in
setting up and stripping forms which are a major part of concrete

Design Flexibility Panels can be adapted to curved/arched design
Reduced Heavy Equipment Requirements Handling and
installation requires little equipment and reduces manpower needs.
Fewer Specialized Trades Required The need for framing,
masonry, insulation and drywall trades reduced or eliminated.
Simplified Utility Construction Easy installation of electrical
conduit and plumbing.
Reduced Construction Time Not uncommon for a few workers to
erect the shell of a 2,500 sq. ft. structure in less than a day. Earlier
completion means earlier occupancy that translates into lower total
capital investment and a quicker return on investment.

Excellent Thermal/Sound Barrier Modified expanded polystyrene
core meets all VA, FHA and HUD thermal requirements; double shell
configuration minimizes sound transmission.

Lower Maintenance Costs A concrete structure with minimal
maintenance requirements.

Environmentally Intelligent Made from recycled steel; polystyrene
core does not contain CFC; system does not deplete forest products.

Welded wire fabric
ICS 3-D Panel Works, Inc.
Doaona^l S 2610 Sidney Lanier Drive
"huss" wines
Brunswick, GA 31525
insu on-- ed0 912-264-3772
,,orcrete 9

The ICS 3-D Panel System was developed by EVG of Austria and
manufactured by ICS 3-D Panel Works, Inc. of Georgia. It consists of a
modified polystyrene core, flanked by two outer layers (one on each side)
of 2" X 2" welded wire mesh, connected by galvanized truss wires welded
to the meshes. Field applied shotcrete bonds the components together to
produce a high strength, thermally and sound insulated wall. The panels'
light weight allow for lower shipping costs, easy job-site handling and rapid

Insteel 3-D Panels meet CABO one-and two-family dwelling code which
satisfies all SBCCI, ICBO and BOCA requirements for standard buildings.
Panels also have HUD compliance under SEB #1120.

Product Information

Panels are 4 feet wide and can be
produced in any length with 8
inch increments. Panel thickness
range from 3-1/4 to 5-1/4 inches o
depending on specified
polystyrene thickness.

Polystyrene The modified expanded polystyrene, with a minimum
density of 0.9 pounds per cubic foot, is held 1/2" or 3/4"
from each face of the wire to permit the wire to be

embedded in approximately 1"- 2" thick concrete
mixture with 2,500 psi minimum. The foam core has a
flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke developed
rating of 450 or less when tested in accordance with
ASTM E84; a potential heat of 6,000 BTU/ sq. ft. or
less when tested in accordance with NFiPA 259.

Reinforcement Module-

The welded wire fabric conforms to ASTM
A185. The diagonal cross wires, as well as wire
used in the fabrication of the welded wire fabric,
conform to ASTM A 82. Different
configurations of reinforcement/insulation
module are manufactured depending on the end

Fire Resistance:

The following configurations of the Insteel system carry
the corresponding fire ratings.

Standard Panel
Light Panel
Maximum Panel
2 Hour Section
3 Hour Section
4 Hour Section

Concrete each side
1 1/2"
1 1/2"
1 3/4"
2 1/2"
3 1/8"

2 1/2"
1 1/2"
2 1/2"
2 1/2"
2 1/2"
2 1/2"

Fire Rating
1 1/2 Hrs.
1 1/2 Hrs.
1 3/4 Hrs.
2 Hrs.
3 Hrs.
4 Hrs.


Tools required for installing the ICS 3-D Panel System include a pneumatic
ICS Fastener Tool, fastener rings or clips, reciprocating saw(with a
minimum 8" metal cutting blade), a 7-1/4" circular saw with metal cutting
blade, wire loop ties and hand twister tool, basic construction hand tools,
screed material, concrete pump, finishing tools (trowels, sponges, darbys),
air compressor and lumber braces.

The ideal tool for rapid. elTicieit conneciing of Insteel w ire miesh panels
Accepts 16 Igauge- l'" hog rings ~iold separai[el R
item No. SC-643 .. ..... ...... See c.n, er pnce !iY


Lightweight and quick-loading, the ideal tool for rapid clip-type assembling
of Insteel wire mesh panels. (Clips sold separately.)
Item No. 65CL23......................... ................................ See current price list


Wire Cutter
Easy to use, lighmeighi Reduces hand tdaguLe. CuLII low carbon
wire up to 10 gaiugi In thikneLss High quality pliers included.
Item No. TLPL4072 ...... ....... ............ .we 5 an ll'nt' 7r ,llit" /I.;[

Hot Knife Spiral Ratchet Manual
For quick, clean Ll [ing of Insteel
insulation panels. Comes with 8 W W ire ist
blades with ceramic stops. Hook & pull action is quick and easy.
Item No. DP-H-KK (knife) Item No. SR1000 Item No.MT1000

String lines are used to establish wall lines. The first two panels are placed
perpendicular to each other, forming a corer, and clamped together with
the pneumatic fastening tool. The panels are then braced to align the tops.
Strips of 2" X 2" cover mesh are pneumatically fastened to the panels to
reinforce the seams. Pre-formed mesh with 90 degree bends are used for
the comers. Panels can be cut for engineered openings. Pressure treated
lumber is placed recessed into the panels or a prefabricated frame is hung in
place to frame the openings. A strip of mesh is used to reinforce the
covers and prevent the concrete from cracking.

S 'I Utility wires and piping can be run in the
i space between the polystyrene and the wire
i mesh. Concrete is applied to the panel face
S -either by shotcreting or poured into forms
erected on both sides of the panel.

Prices are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.




Insulating Concrete Forms have become
very popular as owners and builders
look for alternatives to conventional wood frame systems. These stay-in-
place forms tout many advantages over wood frame, concrete and masonry

ICFs can be separated into two major categories: the shape of the form itself
and the shape of the concrete within the walls. The units are shaped in
panel, plank and block forms.


.. ti ^ '-
V3 tttr* .. "
14 r
t^% *-* a

b 1
I. I I
i. ,. ^ t'


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Panel forms usually come in 4' X 8' sizes; planks are normally 1' X 8'; and
a common size for the block unit is 16" X 4'. The forms usually have teeth
or grooves along the edges that connect the pieces together.

The other category is the shape of the concrete within the walls. These
shapes come in a Flat, Grid or Post and Beam shape.

/version is
shaped like a
Sflat concrete
t -slab.

The Grid form comes in two versions:

An uninterrupted or waffle grid that has
thinner concrete between thicker horizontal
and vertical ribs; L.

And an interrupted or screen grid with no
concrete connecting the thick horizontal and
vertical ribs.

Post and Beam systems produce spaced concrete

A typical unit is made up of two expanded polystyrene (EPS) face shells,
connected by EPS, rigid plastic, or steel. The plastic or steel connectors are
embedded in the face shell (recessed for smoothness), providing fastening
surfaces or furring strips for attaching interior and exterior finishes.

I-a:& snell-
Sa- e ,ell -

I1, 1 r -2eT


I-ace snell--
Face shell

Tie end --I '":
faste nng surf ace, -i -',

'H' ;1

--- rn AtYI eD

Mi-jr.-oial cavity

veri j 1 ravity
-irn r:.:- nect

--- Hrzital cavity

Some ICF manufacturers produce special units for comers, rounded
comers, arches and lintels.


Even Temperatures ICF walls have 3-5 times the thermal mass of
conventional wood frame walls so the temperature of the building tends
to be stable providing more comfort.

Fewer Drafts Air changes per hour have been measured at 0.5 for
conventional wood frame walls and 0.11 for ICF walls. This translates
into less air infiltration for ICF walls.

Consistent Floor to Ceiling Temperatures ICF walls have a floor-to-
ceiling differential of about 2-3 degrees. Differentials for conventional
walls have been measured to be 2-3 times that much.

Sound Absorption Measured Sound Transmission Coefficient (STC)
for ICF walls range from the high 40's to the low 50's; compared to 36-
38 for a conventional wood frame wall. This means the ICF wall
allows two-thirds less sound transmission.

Energy Efficient Studies show ICF homes use 43 percent less energy
for heating and 32 percent less for cooling. R-values vary for different
systems within a range of R-17 to R-26. This means lower energy bills.

Strength The strength of reinforced concrete in ICF walls makes them
more likely to withstand natural disasters than traditional wood frame

Durability ICF walls require little or no maintenance. The concrete is
resistant to rot, rust, burning, oxidation and pests.

Design Flexibility Buildings can be designed like conventional homes
with traditional interior and exterior finishes. Curves and irregular
angles can be produced very easily.

Ease of Construction The lightweight ICF forms require little
manpower to lift and less construction time to build.

Less Concrete Since the forms stay in place, a conventional size
concrete wall can be built with less concrete.

No Additional Insulation Required Forms stay in place and provide
adequate insulation for the building.

Environmental Concerns The insulating material leads to less energy
consumption and costs.

Fire The foam in ICFs is manufactured with fire retardant additives,
which prevent the foam from burning. In fire-wall tests where an ICF
wall was subjected to 2000 degree Farenheit temperatures and
continuous gas flames, there was no structural damage to the ICF wall.
Research concludes that foam emissions from fire are no more toxic
than wood emissions.

Codes Some systems have been approved by all three major model
codes. Builders should check with manufacturer and building officials
to ensure the particular system is acceptable in the jurisdiction.


Costs ICF homes cost about $2 a square foot more than conventional
wood frame homes. This added cost can be recouped in energy and
maintenance savings from using ICFs.

Pests There have been no widespread reports of problems with insects,
but foam makes a great nesting ground for some insects and there have
been reports of foam core panels being infested. Some systems come
treated for pests.

Experienced Crews ICFs are still relatively new and not all trade
workers are familiar with them. This problem is solved as more
systems are used in construction.

Additional Information
Contact the Insulating Concrete Form Association for a list of ICF
1807 Glenview Road, Suite 203
Glenview, IL 60025
e-mail: dick@forms.org
url: www.forms.org

Amhome U.S.A., Inc. .
P.O. Box 1492 .
Land O'Lakes, FL 34639
PH: (813) 996-4660; (800) 393-3626
FAX: (813) 907-8565
URL: www.amhomeusa.com

Amhome is a post-and-beam panel variety of ICF. The system is available
only to licensed installers, who receive the tools and instructions to produce
the forms themselves from foam stock. Starting with EPS board, installers
cut vertical cylinders for posts and horizontal channels for beams. They
also cut vertical slots along one or both faces of the board every 16" on
center and slide in wooden furring strips. The completed forms are placed
vertically on the foundation and glued to the foundation as well as each
other (no formaldehydes are used in the adhesives). The furring strips serve
as fastening surfaces. The installer can cut any of a variety of special-
purpose units. The full system includes a high-R roof design and special
ventilation equipment. It is possible to build an Amhome with a traditional
roofing system, but this is not recommended by the manufacturer.

Individuals may purchase the Amhome kit which necessitates an Amhome
crew to cut, assemble, erect and "dry-in" the structure at your location. In
most cases Amhome will indicate a building crew that has been specially
trained for installation of the Amhome product. Under certain conditions,
Amhome will provide a trained technician, paid by the hour, to assist the
client's capable crew.

Lastly, within the local areas of Florida counties (Manatee to Pasco and
Polk), Amhome can arrange for a turnkey home building project that
includes all aspects of the home. In most cases outside of the Florida area,
Amhome provides the building materials and crew to construct the
Amhome portion of the house. This leads the home buyer to work with a
contractor in his/her area that can provide the non-Amhome parts such as
the foundation, plumbing and finishing stages.

Product Information
Walls Walls are engineered to bear the design load without factoring in
the EPS or any finishes. The column reinforcing rods extend down into the
foundation to anchor the frame. A 2" X 10" top plate is fastened 48" on
center with anchor bolts to the concrete tie beam. The top tie beam runs
continuously on the top of the wall. All exterior walls are solid 9 3/8" EPS
(Expanded Polystyrene) which insulates the inside from outside noise and
vice versa. The exterior walls have a rated value of R-40.


The 12" thick roof is
conventionally framed with
laminated wooden I-beams and
laminated wood ridge beams.
Rigid EPS panels are tightly
inserted into the web of the
wooden I-beams and covered
with radiant foil to deflect heat.
A continuous ridge vent
exhausts roof heat. The roof
system is rated R-50.

Doors and Windows Extruded vinyl window frames with double hung
thermal windows resists heat transfer. Additional protection from the sun is
given by easily removable sun screens. Steel doors are insulated with foam
core and close tightly to magnetic strips.

Ventilation A whole house fan exhausts 4200 CFM's of air, replacing old
air with new air. A special electrostatic air filter cleans the air of
microscopic allergy causing material as it is circulated through the house.

Procedure The construction of the exterior walls begins by using rigid,
10" thick, 4' X 8' EPS blocks. The blocks are stood on end and each block
is joined to an adjacent one and the slab with adhesive for an airtight,
watertight joint. The top of each block has a 6" X 10" deep cavity running
the width of the block. This is the form for the bond beam.

Column cavities are 6" diameter
cuts in the vertical length of the
block and are spaced 8' on center.
The columns are poured on either
side of window and door openings.
Embedded steel rebar, projecting
from the slab, serve as dowels.
These are tied to vertical rebar
running the height of the column
cavity. 5000 psi concrete is then ..
pumped into the cavities forming a
monolithic post-and-beam skeleton.

The roof construction involves fabricated wood I-beams connected 24" on
center to the 2" X 10" pressure-treated top plate bolted to the bond beam.
The I-beams are attached to a laminated wood ridge beam with steel
strapping. Ten inch thick EPS panels, covered with reflective foil on the
topside, are tightly inserted between each pair of adjacent beams. The foil
provides a moisture and radiant heat barrier. The roof deck is attached,
followed by conventional underlayment and shingle roofing. There is a 2"
clearance between the top of the EPS panel and the roof decking. This
space allows ventilation between the ventilated soffit and a continuous ridge
vent for increased energy efficiency.

An AMHOME building placed on an existing slab runs an average of $17-
$20 per sq. ft. This cost includes a framed interior ready for electricity and
plumbing, exterior ready for desired finish and a roof ready for shingles.
Price is affected by the desired types of windows and doors; and whether
the building has an upstairs or loft area.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Eco Block, LLC
PO Box 14814
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33302
PH: (954) 766-2900
FAX: (954) 761-3133
URL: www.eco-block.com r,

ECO-Block 2000 is a flat block that arrives disassembled for easy shipping
and storage. The face shells have several embedded plastic connectors on
one side. Rigid plastic ties slide into the connectors of two face shells to
create the assembled block.

Product Information
The two face shells of Eco-Block 2000 measure 16 inches high by 48 inches
long. They are 2.5 inches thick and made of expanded polystyrene. Their
upper and lower edges have teeth for interconnecting adjacent blocks. The
ties come in various lengths to create concrete thicknesses of approximately
4", 6" or 8" and have notches to hold rebar. The connectors are recessed
slightly beneath the foam, and also have a long surface for fastening to
finish materials.

Concrete is poured into the
cavities created by connecting
S1vw the two EPS shells together.
SAfter the concrete cures, the
ECO-Block sidepanels remain in
place and provide the insulation
for the building.


4 Inch Block 6 Inch Block 8 Inch Block

Block 48x16x9 48x16x11 48x 16x 13
(Standard (1219 x 406 (1219 x 406 (1219 x 406
Block) x 229 mm) x 279 mm) x 330 mm)

Concrete 4 inches 6 inches 8 inches
Thickness (102 mm) (152 mm) (203 mm)

Concrete Volume 0.07 yd3 0.10 yd3 0.13 yd3
per block (0.05m3) (0.07 m3) (0.1 m3)

EPS Thickness 5 inches 5 inches 5 inches
(total) (127 mm) (127 mm) (127 mm)

Wall Surface 5.3 ft2 5.3 ft2 5.3 ft2
Area per block (0.5 m2) (0.5 m2) (0.5 m2)

Fire Rating* 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours

Sound 42 dB 53 dB 60 dB

Thermal R-22 R-22 R-22

Block Long side: Long side: Long side:
Dimensions (90 32 inches 32 inches 32 inches
Comer) (813 mm) (813 mm) (813 mm)

The blocks are assembled as a two-sided form on the jobsite. The forms are
stacked together with vertical and horizontal rebar in the cavities. Concrete
is pumped into the cavities forming a concrete wall with flat inner and outer

Tilt-up Walls Using one side panel, tilt-up walls can be constructed that
have insulation and furring on one side with no additional work. Concrete
is poured into an assembled side of Eco-Block 2000. When the concrete
cures, the whole side is lifted up forming a tilt-up wall.

Using "connector splices", footings up to 24" can be easily constructed.
Radius walls and angled walls (other than 90 degrees) can also be
constructed with ease using simple mitering techniques.

Utility lines and piping are embedded in the thickness of the foam.

Prices are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

I l %4

Daytona Beach, FL 32124
PH: 904-304-3152 [ [ ][
FAX: 904-760-8231
URL: www.insulform.com TOP VIEW


Insulform EPS is one of several screen-grid ICF block types. INSULFORM
concrete wall form units are intended as permanent modular formwork for
use in the construction of insulated reinforced concrete walls and
components including: grade beams, piers, retaining walls, basement walls,
bearing and non-bearing exterior and interior walls, sound barrier walls,
fences and landscape walls.

Product Information
Manufacturer claims Insulform to be lowest-priced ICF on the market.
Insulform is a United States E.P.A. "Energy Star" product. Results of
independent engineering analysis show the thermal mass performance is
equivalent to an R-value in excess of R-50. It reduces infiltration of outside
air which eliminates mildew, mold, and dust. Smaller HVAC size reduces
monthly utility costs by 50% or more as well as initial HVAC installation
costs. Insulation formed, steel reinforced, poured concrete wall system is
rated at 110 m.p.h. to 140 m.p.h. wind load, per local building code
requirement. It is fire, insect and moisture resistant. There is no lost
interior floor space, no special foundation block required, no oversized door
or window jambs required. An 8" I.C.F. form width is equal to 8" concrete
block width. Wood or steel furring of interior walls is user friendly to
other sub-contractor trades, especially electricians, plumbers and dry wall
installers. Insulform is environmentally friendly with recyclable waste.

Block Insulform blocks are 48 inches long, 12 inches high and 8 inches
wide. Each block has two opposing faces of expanded polystyrene (EPS)
approximately 1.75 inches thick. The void created by these faces is filled
with concrete and the required reinforcing steel. Each form unit is equal to
four square feet of wall area.

INSULFORM has an 8-inch overall thickness. The opposing faces are
connected with five integral 5-inch tall by 2-inch thick EPS webs and two
integral 5-inch by 1-inch end pieces. End blocks, which have a solid EPS-
filled end 12-inch high by 1-inch thick, are used to close the form ends at
corer installations.

Walls are assembled by stacking and interlocking the blocks. Vertical joints
are required to be staggered horizontally in 24-inch increments in a running
bond pattern. Horizontal form edges are held together by a series of 8"
modular interlocking teeth. The system is also designed to interlock at
90-degree angles. Mitering the blocks and securing the blocks to a wood or
metal form creates curved or angled walls.

Truss anchors as required

Cement based slucco
applied directly
to foam block
R -bhor o al l corners
Horizontal re-b r every iand around ail openings
4th course and lop
two courses, typical

Openings bucked with
e.e~en l6,I bal /f'. -~ \ wood jamrns or mnelol
Vertical re-bar 5tUd tracks
every 6', typical /A. l / ^ '-\\

Wood furring strips
ottached wilh 1 Od n[ils

VeiLIldi aiiu IiuILULUI SLXCI 1r-UUl Ic1111iU;lUciiciL Is ;CI11ILC1U 111 LirC ;uics.
Re-bar is required to be adequately supported and secured against
displacement prior to placing of concrete. Vertical reinforcement is secured
to the slab by re-bar placed in the footing. Lap splices are provided in
accordance with local code requirements, but in no case shall they be less
than 24 inches. Reinforcement over the windows and doors shall conform
to the approved engineered plans and accompanying beam schedule for re-
bar reinforcement and placement.

The first course of forms should be laid to a snapped chalk line and then
adhered to the slab/footer by foam adhesive to prevent movement of the
form during erection and when placing concrete. Electrical and plumbing
lines can be placed in the thickness of the EPS.

Installed wall forms will top out at a bearing height of one foot per course
plus 3/4" (an eight course wall will have a finished bearing height of 8'-

Window and door opening bucks can be made of wood, metal or vinyl
extrusions. Sufficient cross bracing and shoring must be installed at all
openings to assure that the openings maintain the desired shape and size
during the placement of concrete. Minimum lumber size shoring material
shall be 2" x 6" with 2" x 8" lumber preferred. Preferred bucking material
is 2" x 8" metal stud track or U-bucks.

Insulform retails for about $8 per four sq.-ft.-block. This price does not
include rebar, labor and concrete. The price for a vertical wall is about $4-
$5/ft (with rebar, concrete and labor included).

It typically takes about a week to get an order delivered after the order has
been placed with the manufacturer.

,/ .'.* -..


1 31

L ..l --

Steel housing components are being manufactured to reflect steel's superior
strength and performance. Cold-formed steel is light-weight, easy to
handle, cost effective and a quality alternative to traditional framing
materials. Steel, as a framing member, is becoming more popular as
concerns over environmental consequences, termites and decay discourage
interest in wood framing. The non-combustibility of steel has also
generated interest among urban areas and fire hazard districts.

Steel framing is manufactured by a cold-forming process in which strips of
steel sheets are put through a series of roll forming dies that form the sheet
into desired lengths, widths, thicknesses and shapes. The basis of cold-
formed sheet steel design is that its strength comes from the material and
how it is shaped. When a sheet is formed into a "C' shape, the bends act as
stiffeners and increase the strength of the sheet many times over. Because
most of the strength and stiffness of the section depends on the shape and
not its thickness, strength to weight ratios can be very favorable.

Steel framing components are available in a variety of different shapes
suitable for certain uses.

Structural "C" The "C" is the predominant shape used for floor
joists, wall studs, roof rafters and ceiling joists. Standard dimensions
are nearly identical to those of dimension lumber, with flange widths
about 1-1/2 inches and web depths that range from 2 to 12 inches.
Structural "C" is available in Gauges 12 22.

Strmtural "

Str uctural "C"

Studs used in typical load-bearing applications are
16 to 20 gauge. The "C" is available both pre-
punched and unpunched.

Track (Channel) Track is commonly used for
rim joists, top and bottom plates and blocking. It
is normally specified in the same gauge as the
framing material with which it is used. Track is
also available pre-punched and unpunched.

I rack or nChatnel
(I'repunched ,r tI'nlunch-dl

Angle Angle can be used as a ledger
or a connection bracket for stiffening,
bracing or blocking.

ecdl Angle



Cold Rolled and Hat Channel Similar j
in shape and gauge to track, the smaller "
sized channel is used for stiffening, ,
bracing and blocking as well as furring. i

1I Il Channel

Cold Rolled Zee The Zee can be used in
S structural applications as a roof purlin or in
lighter gauges for furring.

Steel framing construction is usually similar to wood framing construction.
However, some steel assemblies utilize innovative systems that space
members up to eight feet on center using horizontal furring channels at 24
inches on center to tie the system together. Steel members are commonly
spaced 24 inches on center. Most steel framing falls into one of three
categories: Stick- Built construction, Panelized and Pre-Engineered systems.

Stick-Built Construction Stick built construction is virtually the same in
wood and steel. This framing method actually uses many of the techniques
associated with panelized construction. The steel materials are delivered to
the job site in stock lengths or in some cases, cut to order. The layout and
assembly of steel framing is the same as the methods for lumber with one
exception; the components are screwed together rather than nailed. Steel
joists can be ordered in lengths sufficient to span the width of a home.
This expedites the framing process and eliminates lap joints. Sheathing
and finish materials are fastened with screws or pneumatic pins.
Panelized Systems Panelization consists of a system for pre-fabricating
walls, floors, and/or roof components into sections. This method of
construction is most efficient where there is a repetition of panel types and

dimensions. Panels can be made in the shop or in the field. A jig is
developed for each type of panel. Steel studs and joists are ordered cut to
length for most panel work. They are then placed in the jig and fastened
by either screws or welding. The exterior sheathing, or in some cases the
complete exterior finish, is applied to the panel prior to erection. A major
benefit of panelized systems is the speed of erection. A job can usually be
framed in about one quarter the required time to stick build. When
considering that the exterior finish may also be part of the panel, the
overall time savings may be even greater.

Pre-Engineered Systems Steel's high strength and design flexibility allow
innovations not possible with other materials. Engineered systems
typically space the primary load-carrying members more than 24 inches on
center, sometimes up to eight feet. These systems either use secondary
horizontal members to distribute wind loads to the columns or lighter
weight steel fill-in studs between the columns. Furring channels used to
support sheathing materials also provide a break in the heat flow path to
the exterior, which increases thermal efficiency. Many of the pre-
engineered systems provide framing members that are pre-cut to length
with pre-drilled holes for bolts or screws. Most of the fabrication labor is
done by the supplier, allowing a home to be framed in as little as one day.

Non-Combustible Steel is non-combustible, which may result in lower
insurance premiums for the home buyer.
Durability Steel is not susceptible to rot or termites. It does not
shrink, warp or swell. Galvanized steel resists corrosion.
Consistent Quality Galvanized steel studs are manufactured in the
quality-controlled setting of the factory. Pre-punching studs provides
consistent cut-outs for electrical and plumbing lines.
Supply/Pricing Stability Because the steel manufacturing industry can
rely on a relatively stable resource base, it does not experience the price
volatility that is characteristic of the lumber market.
Strength Steel framing manufacturers suggest that steel's high
strength-to-weight ratio, combined with the use of framing screws that
resist uplifting loads more effectively than nails, produces a structure
that performs better than conventional wood construction during
earthquakes and hurricanes.
Recyclability All steel products are 100 percent recyclable. Steel
framing products are made with recycled steel and contain at least 25

percent recycled material. Some products consist of 100 percent
recycled material.
Size Availability Framing members are available in a variety of pre-
cut standard shapes and sizes, as well as custom shapes and sizes;
minimizing construction waste.
Weight Steel members weigh as much as 60 percent less than wood
members so foundation and even seismic loads can be reduced.

Lack of Familiarity Building officials, engineers and architects need
to be educated about steel framing systems' capabilities as they apply to
residential construction. The work force needs to be familiarized with
steel framing systems as well.
Thermal Performance Because thermal bridging is increased by the
high thermal conductivity of steel, questions regarding the thermal
performance of steel-framed houses remain unanswered. CABO's 1989
Model Energy Code shows that the conductivity of a wall framed with
steel is up to 110 percent higher than that of a comparable wall framed
with wood.

Additional Information
Contact the North American Steel Framing Alliance for a list of light-
gauge steel framing materials and manufacturers.
1726 M Street, NW
Suite 601
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 785-2022
e-mail: dmoodyvsteel.org
url: www.SteelFraminaAlliance.com



Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) are engineered building components
made by joining high performance rigid insulation to oriented strand
board, waferboard or plywood. The core, which is lightweight but
relatively thick low density, is made of either expanded polystyrene,
extruded polystyrene or rigid polyurethane. They are used as floors, walls
and roofs for all kinds of buildings. In SIPs, insulation is a component of
the system and that improves thermal efficiency. Panels can be ordered in
either a pre-engineered whole house package or in panels the builder cuts
to desired dimensions on the jobsite.

Standard panels are 8' X 4'. Wall panels are available in 3-1/2", 5-1/2" and
7-1/4" thickness. Roof panels come in either 9-1/4" or 11-1/4" thickness.

Thermal Performance A major advantage of foam core panel systems
is their enhanced energy efficiency. Roof panels generally have even
higher R-values due to their additional thickness. Since most panels
incorporate little solid framing, panel systems are gap-free, so heat loss
through thermal bridging is significantly reduced.
Speed of Construction With the use of large pre-fabricated panels,
manufacturers claim that houses can be enclosed in a few days.
Strength When subject to loading, SIPs perform much like an I-beam.
The skins act as flanges and resist tension and compression, while the
core acts as a web, resisting shear and preventing the wrinkling of the
Moisture Migration Because the insulating materials used in the
panel's core have inherent vapor-retarding characteristics, an additional
vapor retarder is not typically required. In fact, depending on the
thickness and density of the core, most urethanes and some polystyrenes

have a perm rating of less than 1, which technically qualifies the panel
as a vapor retarder.
Comparable Costs SIPs generally cost about the same as other
building materials. Not having job-site waste can save considerably in
landfill fees. Labor savings, faster dry-in time and better drywall
utilization also contribute to lower costs of SIPs.
Environmental Impact Since SIPs are factory-produced, there is less
job-site waste, which means less trash for the landfills. They are also
energy efficient so they save fossil fuel consumption. The skins use fast-
growth harvested farm trees rather than old growth forests. SIP
buildings use 35% less raw timber and have lower embodied energy.

Roof Shingles Overheating Shingles on SIP roofs tend to overheat so
some shingle manufacturers do not provide a full-term guarantee if they
are installed on structural sandwich panels. Some roof SIPs are
manufactured with built-in air flow channel to ensure shingle durability.
Trade Interaction Foam panels pose a learning curve for certain
tradepersons. Manufacturer participation in early phases of design can
eliminate many problems associated with the installation of mechanical
Insects Much like conventional framing members, foam core panels
are susceptible to carpenter ant and termite infestations. Even though
there is less wood to be eaten, tunneling in the foam can reduce
insulation values and structural integrity. In addition to suggesting
standard preventive practices, some manufacturers incorporate insect
repellent treatments into the manufacturing process.
Lack ofFamiliarity The inherent skepticism of using a product that is
new can inhibit its use.

Additional Information
Contact the Structural Insulated Panel Association for a list of panel
3413 56th Street NW, Suite A
Gig Harbor, WA 98335
e-mail: Jimt(,sips.org
url: www.sips.org

SAllied Foam Products, Inc.
'h i r 1604 Athens Hwy.
P.O. Box 2861
n Gainesville, GA 30503
770/ 536-7900
e-mail: alliedfoam@aol.com

R-Control Structural Insulated Panels are fabricated from PerformGuard
Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) laminated to oriented strand board to form a
structural panel that is strong enough to withstand wind, snow and seismic
loads. The rigid EPS core blocks wind and moisture resulting in an energy
efficient design. The panels have been recognized by all the major codes.

Product Information
The SIPs are delivered according to provided specifications and ready for
installation. They can be pre-cut minimizing on-site preparation and waste.
R-Control panels are available in a variety of sizes from 4' X 8' up to 8' X
24'. Panels over eight feet in length are made to an 8' maximum width.
The system can be used for exterior walls, ceilings, floors and roofs.
Utility chases can be pre-cut into the core at the factory. Conventional
framing methods can be substituted or incorporated for some building
components. Floors and interior walls, for example, can be framed with
conventional joists, especially where they do not need to be insulated.

i R-Control Structural Insulated Panel R-Values

Different thicknesses of panels have different R-
values at different design temperatures.

Wall Panels Wall panels are available in 4' X
8' sizes or complete wall sections. Standard

Panel R-Value R-Value
Thickness at 75" F. at 40' F.
4 1/2" 14.9 16.0
6 1/2" 22.6 24.3
8 1/4" 29.3 31.6
10 1/4" 37.0 39.9
12 1/4" 44.7 48.3

thicknesses are 4-1/2", 6-1/2", 8-1/4" and 10-1/4". Foam panel
construction is compatible with either a platform or balloon frame system.
With balloon framing, the lower wall panel bears directly on the sill plate,
and the second level floor framing hangs from the top plate of the
preceding floor's wall panels. This method offers better thermal
performance by keeping the insulation uninterrupted.

Roof Panels Roof panels are installed in a manner similar to wall panels,
with the same joint conditions. If roof panels have deep enough sections
and load conditions allow, panels can span the distance from the ridge beam
to the exterior walls. Roof panels typically span up to 12 feet.

Tools and Accessories

The complete system has specialty fasteners,
adhesives, sealants, engineered I-Beams and
headers. R-Control panels are connected using
nails or staples (screws of equal strength may be
substituted at equal frequency) and Do-All-Ply.
R-Control Do-All-Ply is a bonding adhesive used
with all fastening techniques. The panels are
joined using splines and plates. Do-All-Ply is
applied in 1/4" X 1/8" beads to wood surfaces.
This results in optimum coating when the plates
and splines are installed.

A crane or lift truck may be required for some installations. The panels fit
on solid wood plates that are set in place on the foundation, floor slab or
framed subfloor. Some type of winch-and-strap system is often helpful to
ensure that panel edges are butted tightly against each other. A router and
special bits may be required to cut openings in panels. To place the wall
panels, the foam core at the bottom of the panel is routed to allow both
facings to slip down over the bottom plate.

The second panel is set over the bottom plate in the same manner and slid
into place next to the first. Connecting splines are inserted, caulked, and
fastened. The remaining walls are placed in similar fashion. Rough
openings for doors and windows can be cut on site with a circular saw or
chain saw, although pre-cut door and window openings can be provided.

Structural headers are installed as required. Roofing and siding materials
are conventionally applied to the exterior face. Interior and exterior
finishing applications are simplified by the continuous nailing surface.

Foam around the perimeter of rough openings is typically routed back to a
depth of 1-1/2 inches to let in 2" X 4" framing. Solid plates are used
around windows, doors, top and bottom plates and panel comer
connections. This provides continuous support, strength, easy attachment
and a snug fit.

Prices are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Tiit- Up



Tilt-up construction, as a method, can be traced to Roman times. The term
was coined in the 1940's to describe a method for constructing concrete
walls rapidly and economically without the formwork necessary for poured-
in-place walls. Tilt-up construction is comprised of two steps; slabs of
concrete that will make up the wall section are cast on site or in a factory.
When they attain the proper strength, they are raised with a crane and set on
prepared foundations. There is little formwork since only perimeter forms
are required to hold the panels in place. Once erected, the panels are
temporarily braced, connected and caulked at the joints. The roof structure
is then attached to the walls to complete the building. Fifteen percent of all
tilt-up construction in the country takes place in Florida.

Economical With a trained crane and rigging crew, tilt-up
construction has been proven to be more economical than other methods
of construction for the same type of buildings.
Speed of Construction It takes about 4-5 weeks to form and place the
panels once the slab is complete.
Durability Tilt-up buildings constructed in the 1940's show little sign
of aging.
Fire Resistance Concrete as a material is extremely fire-resistant. A
6- 1/2" wall has a four-hour fire rating.
Low Maintenance Costs Only maintenance required is a new coat of
paint every 6-8 years.
Low Energy Costs Insulation values for tilt-up concrete often exceeds
values for masonry and wood frame.

Expandability By planning for the possibility of expansion, panel
connections can be designed so the panels can be detached and
Crane Requirement A crane is required to lift the panels into place.
This represents equipment cost not needed for other types of
construction. The job site needs enough space for crane set-up.
Lack of Familiarity The inherent skepticism of using a product that is
new can inhibit its use.
Crew Training A trained crew is needed to set-up panels. It will
initially take a newly-trained crew a longer time to do the job.

Additional Information
Contact the Tilt-Up Concrete Association for a list of manufacturers.
PO Box 204
Mt. Vernon, IA 52314
(319) 895-6911
E-mail: esauter@tilt-up.org
URL: www.tilt-up.org

Royall Wall
801 Pike Road
West Palm Beach, FL 33411 -
PH: 1-877-769-2551
(561) 689-5398 I
FAX : (561) 689-0407
url: www.royallwall.com
e-mail: ROYALLWALL@aol.com

Royall Wall is an engineered tilt-up concrete wall system used for
residential and commercial construction. It is an integration of concrete,
steel and polystyrene insulation panels. The panels are pre-formed and
assembled at the manufacturing site. They are pre-engineered to the
designer's specifications and transported to the job site to be installed by
pre-qualified and professional installers. The panels come with a 10-year
structural warranty.

Product Information

Royall Wall systems are available in a "Standard" panel and a heavier-
reinforced "Plus" panel designed for higher wind resistance. A Royall
"Firewall" for more demanding fire-resistant design is also available. The
systems' components of reinforcement rods, mesh
and high-density concrete (which frequently attains
6000+ psi) make the panels extremely strong. There
-are few joints and separate components resulting in a
solid construction. This feature also translates into
fewer openings for termites and other insects.

The standard 8" wall achieves 140-mph wind resistance. The stronger
Royall Wall "Plus" panels are rated at 260-mph. The system has been tested
to withstand 85-mph missile impact. Each Royall Wall home is custom-
engineered according to design specifications and not pre-fabricated.
The polystyrene component provides insulation, and consequently energy
efficiency, low sound transmission and fire resistance.

To install the Royall Wall system, the exterior slab edge has to be formed to
provide a 1-1/2" X 6" recess. The recess must be kept clear of any
electrical and plumbing lines. No steel reinforcement can be placed within

7" of the recess to allow the placement of Royall Wall anchors. The stucco
sub-contractor has to install wire lath at the panel and foundation
intersection. Once a panel is set in place, it is braced until the structure is



Trusses are strapped to cast-in structural channels at the top of the panels.
Through-wall sleeves are provided to allow ledger installation with
through- wall bolts. The manufacturer recommends the head bolts exposed
on the exterior be painted with fiber glass resin for long term protection.
Vertical joints are insulated with expanding foam. Intersecting interior
walls are connected by a typical L metal connection installed by the
builder's framing sub-contractor.

Electrical raceways are installed as follows by
the manufacturer: (a) the foam raceway strip is
removed by the electrician (b) Romex is fed
through the conduit sleeves (c) Romex is
placed in the raceways (d) the electrical box is
installed and connected (e)electrician replaces
the foam strip and injects expanding foam
around the box after inspection.

It is the builder's responsibility to install pressure-treated bevel-edge wood
bucks in all windows. After builder installs the window, the metal framing
sub-contractor applies "L" metal (Roof Drip Edge Metal) at the inside
corer of the window. Royall Wall will provide cast-in pressure treated
wood rough bucks in all door openings only.

Prices are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

Delivery times are quoted on a job-by-job basis.

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