The Baldwin Library
LE SONS OF 98
(MEE, BOYS OF Jo
â€œTOBY TYLER,â€ â€œJENNY WRENâ€™S BOARDING HOUSE,â€
â€œTHE BOYS OF FORT SCHUYLER,â€ ETC.
J. STEEPLE DAVIS
FRANK T. MERRILL
And with Reproductions of Photographs
DANA ESTES & COMPANY
By Dana Estes & COMPANY
Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds & Co.
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE
A DECLARATION OF WAR .
THE BATTLE OF MANILA Bay
NEWS OF THE Day
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN .
From ALL QUARTERS
Hopson AND THE MERRIMAC
SANTIAGO DE CUBA 7
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS .
THE SPANISH FLEET me :
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO .
MINOR EVENTS 5
THE Porto RIcAN CAMPAIGN
THE FALL OF MANILA
PEACE . , : ; ; ,
APPENDIX Aâ€” THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS .
APPENDIX Bâ€” WAR-SHIPS AND SIGNALS
APPENDIX Câ€” SANTIAGO DE CUBA
APPENDIX Dâ€” Porto RIco
APPENDIX Eâ€”THE Bay OF GUANTANAMO ~
THE CHARGE AT EL CANEY . 2 5 a Frontispiece
U.S. S. MAINE ; _ E . â€˜ ; z : 7
Captain C. D. SIGSBEE . : : . ; Re eel 2
Ex-MINISTER DE LoME . : 5 : i: : Rane O
U. S. S. MONTGOMERY . : : : â€˜ : eeu Ae
Major-GENERAL FirzHuGH LEE . . 5 : 3 O
WisS:-S-VCOLUMBIAS , : : ; 5 eens S
CAPTAIN-GENERAL BLANCO : f i " Fe : 44
PREMIER SAGASTA . : â€˜ . : ; : noe 49)
PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY . : . 5 eae)
WEE SiS RURLIVAN jae : : : ; , â€˜ aS
ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY ; : Ã© : a OA!
U..S. S. OLYMPIA. 4 : | 5 , . 09
U. S. S. BALTIMORE zs - : ; F : cee)
BATTLE OF MANILA BAY : â€˜ 2 R A 5 75
U. S. S. Boston 2 2 : R 5 : e747,
U. S..S. ConcorD . ? : , : i : eS 2)
U. S. S. TERROR ; : â€˜ : : : E 990)
Joun D. Lonc,; SECRETARY OF Navy . : : . 107
U.S. S. CHicaGco . , : ; : : : ty)
THE TRAGEDY OF THE WINSLOW . : : . ig
U.S. S. AMPHITRITE : : : : : et 23)
THE BOMBARDMENT OF SAN JUAN, Porto RIco . 27
U. S. S. MIANTONOMAH . . . 7 â€˜
ADMIRAL SCHLEY . Rena , 9
U. S. S. MONTEREY. ; . : ;
U. S. S. MASSACHUSETTS
U. S. S. NEw YorK
Hopson AND His MEN ON THE RAFT
QUEEN REGENT, MARIA CHeteenra OF aoe
U. S. S. MARBLEHEAD
U. S. S. VESUVIUS
U. S. S. TEXAS :
COLONEL THEODORE ROOSEVELT
THE ATTACK ON SAN JUAN HILL .
U. S. S. NEWaRK
ADMIRAL W. T. SAMPSON
CapTaIN R. D. Evans .
U.S. S. Iowa . A 5 A
THE DESTRUCTION OF CERVERAâ€™S FLEET
U. S. S. INDIANA
U. S. S. OREGON
U. S. S. BROOKLYN .
Major-GENERAL JOSEPH WHEELER
KinG ALPHONSO XIII. oF SPAIN
GENERAL GOMEZ :
U. S. S. NEW ORLEANS .
U.S. S. SAN FRANCISCO,
Major-GENERAL BROOKE. 5 ; .
GENERAL BROOKE RECEIVING THE NEWS OF THE PRo-
TOCOL ; ; 3 ; : : :
GENERAL RUSSELL A. ALGER, SECRETARY OF WAR
Major-GENERAL WESLEY MERRITT
Walle IeOyes Ole â€œOs.
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE,
T or about eleven o'clock on the morning of
January 25th the United States battle-ship
Maine steamed through the narrow channel which
gives entrance to the inner harbour of Havana, and
came to anchor at Buoy No. 4, in obedience to orders
from the captain of the port, in from five and one-half
to six fathoms of water. She swung at her cables
within five hundred yards of the arsenal, andâ€™ about
two hundred yards distant from the floating dock.
Very shortly afterward the rapid-firing guns on her
bow roared out a salute as the Spanish colours were
run up to the mizzenmast-head, and this thunderous
announcement of friendliness was first answered by
Morro Castle, followed a few moments later by the
Spanish cruiser Alphonso AZZ, and a German
The reverberations had hardly ceased before the
2 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
captain of the port and an officer from the Spanish
war-vessel, each in his gaily decked launch, came along-
side the battleship in accordance with the rules of
Lieut. John J. Blandin, officer of the deck, received
the visitors at the head of the gangway and escorted
them to the captainâ€™s cabin. A few moments later
came an officer from the German ship, and the cour-
tesies of welcoming the Americans were at an end.
The Maine was an armoured, twin-screw battle-ship of
the second class, 318 feet in length, 57 feet in breadth,
with a draught of 21 feet, 6 inches; of 6,648 tons dis-
placement, with engines of 9,293 indicated horse-power,
giving her a speed of 17.75 knots. She was built in
the Brooklyn navy yard, according to act of Congress,
August 3, 1886. Work on her was commenced Octo-..
ber 11, 1888; she was launched November 18, 1890,
and put into commission September 17, 1895. She
was built after the designs of chief constructor T. D.
Wilson: The delay in going into commission is said
to have been due to the difficulty in getting satisfactory
armour. The side armour was twelve inches thick ;
the two steel barbettes were each of the same thick-
ness, and the walls of the turrets were eight inches.
In her main battery were four 10-inch and six.
6-inch breech-loading rifles; in the secondary bat-
tery seven 6-pounder and eight 1-pounder rapid-fire
guns and four Gatlings. Her crew was made up of
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 3
370 men, and the following officers: Capt. Geb:
Sigsbee, Lieut.-Commander R. Wainwright, Lieut. G.
F. W. Holman, Lieut. J. Hood, Lieut. C. W. Jungen,
Lieut. G. P. Blow, Lieut. F. W. Jenkins, Lieut. J. J.
Blandin, Surgeon S. G. Heneberger, Paymaster C. M.
Ray, Chief Engineer C. P. Howell, Chaplain J. P. Chid-
wick, Passed Assistant Engineer F. C. Bowers, Lieu-
tenant of Marines A. Catlin, Assistant Engineer J. R.
Morris, Assistant Engineer Darwin R. Merritt, Naval
Cadet J. H. Holden, Naval Cadet W. T. Cluverius,
Naval Cadet R. Bronson, Naval Cadet P. Washington,
Naval Cadet A. Crenshaw, Naval Cadet J. T. Boyd,
Boatswain F. E. Larkin, Gunner J. Hill, Carpenter J.
Helm, Paymasterâ€™s Clerk B. McCarthy.
Why had the Jaze been sent to this port?
The official reason given by the Secretary of the
Navy when he notified the Spanish minister, Sefior
Dupuy de Lome, was that the visit of the Maine was
simply intended as a friendly call, according to the
recognised custom of nations.
The United States minister at Madrid, General
Woodford, also announced the same in substance to
the Spanish Minister of State.
It having been repeatedly declared by the govern-
ment at Madrid that a state of war did not exist in
Cuba, and that the relations between the United States
and Spain were of the most friendly character, nothing
less could be done than accept the official construction
put upon the visit.
4 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
The Spanish public, however, were not disposed to
view the matter in the same light, as may be seen by
the following extracts from newspapers :
â€œTf the government of the United States sends one
war-ship to Cuba, a thing it is no longer likely to do,
Spain would act with energy and without vacillation.â€
â€” El Heraldo, January 16th.
Â« We see now the eagerness of the Yankees to seize.
Cuba.â€ â€” The Imparcial, January 234.
The same paper, on the 27th, declared:
Â«Jf Havana people, exasperated at American im-
pudence in sending the Mazne, do some rash, disagree-
able thing, the civilised world will know too well who
is responsible. The American government must know
that the road it has taken leads to war between both
On January 25th Madrid newspapers made general
comment upon the official explanation of the Mazneâ€™s
visit to Havana, and agreed in expressing the opinion
that her visit is â€œinopportune and calculated to en-
courage the insurgents.â€ It was announced that,
â€œfollowing Washingtonâ€™s example,â€ the Spanish gov-
ernment will â€œinstruct Spanish war-ships to visit a
few American ports.â€
The Jmparcial â€œexpresses fear that the despatch of
the Maine to Havana will provoke a conflict, and adds :
Â« Europe cannot doubt Americaâ€™s attitude towards
Spain. But the Spanish people, if necessary, will do
their duty with honour.â€
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 5
The Zpocha asks if the despatch of the Mazne to
Havana is â€œintended as a sop to the Jingoes,â€ and
Â« We cannot suppose the American government so
naive or badly informed as to imagine that the presence-
of American war-vessels at Havana will be a cause of
satisfaction to Spain or an indication of friendship.â€
The people of the United States generally believed
that the battleship had been sent to Cuba because
of the disturbances existing in the city of Havana,
which seemingly threatened the safety of Americans
On the morning of January 12th what is termed
the â€œantiliberal outbreakâ€™â€™ occurred in the city of
Officers of the regular and volunteer forces headed
the ultra-Spanish element in an attack upon the lead-
ing liberal newspaper offices, because, as alleged, of
Captain-General Blancoâ€™s refusal to authorise the sup-
pression of the liberal press. It was evidently a riotous
protest against Spainâ€™s policy of granting autonomy to
The mob, gathered in such numbers as to be for the
time being most formidable, indulged in open threats
against Americans, and it was believed by the public
generally thatâ€™ American interests, and the safety of
citizens of the United States in Havana, demanded the
protection of a war-vessel.
The people of Havana received the big fighting ship
6 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
impassively. Soldiers, sailors, and civilians gathered at
the water-front as spectators, but no word, either of
threat or friendly greeting, was heard.
In the city the American residents experienced a
certain sense of relief because now a safe refuge was
provided in case of more serious rioting.
That the officers and crew of the Maine were appre-
hensive regarding their situation there can be little
doubt. During the first week after the arrival of the
battle-ship several of the sailors wrote to friends or
relatives expressing fears as to what might be the
result of the visit, and on the tenth of February one of
the lieutenants is reported as having stated:
â€œTf we donâ€™t get away from here soon there will be
The customary ceremonial visits on shore were made
by the commander of the ship and his staff, and, so
far as concerned the officials of the city, the Americans
were seemingly welcome visitors.
The more radical of the citizens were not so appar-
ently content with seeing the Mazne. in their harbour.
Within a week after the arrival of the ship incendiary
circulars were distributed in the streets, on the railway
cars, and in many other public places, calling upon all
Spaniards to avenge the â€œinsultâ€ of the battle-shipâ€™s
A translation of one such circular serves as a speci-
men of all:
â€œSpaniards: Long live Spain and honour.
S. S. MAINE,
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 7
â€œWhat are ye doing that ye allow yourselves to be
insulted in this way?
â€œDo you not see what they have done to us in with-
drawing our brave and beloved Weyler, who at this
very time would have finished with this unworthy
rebellious rabble, who are trampling on our flag and
our honour ?
Â« Autonomy is imposed on us so as to thrust us to
one side and to give posts of honour and authority to
those who initiated this rebellion, these ill-born autono-
mists, ungrateful sons of our beloved country.
â€œ And, finally, these Yankee hogs who meddle in our
affairs humiliate us to the last degree, and for still
greater taunt order to us one of the ships of war of
their rotten squadron, after insulting us in their news-
papers and driving us from our homes.
Â«Spaniards, the moment of action has arrived.
Sleep not. Let us show these vile traitors that we
have not yet lost shame and that we know how to pro-
tect ourselves with energy befitting a nation worthy
and strong as our Spain is and always will be.
â€œDeath to Americans. Death to autonomy.
â€œLong live Spain !
â€œ Long live Weyler!â€
At eight oâ€™clock on the evening of February 15th
all the magazines aboard the battleship were closed,
and the keys delivered to her commander according
to the rules of the service.
8 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
An hour anda half later Lieut. John J. Blandin was
on watch as officer of the deck ; Captain Sigsbee sat in
his cabin writing letters; on the starboard side of the
ship, made fast to the boom, was the steam cutter, with
her crew on board waiting to make the regular ten
o'clock trip to the shore to bring off such of the officers
or crew as were on leave of absence.
The night was unusually dark; great banks of thick
_ clouds hung over the city and harbour; the ripple of
the waves against the hulls of the vessels at anchor,
and the subdued hum of voices, alone broke the silence.
The lights here and there, together with the dark tra-
cery of spar and cordage against the sky, was all
that betokened the presence of war-ship or peaceful
Suddenly, and when the silence was most profound, the
watch on board the steamer C7zty of Washington, and
some sailors ashore, saw what appeared to be a sheet
of fire flash up in the water directly beneath the Mazne,
and even as the blinding glare was in their eyes came a
mighty, confused rumble as of grinding and rending,
followed an instant later by a roar as if a volcano had
sprung into activity beneath the waves of the harbour.
Then was flung high in the air what might be
likened to a shaft of fire filled with fragments of iron,
wood, and human flesh, rising higher and higher until
its force was spent, when it fell outwardly as falls a
column of water broken by the wind.
The earth literally trembled ; the air suddenly became
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE, ~ 9
heavy with stifling smoke. Electric lights on shore were
extinguished ; the tinkling of breaking glass could be
heard everywhere in that portion of the city nearest the
When the shower of fragments and of fire ceased to
fall a dense blackness enshrouded the harbour, from the
midst of which could be heard cries of agony, appeals
for help, and the shouts of those who, even while
struggling to save their own lives, would cheer their
After this, and no man could have said how many
seconds passed while the confusing, bewildering black-
ness lay heavy over that scene of death and destruc-
tion, long tongues of flame burst up from the torn and
splintered decks of the doomed battle-ship, a signal of
distress, as well as a beacon for those who would
succour the dying.
Captain Sigsbee, recovering in the briefest space of
time from the bewilderment of the shock, ran out of
the cabin toward the deck, groping his way as best he
might in the darkness through the long passage until
he came upon the marine orderly, William Anthony,
who was at his post of duty near the captainâ€™s quarters.
It was a moment full of horror all the more intense
because unknown, but the soldier, mindful even then
of his duty, saluting, said in the tone of one who makes
an ordinary report :
Â«Sir, I have to inform you that the ship has been
blown up, and is sinking.â€
10 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œFollow me,â€ the captain replied, acknowledging
his subordinateâ€™s salute, and the two pressed forward
through the blackness and suffocating vapour.
Lieutenant Blandin, officer of the deck, was sitting
on the starboard side of the quarter-deck when the
terrible upheaval began, and was knocked down by a
' piece of cement hurled from the lowermost portion of
the shipâ€™s frame, perhaps; but, leaping quickly to his
feet, he ran to the poop that he might be at his proper
station when the supreme moment came.
Lieut. Friend W. Jenkins was in the junior officersâ€™
mess-room when the first of a battle-shipâ€™s death-throes
was felt, and as soon as possible made his way toward
the deck, encouraging some of the bewildered marines
to make a brave fight for life; but he never joined his
Assistant Engineer Darwin R. Merritt and Naval
Cadet Boyd together ran toward the hatch, but only
to find the ladder gone. Boyd climbed through, and
then did his best to aid Merritt; but his efforts were ,
vain, and the engineer went down with his ship.
It seemed as if only the merest fraction of time
elapsed before the uninjured survivors were gathered
on the poop-deck. Forward of them, where a moment
previous had been the main-deck, was a huge mass
looming up in the darkness like some threatening
On the starboard quarter hung the gig, and opposite
her, on the port side, was the barge. _
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE, IT
During the first two or three seconds only muffled,
gurgling, choking exclamations were heard indistinctly ;
and then, when the terrible vibrations of the air ceased,
cries for help went up from every quarter.
_ Lieutenant Blandin says, in describing those few but
terrible moments :
â€œCaptain Sigsbee ordered that the gig and the
launch be lowered, and the officers and men, who by
this time had assembled, got the boats out and rescued
a number in the water.
â€œCaptain Sigsbee ordered Lieut.-Commander Wain-
wright forward to see the extent of the damage, and if
anything could be done to rescue those forward, or to
extinguish the flames which followed close upon the
explosion and burned fiercely as long as there were
any combustibles above water to feed them.
â€œLieut.-Commander Wainwright on his return re-
ported the total and awful character of the calamity,
and Captain Sigsbee gave the last sad order, â€˜ Abandon
ship,â€™ to men overwhelmed with grief indeed, but calm
and apparently unexcited.â€
The quiet, yet at the same time sharp, words of
command from the captain aroused his officers from
the stupefaction of horror which had begun to creep
over them, and this handful of men, who even then
were standing face to face with death, set about aiding
their less fortunate companions.
As soon as they could be manned, boats put off from
the vessels in the harbour, and the work of rescue was
12 THE BUYS OF â€™98.
continued until all the torn and mangled bodies in
which life yet remained had been taken from the water.
Capt. H. H. Woods, of the British steamer Zhurston,
was among the first in this labour of mercy, and con-
cerning it he says:
â€œMy vessel was within half a mile of the Mazne,
and my small boat was the first to gain the wreck.
It is beyond my power to describe the explosion. It
was awful. It paralysed the intellect for a few moments.
The cries that came over the water awakened us to a
realisation that some great tragedy had occurred.
Â«â€œT made all haste to the wreck. There were very
few men in the water. All told, I do not believe there
were thirty. We picked up some of them and passed
them on to other vessels, and then continued our work
â€œThe sight was appalling. Dismembered legs and
trunks of bodies were floating about, together with
pieces of clothing, boxes of meats, and all sorts of
wreckage. Now and then the agonised cry of some
poor suffering fellow could be heard above the tumult.
Â«One grand figure stood out in all the terrible scene.
That was Captain Sigsbee. Every American has reason
to be proud of that officer. He seemed to have realised
in an instant all that happened. Not for a moment did
he show evidence of excitement. He alone was cool.
Discipline? Why, man, the discipline was there as
strong as ever, despite the fact that all around was
death and disaster.â€ -
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 13
The commander of the Mazue was the last to leave
the wreck, and then all that was left of the mighty ship.
was beginning to settle in the slime and putrefaction
which covers the bottom of Havana harbour.
Calmly, with the same observance of etiquette as if
they had been assisting at some social function, the
officers took their respective places in the boats, and,
amid a silence born of deepest grief, rowed a short
distance from the rent and riven mass so lately their
post of duty.
A gentleman from Chicago, a guest at the Grand
Hotel, was seated in front of the building when the
â€œTt was followed by another and a much louder one,â€
he said. â€œWe thought the whole city had been blown
to pieces. Some said the insurgents were entering
Havana. Others cried out that Morro Castle was
blown up. ;
â€œOn the Prado is a large cab-stand. One minute-
after the explosion was heard the cabmen cracked their
whips and went rattling over the cobblestones like
crazy men. The fire department turned out, and bodies
of cavalry and infantry rushed through the streets.
There was no sleep in Havana that night.â€
Soon after the disaster Admiral Manterola and
General Solano put off to the wreck, and offered their
services to Captain Sigsbee.
There were many wonderful escapes from death.
14 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
One of the ward-room cooks was thrown outboard into
A Japanese sailor was blown into the air, and, falling
in the sea, was picked up alive. â€”
One seaman was sleeping in a yawl hanging at the
davits. The boat was crushed like an egg-shell; but
the sailor fell overboard and was picked up unhurt.
Three men were doing punishment watch on the
port quarter-deck, and thus probably escaped death.
One sailor swam about until help came, although
both his legs were broken. Another had the bones of
his ankle crushed, and yet managed to keep afloat.
Two hours or more passed before the unsubmerged,
wooden portion of the wreck had been consumed by
the flames, and at 11.30 p.m. the smoke-stacks of the
ill-fated ship fell.
On board the steamer Czty of Washington, two boats
were literally riddled by fragments of the Mazne which
fell after the explosion, and among them was an iron
truss which, crashing through the pantry, demolished
When morning came the wreck was the central
figure of an otherwise bright picture, sad as it was
terrible. The huge mass of flame-charred dÃ©bris for-
ward looked as if it had been thrown up from a subter-
ranean storehouse of fused cement, steel, wood, and iron.
Further aft, one military mast protruded at a slight
angle from the perpendicular, while the poop afforded
a resting-place for the workmen or divers.
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE, 15
Of the predominant white which distinguishes our
war-vessels in time of peace, not a vestige remained.
In its place was the blackness of desolating death,
marking the spot where two hundred and sixty-six
brave men had gone over into the Beyond.
The total loss to the government as a result of the
disaster was officially pronounced to be $4,689,261.31.
This embraced the cost of hull, machinery, equipment,
armour, gun protection and armament, both in main and
secondary batteries. It included the cost of ammuni-
tion, shells, current supplies, coal, and, in short, the
The pet of the Mazneâ€™s crew, a big cat, was found
next morning, perched on a fragment of a truss which
yet remained above the water, and near her, as if seek-
ing companionship, was the captainâ€™s dog, Peggy.
Consul-General Lee cabled from Havana on the
afternoon of the sixteenth :
Â«Profound sorrow is expressed by the government
and municipal authorities, consuls of foreign nations,
organised bodies of all sorts, and citizens generally.
â€œFlags are at half-mast on the governor-generalâ€™s
palace, on shipping in the harbour, and in the city.
Â«Business is suspended, and the theatres are
On the afternoon of the seventeenth the bodies
which had been found up to that time were buried in
16 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Havana with military honours, two companies of
Spanish sailors from the cruiser Alphonso X/I. acting
as escort. .
A board of inquiry, composed of Capt. W. T. Samp-
son of the U.S.S. Jowa as presiding officer, Com-
mander Adolph -Marix as judge advocate, Capt. F. E.
Chadwick, and Commander W. P. Potter, all of the
New York, was convened, and on March 28th Presi-
dent McKinley sent a message to Congress, the conclu-
sion of which was as follows :
â€œThe appalling calamity fell upon the people of our
country with crushing force, and for a brief time an
intense excitement prevailed, which in a community
less just and self-controlled than ours might have led
to hasty acts of blind resentment.
â€œThis spirit, however, soon gave way to calmer
processes of reason, and to the resolve to investigate
the facts and await material proof before forming a
judgment as to the cause, the responsibility, and, if
the facts warranted, the remedy due. This course
necessarily recommended itself from the outset to the
executive, for only in the light of a dispassionately
ascertained certainty will it determine the nature and
measure of its full duty in the matter.
â€œThe usual procedure was followed, as in all cases of
casualty or disaster to national vessels of any maritime
Â«A naval court of inquiry was at once organised,
composed of officers well qualified by rank and prac-
THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 17
tical experience to discharge the onerous duty imposed
Â« Aided by a strong force of wreckers and divers,
the court proceeded to make a thorough investigation
on the spot, employing every available means for im-
partial and exact determination of the causes of the
explosion. Its operations have been conducted with
the utmost deliberation and judgment, and, while inde-
pendently pursued, no source of information was
neglected, and the fullest opportunity was allowed for a
simultaneous investigation by the Spanish authorities.
â€œThe finding of the court of inquiry was reached,
after twenty-three days of continuous labour, on the
twenty-first of March instant, and, having been ap-
proved on the twenty-second by the commander-in-
chief of the United States naval force in the North
Atlantic station, was transmitted to the executive.
â€œJt is herewith laid before the Congress, together
with the voluminous testimony taken before the court.
â€œThe conclusions of the court are: That the loss of
the Maine was not in any respect due to fault or
negligence on the part of any of the officers or mem-
bers of her crew.
Â«That the ship was destroyed by the explosion of a
submarine mine, which caused the partial explosion of
two or more of her forward magazines; and that no
evidence has been obtainable fixing the responsibility
for the destruction of the Jazze upon any person or
18 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œJT have directed that the finding of the court of
inquiry and the views of this government thereon be
communicated to the government of her majesty, the
queen regent, and I do not permit myself to doubt that
the sense of justice of the Spanish nation will dictate a
course of action suggested by honour and the friendly
relations of the two governments.
Â«Jt will be the duty of the executive to advise the
Congress of the result, and in the meantime deliberate
consideration is invoked.â€
It was the preface to a mustering of the boys of â€™61
who had worn the blue or the gray, this tragedy in the
harbour of Havana, and, when the government gave
permission, the boys of â€™98 came forward many and
many a thousand strong to emulate the deeds of their
fathers â€”the boys of â€™61 â€” who, although the hand of
Time had been laid heavily upon them, panted to partic-
â€˜ipate in the punishment of those who were responsible
for the slaughter of American sailors within the shadow
of Morro Castle.
NVes between two nations does not begin sud-
denly. The respective governments are exceed-
ingly ceremonious before opening the â€œ game of death,â€
and it is not to be supposed that the United States
commenced hostilities immediately after the disaster to
the Mazne in the harbour of Havana.
To tell the story of the war which ensued, without
first giving in regular order the series of events which
marked the preparations for hostilities, would be much
like relating an adventure without explaining why the
hero was brought into the situation.
It is admitted that, as a rule, details, and especially
those of a political nature, are dry reading; but once
take into consideration the fact that they all aid in
giving a clearer idea of how one nation begins hostili-
ties with another, and much of the tediousness may be
Just previous to the disaster to the Maine, during
the last of March or the first of February, Sefior En-
rique Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish minister at Wash-
ington, wrote a private letter to the editor of the
20 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
Madrid Herald, Sefior Canalejas, who was his intimate
friend, in which he made some uncomplimentary re-
marks regarding the President of the United States,
and intimated that Spain was not sincere in certain
commercial negotiations which were then being carried
on between the two countries.
By some means, not yet fully explained, certain
Cubans got possession of this letter, and caused it to
be published in the newspapers. Sefior de Lome did
not deny having written the objectionable matter; but
claimed that, since it was a private communication, it
should not affect him officially. The Secretary of
State instructed General Woodford, our minister at
Madrid, to demand that the Spanish government imme-
diately recall Minister de Lome, and to state that, if he
was not relieved from duty within twenty-four hours,
the President would issue to him his passports, which
is but another way of ordering a foreign minister out
of the country.
February 9. Sefior de Lome made all haste to re-
sign, and the resignation was accepted by his govern-
ment before â€” so it was claimed by the Spanish authori-
ties â€” President McKinleyâ€™s demand for the recall was
February 15. The de Lome incident was a political
matter which caused considerable diplomatic corre-
spondence ; but it was overshadowed when the bat-
tle-ship JZaine was blown up in the harbour of
MINISTER DE LOME
THE PRELIMINARIES. 2a
As has already been said, the United States govern-
ment at once ordered a court of inquiry to ascertain
the cause of the disaster, and this, together with the
search for the bodies of the drowned crew, was prose-
cuted with utmost vigour.
Very many of the people in the United States
believed that Spanish officials were chargeable with the
terrible crime, while those who were not disposed to
make such exceedingly serious accusation insisted that
the Spanish government was responsible for the safety
of the vessel, â€” that she had been destroyed by outside
agencies in a friendly harbour. In the newspapers, on
the streets, in all public places, the American people
spoke of the possibility of war, and the officials of the
government set to work as if, so it would seem, they also
were confident there would be an open rupture between
the two nations.
February 28. In Congress, Representative Gibson
of Tennessee introduced a bill appropriating twenty
million dollars â€œ for the maintenance of national honour
and defence.â€ Representative Bromwell, of Ohio, intro-
duced a similar resolution, appropriating a like amount
of money â€œto place the naval strength of the country
upon a proper footing for immediate hostilities with
any foreign power.â€ On the same day orders were
issued to the commandant at â€˜Fort Barrancas, Florida,
directing him to send men to man the guns at Santa
Rosa Island, opposite Pensacola.
February 28. Sefior Louis Polo y Bernabe, appointed
22 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
minister in the place of Sefior de Lome, who resigned,
sailed from Gibraltar.
By the end of February the work of preparing the
vessels at the different navy yards for sea was being
pushed forward with the utmost rapidity, and munitions
of war were distributed hurriedly among the forts and
fortifications, as if the officials of the War Department
believed that hostilities might be begun at any moment.
Nor was it only within the borders of this country
that such preparations were making. A despatch from
Shanghai to London reported that the United States
squadron, which included the cruisers Olympia, Boston,
Raleigh, Concord, and. Petrel, were concentrating at
Hongkong, with a view of active operations against
Manila, in the Philippine Islands, in event of war.
At about the same time came news from Spain
telling that the Spanish were making ready for hostil-
ities. An exceptionally large number of artisans were
at work preparing for sea battle-ships, cruisers, and tor-
pedo-boat destroyers. The cruisers Oguendo and Vis-
caya, with the torpedo-boat destroyers Furor and
Terror, were already on their way to Cuba, where
were stationed the Alphonso XIT., the Infanta Isabel,
and the WVueva Espana, together with twelve gunboats
of about three hundred tons each, and eighteen vessels
of two hundred and fifty â€˜tons each.
The United States naval authorities decided that
heavy batteries should be placed on all the revenue
cutters built within the previous twelve months, and
THE PRELIMINARIES, . 23
large quantities of high explosives were shipped in
During the early days of March, Sefior Gullon,
Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, intimated to
Minister Woodford that the Spanish government
desired the recall from Havana of Consul-General
Spain also intimated that the American war-ships,
which had been designated to convey supplies to
Cuba for the relief of the sufferers there, should be
. replaced by merchant vessels, in order to deprive the
assistance sent to the reconcentrados of an official
Minister Woodford cabled such requests to the
government at Washington, to which it replied by
refusing to recall General Lee under the present cir-
cumstances, or to countermand the orders for the
despatch of war-vessels, making the representation
that relief vessels are not fighting ships.
March 5. Secretary Long closed a contract for the
delivery at Key West, within forty days, of four hun-
dred thousand tons of coal. Work was begun upon the
old monitors, which for years had been lying at League
Island navy yard, Philadelphia. Orders were sent to
the Norfolk navy yard to concentrate all the energies
and fidelities of the yard on the cruiser Vewark, to the
end that she might be ready for service within sixty
March 6. The President made a public statement
24 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
that under no circumstances would Consul-General
Fitzhugh Lee be recalled at the request of Spain.
He had borne himself,:so it was stated from the
White House, throughout the crisis with judgment,
fidelity, and courage, to the Presidentâ€™s entire satisfac-
tion. As to supplies for the relief of the Cuban
people, all arrangements had been made to carry con-
signments at once from Key West by one of the naval
vessels, whichever might be best adapted and most
available for the purpose, to Matanzas and Sagua.
March 6. Chairman Cannon of the House appro-
priations committee introduced a resolution that fifty
millions of dollars be appropriated for the national de-
fence. It was passed almost immediately, without a
single negative vote.
Significant was the news of the day. The cruiser
Montgomery had been ordered to Havana. Brigadier-
General Wilson, chief of the engineers of the army,
arrived at Key West from Tampa with his corps of
men, who were in charge of locating and firing submarine
March ro. The newly appointed Spanish minister
arrived at Washington.
March rz. Vhe House committee on naval affairs
authorised the immediate construction of three battle
ships, one to be named the Mazwe, and provided for an
increase of 473 men in the marine force.
The despatch-boat Fern sailed for Matanzas with
supplies for the relief of starving Cubans.
U. S. S. MONTGOMERY.
THE PRELIMINARIES. 25
News by cable was received from the Philippine
Islands to the effect that the rebellion there had
broken out once more; theâ€™ whole of the northern
province had revolted; the inhabitants refused to
pay taxes, and the insurgents appeared to be well
supplied with arms and ammunition.
March 12. Sefior Bernabe was presented to Presi-
dent McKinley, and laid great stress upon the love
which Spain bore for the United States.
March rg. The Spanish flying squadron, composed
of three torpedo-boats, set sail from Cadiz, bound for
Porto Rico. Although this would seem to be good
proof that the Spanish government anticipated war
with the United States, Sefior Bernabe made two
demands upon this government on the day following
the receipt of such news. The first was that the
United States fleet at Key West and Tortugas be
withdrawn, and the second, that an explanation be
given as to why two war-ships had been purchased
March 17. A bill was submitted to both houses of
Congress reorganising the army, and placing it on a
war footing of one hundred and four thousand men.
Senator Proctor made a significant speech in the
. Senate, on the condition of affairs in Cuba. He
announced himself as being opposed to annexation,
and declared that the Cubans were â€œsuffering under
the worst misgovernment in the world.â€™ The public
generally accepted his remarks as having been sanc-
20) THE BOYS OF â€™98.
tioned by the President, and understood them as.
indicating that this country should recognise the inde-
pendence of Cuba on the ground that the people are
capable of self-government, and that under no other
conditions could peace or prosperity be restored in the
March r7, The more important telegraphic news
from Spain was to the effect that the Minister of
Marine had cabled the commander of the torpedo
flotilla at the Canaries not to proceed to Havana;
that the government arsenal was being run night and
day in the manufacture of small arms, and that in-
fantry and cavalry rifles were being purchased in
The United States revenue cutter cruiser McCulloch
â€˜was ordered to proceed from Aden, in the Red Sea, to
Hongkong, in order that she might be attached to the
Asiatic squadron, if necessary.
March 18. The cruiser Amazonas, purchased from
the Brazilian government, was formally transferred to
the United States at Gravesend, England, to be known
in the future as the Mew Orleans.
March 19. The Maine court of inquiry concluded
its work. The general sentiments of the people, as
voiced by the newspapers, were that war with Spain
was near at hand, and this belief was strengthened
March 24th, when authority was given by the Navy
Department for unlimited enlistment in all grades of
tthe service, when the revenue service was transferred
THE PRELIMINARIES. 27
from the Treasury to the Naval Department, and
arrangements made for the quick employment of the
National Guards of the States and Territories.
March 2g. The report of the Wazne court of inquiry
arrived at Washington.
March 27. Madrid correspondents of Berlin news-
papers declared that war with the United States was
next to certain. The United States cruisers Saz
Francisco and New Orleans sailed from England for
New York, and the active work of mining the harbours
of the United States coast was begun.
March 28. The President sent to Congress, with a
message, the report of the A/azme court of inquiry, as
has been stated in a previous chapter.
March 29. Resolutions declaring war on Spain, and
recognising the independence of Cuba, were introduced
in both houses of Congress.
With the beginning of April it was to the public
generally as if the war had already begun.
In every city, town, or hamlet throughout .the
country the newspapers were scanned eagerly for notes
of warlike preparation, and from Washington, sent by
those who were in position to know what steps were
being taken by the government, came information
which dashed the hopes of those who had been Bieyine
that peace might not be broken.
There had been a conference between the President,
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the chairman. of
the committee on ways and means, regarding the best
28 THE BOYS OF '98.
methods of raising funds for the carrying on of a war.
A joint board of the army and navy had met to formu-
late plans of defence, and a speedy report was made to
Instructions were sent by the State Department to
all United States consuls in Cuba to be prepared
to leave the island at any moment, and to hold them-
selves in readiness to proceed to Havana in order to
embark for the United States.
April 2. A gentleman in touch with public affairs
wrote from Washington as follows :
â€œTo-dayâ€™s developments show that there is only the
very faintest hope of peace. Unless Spain yields war
must come. The administration realises that as fully
as do members of Congress.
â€œThe orders sent by the State Department to all
our consuls in Cuba, especially those in the interior,
to hold themselves in readiness to leave their positions
and proceed to Havana, show that the department
looks upon war as a certainty, and has taken all proper
precautions for the safety of its agents.
Â« Such an order, it is unnecessary to say, would not
have been issued unless a crisis was imminent, and the
State Department, as well as other branches of the
government, has now become convinced that peace
cannot much longer be maintained, and that the safety
of the consular agents is a first consideration.
â€œGeneral Lee has also been advised that he should
be ready to leave as soon as notified, and that the
THE PRELIMINARIES. 29
American newspaper correspondents now in Havana
must prepare themselves to receive the notification of
â€œThe Secretary of the Navy has instructed the
Boston Towboat Company, which corporation had
charge of the wrecking operations on the U. S. S.
Maine, to suspend work at once. The Secretary of
War has authorised an allotment of one million dol-
lars from the emergency fund for the office of the
chief of engineers, and this amount will be expended
in purchasing material for the torpedo defences con-
nected with the seacoast fortifications. The United
States naval attachÃ© at London has purchased a
cruiser of eighteen hundred tons displacement, cap-
able of a speed of sixteen knots, and the vessel will
put to sea immediately. The Spanish torpedo flotilla
is reported as having arrived at the Cape Verde
April g. Senators Perkins, Mantle, and Rawlins
spoke in the Senate, charging Spain with the murder
of the sailors of the J/aine, claiming that it was prop-
erly an act of war, and insisting that the United States
should declare for the independence of Cuba and armed
April 5. Senator Chandler announced as his belief
that the United States was justified in beginning hos-
tilities, and Senators Kenny, Turpie, and Turner made
powerful speeches in the same line, fiercely denouncing
Spain. General Woodford was instructed by cable to
30 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
be prepared to ask of the Madrid government his
passports at any moment.
Marine underwriters, believing that war was inevi-
table, doubled their rates. The merchants and manu-
facturersâ€™ board of trade of New York notified Congress
and the President that it believed Spain was responsible
for the blowing up of the Mazne; that the independ-
ence of Cuba should be recognised, and that it should
be brought about by force of arms, if necessary.
April 7. The representatives of six great powers
met at the White House in the hope of being able
to influence the President for peace. In closing his.
address to the diplomats, Mr. McKinley said :
â€œThe government of the United States appreciates
the humanitarian and disinterested character of the |
communication now made in behalf of the powers
named, and for its part is confident that equal appre-
ciation will be shown for its own earnest and unselfish
endeavours to fulfil a duty to humanity by ending a
situation, the indefinite prolongation of which has
Americans made haste to leave Cuba, after learning
that Consul-General Lee had received orders to set sail
from Havana on or before the ninth. The American
consul at Santiago de Cuba closed the consulate in that
~ Solomon Berlin, appointed consul at the Canary
Islands, was, by the State Department, ordered not
MAJOR-GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE.
ioaenitamtaieaiat iteeteaiaeiaeia imei oneness
THE PRELIMINARIES. 31
to proceed to his post, and he remained at New
The Spanish consul at Tampa, Florida, left that town
for Washington, by order of his government.
The following cablegram gives a good idea of the
temper of the Spanish people:
Â«London, April 7. â€” A special dispatch from Madrid
says that the ambassadors of France, Germany, Russia,
and Italy waited together this evening upon Sefior
Gullon, the Foreign Minister, and presented a joint.
note in the interests of peace.
Â« Sefior Gullon, replying, declared that the members.
of the Spanish Cabinet were unanimous in considering
that Spain had reached the limit of international policy
in the direction of conceding the demands and allowingâ€™
the pretensions of the United States.â€
April 9. Guards about the United States legation
in Madrid were trebled. General Blanco, captain-gen-
eral of Cuba, issued a draft order calling on every able-
bodied man, between the ages of nineteen and forty, to:
register for immediate military duty. At ten oâ€™clock
in the morning, Consul-General Lee, accompanied by
British Consul Gollan, called on General Blanco to bid
him good-bye. The captain-general was too busy to
receive visitors. General Lee left the island at six
oâ€™clock in the evening.
April rr. The President sent a message, together
2 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
with Consul Leeâ€™s report, to the Congress, and Senator
Chandler thus analysed it :
First: A graphic and powerful description of theâ€™
horrible condition of affairs in Cuba.
Second: An assertion that the independence of the
revolutionists should not be recognised until Cuba has
achieved its own independence beyond the possibility
Third: An argument against the recognition of the
Fourth: As to intervention in the interest of hu-
manity, that is well enough, and also on account of
the injury to commerce and peril to our citizens, and
the generally uncomfortable conditions all around.
Fifth: Wlustrative of these uncomfortable conditions
is the destruction of the Mazuze. It helps make the
existing situation intolerable. But Spain proposes an
arbitration, to which proposition the President has no
Sixth: On the whole, as the war goes on and Spain
cannot end it, mediation or intervention must take
place. President Cleveland said â€œintervention wouid
finally be necessary.â€ The enforced pacification of
Cuba must come. The war must stop. Therefore,
the President should be authorised to terminate hostili-
ties, secure peace, and establish a stable government,
and to use the military and naval forces of the United
States to accomplish these results, and food supplies
should also be furnished by the United States.
THE PRELIMINARIES. 33
April r2. Consul-General Lee was summoned before
the Senate committee on foreign relations. It was
announced that the Republican members of the
ways and means committee had agreed upon a plan
for raising revenue in case of need to carry on war
with Spain. The plan was intended to raise more than
$100,000,000 additional revenue annually, and was
thus distributed :
An additional tax on beer of one dollar per barrel,
estimated to yield $35,000,000; a bank stamp tax
on the lines of the law of 1866, estimated to yield
$30,000,000; a duty of three cents per pound on
coffee, and ten cents per pound on tea on hand in the
United States, estimated to yield $28,000,000; addi-
tional tax on tobacco, expected to yield $15,000,000.
The committee also agreed to authorise the issuing
of $500,000,000 bonds. These bonds to be offered
for sale at all post-offices in the United States in
amounts of fifty dollars each, making a -great popu-
lar loan to. be absorbed by the people.
To tide over emergencies, the Secretary of the Treas-
ury to be authorised to issue treasury certificates.
These certificates or debentures to be used to pay
running expenses when the revenues do not meet the
These preparations were distinctly war measures,
and would be put in operation. only should war
34 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
April 13. The House of Representatives passed the
following resolutions :
Whereas, the government of Spain for three years
past has been waging war on the island of Cuba
against a revolution by the inhabitants thereof, with-
out making any substantial progress toward the
suppression of said revolution, and has conducted
the warfare in a manner contrary to the laws of
nations by methods inhuman and uncivilised, causing
the death by starvation of more than two hundred
thousand innocent non-combatants, the victims being
for the most part helpless women and children, inflict-
ing intolerable injury to the commercial interests of
the United States, involving the destruction of the
lives and property of many of our citizens, entailing
the expenditure of millions of money in patrolling our
coasts and policing the high seas in order to maintain
our neutrality ; and,
Whereas, this long series of losses, injuries, and
burdens for which Spain is responsible has culminated
in the destruction of the United States battle-ship
Maine in the harbour of Havana, and the death of
two hundred and sixty-six of our seamen, â€”
Resolved, That the President is hereby authorised
and directed to intervene at once to stop the war in
Cuba, to the end and with the purpose of securing
permanent peace and order there, and establishing by
the free action of the people there of a stable and
independent government of -their own in the island
THE PRELIMINARIES. : 35
of Cuba; and the President is hereby authorised and
empowered to use the land and naval forces of the
United States. to execute the purpose of this
In the Senate the majority resolution reported :
Whereas, the abhorrent conditions which have
existed for more than three years in the island of
Cuba, so near our own borders, have been a disgrace
to Christian civilisation, culminating as they have in
the destruction of a United States battle-ship with two
hundred and sixty-six of its officers and crew, while on
aâ€˜ friendly visit in the harbour of Havana, and cannot
longer be endured, as has been set forth by the
President of the United States in his message to
Congress on April 11, 1898, upon which the action
of Congress was invited ; therefore,
Resolved, First, that the people of the island of
Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and inde-
Second, That it is the duty of the United States to
demand, and the government of the United States does
hereby demand, that the government of Spain at once
relinquish its authority and government in the island of
Cuba, and withdraw its land and. naval forces from
Cuba and Cuban waters.
â€˜Third, That the President of the United States be,
and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the
entire land and naval forces of the United States, and
to call into the actual service of the United States the
36 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
militia of the several States to such extent as may be
necessary, to carry these resolutions into effect.
April rg. The Spanish minister at Washington
sealed his archives and placed them in the charge
of the French ambassador, M. Cambon. The queen
regent of Spain, at a Cabinet meeting, signed a call for
the Cortes to meet on the twentieth of the month, and
a decree opening a national subscription for increasing
the navy and other war services.
April 15. The United States consulate at Malaga,
Spain, was attacked by a mob, and the shield torn
down and trampled upon.
April 17. The Spanish committee of inquiry into
the destruction of the Mazue reported that the explo-
sion could not have been caused by a torpedo or a
mine of any kind, because no trace of anything was
found to justify such a conclusion. It gave the testi-
mony of two eye-witnesses to the catastrophe, who
swore that there was absolutely no disturbance on
the surface of the harbour around the Maze. The
committee gave great stress to the fact that the ex-
plosion did no damage to the quays, and none to the
vessels moored close to the Mazne, whose officers and
crews noticed nothing that could lead them to suppose
that the disaster was caused otherwise than by an acci-
dent inside the American vessel.
April 18. Congress passed the Senate resolution,
as given above, with an additional clause as follows:
THE PRELIMINARIES. aye
fourth, That the United States hereby disclaim any
disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, juris-
diction or control over said island, except for the
pacification thereof; and asserts its determination,
when that is accomplished, to leave the government
and control of the island to itsâ€™ people.
GreAE eis Rees lelale
A DECLARATION OF WAR.
Nees that had been done by the governments of the
United States and of Spain was indicative of war,
â€”it was virtually a declaration that an appeal would
be made to arms.
April 20. Preparations were making in each country
for actual hostilities, and the American people were
prepared to receive the statement made by a gentleman
in close touch with high officials, when he wrote:
â€œThe United States has thrown down the gage of
battle and Spain has picked it up.
â€œThe signing by the President of the joint resolu-
tions instructing him to intervene in Cuba was no
sooner communicated to the Spanish minister than he
immediately asked the State Department to furnish
him with his passports.
â€œTt was defiance, prompt and direct.
â€œIt was the shortest and quickest manner for Spain
to answer our ultimatum.
â€œNominally Spain has three days in which to make
herâ€™ reply. Actually that reply has already been
U. S. S. COLUMBIA.
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 39
â€œWhen a nation withdraws her minister from the
territory of another it is an open announcement to
the world that all friendly relations have terminated.
Â« Answers to ultimatums have before this been
returned at the cannonâ€™s mouth. First the minister
is withdrawn, then comes the firing. Spain is ready
to speak through shotted guns.
Â« And the United States is ready to answer, gun for
Â«The queen regent opened the Cortes in Madrid
yesterday, saying, in her speech from the throne: â€˜I
have summoned the Cortes to defend our rights, what-
ever sacrifice they may entail, trusting to the Spanish
people to gather behind my sonâ€™s throne. With our
glorious army, navy, and nation united before foreign
aggression, we trust in God that we shall overcome,
without stain on our honour, the baseless and unjust
attacks made on us.â€™
Â«â€œ Orders were sent last night to Captain Sampson at
Key West to have all the vessels of his fleet under full
steam, ready to move immediately upon orders.â€
The Spanish minister, accompanied by six members
of his staff, departed from Washington during the
evening, after having made a hurried call at the French
embassy and the Austrian legation, where Spanish
interests were left in charge, having announced that he
would spend several days in Toronto, Canada.
April 27. - The ultimatum of the United States was
received at Madrid early in the morning, and the gov-
Oo THE BOYS OF 'o8.
ernment immediately broke off diplomatic relations by
sending the following communication to Minister
Woodford, before he could present any note from
â€œ Dear Sir: â€”In compliance with a painful duty, I
have the honour to inform you that there has been
sanctioned by the President of the republic a resolu-
tion of both chambers of the United States, which
denies the legitimate sovereignty of Spain and threat-
ens armed intervention in Cuba, which is equivalent to
a declaration of war.
Â«The government of her majesty have ordered her
minister to return without loss of time from North
American territory, together with all the personnel of
the legation. ;
Â«By this act the diplomatic relations hitherto exist-
ing between the two countries, and all official commu-
nication between their respective representatives, cease.
â€œT am obliged thus to inform you, so that you may
make such arrangements as you think fit. I beg your
excellency to acknowledge receipt of this note at such
time as you deem proper, taking this opportunity to
reiterate to you the assurances of my distinguished
(Signed) â€œH. GuLton.â€
Relative to the ultimatum and its reception, the
government of this country gave out the following
A DECLARATION OF WAR. AI
â€œOn yesterday, April 20, 1898, about one o'clock p.M.,
the Department of State served notice of the purposes
of this government by delivering to Minister Polo a
copy of an instruction to Minister Woodford, and also
a copy of the resolutions passed by the Congress of the
United States on the nineteenth instant. After the
receipt of this notice the Spanish minister forwarded
to the State Department a request for his passports,
which were furnished him on yesterday afternoon.
â€œCopies of the instructions to Woodford are here-
with appended. The United States minister at Madrid
was at the same time instructed to make a like com-
munication to the Spanish government.
â€œThis morning the Department received from
General Woodford a telegram, a copy of which is
hereunto attached, showing that the Spanish govern-
ment had broken off diplomatic relations with this
â€œThis course renders unnecessary any further dip-
lomatic action on the part of the United States.
Â«Â¢ April 20, 1898.
â€œ<â€˜Woodford, Minister, Madrid: â€” You have been
furnished with the text of a joint resolution, voted by
the Congress of the United States on the nineteenth
instant, approved to-day, in relation to the pacifica-
tion of the island of Cuba. In obedience to that act,
the President directs you to immediately communicate
to the government of Spain said resolution, with the
42 THE BOYS OF 798.
formal demand of the government of the United States,
that the government of Spain at once relinquish her
authority and government in the island of Cuba, and
withdraw her land and naval forces from Cuba and
â€œIn taking this step, the United States disclaims
_ any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty,
jurisdiction, or control over said island, except for the
pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when
that is accomplished to leave the government and con-
trol of the island to its people under such: free and
independent government as they may establish.
Â«<Â«Tf, by the hour of noon on Saturday next, the
twenty-third day of April, there be not communicated
to this government by that of Spain a full and satisfac-
tory response to this demand and resolutions, whereby
the ends of peace in Cuba shall be assured, the Presi-
dent will proceed without further notice to use the power
and authority enjoined and conferred upon him by the
said joint resolution to such an extent as may be
necessary to carry the same into effect.
Â« Â¢ SHERMAN.â€™
â€œThis is Woodfordâ€™s telegram of this morning :
Â«Â«Maprip, April 21. (Received at 9.02 a.m.)
â€œ<Â«To Sherman, Washington: â€”Early this morning
(Tuesday), immediately after the receipt of your tele-
gram, and before I communicated the same to the
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 43
Spanish government, the Spanish Minister for Foreign
Affairs notified me that diplomatic relations are broken
between the two countries, and that all official com-
munication between the respective representatives has
ceased. I accordingly asked for my passports. Have
turned the legation over to the British embassy, and
leave for Paris this afternoon. Have notified consuls.
The Spanish newspapers applauded the â€œenergyâ€ of
their government, and printed the paragraph inserted
below as a semi-official statement from the throne:
â€œThe Spanish government having received the ulti-
matum of the President of the United States, considers
that the document constitutes a declaration of war
against Spain, and that the proper form to be adopted
is not to make any further reply, but to await the
expiration of the time mentioned in the ultimatum
before opening hostilities. In the meantime the Span-
ish authorities have placed their possessions in a state
of defence, and their fleet is already on its way to meet
that of the United States.â€
April 2z. General Woodford left Madrid late in the
afternoon, and although an enormous throng of citizens
were gathered at the railway station to witness his
departure, no indignities were attempted. The people
of Madrid professed the greatest enthusiasm for war,
and the general opinion among the masses was that
Spain would speedily vanquish the United States.
44 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
In Havana, in response to the manifesto from the
palace, the citizens began early to decorate the public
buildings and many private residences, balconies, and
windows with the national colours. A general illumina-
tion followed, as on the occasion of a great national
festivity. Early in the evening no less than eight
thousand demonstrators filled the square opposite the
palace, a committee entering and tendering to the
captain-general, in the name of all, their estates, prop-
erty, and lives in aid of the government, and pledging
their readiness to fight the invader.
~ General Blanco thanked them in the name of the
king, the queen regent and the imperial and colonial
governments, assuring them that he would do every-
thing in his power to prevent the invaders from setting
foot in Cuba. â€œOtherwise I shall not live,â€ he said, in
conclusion. â€˜Do you swear to follow me to the fight ?â€â€
Â« Yes, yes, we do!â€ the crowd answered.
â€œDo you swear to give the last drop of blood in
your veins before letting a foreigner step his foot on
the land we discovered, and place his yoke upon the
people we civilised ?â€â€™ .
Â«Yes, yes, we do!â€
Â«The enemyâ€™s fleet is almost at Morro Castle, almost
at the doors of Havana,â€™ General Blanco added. â€œThey |
have money; but we have blood to shed, and we are
ready to shed it. We will throw them into the sea!â€
The people interrupted him with cries of applause,
and he finished his speech by shouting â€œ Viva Espana!â€
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 45
Â« Viva el Rey!â€ â€œ Long live the army, the navy, and the
The Congress of the United States passed a joint
resolution authorising the President, in his discretion,
to prohibit the exportation of coal and other war ma-
terial. The measure was of great importance, because
through it was prevented the shipment of coal to ports
in the West Indies where it might be used by Spain.
April 22. At half past five oâ€™clock in the morning
the vessels composing the North Atlantic Squadron put
to sea from Key West. The flag-ship Mew York led
the way. Close behind her steamed the /owa and the
Indiana. Following the war-ships came the gunboat
Machias, and then the Newport. The Amphitrite, the
first of the fleet, lying close to shore, steamed out after
the Machias, and then followed in order the Washvzlle,
the Wilmington, the Castine, the Cincinnati, and the
other boats of the fleet, save the monitors Zerror and
Puritan, which were coaling, the cruiser J/arblehead,
the despatch-boat Dolphin, and the gunboat Helena.
After getting out of sight of land the flag of a rear-
admiral was hoisted over the Mew York, indicating to
the fleet that Captain Sampson was acting as a rear-
admiral. When in the open sea the fleet was divided
into three divisions. The Mew York, lowa, and /ndi-
ana had the position of honour. Stretching out to the
right were the, Montgomery, Wilmington, Newport, and
smaller craft; to the left was the Vashvzlle in the lead,
46 THE BOYS OF 798.
followed by the Cineznnati, Castine, Machias, Mayflower,
and some of the torpedo-boats.
At seven o'clock in the morning the first gun of the
war was fired. The WVashvzlle, which had been sailingâ€™
at about six knots an hour, in obedience to orders,
suddenly swung out of line. Clouds of black smoke
poured from her long, slim stacks, her speed was grad-
ually increased until the water ascended in fine spray
on each side of the bow, and behind her trailed out a
long, creamy streak on the quiet waters.
She was headed for a Spanish merchantman, which
was then about half a mile away, apparently paying no
heed to the monsters of war.
A shot from one of the 4-pounders was sent across
the strangerâ€™s bow, and then, no attention having been
paid to it, a 6-inch gun was discharged. This last shot
struck the water and bounded along the surface a mile
or more, sending up great clouds of spray.
The Spaniard wisely concluded to heave to, and
within five minutes a boat was lowered from the
Nashville to put on board the first prize a crew of
six men, under command of Ensign Magruder.
The captured vessel was the Buena Ventura, of 1,741
tons burthen; laden with lumber, valued at eleven
thousand dollars, and carrying a deck-load of cattle.
The record of this first day of hostilities was not to
end with one capture.
Late in the afternoon, almost within gunshot of the
Cuban shore, while the United States fleet was stand-
A DECLARATION OF WAR. A7
ing toward Havana, with the Mayflower a mile or more
in advance of the flag-ship Mew York, the merchant
steamship Pedyo hove in sight. The Mayflower sud-
denly swung sharply to the westward, and a moment
later a string of butterfly flags went fluttering to her
The New Vork flung her answering pennant to the
breeze, and, making another signal to the fleet, which
probably meant â€œStay where you are until I get back,â€
swung her bow to the westward and went racing for
the game that the Mayflower had sighted. The big
cruiser dashed forward, smoke trailing in dense masses
from each of her three big funnels, a hill of foam
around her bow, and in her wake a swell like a tidal
wave. It was a winning pace, and a magnificent sight
she presented as she dashed through the choppy seas
with never an undulation of her long, graceful hull.
When she was well inshore a puff of smoke came
from the bow of the cruiser, followed by a dull report,
then another and another, until four shots had been
sent from one of the small, rapid-fire guns. The Span-
ish steamer, probably believing the pursuing craft car-
ried no heavier guns, was trying to keep at a safe
distance until the friendly darkness of night should
hide her from view. During sixty seconds or more the
big cruiser held her course in silence, and then her
entire bow was hidden from the spectators in a swirl.
of white smoke as a main battery gun roared out its
48 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
The whizzing shell spoke plainly to the Spanish craft,
and had hardly more than flung up a column of water
a hundred yards or less in front of the merchantman
before she was hastily rounded to with her engines
A prize crew under Ensign Marble was thrown on
board, and the steamer Pedyo, twenty-eight hundred
tons burthen, suddenly had a change of commanders.
April 22. The President issued a proclamation
announcing a blockade of Cuban ports, and also signed
the bill providing for the utilising of volunteer forces
in times of war.
The foreign news of immediate interest to the people
of the United States was, first, from Havana, that
Captain-General Blanco had published a decree con-
firming his previous decree, and declaring the island
to be in a state of war.
He also annulled his former similar decrees grant-'
ing pardon to insurgents, and placed under martial law
all those who were guilty of treason, espionage, crimes
against peace or against the independence of the
nation, seditious . revolts, attacks against the form of
government or against the authorities, and against
those who disturb public order, though only by means
of printed matter.
From Madrid came the information that during the
evening a throng of no less than six thousand people,
carrying flags and shouting â€œ Viva Espana ! Â» Â« We want
war!â€ and â€œ Down with the Yankees!â€ burned the stars
2 PREMIER SAGASTA.
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 49
and stripes in front of the residence of Sefior Sagasta,
the premier, who was accorded an ovation. The mob
then went to the residence of M. Patenotre, the French
ambassador, and â€˜insisted that he should make his ap-
pearance, but the French ambassador was not at home.
Correspondents at Hongkong announced that Ad-
miral Dewey had ordered the commanders of the ves-
sels composing his squadron to be in readiness for an
immediate movement against the Philippine Islands.
April 23. The President issued a proclamation call-
ing for one hundred and twenty-five thousand volunteer
In the new war tariff bill a loan of $500,000,000 was
provided for in the form of three per cent. 10-20 bonds.
The third capture of a Spanish vessel was made early
in the morning by the torpedo-boat Ericsson. The fish-
ing-boat Perdito was sighted making for Havana har-
bour, and overhauled only when she was directly under
the guns of Morro Castle, where a single shot from the
fortification might have sunk either craft. . After a
prize-crew had been put on board Rear-Admiral Samp-
son decided to turn her loose, and so she was permitted
to return to Havana to spread the news of the blockade.
_ During the afternoon the rum-laden schooner Ma-
thilde was taken, after a lively chase, by the torpedo-
boat Porter. Between five and six o'clock in the
evening the torpedo-boat ooze, Lieut. W. L. Rodgers
commanding, received the first Spanish fire.
She was taking soundings in the harbour of Matanzas,
50 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
and had approached within two or three hundred yards
of the shore, when suddenly a masked battery on the
east side of the harbour, and not far distant from the
Foote, fired three shots at the torpedo-boat. The
missiles went wide of the mark, and the /oote leisurely
returned to the Czucinnatz to report the result of her
At Hongkong the United States consul notified
Governor Blake of the British colony that the Ameri-
can fleet would leave the harbour in forty-eight hours,
and that no warlike stores, or more coal than would be
necessary to carry the vessels to the nearest home port,
would be shipped.
The United States demanded of Portugal, the owner
of the Cape Verde Islands, that, in accordance with
international law, she send the Spanish war-ships away
from St. Vincent, or require them to remain in that
port during the war.
April 24g. The following decree was gazetted in
Madrid : -
â€œDiplomatic relations are broken off between Spain
and the United States, and a state of war being be-
gun between the two countries, numerous questions of
international law arise, which must be precisely defined
chiefly because the injustice and provocation came
from our adversaries, and it is they who by their de-
testable conduct have caused this great conflict.â€
The royal decree then states that Spain maintains
her right to have recourse to privateering, and an-
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 51
nounces that for the present only auxiliary cruisers
will be fitted out. All treaties with the United States
are annulled ; thirty days are given to American ships
to leave Spanish ports, and the rules Spain will observe
during the war are outlined in five clauses, covering
neutral flags and goods contraband of war; what will
be considered a blockade ; the right of search, and what
constitutes contraband of war, ending with saying that
foreign privateers will be regarded as pirates.
Continuing, the decree declared: â€œWe have ob-
served with the strictest fidelity the principles of inter-
national law, and have shown the most scrupulous
respect for morality and the right of government.
Â«There is an opinion that the fact that we have not
adhered to the declaration of Paris does not exempt us
from the duty of respecting the principles therein
enunciated. The principle Spain unquestionably re-
fused to admit then was the abolition of privateering.
Â«â€œ The government now considers it most indispen-
sable to make absolute reserve on this point, in order to
maintain our liberty of action and uncontested right
to have recourse to privateering when we consider it
expedient, first, by organising immediately a force of
cruisers, auxiliary to the navy, which will be composed
of vessels of our mercantile marine, and with equal
distinction in the work of our navy. .
â€œ Clause 1: The state of war existing between Spain
and the United States annuls the treaty of peace and
amity of October 27, 1795, and the procotol of January
2 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
12, 1877, and all other agreements, treaties, or conven-
tions in force between the two countries.
â€œ Clause 2: From the publication of these presents,
thirty days are granted to all ships of the United States
anchored in our harbours to take their departure free
â€œ Clause 3: Notwithstanding that Spain has not ad-
hered to the declaration of Paris, the government,
respecting the principles of the law of nations, proposes
to observe, and hereby orders to be observed, the
following regulations of maritime laws:
â€œOne: Neutral flags cover the enemyâ€™s merchandise,
except contraband of war.
Â«â€œ Two: Neutral merchandise, except contraband of
war, is not seizable under the enemyâ€™s flag.
â€œThree: A blockade, to be obligatory, must be
effective ; viz., it must be maintained with sufficient
force to prevent access to the enemyâ€™s littoral.
â€œFour: The Spanish government, upholding its
rights to grant letters of marque, will at present
confine itself to organising, with the vessels of the
mercantile marine, a force of auxiliary cruisers which
will codperate with the navy, according to the needs of
the campaign, and will be under naval control.
â€œfive: In order to capture the enemyâ€™s ships, and
confiscate the enemyâ€™s merchandise and contraband of
war under whatever form, the auxiliary cruisers will
exercise the right of search on the high seas, and in
the waters under the enemyâ€™s jurisdiction, in accordance
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 53
with international law and the regulations which will
be published. â€” . .
â€œ Six: Defines what is included in contraband of war,
naming weapons, ammunition, equipments, engines, and,
in general, all the appliances used in war.
â€œ Seven: To be regarded and judged as pirates, with
all the rigour of the law, are captains, masters, officers,
and two-thirds of the crew of vessels, which, not being
American, shall commit acts of war against Spain, even
if provided with letters of marque by the United States.â€
April 2g. The U. S.S. Helena captured the steamer
Miguel Jover. The U.S. S. Detroit captured the steamer
Catalania ; the Wilmington took the schooner Candidor;
the Winona made a prize of the steamer Saturnia, and
the Terror brought in the schooners Saco and Tres
April 25. Early in the day the President sent the
following message to Congress :
â€œTI transmit to the Congress, for its consideration
and appropriate action, copies of correspondence re-
cently had with the representatives of Spain and the
United States, with the United States minister at Ma-
drid, through the latter with government of Spain, show-
ing the action taken under the joint resolution approved
April 20, 1898, â€˜ For the recognition of the independence
of the people of Cuba, demanding that the government
of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the
island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces
54 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the Presi-
dent of the United States to carry these resolutions
â€œUpon communicating with the Spanish minister in
Washington the demand, which it became the duty of
the executive to address to the government of Spain
in obedience with said resolution, the minister asked for
his passports and withdrew. The United States minis-
ter at Madrid was in turn notified by the Spanish
Minister of Foreign Affairs, that the withdrawal of
the Spanish representative from the United States
had terminated diplomatic relations between the two
countries, and that all official communications between
their respective representatives ceased therewith.
â€œJT commend to your especial attention the note
addressed to the United States minister at Madrid by
the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs om the twenty-
first instant, whereby the foregoing notification was
conveyed. It will be perceived therefrom, that the
' government of Spain, having cognisance of the joint
resolution of the United States Congress, and, in view
of the things which the President is thereby required
and authorised to do, responds by treating the reason-
able demands of this government as measures of hos-
tility, following with that instant and complete severance
of relations by its action, which by the usage of nations
accompanied an existing state of war between sovereign
â€œThe position of Spain being thus made known, and
PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY.
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 55
the demands of the United States being denied, with a
complete rupture of intercourse by the act of Spain, I
have been constrained, in exercise of the power and
authority conferred upon me by the joint resolution
aforesaid, to proclaim under date of April 22, 1898, a
blockade of certain ports of the north coast of Cuba,
lying between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and of the
port of Cienfuegos on the south coast of Cuba, and
further in exercise of my constitutional powers, and
using the authority conferred upon me by act of Con-
gress, approved April 22, 1898, to issue my proclama-
tion, dated April 23, 1898, calling for volunteers in
order to carry into effect the said resolution of April
20, 1898. Copies of these proclamations are hereto
â€œIn view of the measures so taken, and other meas-
ures as may be necessary to enable me to carry out the
express will of the Congress of the United States in
the premises, I now recommend to your honourable body
the adoption of a joint resolution declaring that a state
of war exists between the United States of America
and the kingdom of Spain, and I urge speedy action
thereon to the end that the definition of the interna-
tional status of the United States as a belligerent
power may be made known, and the assertion of all its
rights and the maintenance of all its duties in the con-
duct of a public war may be assured.
(Signed) â€œ Witt1aAm McKINLEY.
â€œ Executive Mansion, Washington, April 25, 1898.â€
56 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
The war bill was passed without delay, and immedi-
ately after it had been signed the following notice was
sent to the representatives of the foreign nations:
Â« A joint resolution of Congress, approved April 20th,
directed intervention for the pacification and independ-
ence of the island of Cuba. The Spanish government
on April 21st informed our minister at Madrid that it
considered this resolution equivalent to a declaration
of war, and that it had accordingly withdrawn its min-
ister from Washington and terminated all diplomatic
Â«Congress has therefore, by an act approved to-day,
declared that a state of war exists between the two
countries since and including April 21st.
Â«You will inform the government to which you are
accredited, so that its neutrality may be assured in the
Before the close of the day John Sherman, Secretary
of State, had resigned; Assistant Secretary William
R. Day was appointed the head of the department,
with John B. Moore as his successor.
The United States squadron sailed from Hongkong,
under orders to rendezvous at Mirs Bay, and public
attention was turned towards Manila, it being believed
that there the first action would take place.
During the evening the tiny steamer Mangrove, a
lighthouse tender, captured the richest prize of the war
thus far, when she hove to the Panama, a big trans-
A DECLARATION OF WAR, Sy:
atlantic liner, and an auxiliary cruiser of the Spanish
navy, which had been plying between New York and
The Mangrove, Lieut..Commander William H.
Everett commanding, was cruising along the Cuban
coast about twenty miles from Havana when she
sighted the big steamer, which was armed with two
12-pounders. As the latter came within range the
Mangrove sent a shot across her bow; but the Span-
iard gave no heed; another missile followed without
result, and the third whistled in the air when the two
vessels were hardly more than a hundred yards apart,
Commander Everett shouting, as the report of the gun
died away, that unless the steamer surrendered she
would be sunk forthwith.
The only other ship of the fleet in sight was the
battle-ship /zdiana, three miles to the rear. The
Mangroveâ€™s officers admit that they expected the en-
emyâ€™s 12-pounders to open on them in_ response
to the threat, but the Spaniard promptly came to.
Ensign Dayton boarded the prize.
The /zdiana had seen the capture, and meanwhile
drew up to the Mangrove, giving her a lusty cheer.
Lieutenant-Commander Everett reported to Captain
Taylor of the battle-ship, and the latter put a prize-
crew on board the captive, consisting of Cadet Fal-
coner and fifteen marines.
April 26. The President issued a proclamation
respecting the rights of Spanish vessels then in, or
58 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
bound to, ports in the United States, and also with
regard to the right of search.
The United States gunboat JVewport carried into
_Key West the Spanish schooner Pzereno and the sloop
Paquette, which she captured off Havana, while the
monitor Terror took, to the same port the coasting
steamer Ambrosia Bolivar. This last prize had on
board silver specie to the amount of seventy thousand
dollars, three hundred casks of wine, and a cargo of
April 27. The steamers Mew York, Puritan, and
Cincinnati bombarded the forts at the mouth of Matan-
zas Harbour. The engagement commenced at 12.57,
and ceased at 1.15 p.m. The object of the attack was
to prevent the completion of the earthworks at Punta
A battery on the eastward arm of the bay opened
fire on the flag-ship, and this was also shelled. Twelve
8-inch shells were fired from the eastern forts, but
all fell short. About five or six light shells were fired
from the half completed batteries. Two of these
whizzed over the Wew York, and one fell short.
The ships left the bay for the open sea, the object
of discovering the whereabouts of the batteries having
been accomplished. In the neighbourhood of three
hundred shots were put on land from the three ships
at a range of from four thousand to seven thousand
yards. No casualties on the American side.
The little monitor Zerver captured her third prize,
U. S. S. PURITAN,
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 59
and the story of the chase is thus told by an eye-
Â«The Spanish steamer Guzdo, Captain Armarechia,
was bound for Havana. There was Spanish urgency
that she should reach that port. Aboard was a large
cargo, provisions for the beleaguered city, money for
the Spanish troopsâ€” or officers. The steamer had
left Liverpool on April 2d, and Corunna on April gth.
â€œTen miles off Cardenas, in the early morning, the
Guido, setting her fastest pace, made for Havana and
the guardian guns of Morro. Ten miles off Cardenas
plodded the heavy monitor. The half light betrayed
the fugitive, and the pursuit was begun.
Â« Slowly, very slowly, the monitor gained. It would
be a long chase. Men in the engine-room toiled like
galley-slaves under the whip. -There was prize-money
to be gained. The Guzdo fled fast. Every light aboard
her was hid. ;
Â«Reluctantly the pursuer aimed a 6-pounder. It
was prize aim, and the shot found more than a billet, in
the Gzidoâ€™s pilot-house. It tore a part away; the
Â« Another 6-pounder, and another. It was profit-
able shooting. The pilot-house, a fair mark, was piece
by piece nearly destroyed. Jagged bits of wood floated
in the steamerâ€™s wake.
â€œThe gunboat JJachias, which was some distance
away, heard the sound of. the firing, came up, and
brought her 4-inch rifle into play, firing one shot,
60 THE BOYS OF 98.
which failed to hit the Spaniard. This, however,
brought her to, and Lieutenant Qualto and a prize-
crew were put on board.â€ y
A cablegram from Hongkong announced the cap-
ture of the American bark Saranac off Manila, by the
Spanish gunboat Â£7 Correo.
By a conference of both branches of Congress a
naval bill of $49,277,558 was agreed upon. It stands
as the heaviest naval outlay since the civil war, pro-
viding for the construction of three battle-ships, four
monitors, sixteen torpedo-boat destroyers, and twelve
The U. S. S. Newport captured the Spanish sloop
Engracia, and the U. S. S. Dolphin made a prize of
the Spanish schooner Loda.
April 29. The flag-ship Mew York was lying about
two miles off the harbour of Cabanas, having just com-
pleted a cruise of inspection. With her were the
torpedo-boats Porter and Ericsson. On the shore
could be seen the white ruins of what may have been
the dwelling of a plantation. No signs of life were
visible. It was as if warâ€™s alarms had never been
heard on this portion of the island.
Suddenly a volley of musketry rang out, repeated
again and again, at regular intervals, and the tiny jets
of water which were sent up by the bullets told that,
concealed near about the ruins of the hacienda, a troop
of Spanish soldiers were making what possibly they
may have believed to be an attack upon the big war-
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 61
ship. It was much as if a swarm of gnats had set
about endeavouring to worry an elephant, and likely to
have as little effect; yet Rear-Admiral Sampson be-
lieved it was necessary to teach the enemy that any
playing at war, however harmless, was dangerous to
themselves, and he ordered that the port battery be
Half a dozen shots from the 4-inch guns were con-
sidered sufficient, although there was no evidence any
execution had been done, and the big vesselâ€™s bow was
turned eastward just as a troop of Spanish cavalry rode
rapidly away from the ruin. The horsemen served as
a target for a 4-inch gun in the starboard battery,
and the troop dispersed in hot haste.
While this mimic warfare was being carried on off
Cabanas, a most important capture was'made. The
Nashville, Marblehead, and the Eagle left the station
on the north coast, April 25th, to blockade Cienfuegos, -
arriving at the latter place on the twenty-eighth.
They spent the day reconnoitring, and, next morn-
ing, in order to get better information, steamed close
to the mouth of the harbour of Cienfuegos. The Eagle
was to the eastward, and inthe van. The Marblehead
was slightly in the rear, and the Nashville to the
All were cleared for action. Suddenly smoke was
seen rising on the western horizon, and the Nashville,
because of her position, put on all steam in that direc-
tion. Twenty minutes later she fired two shots across
62 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
the bow of the coming steamer, which promptly hove to.
She was the Avgonauta. Ensign Keunzli was sent
with a prize-crew of nine to take possession of her.
Learning that Spanish soldiers were on board, word
was given to send them to the Washville immediately
as prisoners of war, and when this had been done
arrangements were made to transfer the passengers
and non-combatants to the shore. The women and
children were placed in the first boat, and under cover
of a flag of truce were soon bound toward the entrance
to Cienfuegos. A second crew took the other passen-
gers and landed them about noon.
The Argonauta had on board Colonel Corijo of the
Third Spanish Cavalry, his first lieutenant, sergeant-
major, seven other lieutenants, and ten privates and
non-commissioned officers. The steamer also carried
a large cargo of arms and Mauser ammunition. She
was bound from Satabanao, Spain, for Cienfuegos,
stopping at Port Louis, Trinidad, and Manzanillo.
Half an hour later the Eagle hoisted a signal con-
veying the intelligence that she had been fired upon by
Spanish boats coming out of the river. She imme-
diately returned the fire with the 6-pounders, and
held her ground until the Marblehead came up. Both
vessels then fired broadside after broadside up the
entrance to the river.
The boats coming down were two torpedo-boats and
one torpedo-boat destroyer. After twenty minutes of
firing by the Eagle, during the last five of which the
A DECLARATION OF WAR. 63
Marblehead participated, the Spanish vessels ceased
April 29. A cablegram from St. Vincent, Cape
Verde, reported the departure from that port of the
Spanish squadron, consisting of the first-class cruisers
Vizcaya, Almirante Oquendo, Infanta Maria Teresa,
and Cristobal Colon, and the three torpedo-boat destroy-
ers Furor, Terror, and Pluton, bound westward, prob-
ably for Porto Rico.
April 30. The American schooner Ann Louisa
Lockwood was taken by the Spaniards off Mole St.
The capture of a small Spanish schooner, the Mas-
cota, near Havana, by the torpedo-boat Foote, closed
the record of the month of April.
Anxiously awaiting some word from Manila were the
people of the United States, and it was as if everything
else was relegated to the background until information
could be had regarding that American fleet which
sailed from Mirs Bay, in the China Sea, on the after-
noon of April 27th.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.
TAY x. â€œManila, May 1.â€” The squadron arrived
Â© at Manila at daybreak this morning. Imme-
diately engaged the enemy, and destroyed the follow-
ing Spanish vessels : /sla de Cuba, Isla de Luzon, Reina
Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio dâ€™Ulloa, Don Juan
@â€™ Austria, Velasco, General Lezo, El Correo, Marques
adel Duero, Isla de Mindanao, and the water-battery at
Cavite. The squadron is uninjured. Few men were
slightly injured. The only means of telegraphing is to
American consulate, Hongkong. I shall communicate
All the world loves a hero, but idolises him when he
performs his deeds of valour without too many prelim-
inaries, and, therefore, when on the seventh of May the
telegram quoted above was flashed over the wires to an
anxiously expectant people, it was as if all the country
remembered but one name, â€”that of Dewey.
April 25. It was known to the public that the
Asiatic Squadron had sailed from Hongkong on the
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 65
25th of April. to avoid possible complications such as
might arise in a neutral port, and had rendezvoused in
Mirs Bay, there to await orders from the government
April 26. So also was it known that on the next
day Commodore Dewey received the following cable-
: â€œ WasHINGTON, April 26th.
â€œ Dewey, Astatic Squadron : â€” Commence operations
at once, particularly against Spanish fleet. You must
capture or destroy them.
April 27. On the twenty-seventh came information
from Hongkong that the squadron had put to sea, and
from that day until the seventh of May no word regard-
ing the commodoreâ€™s movements had been received,
save through Spanish sources.
Then came a cablegram containing the bare facts
concerning the most complete naval victory the world
had ever known. It was the first engagement of the
war, and a crushing defeat for the enemy. It is not
strange that the people, literally overwhelmed with
joy, gave little heed to the movements of our forces
elsewhere until the details of this marvellous fight
could be sent under the oceans and across the coun-
tries, thousands of leagues in distance, describing the
deeds of the heroes who had made their names famous
66 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
During such time of waiting all were eager to
familiarise themselves with the theatre of this scene
of action, and every source of information was applied
to until the bay of Manila had become as well known
as the nearest home waters.
For a better understanding of the battle a rough
diagram of the bay, from the entrance as far as the
city of Manila, may not come amiss.â€™
Twenty-six miles from the entrance to the bay is
situated the city of Manila, through which the river
Pasig runs, dividing what is known as the old city from
the new, and forming several small islands.
Sixteen miles from the â€˜sea is the town and arsenal
of Cavite, which, projecting as it does from the main-
land, forms a most commodious and safe harbour.
Cavite was well fortified, and directly opposite its fort,
on the mainland, was a heavy mortar battery. Between
the arsenal and the city was a Krupp battery, at what
was known as the Luneta Fort, while further toward
the sea, extending from Cavite to the outermost por-
tion of Limbones Point, were shore-batteries, â€” for-
midable forts, so it had been given out by the Spanish
government, such as would render the city of Manila
Between Limbones and Talago Point are two islands,
Corregidor and Caballo, which divide the entrance of
the bay into three channels. On each of these islands
'See Appendix, Part A, for general description of the Philippine
Islands and their inhabitants,
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 67
is a lighthouse, and it was said that both were strongly
fortified with modern guns. North of Corregidor,
nearly opposite, but on the inner shore, is the point of
San JosÃ©, where was another water-battery mounting
formidable guns. That channel between Corregidor
and San JosÃ© Point is known as the Boca Grande, and
is nearly two miles wide. The middle channel, or the
one situated between the two islands, is shallow, and
but little used. The third, which separates Caballo
Island from Limbones Point, is nearly three miles in
width, at least twenty fathoms deep, and known as the
All of these channels, as well as the waters of
the bay, were said to have been thickly mined, and
the enemy had caused it to be reported that no
ship could safely enter without the aid of a govern-
In addition to the vessels of the American fleet, as
set down at the conclusion of this chapter, were two
transports, the steamers MVanshan and Zafiro, which
had come into the port of Hongkong laden with
coal shortly before Commodore Deweyâ€™s departure, ahd
had been purchased by him, together with their cargoes,
in anticipation of the declaration of war.
And now, the details having been set down in order
that what follows may be the better understood, we
will come to that sultry Sunday morning, shortly after
midnight, when the American fleet steamed along the
coast toward the entrance to Manila Bay, the flag-ship
68 THE BOYS OF '98.
Olympia leading, with the Baltimore, the Ralezgh, the
Petrel, the Concord, and the Boston following in the
order named. In the rear of these came the two
transports, the Manshan and Zafiro, convoyed by the
despatch steamer A7cCulloch.
The commodore had decided to enter by the Boca
Grande channel, and the fleet kept well out from
Talago Point until the great light of Corregidor came
Then the crews of the war-vessels were summoned
on deck, the men ordered to wash, and afterwards
served with a cup of coffee. All lights were extin-
guished except one on the stern of each ship, and that
was hooded. All hands were at quarters; all guns
loaded, with extra charges ready at hand; every eye
was strained, and every ear on the alert to catch the
Perhaps there was not a man from commodore to
seaman, who believed it would be possible for the war-
vessels to enter the bay without giving an alarm, and
yet the big ships continued on and were nearly past
Corregidor Island before a gun was fired.
The flag-ship was well into the bay, steaming at a
four-knot speed, when from the smoke-stack of the
little McCulloch a column of sparks shot up high
into the air. In the run her fires had fallen low,
and it became necessary to replenish them. The
firemen, perhaps fearing lest they should not be in
at the death, were more energetic than prudent, and
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY, 69
thus a signal was given to the sleepy garrison of
Â«Perhaps they will see us now,â€ the commodore
remarked, quietly, as his attention was called to this
A flash of light burst from the fort ; there was a dull
report, and in the air could be heard that peculiar sing-
ing and sighing of a flying projectile as a heavy missile
passed over the Olympia and the Ralezgh.
The garrison on Corregidor was awakened, but not
until after the last vessel in that ominous procession
had steamed past. â€”
It was the first gun in the battle of Manila Bay, and
it neither worked harm nor caused alarm.
Again and again in rapid succession came these
flashes of light, dull reports, and sinister hummings in
the air, before the American fleet gave heed that this
signal to heave to had been heard.
Then a 4-inch shell was sent from the Concord
directly inside of the fortification, where it exploded.
The Raleigh and the Boston each threw a shell by
way of salute, and then all was silent.
The channel, which had been thickly mined, accord-
ing to the Spanish reports, was passed in safety, and
the fleet, looking so unsubstantial in the darkness, had
yet to meet the mines in the bay, as well as the Spanish
fleet, which all knew was lying somewhere near about
On the forward bridge of the Olympia stood Commo-
70 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
dore Dewey, his chief of staff, Commander Lamberton,
Lieutenant Rees, Lieutenant Calkins, and an insurgent
Filippino, who had volunteered as pilot.
In the conning-tower was Captain Gridley, who, much
against his will, was forced to take up his position in
that partially sheltered place because the commander
of the fleet was not willing to take the chances that
all the chief officers of the ship should be exposed to
death on the bridge.
The word was given to â€œslow down,â€ and the speed
of the big ships decreased until they had barely
The men were allowed to sleep beside their
The moon had set, the darkness and the silence was
almost profound, until suddenly day broke, as it does in
the tropics, like unto a flash of light, and all that bay,
with its fighting-machines in readiness for the first
signal, was disclosed to view.
From the masthead of the American vessels rose
tiny balls of bunting, and then were broken out,
disclosing the broad folds of the stars and stripes.
Cavite was hardly more than five miles ahead, and
beyond, the city of Manila.
The Reina Christina, flying the Spanish rear-ad-â€”
miralâ€™s flag, lay off the arsenal. Astern of her was
moored the Castilla, her port battery ready for action.
Slightly to seaward were the Don Juan de Austria, the
Don Antonio de Ulloa, the Isla de Cuba and Isla de
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 71
Luzon, the El Correo, the Marques del Duero, and the
They were under steam and slowly moving about,
apparently ready to receive the fire of the advancing
squadron. The flag-ship Reza Christina also was
Â«Prepare for general action! Steam at eight-knot
speed!â€ were the signals which floated from the
Olympia as she led the fleet in, keeping well toward
the shore opposite the city. ,
The American fleet was yet five miles distant, when
from the arsenal came a flame and report; but the
missile was not to be seen. Another shot from Cavite,
and then was strung aloft on the Olympia a line of tiny
flags, telling by the code what was to be the American
battle-cry : â€œ Remember the JZazme,â€ and from the throat
of every man on the incoming ships went up a shout
of defiance and exultation that the moment was near
at hand when the dastardly deed done in the harbour of
Havana might be avenged.
Steaming steadily onward were the huge vessels,
dropping astern and beyond range the transports as
they passed opposite Cavite Point, until, having gained
such a distance above the city as permitted of an evolu-
tion, the fleet swung swiftly around until it held a
course parallel with the westernmost shore, and distant
from it mayhap six thousand yards. _
Every nerve was strained to its utmost tension ; each
man took a mental grip upon: himself, believing that he
72 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
stood face to face with death; but no cheek paled; no
hand trembled save it might have been from excitement.
The ships were coming down on their fighting course
when a shell from one of the shore-batteries burst over
the Olympia; the guns from the fort and from the
water-batteries vomited jets of flame and screaming
missiles with thunderous reports; every man on the
American fleet save one believed the moment had come
when they should act their part in the battle which had
been begun by the enemy ; but up went the signal :
â€œ Flold your fire until close in.â€
Had the American fleet opened fire then, the city of
Manila would have been laid in ashes and thousands
of non-combatants slain,
The Olympia was yet two miles from Cavite when,
directly in front of the Baltzmore, a huge shaft of water
shot high into the air, and with a heavy booming that
drowned the reports of the Spanish guns.
â€œThe torpedoes!â€™ some one on the Olympia said,
in a low tone, with an indrawing of the breath; but
it was as if Dewey did not hear. â€˜With Farragut in
Mobile Bay he had seen the effects of such engines of
destruction, and, like Farragut, he gave little heed to
that which might in a single instant send his vessel
to the bottom, even as the A7aine had been sent.
Then, so near the Ralezgh as to send a flood across
her decks, another spouting of water, another dull roar,
and the much vaunted mines of the Spaniards in Manila
Bay had been exploded. |
U. S. S. BALTIMORE.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 73
The roar and crackle of the enemyâ€™s guns still con-
tinued, yet Dewey withheld the order which every man
was now most eager to hear.
The Spanish gunners were getting the range; the
shells which had passed over our fleet now fell close
about them; the tension among officers and men was
terrible. They wondered how much longer the com-
modore would restrain them from firing. The heat was
rapidly becoming intense. The gunsâ€™ crews began to
throw off their clothes. Soon they wore nothing but
their trousers, and perspiration fairly ran from their
Still the word was not given to fire, though the ships
steadily steamed on and drew nearer the fort. Orders
were given by the officers in low voices, but they were
perfectly audible, so great was the silence which was
broken only by the throbbing of the engines. The men
hugged their posts ready to open fire at the word.
A huge shell from Cavite hissed through the air and
came directly for the Olympia. High over the smoke-
stack it burst with a mighty snap. Commodore Dewey
did not raise his eyes. He simply turned, made a
motion to a boatswainâ€™s mate who stood near the
after 5-inch gun. With a voice of thunder the man
bellowed an order along the decks.
â€œRemember the Jaze /â€ yelled a chorus of five
hundred gallant sailors. Below decks in the engine-
rooms the cry was taken up, a cry of defiance and
revenge. Up in the turrets resounded the words, and
74 THE BOYS OF 98.
the threatening notes were swept across the bay to the
â€œRemember the Maine /â€
In that strange cry was loosed the pent-up wrath of
hundreds of American sailors who resented the cowardly
death of their comrades. It bespoke the terrible ven-
geance that was about to be dealt out to the defenders
of a detestable flag.
â€œYou may fire when you are ready, Gridley,â€ was
Commodore Deweyâ€™s quiet remark to the captain of the
Olympia, who was still in the conning-tower.
The Olympiaâ€™s 8-inch gun in the forward turret
belched forth, and an instant later was run up the
signal to the ships astern:
â€œFire as convenient.â€
The other vessels in the squadron followed the
example set by the Olympia. The big 8-inch guns
of the Baltimore and the Boston hurled their two hun-
dred and fifty pound shells at the Spanish flag-ship and
at the Caszzlla.
The Spanish fleet fired fast and furiously. The guns
on Cavite hurled their shells at the swiftly moving
vessels; the water-batteries added their din to the
horrible confusion of noises; the air was sulphurous
with the odour of burning powder, and great clouds of
smoke hung here and there, obscuring this vessel or
that from view. It was the game of death with all its
One big shell came toward the Olympia straight for
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 75
the bridge. When a hundred feet away it suddenly
burst, its fragments continuing onward. One piece
struck the rigging directly over the head of Com-
mander Lamberton. He did not wince.
The Olympia continued on.. It was evident Com-
modore Dewey was making straight for the centre
of the enemyâ€™s line, which was the big cruiser Reza
Being the nearest ship, the Olympza received more
attention from the Spaniards than any of the other
The water was now getting shallow. Commodore
Dewey did not wish to run aground. He altered his
course when about four thousand yards from the
Spanish vessels, and swung around to give them his
A small torpedo-boat was seen to emerge from the
shore near the arsenal, making for the coal-laden
steamers at a high rate of speed. The secondary
batteries on the ships nearest were brought to bear
upon her; it was a veritable shower of shot and shell
which fell ahead, astern, and either side of her. To
continue on would have been certain destruction, and,
turning in the midst of that deadly hail which had
half disabled her, the craft was run high and dry
on. the beach, where she was at once abandoned,
her crew doubtless fearing lest the magazines would
â€œ Open with all guns,â€™ came the signal as the course
76 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
of the American vessels was changed, and soon all the
port guns were at work.
The American fleet was steaming back and forth off
Cavite Bay as if bent on leaving such a wake as would
form a figure eight, delivering broadside after broadside
with splendid results.
All this time the enemyâ€™s vessels were keeping up
a steady fire, the smaller ships retreating inside the
mole several times during the action. The forts were
not idle, but kept thundering forth their tribute with
no noticeable effect. The enemyâ€™s fire seemed to be
concentrated on the Baltimore, and she was hit several
A 4.7-inch armour-piercing shell punctured her side
on the main-deck line, tore up the wooden deck, and,
striking the steel deck under this, glanced upward,
went through the after engine-room hatch, and, emerg-
ing, struck the cylinder of the port 6-inch gun on the
quarter-deck, temporarily rendering the gun unfit for
In its flight it also struck a box of 3-pounder
ammunition, exploding one shell, which in turn slightly
wounded one of No. 4 gunâ€™s crew.
One shell pierced her starboard side forward of
No. 2 sponson, and lodged in a clothes-locker on the
berth-deck ; another struck her port beam a little above
the water-line, and a few feet forward of, and above
this, another shell came crashing across the berth-deck,
striking a steam-pipe and exploding behind the starboard
U. S. S. BOSTON.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 77
blower-engine, but with no serious results. A fragment
of a shell went through one of the ventilators, and the
colours of the mainmast were shot through.
The concussion from the 8-inch guns on the poop
shattered the whaleboats, and they had to be cut
adrift. A fragment of a shell that burst over the
quarter-deck cut the signal halliards which Lieutenant
Brumby held in his hand.
On the Boston a shell came through a port-hole in
Ensign Doddridgeâ€™s stateroom, and wrecked it badly.
The explosion set a fire which was quickly put out.
Another shell struck the port hammock netting, where
it burst, setting fire to the hammocks. This was also
soon extinguished. Still another shell struck the
Bostonâ€™s foremast, cutting a great gash in it. It came
within twenty feet of Captain Wildes on the bridge.
The Raleigh was forced inshore by the strong
current, and carried directly upon the bows of two
Spanish cruisers. By all the rules of warfare she
should have been sunk; but instead, her commander
delivered two raking broadsides as she steamed back
Three times the American ships passed back and
forth, opening first with one broadside and then with
another as the ship swung around, and then the Reina
Christina, black smoke pouring from her stacks, and a
vapour as of wool coming from the steam-pipes, gallantly
sallied out to meet the Olympza.
Between the two flag-ships ensued a duel, in which
78 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the Spaniard was speedily worsted to such a degree
that she was literally forced to turn and make for the
shore. As she swung around, with her stern directly
toward the Olympia, an 8-inch : shell struck her
squarely, and the explosive must have travelled directly
through the ill-fated craft until it reached the after
boiler, where it exploded, ripping up the decks, and
vomiting forth showers of iron fragments and portions
of dismembered human bodies.
A gunboat came out from behind the Cavite pier,
and made directly for the Olympza. In less than five
minutes she was in a sinking condition ; as she turned,
a shell struck her just inside the stern railing, and she
disappeared beneath the waves as if crushed by some
titanic force. Ã©
Navigator Calkins of the Olympia had soundings
taken, and told Commodore Dewey that he could take
the ship farther in toward the Spanish fleet.
Â« Take her in, then,â€ the commodore replied.
The ship moved up to within two thousand yards of
the Spanish fleet. This brought the smaller guns into
. The rain of shell upon the doomed Spaniards was
The Castz/a was in flames from stem to stern.
Black smoke poured up from the decks of the Js/a de
Cuba, and on the flag-ship fire was completing the work
of destruction begun by the American shells.
_ It was 7.35 A,M, when the battle, which began at
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 79
5.41, came to a temporary close. The first round was
There was yet ample time in which to finish the
work so well begun, and from the flag-ship Olympia
went up the signal :
Â« Cease firing and follow.â€
The fleet was headed for the opposite shore, and, once
partially beyond range, â€œ mess-gearâ€â€™ was sounded.
The only casualty worthy of mention which had
occurred was the death of Chief Engineer Frank B.
Randall, of the steamer McCulloch, who died from heart
disease, probably superinduced by excitement, while the
fleet was passing Corregidor.
There were handshakings and congratulations on
every hand as smoke-begrimed friends, parted during
the battle, met again, and loud were the cheers that
went up from the various ships in passing.
After breakfast had been served and the ships made
ready for the second round, or, in other words, at 10.15
in the forenoon, the Spanish flag-ship Reina Christina
hauled down her colours, and the admiralâ€™s flag was
transferred to the isla de Cuba.
At 10.45 a signal was made from the Olympia :
Â« Get under way with men at quarters.â€
Again the fleet stood in toward Cavite, the Baltemore
in the lead, but the latter vesselâ€™s course was quickly
changed as a strange steamer was observed entering the
Not many moments were spent in reconnoitring ;
80 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
the signal flags soon told that the stranger was flying
the English ensign.
Then came the order for the Baltimore to stand in
and destroy the enemyâ€™s fortifications, and ten minutes
later the battle was on once more.
Now the fire was slow and deliberate, the gunners
taking careful aim, bent on expending the least amount
of ammunition with the greatest possible execution.
The Baltimore suffered most at the beginning of this
second round, because all the enemyâ€™s fire was concen-
trated upon her.
Soon after this second half of the engagement had
begun a Spanish shell exploded on the Baltimoreâ€™s
deck, wounding five of the crew, and another partially
disabled three. It was as if every square yard of sur-
face in that portion of the bay was covered by a missile
from the enemyâ€™s guns, and yet no further damage to
the American fleet was done.
When the Baltimore was within twenty-five hundred-
yard range she poured a broadside into the Reza
Christina which literally blew that craft into fragments,
and the smoke from the guns yet hung like a cloud
above the deck when the ill-fated flag-ship sank beneath
the waters of the bay.
The San Juan de Austria was the next of the enemyâ€™s
fleet to be sunk, and then a like fate overtook the &/
The General Lezo was run on shore and abandoned
to the flames.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 81
The cruiser Castilla was scuttled by her crew lest
the fire which was raging fiercely should explode her
The Valasco went down before all her men could
escape to the boats. The guns of the Don Antonio
de Ulloa were fought with most desperate bravery,
and even as she sank beneath the surface were the
pieces discharged by the brave Spaniards who stood at
their posts of duty until death overtook them.
The Concord started after the Mindanao lying close
inshore, and was soon joined by the Olympia, who
poured 8-inch shells into the transport until she was
set on fire in a dozen places.
The entire Spanish fleet had been destroyed; not a
vessel remained afloat, and Commodore Dewey turned
his attention to the Cavite battery.
It was 12.45 P.M. when the magazine in the arsenal
was exploded by a shell from the Olympia, or the Pet-
rel, it is impossible to say which, and the battle of
Manila had been fought and won.
Not until the thirteenth of May was Commodore
Deweyâ€™s official report received at the Navy Depart-
ment, and then it was given to the public without loss
of time. It is copied below:
â€œ FLaGsHip OLympiA, Cavite, May 4, 1898.
â€œThe squadron left Mirs Bay on April 27th. Ar-
rived off Bolinao on the morning of April 30th, and
82 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
finding no vessels there proceeded down the coast and
arrived off the entrance to Manila Bay on the same
afternoon. The Boston and Concord were sent to
reconnoitre Point Subic. ... A thorough search
of the port was made by the Boston and the Concord,
but the Spanish fleet was not found... ..
â€œEntered the south channel at 11.30 P. M., steaming
in column at eight knots. After half the squadron
had passed, a battery on the south side of the channel
opened fire, none of the shots taking effect. The
Boston and McCulloch returned the fire.
â€œThe squadron proceeded across the bay at slow
speed, and arrived off Manila at daybreak, and was
fired upon at 5.15 A.M. by three batteries at Manila
and two near Cavite, and by the Spanish fleet anchored
in an approximately east and west line across the
mouth of Baker Bay, with their left in shoal water in
â€œThe squadron then proceeded to the attack, the
flag-ship Olympia, under my personal direction, leading,
followed at distance by the Baltimore, Raleigh, Petrel,
Concord, and Boston, in the order named, which for-
mation was maintained throughout the action. The
squadron opened fire at 5.41 A.M.
â€œWhile advancing to the attack two mines were
exploded ahead of the flag-ship, too far to be effective,
The squadron maintained a continuous and precise fire
at ranges varying from five thousand to two thousand
yards, countermarching in a line approximately parallel
U. S. S. CONCORD.
ee er eg
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 83
to that of the Spanish fleet. The enemyâ€™s fire was
vigorous, but generally ineffective.
â€œEarly in the engagement two launches put out
toward the Olympia, with the apparent intention of
using torpedoes. One was sunk and the other disabled
by our fire, and beached before an opportunity occurred
to fire torpedoes.
Â« At seven A. M. the Spanish flag-ship, Rezza Christina,
made a desperate attempt to leave the line and come
out to engage at short range, but was received with
such a volley of fire, the entire battery of the Olympia
being concentrated upon her, that she was barely able
to return to the shelter of the point. The fires started
in her by our shell at this time were not extinguished
until she sank.
â€œThe three batteries at Manila had kept up a con-
tinuous report from the beginning of the engagement,
which fire was not returned by this squadron.
â€œThe first of these batteries was situated on the
South Mole head, at the entrance to the Pasig River,
the second on the south bastion of the walled city of
Manila, and the third at Malate, about one-half mile
farther south. At this point I sent a message to the
governor-general, in effect that if the batteries did not
cease firing the city would be shelled. This had the
effect of silencing them.
â€œAt 7.35 A.M. I ceased firing and withdrew the
squadron for breakfast.
â€œAt 11.16 A.M. returned to the attack. By this
84 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
time the Spanish flag-ship and almost the entire Spanish
fleet were in flames. At 12.30 P.M. the squadron
ceased firing, the batteries being silenced, and the ships
sunk, burned, and destroyed.
Â« At 12.40 P.M. the squadron returned and anchored
off Manila, the Petrel being left behind to complete
the destruction of the smaller gunboats, which were
behind the point of Cavite. This duty was performed
by Commander E. P. Wood in the most expeditious
and complete manner possible.
Â«â€œ The Spanish lost the following vessels :
â€œSunk: Reina Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio de
Â«Burned: Don Fuan de Austria, Isla de Luzon, Isla
de Cuba, General Lezo, Marques del Duero, El Correo,
Velasco, and Isla de Mindanao, transport.
â€œCaptured: Rapzdo and Hercules, tugs, and several
Â«JT am unable to obtain complete accounts of the
enemyâ€™s killed and wounded, but believe their losses to
be very heavy.
Â«The Retna Christina alone had 150 killed, including
the captain, and ninety wounded.
â€œJT am happy to report that the damage done to the
squadron under my command was inconsiderable. There
were none killed, and only seven men in the squadron
were slightly wounded.
Â« Several of the vessels were struck; and two pene-
trated, but the damage was of the slightest, and the
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 85
squadron is in as good condition now as before the
â€œT beg to state to the department that I doubt if
any commander-in-chief was ever served by more loyal,
efficient, and gallant captains than those of the squad-
ron now under my command.
Capt. Frank Wildes, commanding the Boston, volun-
teered to remain in command of his vessel, although his
relief arrived before leaving Hongkong. Assistant
Surgeon Kindleberger of the Olympia and Gunner
J. C. Evans of the Boston also volunteered to remain
after orders detaching them had arrived.
Â«The conduct of my personal staff was excellent.
Commander B. P. Lamberton, chief of staff, was a
volunteer for that position, and gave me most efficient
aid. Lieutenant Brumby, flag lieutenant, and Ensign
W. P. Scott, aid, performed their duties as signal
officers in a highly creditable manner.
â€œThe Olympia being short of officers for the battery,
Ensign H. H. Caldwell, flag secretary, volunteered for
and was assigned to a subdivision of 5-inch battery.
Mr. J. L. Stickney, formerly an officer in the United
States navy, and now correspondent of the Mew Vork
fferald, volunteered for duty as my aid, and did
â€œT desire specially to mention the coolness of Lieut.
C. G. Calkins, the navigator of the Olympia, who came
under my personal observation, being on the bridge
with me throughout the entire action, and giving the
86 : THE BOYS OF â€™98.
ranges to the guns with an accuracy that was proved
- by the excellence of the firing.
â€œOn May 2d, the day following the engagement, the
â€˜squadron again went to Cavite, where it remained.
â€œ On the 3d, the military forces evacuated the Cavite
arsenal, which was taken possession of by a landing
party. On the same day the Raleigh and Baltimore
secured the surrender of the batteries on Corregi-
dor Island, paroling the garrison and destroying the
Â«On the morning of May 4th the transport Manzla,
which had been aground in Baker Bay, was towed off
and made a prize.â€
List of the two fleets engaged at the battle of
Manila Bay, together with the officers of the American
fleet :* :
The U. S. S. Olympia, protected cruiser, 5,870 tons,
speed, 21.6 knots. Battery: four 8-inch rifles, ten
s-inch rapid-fire guns, fourteen 6-pounder rapid-fire
guns, six I-pounder rapid-fire cannon, four Gatlings,
with six torpedo tubes, and eight automobile tor-
The U. S. S. Baltimore, protected cruiser, 4,600
tons, speed, 20.09 knots. Battery: four 8-inch, six
6-inch rifles, four 6-pounder, two 3-pounder rapid-fire
*See Appendix B for types of war-ships and methods of signalling
while in action.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 87
guns, two I-pounder rapid-fire cannon, four 37-milli-
metre Hotchkiss cannon, and two Gatlings.
The U.S. S. Boston, protected cruiser, 3,189 tons,
speed, 15.6 knots. Battery: two 8-inch, six 6-inch
rifles, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder rapid-fire guns,
two 1-pounder rapid-fire cannon, two 47-millimetre
Hotchkiss cannon, and two Gatlings.
The U. S. S. Raleigh, protected cruiser, 3,213 tons,
speed, nineteen knots. Battery: one 6-inch, ten 5-inch
rapid-fire guns, eight 6-pounder rapid-fire guns, four
I-pounder rapid-fire cannon, and two Gatlings.
The U. S. S. Concord, gunboat, 1,710 tons, speed,
16.8 knots. Battery: six 6-inch rifles, two 6-pounder,
two 3-pounder rapid-fire guns, two 37-millimetre Hotch-
kiss cannon, and two Gatlings.
The U. S. S.*Petrel, gunboat, 892 tons, speed, 11.7
knots. Battery: four 6-inch rifles, one 1-pounder rapid-
fire gun, two 37-millimetre Hotchkiss cannon, and two
The U. S. S. McCulloch, revenue cutter, 1,500 tons,
speed, fourteen knots. Battery: four 4-inch guns.
The Nanshan and Zajfiro, supply ships.
The Reina Maria Christina, 3,520 tons, speed, seven-
teen knots. Battery: six 6.2-inch hontoria guns, two
2.7-inch and three 2.2-inch rapid-fire rifles, six 1.4-inch,
and two machine guns.
88 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
The Castilla, 3,342 tons. Battery: four 5.9-inch
Krupp rifles, two 4.7-inch, two 3.3-inch, four 2.5-inch
rapid-fire, and two machine guns.
The Velasco, 1,152 tons. Battery: three 5.9-inch
Armstrong rifles, two 2.7-inch hontorias, and two
The Don Antonio de Ulloa and Don Juan de Austria,
each 1,130 tons, speed, fourteen knots. Battery: four
4.7-inch hontorias, three 3.2-inch rapid-fire, two 1.5-
inch, and two machine guns.
The General Lezo, and El Correo, gun vessels, 524
tons, speed, 11.5 knots. The General Lezo had two
hontoria rifles of 4.7-inch calibre, one 3.5-inch, two
small rapid-fire, and one machine gun; the Â£7 Correo
had three 4.7-inch guns, two small rapid-fire, and two
The Marques del Duero, despatch-boat, 500 tons.
Battery: one smooth bore, six 6.2-inch calibre, two
4.7-inch and one machine gun.
The Jsla de Cuba and the sla de Luzon were
both small gunboats, 1,030 tons. Battery: four 4.7-
inch hontorias, two small guns, and two machine
The Isla de Mindanao, auxiliary cruiser, 4,195 tons,
speed, 13.5 knots.
Two torpedo-boats and two transports.
Officers of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron: Acting Rear-
Admiral George Dewey, commander-in-chief; Com-
mander B. P. Lamberton, chief of staff; Lieut. T. M.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. 89
Brumby, flag lieutenant; Ensign H. H. Caldwell,
U. S. S. Olympia, flagship: Captain, Charles V. Grid-
ley ; Lieutenant-Commander, S. C. Paine; Lieutenants,
C. G, Calkins, V. S. Nelson, G. S. Morgan, W. C. Miller,
S. M. S. Strite; Ensigns, M. M. Taylor, F. B. Upham,
W. P. Scott, A. G. Kavagnah ; Medical Inspector, A. S.
Price; Passed Assistant Surgeon, J. E. Page; Assistant
Surgeon, C. P. Kindleberger; Pay Inspector, D. A.
Smith; Chief Engineer, J. Entwistle; Assistant Engi-
neers, E. H. Delaney, J. F. Marshall, Jr.; Chaplain,
J. B. Frasier ; Captain of Marines, W. P. Biddle; Gun-
ner, L. J. G. Kuhlwein; Carpenter, W. McDonald;
Acting Boatswain, E. J. Norcott.
U. S. S. Raleigh: Captain, J. B. Coghlan; Lieuten-
ant-Commander,.F. Singer; Lieutenants, W. Winder,
B. Tappan, H. Rodman, C. B. Morgan ; Ensigns, F. L.
_Chidwick, P. Babbit; Surgeon, E. H. Marsteller ;
Assistant Surgeon, D. N. Carpenter; Passed Assistant
Paymaster, S. R. Heap; Chief Engineer, F. H. Bailey ;
Passed Assistant Engineer, A. S. Halstead ; Assistant
Engineer, J. R. Brady; First Lieutenant of Marines,
T. C. Treadwell; Acting Gunner, G. D. Johnstone;
Acting Carpenter, T. E. Kiley.
U. S. S. Boston: Captain, F. Wildes; Lieutenant-
. Commander, J. A. Norris ; Lieutenants, J. Gibson, W. L.
Howard ; Ensigns, S. S. Robinson, L. H. Everhart,
J. S. Doddridge; Surgeon, M. H. Crawford; Assistant
Surgeon, R. S. Balkeman; Paymaster, J. R. Martin;
90 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
Chief Engineer, G. B. Ransom; Assistant Engineer,
L. K. James; First Lieutenant of Marines, R.
McM. Dutton; Gunner, J. C. Evans; Carpenter, ile
U.S. S. Baltimore: Captain, N. M. Dyer ; Lieutenant-
Commander, G. Blocklinger; Lieutenants, W. Brau-
nersreuther, A. G. Winterhalter, F. W. Kellogg, J. M.
Ellicott, C. S. Stanworth; Ensigns, J. H. Hayward,
M. D. McCormick ; Naval Cadets, D. W. Wurtsburgh,
I. Z. Wettenzoll, C. M. Tozer, T. A. Karney; Passed
Assistant Surgeon, F. A. Heiseler; Assistant Surgeon,
Ree Smith. say, inspector Rea: Bellows; Chief
Engineer, A. Kirby; Assistant Engineers, H. B. Price,
H. I. Cone; Naval Cadet, C. P. Burt ; Chaplain, T. S. K.
Freeman; First Lieutenant of Marines, D. Williams ;
Acting Boatswain, H. R. Brayton; Acting Gunner,
L. J. Waller; Carpenter, O. Bath.
U.S. S. Concord: Commander, A. S. Walker; Lieu-
tenant-Commander, G. P. Colvocoresses; Lieutenants,
T. B. Howard, P. W. Horrigan; Ensigns, L. A. Kiser,
W. C. Davidson, O. S. Knepper ; Passed Assistant Sur-
geon, R. G. Broderick; Passed Assistant Paymaster,
E. D. Ryan; Chief Engineer, Richard Inch; Passed
Assistant Engineer, H. W. Jones; Assistant Engineer,
E. H. Dunn. ;
U. S. S. Petrel: Commander, E. P. Wood; Lieuten-
ants, E. M. Hughes, B. A. Fiske, A. N. Wood, C. P.
Plunkett ; Ensigns, G. L. Fermier, W. S. Montgomery ;
Passed Assistant Surgeon, C. D. Brownell; Assistant
THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY. gi
Paymaster, G. G. Seibles; Passed Assistant Engineer,
R. T. Hall. 4
Revenue Cutter McCulloch: Captain, D. B. Hodgdon.
American loss: Two officers and six men wounded.
Spanish loss: About three hundred killed, and six
NEWS OF THE DAY.
TAY 2. In Manila Bay, on Monday, the second
of May, there was much to be done in order to
complete the work. so thoroughly begun the day
Early in the morning an officer came from Corregi-
dor, under flag of truce, to Commodore Dewey, with a
proposal of surrender from the commandant of the for-
tifications. The Baltimore was sent to attend to the
business; but when she arrived at the island no one
save the commanding officer was found. All his men
had deserted him after overthrowing the guns.
The Baltimore had but just steamed away, when
Commander Lamberton was ordered to go on board the
Petrel and run over to Cavite arsenal in order that he
might take possession, for on the previous day a white
flag had been hoisted there as a signal of surrender.
To the surprise of Lamberton he found, on landing,
_ that the troops were under arms, and Captain Sostoa,
of the Spanish navy, was in anything rather than a sur-
rendering mood. On being asked as to the meaning
of affairs, Sostoa replied that the flag had been hoisted
for a truce, not as a token of capitulation, He was
NEWS OF THE DAY. 93
given until noon to decide as to his course of action,
and the Americans withdrew. At 10.45 the white
flag was again hoisted, and when Lamberton went on
shore once more he found that the Spaniard had
marched his men away, taking with them all their
This was the moment when the insurgents, who had
gathered near the town, believed their opportunity
had come, and, rushing into Cavite, they began an
indiscriminate plunder which was not brought to
an end until the American marines were landed. |
The navy yard was seized; six batteries near about
the entrance of Manila Bay were destroyed; the cable
from Manila to Hongkong was cut, and Commodore
Dewey began a blockade of the port.
Congress appropriated $35,720,945 for the emergency
war appropriation bill.
Eleven regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and ten
light batteries of artillery were concentrated at Tampa
and Port Tampa. General Shafter assumed command
on this date.
The Newport captured the Spanish schooner Pace.
By cablegram from London, under date of May 2d,
news regarding the condition of affairs in Madrid was
received. The Spanish public was greatly excited by
information from the Philippines, and the authorities
found it necessary to proclaim martial law, the docu-
ment being couched in warlike language beginning :
Â« Whereas, as Spain finds herself at war with the
THE BOYS OF â€™98.
United States, the power of civil authorities in Spain
â€œ Whereas, it is necessary to prevent an impairment
of the patriotic efforts which are being made by the
nation with manly energy and veritable enthusiasm ;
Â«Article r. A state of siege in Madrid is hereby
â€œ Article 2, As a consequence of article one, all
offences against public order, those of the press
included, will be tried by the military tribunals.
â€œÂ« Article 3. In article two are included offences
committed by those .who, without special authorisa-
tion, shall publish news relative to any operations of
Then follow the articles which prohibit meetings
and public demonstrations.
Commenting upon the defeat, the EZ Nacional, of
Madrid, published the. following article:
Â«Yesterday, when the first intelligence arrived,
nothing better occurred to Admiral Bermejo (Minister
of Marine) than to send to all newspapers comparative
statistics of the contending squadrons. By this com-
parison he sought to direct public attention to the im-
mense superiority over a squadron of wooden vessels
dried up by the heat in those latitudes.
Â«But in this document Spain can see nothing kind.
Spain undoubtedly sees therein the heroism of our
marines ; but she sees also and above all the nefarious
crime of the government.
NEWS OF THE DAY. 95
Â«Jt is unfair to blame the enemy for possessing
forces superior to ours; but what is worthy of being
blamed with all possible vehemence is this infamous
government, which allowed our inferiority without
neutralising it by means of preparations. This is
the truth. Our sailors have been basely delivered
over to the grape-shot of the Yankees, a fate nobler
and more worthy of respect than those baneful minis-
ters, who brought about the first victory and its victims.â€
El Heraldo de Madrid said: â€œIt was no caprice of
the fortunes of war. From the very first cannon-shot
our fragile ships were at the mercy of the formidable
hostile squadron. They were condemned to fall one
after another under the fire of the American batteries,
powerless to strike, and were defended only by the
valour in the breasts of their sailors. :
Â« What has been gained by the illusion that Manila
was fortified? What has been gained by the intima-
tion that the broad and beautiful bay on whose bosom
the Spanish fleet perished yesterday had been rendered
inaccessible? What use was made of the famous
island of Corregidor? What was done with its guns ?
Where were the torpedoes? Where were those defen-
sive preparations concerning which we were requested
to keep silence?â€
May 2. Late in the afternoon the Wilmington
destroyed a Spanish fort on the island of Cuba, near
The government tug Leyden left Key West, towing
96 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
a Cuban expedition under government auspices to
establish communication with the Cuban forces in
Havana province. The expedition was accompanied
by Lieutenant-Colonel Acosta. Under him were five
other Cubans. Colonel Acosta formerly commanded
a cavalry troop in Havana province.
May 4g. Atelegram from Key West gave the follow-
ing information :
Â« Acting Rear-Admiral Sampson sailed this morning
with all the big vessels of his blockading squadron on
some mysterious mission.
â€œTn the fleet were the flag-ship Vew York, the battle-
ships Jowa and /udiana, the cruisers Detrozt, Marble-
head, and Cincinnati, the monitor Puritan, and the
Â«The war-ships are coaled to the full capacity of
their bunkers, and all available places on the decks are
piled high with coal.â€
On the same day the Norwegian steamer Condor
arrived with twelve American refugees and their imme-
diate relatives from Cienfuegos, Cuba.
Dr. Herman Mazarredo, a dentist, who-had been
practising his profession in Cienfuegos for eight
months, after six yearsâ€™ study in the United States,
was one of the passengers. He gave the following
account of himself:
Â« Because the Spaniards hated me as intensely as if
I had been born in America, I was obliged to flee for
my life. I left my mother, six sisters, and five brothers
NEWS OF THE DAY. 97
in Cienfuegos. I consider that their lives are in danger.
May heaven protect them! What was I to do?
â€œThere are now about two hundred Americans at
Cienfuegos clamouring to get away. They are sending
to Boston and New York for steamers, but without
avail. Owen McGarr, the American consul, told me
on his departure that the Spanish law would protect
me. Other Americans would have come on the Condor,
but Captain Miller would not take them. There was
not room for them. The Spanish soldiers have not yet
become personally insulting on the streets, but a mob
of Spanish residents marched through the city four
days before the Condor left, shouting, â€˜We want to kill
â€œThere are between four thousand and six thousand
Spanish troops concentrating at Cienfuegos under com-
mand of Major-General Aguirre. They have thrown up
some very poor breastworks. Three eround-batteries
look toward the open sea.â€
Bread riots broke out in Spain. In Gijon, on the
Bay of Biscay, the rioters made.a stand and were fired
upon by the troops. Fourteen were killed or wounded,
yet the infuriated populace held their ground, nor were
they driven back until the artillery was ordered out.
Then a portion of the soldiers joined the mob; a can-
non with ammunition was seized, and directed against
the fortification. A state of siege was declared, and
an order issued that all the bread be baked in the gov-
ernment bakeries, because the mob had looted the shops.
98 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
At Talavera de la Reina, thirty-six miles from Toledo,
a mob attacked the railroad station, entirely destroying
it, setting fire to the cars, and starting the engines wild
upon the track. They burned several houses owned
by officials, and sacked a monastery, forcing the priests
to flee for their lives. Procuring wine from the inns,
they grew more bold, and made an attack upon the
_ prison, hoping to release those confined there; but at
this point they were held in check by the guard.
The miners of Oviedo inaugurated a strike, com-
mencing by inciting riots. At Caceres several people
were killed. At Malaga a mob rode down the guards
and looted the shops. The British steam yacht Lady
of Clonmel, owned by Mr. James Wilkinson, of London,
was attacked as she lay at the pier. Stones smashed
her skylights, and a bomb was thrown aboard, but did
not explode. The yacht put hurriedly to sea, and from
Gibraltar reported the outrage to London.
May 5. The government tug Leyden, which on the
second day of May left Key West with a Cuban expe-
dition, returned to port, giving the following account
of her voyage:
She proceeded to a certain point near Mariel, and
landed five men, with four boxes of ammunition and
General Acosta penetrated to the interior, where he
communicated with the forces of the insurgents.
The Leyden lay to outside the harbour until five
o'clock in the morning, when, observing a troop of:
U. S. S. TERROR.
NEWS OF THE DAY. 99
Spanish infantry approaching, she put to sea and
got safely away.
She proceeded to Matanzas, and on the afternoon of
the third landed another small party near there.
Fearing attack by the Spaniards, she looked for the
monitors Zerror and Amphitrite, which were on the
blockade in that vicinity, but being unable to locate
them the Leyden returned to the original landing-
place, reaching there early on the morning of the
There she was met by Acosta and about two hun-
dred Cubans, half of whom were armed with rifles.
They united with the men on the tug, and an
attempt was made to land the remaining arms and
men, when two hundred of the Villa Viscosa cavalry
swooped down on them, and an engagement of a half
hourâ€™s duration followed. : :
The Cubans finally repulsed the enemy, driving
them into the woods. The Spanish carried with
them many wounded and left sixteen dead on the
During the engagement the bullets went through
the Leydenâ€™s smoke-stack, but no one was injured.
The little tug then went in search of the flag-ship,
found her lying near Havana, and reported the
Rear-Admiral Sampson sent the gunboat Wilming-
ton back with the Leyden.
The two vessels reached the scene of the landing
100 THE BOYS OF â€™98,
on the afternoon of the fourth, and found the Span-
ish cavalry in waiting to welcome another attempted
The Wilnington promptly opened fire on a number
of small houses marking the entrance to the place.
The gunboat fired four shots, which drove back
the Spaniards, and Captain Dorst, with the. ammu-
nition, landed safely, the Leyden returning to Key
May 6. Orders were given from Washington to
release the French mail steamer, Lafayette, and to
send her to Havana under escort. The capture of
the Frenchman by the gunboat Axnapolis was an
unfortunate incident, resulting from a mistake, but
no protest was made by the representatives of the
French government in the United States. It ap-
peared that, before the Lafayette sailed for Havana,
the French legation in Washington was instructed
to communicate with the State Department. This
was done and permission was granted to the steamer
to enter and discharge her passengers and cargo,
with the understanding that she would take on noth-
ing there. Instructions for the fulfilment of such
agreement were sent from Washington to Admiral
Sampsonâ€™s squadron, and it was only learned after the
capture was made that they were never delivered.
The War Department issued an order organising the
regular and volunteer forces into seven army corps,
The following letter needs no explanation :
NEWS OF THE DAY. Io!
â€œvo7 Firta Avenue, New York,
Â«â€œ TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES,
Washington, D. C.
â€œ Dear Sir: â€”Some days ago I wrote President
McKinley offering the government the sum of
$100,000 for use in the present difficulty with
Spain. He writes me that he has no official au-
thority to receive moneys in behalf of the United .
States, and he suggests that my purpose can best be
served by making a deposit with the assistant treas-
urer at New York to the credit of the treasurer of
the United States, or by remitting my check direct
to you at Washington. I, therefore, enclose my check
for the above amount, drawn payable to your order
on the Lincoln National Bank. Will you kindly
acknowledge the receipt of the same ?
â€œHELEN MILLER GOULD.
â€œ May 6, 1898.â€
It was replied to twenty-four hours later :
Â«Treasury Department of the United States.
Â« Office of the Treasury.
Â« Wasuincton, D. C., May 7, 1898.
Â«Miss HELEN MILLER GOULD,
597 Fifth Avenue, New York, iN eaYe
Â« Madam:â€”It gives me especial pleasure to ac-
knowledge the receipt of your letter under date of May
102 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
6, 1898, enclosing your check for $100,000, according
to your previous offer to President McKinley, for the
government. This sum has been placed in the gen-
eral fund of the treasury of the United States as a
donation from you, for use in the present difficulty with
Spain. Permit me to recognise the superb patriotism
which prompts you to make this magnificent gift to the
government. Certificates of deposit will follow in due
course, Respectfully yours,
â€œExvris H. Roserts,
â€œ Treasurer of the United States.â€
May 6. The torpedo-boats Dupont and Hornet
shelled the blockhouse near the lighthouse at Point
Maya, at the mouth of the harbour of Matanzas,
and Fort Garcia, which is an old. hacienda used as
a blockhouse, lying three and one-half miles to the
As the Dupont was leaving her position off the
lighthouse point, a big shell was fired from the middle
embrasure of a battery on the other side of the harbour,
called Gorda. The line was perfect, but the elevation
was bad, and the range too long. The shell fell a
thousand yards short. The Hornet was ordered to use
her 6-pounders on the blockhouse. The first shellâ€™
failed of its purpose; but the second hit the target
fairly, and the Spanish soldiers hurriedly left it for
shelter among the neighbouring trees. _
The Hornet fired twelve shells, six of which struck
NEWS OF THE DAY. 103
â€˜the mark. The Dzufont, after ascertaining that Point
Maya was being made too warm for Spanish occupa-
tion, steamed down to a blockhouse opposite, called
Garcia Red, and a prominent landmark to the eastward,
and turned loose her 1-pounders.
Here, as in the other place, the infantry had urgent
business behind the forest woods and hills. After
making certain they had gone to stay, the Dupont
resumed patrol duty. Cavalry afterward appeared at
Fortina, but remained there only long enough to see
the torpedo-boatâ€™s menacing attitude.â€™
May 6. The cruiser Montgomery, Captain Converse,
was the first ship of the American squadron to acquire
the distinction of capturing two prizes in one day, which
she did on the sixth. The captives were the Arasguzto
and the Lorenzo, both small vessels of no great value as
compared with the big steamers taken during the first
days of the war.
The Montgomery was cruising about fifty miles off
Havana when the Frasquzto, a two-master, came bowl-
ing along toward the Cuban capital. When the yellow
flag of the enemy was sighted the helm was swung in
her direction, and a blank shot was put across her
bow. The Spaniard hove to and the customary
prize-crew was put on board. It was found that the
Frasquito was bound from Montevideo to Havana
with a cargo of jerked beef. She was of about 140
tons register and hailed from Barcelona. The prize-
crew took her to Havana waters, and the Annapolis
104 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
assigned the cutter Hamilton to carry her into Key
A few minutes afterwards the Montgomery encoun-
tered the Lorenzo, a Spanish bark, bound from Barce-
lona to Havana with a cargo of dried beef. She was
taken just as easily, and Ensign Osborn, with several
Â«Â« Jackies,â€ sailed her into port.
May 7. Quite a sharp little affair occurred off
Havana, in which the Vicksburg and the cutter Mor-
vill were. very nearly enticed to destruction.
A small schooner was sent out from Havana harbour
shortly before daylight to draw some of the Americans
into an ambuscade.
She ran off to the eastward, hugging the shore with
the wind on her starboard quarter. About three miles
east of the entrance of the harbour she came over on
the port tack.
A light haze fringed the â€˜horizon, and she was not
discovered until three miles off shore, when the JJay-
Jlower made her out and signalled the Vicksburg and
Morrill, Captain Smith of the Vicksburg immediately
clapped on all steam and started in pursuit.
The schooner instantly put about and ran for Morro
Castle before the wind. On doing so, she would,
â€˜according to the plot, lead the two American war-
ships directly under the guns of the Santa Clara
These works are a short mile west of Morro, and are
a part of the defences of the harbour. There were two
NEWS OF THE DAY. : I05
batteries, one at the shore, which had been recently
thrown up, of sand and mortar, with wide embrasures
for 8-inch guns, and the other on the crest of the
rocky eminence which juts out into the waters of
the gulf at the point. The upper battery mounted
modern 10 and 12-inch Krupp guns, behind a six-
foot stone parapet, in front of which were twenty feet
of earthwork and belting of railroad iron.
The American vessels were about six miles from the
schooner when the chase began. They steamed after
her at full speed, the A/orril/ leading, until within a
mile and a half of the Santa Clara batteries.
Commander Smith of the Vicksburg was the first to
realise the danger into which the reckless pursuit had
led them. He concluded it was time to haul off, and
sent a shot across the bow of the schooner. ~
The Spanish skipper instantly brought his vessel
about, but while she was still rolling in the trough of
the sea with her sails flapping, an 8-inch shrapnel
shell came hurtling through the air from the water-
battery, a mile and a half away.
It passed over the JZorril/, between the pilot-house
and the smoke-stack, and exploded less than fifty feet
away on the port quarter.
Two more shots followed in quick succession, both
shrapnel. One burst close under the starboard quarter,
filling the engine-room with the smoke of the exploding
shell, and the other, like the first, passed over and
exploded just beyond.
106 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
The Spanish gunners had the range, and their time
fuses were accurately set.
The crews of both ships were at their guns. Lieu-
tenant Craig, who was in charge of the bow 4-inch
rapid-fire gun of the Morrill, asked for and obtained
permission to return the fire.
At the first shot the Vicksburg, which was in the
wake of the Morrill, slightly inshore, sheered off and
passed to windward under the J/orril/â€™s stern. In the
meantime Captain Smith also put his helm to port, and
was none too soon, for as the Morrill stood off a solid
8-inch shot grazed her starboard quarter and kicked
up tons of water as it struck a wave one hundred yards
All the guns of the water-battery were now at work.
One of them cut the Jacobâ€™s-ladder of the Vicksburg
adrift, and another carried away a portion of the rigging.
As the vessels steamed away their aft guns were
used, but only a few shots were fired.
The Morrillâ€™s 6-inch gun was elevated for four
thousand yards, and struck the earthwork repeatedly.
The Vicksburg discharged only three shots from her
The Spaniards continued to fire shot and shell for
twenty minutes, but none of the latter shots came
within one hundred yards. j
Later in the day the Morrill captured the Spanish
schooner Espana, bound for Havana, and towed the
prize to Key West.
JOHN D. LONG, SECRETARY OF NAVY.
NEWS OF THE DAY. 107
The Newport added to the list of captures by bring-
ing in the Spanish schooner Padre de Dios.
May 7. The United States despatch-boat McCulloch
arrived at Hongkong from Manila, with details of
Commodore Deweyâ€™s victory.
Secretary Long, after the cablegram fore from
Hongkong had been received, sent the following
â€œThe President, in the name of the American people,
thanks you and your officers and men for your splendid
achievement and overwhelming victory. In recognition
he has appointed you acting admiral, and will rec-
ommend a vote of thanks to you by Congress as a
foundation for further promotion.â€
May 8. A brilliant, although unimportant, affair was
that in which the torpedo- pose Winslow engaged off
The Winslow and gunboat Wane were on the
blockade off Cardenas.
In the harbour, defended by thickly strewn mines -
and torpedoes, three small gunboats had been bottled
up since the beginning of the war. Occasionally they
stole out toward the sea, but never venturing beyond
the inner harbour, running like rabbits at sight of the
American torpedo boats.
Finally a buoy was moored by Spaniards inside the
entrance of the bay to mark the position for the
entrance of the gunboats.. The signal-station on
the shore opposite was instructed to notify the gun-
108 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
boats inside when the torpedo-boats were within the
limit distance marked by the buoy.
The scheme was that the gunboats could run out,
open fire at a one-mile range thus marked off for them,
and retreat without the chance of being cut off. The
men of the Winslow eyed this buoy and guessed its
-purpose, but did not attempt to remove it.
On the afternoon of the eighth the JZachzas stood
away to the eastward for a jaunt, and the Wzuslow was
left alone to maintain the blockade.
In a short time she steamed toward Cardenas
Harbour. There was great excitement at the signal-
station, and flags fluttered hysterically. The three
gunboats slipped their cables and went bravely out to
their safety limit.
Three bow 6-pounders were trained at two thousand
yards. In a few minutes the shore signals told them
that the torpedo-boat was just in range. Every Span-
iard aboard prepared to see the Americans blown out of
Three 6-pounders crackled, and three shells threw
waterspouts around the Wixs/ow, but she was not
struck. Instead of running away, she upset calcula-
tions by driving straight ahead, attacking the boats,
and Lieutenant Bernado no sooner saw the first white
smoke puffs from the Spanish guns than he gave the
word to the men already stationed at the two forward
I-pounders, which barked viciously and dropped shot
in the middle of the flotilla.
NEWS OF THE DAY. 109
On plunged the Winslow to within fifteen hundred
yards of the gunboats, while the row raised by the
rapid-fire 1-pounders was like a rattling tattoo.
The Spaniards were apparently staggered at this
fierce onslaught, single-handed, and fired wildly. The
Winslow swung around broadside to, to bring her two
after guns to bear as the Spanish boats scattered and
The Winslow soon manceuvred so that she was
peppering at all three gunboats at once. The sea was
very heavy, and the knifelike torpedo-boat rolled so
wildly that it was impossible to do good gun practice,
but despite this big handicap, the rapidity of her fire
and the remarkable effectiveness of her guns demoral-
ised all three opponents, which, after the Wzns/ow had
fired about fifty shells, began to gradually work back
toward the shelter of the harbour.
They were still hammering away with their 6-
pounders, but were wild. Several shells passed over
the Winslow. One exploded a hundred feet astern,
but the others fell short.
At last a i-pounder from the Winslow went fair
and true, and struck the hull of the Lopez a little aft of
amidships, apparently exploding on the inside.
The Winslow men yelled. The Lopez stopped, evi-
dently disabled, while one of her comrades went to her
assistance. By this time the Spanish boats had re-
treated nearly inside, where they could not be followed
because of the mines. The Lopez got under way
110 THE BOYS. OF â€™98.
slowly and limped homeward with the help of a towline
from her consort.
During this episode the Machias had returned, and
when within a two-mile range let fly two 4-inch
shells from her starboard battery, which accelerated the
Spanish flight. But the flotilla managed to creep back
into Cardenas Harbour in safety, and under the guns of
The Spanish gunboats that lured the Wixslow into
the death-trap were the Aztonio Lopez, Lealtad, and
Ligera. During the fight the two former retreated
behind the wharves, and the Ligeva behind the key. It
was the Aztonio Lopes that opened fire on the Winslow
and decoyed her into the channel. The Spanish troops
formed on the public square, not daring to go.to the
wharves. All the Spanish flags were lowered, as they
furnished targets, and the women and children fled to
Off Havana during the afternoon the fishing-smack
Santiago Apostal was captured by the U.S. S. Mew-
The U.S.S. Yale captured the Spanish steamer R2Â¢a
on the eighth, but did not succeed in getting the prize
into port until the thirteenth. The AzÃ©a was loaded
with coal, from Liverpool to Porto Rico.
The bread riots in Spain continued throughout the
day. At Linates a crowd of women stormed the town
hall and the civil guard fired upon them, killing twelve.
Â£t Pais, the popular republican newspaper in Madrid,
NEWS OF THE DAY. Tit
was suppressed ; martial law was declared at Badajos
May 9. Congress passed a joint resolution of
thanks to Commodore Dewey ; the House passed a bill
increasing the number of rear-admirals from six to
seven, and the Senate passed a bill to give Dewey a
. sword, and a bronze memorative medal to each officer
and man of his command.
-The record of the navy for the day was summed up
in the capture of the fishing-smack Fernandito by the
U. S. S. Vicksburg, and the capture of the Spanish
schooner Severito by the U. S. S. Dolphin.
The rioting in Spain was not abated ; martial law was
proclaimed in Catalonia.
May ro. The steamer Gussze sailed from Tampa,
Florida, with two companies of the First Infantry, and
munitions and supplies for Cuban insurgents.
Rioting in Spain was the report by cable ; in Alicante
the mob sacked and burned a bonded warehouse.
May rr. Running from Cienfuegos, Cuba, at day-
break on the morning of May 11th, were three tele-
graph cables. The fleet in the neighbourhood consisted
of the cruiser Marblehead, which had been on the
station three weeks, the gunboat Washvz//e, which had
been there two weeks, and the converted revenue cutter
Windom, which had arrived two days before. The sta-
tion had been a quiet one, except for a few brushes
with some Spanish gunboats, which occasionally ven-
tured a very little way out of Cienfuegos Harbour.
hee THE BOYS OF â€™098.
They had last appeared on the tenth, but had retreated,
as usual, when fired on.
Commander McCalla of the Marblehead, ranking
officer, instructed Lieutenant Anderson to call for
volunteers to cut the cable early on the morning of the
eleventh. Anderson issued the call on both the cruiser
and the gunboat, and three times the desired number of
men offered to serve. No one relented, even after
repeated warnings that the service was especially
Â«JT want you men to understand,â€ Anderson said,
â€œthat you are not ordered to do this work, and are not
The men nearly tumbled over one another in their
eagerness to be selected. In the end, the officer had
simply the choice of the entire crew of the two ships.
A cutter containing twelve men, and a steam launch
containing six, were manned from each ship, and a
guard of marines and men to man the 1-pounder
guns of the launches, were put on board. In the
meantime the JZarblehead had taken a position one
thousand yards offshore opposite the Colorado Point
lighthouse, which is on the east side of the narrow
entrance to Cienfuegos Harbour, just east of the cable
landing, and, with the Nashville a little farther to the
west, had begun shelling the beach.
The shore there is low, and covered with a dense
growth of high grass and reeds. The lighthouse stood
on an elevation, behind which, as well as hidden in the
NEWS OF THE DAY. 113
long grass, were known to be a large number of rifle-
pits, some masked machine guns, and_ 1-pounders.
These the Spaniards deserted as fast as the shipsâ€™ fire
reached them. As the enemyâ€™s fire slackened and died
out, the boats were ordered inshore.
They advanced in double column. The launches,
under Lieutenant Anderson and Ensign McGruder of
the Nashville, went ahead with their sharpshooters and
gunners, looking eagerly for targets, while the cutters
were behind with the grappling-irons out, and the
men peering into the green water for a sight of the
cables. At a distance of two hundred feet from
shore the launches stopped, and the cutters were sent
The first cable was picked up about ninety feet off-
shore. No sooner had the work of cutting it been
begun than the Spanish fire recommenced, the soldiers
skulking back to their deserted rifle-pits and rapid-fire
guns through the high grass. The launches replied
and the fire from the ships quickened, but although the
Spanish volleys slackened momentarily, every now and
then they grew stronger.
The men in the boats cut a long piece out of the first
cable, stowed it away for safety, and then grappled for
the next. Meantime the Spaniards were firing low in
an evident endeavour to sink the cutters, but many of
their shots fell short. The second cable was finally
found, and the men with the pipe-cutters.went to work
_ on it,
114 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Several sailors were kept at. the oars to hold the
cutters in position, and the first man wounded was one
of these. No one else in the boat knew it, however,
till he fainted in his seat from loss of blood. Others
took the cue from this, and there was not a groan or a
complaint from the two boats, as the bullets, that were
coming thicker and faster every minute, began to bite
The men simply possessed themselves with heroic
patience, and went on with the work. They did not
even have the satisfaction of returning thÃ© Spanish fire,
but the marines in the stern of the boat shot hard
enough for all.
The second cable was finally cut, and the third, a
smaller one, was grappled and hoisted to the surface.
The fire of the Spanish had reached its maximum. It
was estimated that one thousand rifles and guns were
speaking, and the men who handled them grew incau-
tious, and exposed themselves in groups here and
â€œ Use shrapnel,â€™ came the signal, and can after can
exploded over the Spaniards, causing them to break
and run to cover.
This cover was a sort of fortification behind the
lighthouse, and to this place they dragged a number of
their machine guns, and again opened fire on the
cutter. The shots from behind the lighthouse could
not be answered so well from the launches, and the
encouraged Spaniards fired all the oftener.
NEWS OF THE DAY. Il5
Man after man in the boats was hit, but none let a
sound escape him. Like silent machines they worked,
grimly hacking and tearing at the third cable. Dur-
ing half an hour they laboured, but.the fire from behind
the lighthouse was too deadly, and, reluctantly, at Lieu-
tenant Andersonâ€™s signal, the cable was dropped and
the boats retreated.
The work had lasted two hours and a half.
The Windom, which had laid out of range with a
collier, was now ordered in, and the surgeon called to
attend the wounded. The Windom was signalled to
shell the lighthouse, which had not been fired on
before, according to the usages of international law.
It had been used as a shelter by the Spaniards. The
revenue cutterâ€™s rapid-fire guns riddled the structure
in short order, and soon a shell from the 4-inch gun,
which was in charge of Lieut. R. O. Crisp, struck it
fair, exploded, and toppled it over.
With the collapse of their protection the Spaniards
broke and ran again, the screaming shrapnel bursting
all around them.
At the fall of the lighthouse the Marblehead sig-
nalled, Â«Well done,â€ and then a moment later, â€œCease
The only man killed instantly was a marine named
wounds on the same day. Commander Maynard of
the WVashville was grazed across the chest, and Lieu-
tenant Winslow was wounded in the hand.
116 THE BOYS OF 98.
The list of casualties resulting from this display of
heroism was two killed, two fatally and four badly
wounded. The Spanish loss could not be ascertained,
but it must necessarily have been heavy.
U. S. S. CHICAGO,
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN,
(AY zz. The Spanish batteries in Cardenas Har-
bour were silenced on May 11th, and at the
same time there was a display of heroism, on the part
of American sailors, such as has never been surpassed.
A plan of action having been decided upon, the
Wilmington arrived at the blockading station from Key
West on the morning of the eleventh. She found there,
off Piedras Bay, the cruiser Machzas, the torpedo-boat
Winslow, and the revenue cutter Hzdson, which last
carried two 6-pounders. Shortly after noon the Wet
mington, Winslow, and Hudson moved into the inner
harbour of Cardenas, and prepared to draw the fire of
the Spanish batteries on the water-front. The Wil
mington took a range of about twenty-five hundred
The Cardenas land defences consisted of a battery
in a stone fortification on the mole or quay, a battery
of field-pieces, and of infantry armed with long-range
rifles. The gunboats were equipped with rapid-fire
Firing commenced at one o'clock, and when the
Cardenas batteries were silenced at two in the afternoon,
118 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the Wilmington had sent 376 shells into them and the
town. Her 4-inch guns had been fired 144 times.
She had aimed 122 shots from her 6-pounders, and
110 from her 1-pounders, over six shots a minute.
When the Wilmington ceased firing she had moved
up to within one thousand yards range of the Spanish
guns, and there were only six inches of water under her
keel. The Wilmington draws nine feet of water for-
ward and ten and a half feet aft. When the sound-
ings showed that she was almost touching, her guns
were in full play, and the Spaniards had missed a
beautiful. opportunity. The Spanish gunners must
have miscalculated her distance and misjudged her
draught, else they would have done more effective
work at a range of two thousand yards.
During the engagement, when the commander of the
Winslow found that he could not approach close enough
to the Spanish gunboats to use his torpedo-tubes to
any advantage, he remained under fire. At that time
he could have got out of harmâ€™s way by taking shelter
to the leeward of the Walmington.
Captain Todd, from his post of duty in the conning-
tower of the W2lmington, saw a Spanish shell, aimed for
the torpedo-boat, do its deadly work. The shell struck
the water, took an up-shoot, and exploded on the deck
of the Winslow. There is little room for men any-
where on a torpedo boat, and if a shot strikes at all it
is almost sure to hit a group. Such was the case in
the. Winslow. The exploding shell cost the lives of
THE TRAGEDY OF THE WINSLOW.
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN. II9g
Ensign Bagley and four seamen ; it also crippled the
craft by wrecking her steam-steering gear. Later her
captain and one of his crew were wounded by separate
Ensign Bagley was killed outright, two of the group
of five died on the deck of the disabled torpedo-boat,
â€˜and the other two died while being removed to the
The signal, â€œâ€˜ Many wounded,â€ went up from the staff
of the Winslow, and Passed Assistant Surgeon Cook of
the Wilmington boarded the torpedo-boat.
The Hudson tied up to the Wrxslow and towed her
out of danger, escaping unscathed. The wounded
men were tenderly cared for on the cruiser, and that
night the revenue cutter steamed out of Cardenas Bay,
bearing the dead and wounded to Key West.
William Oâ€™Hearn, of Brooklyn, N. Y., one of the
Winslow's crew, thus tells-his story of the battle to a
newspaper correspondent :
â€œ From the very beginning,â€ he said, â€œI think every
man on the boat believed that we could not escape
being sunk, and that is what would have happened
had it not been for the bravery of the boys on the
- Hudson, who worked for over an hour under the most
terrific fire to get us out of range.â€
Â«Were you ordered to go in there?â€ he was asked.
Â«Yes ; just before we were fired upon the order was
given from the Wilmington.â€
Â« Was it a signal order?â€
120 THE BOYS OF '98.
â€œNo; we were near enough to the Wilmington so
that they shouted it to us from the deck, through the
â€œDo you remember the words of the commander
who gave them?â€
â€œJT donâ€™t know who shouted the order; but the
words as I remember them were, â€˜Mr. Bagley, go in
_and see what gunboats there are.â€™ We started at once
towards the Cardenas dock,.and the firing began soon
Â«The first thing I saw,â€ continued Oâ€™Hearn, â€œwas a
shot fired from a window or door in the second story of
the storehouse just back of the dock where the Span-
ish gunboats were lying. A shell then went hissing
over our heads. Then the firing began from the gun-
boat at the wharf, and from the shore. The effect of
shell and heavy shot the first time a man is under fire
is something terrible.
â€œFirst you hear that awful buzzing or whizzing, and
then something seems to strike you in the face and
head. I noticed that at first the boys threw their hands
to their heads every time a shell went over; but they
soon came so fast and so close that it was a roaring,
shrieking, crashing hell.
â€œJT am the water-tender, and my place is below, but
everybody went on deck when the battle began. John
Varvares, the oiler, John Denif and John Meek, the
firemen, were on watch with me, and had they remained
below they would not have been killed.
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN. I2I
â€œAfter the firing began I went below again to at-
tend to the boiler, and a few minutes. later a solid shot
came crashing through the side of the boat and into
the boiler, where it cepioded and destroyed seventy
of the tubes.
Â«At first it stunned me. When the shell burst in
the boiler it threw both the furnace doors open, and
the fuse from the shell struck my feet. It was a ter-
rible crash, and the boiler-room was filled with dust
and steam. For several seconds I was partially stunned,
and my ears rang so I could hear nothing. I went up
on the deck to report to Captain Bernadou.
â€œTI saw him near the forecastle gun, limping about
with a towel wound around his left leg. He was
shouting, and the noise of all the guns was like con-
tinuous thunder. â€˜Captain,â€™ I -cried, â€˜the forward
boiler is disabled. A shell has gone through it.â€™
â€œÂ«Â«Get out the hose,â€™ he said, and turned to the gun
again. I made my way to the boiler-room, in a few
minutes went up on the deck again, and the fighting
had grown hotter than ever. Several of the men were
missing, and I looked around.
â€œLying all in a heap on the after-deck in the
' Starboard quarter, near the after conning-tower, I saw
five of our men where they had wilted down after the
shell struck them. In other places were men lying
groaning, or dragging themselves about, wounded and
_ covered with blood. There were big red spots on the
deck, which was strewn with fragments and splinters.
122 THE BOYS. OF â€™98.
. â€œT went to where the five men were lying, and saw
that all were not dead. John Meek could speak and
move one hand slightly. I put my face down close to
Â«Â¢Can I do anything for you, John?â€™ [ asked, and
he replied, Â«No, Jack, I am dying ; good-bye,â€™ and he
asked me to grasp his hand. â€˜Go help the rest,â€™
he whispered, gazing with fixed eyes toward where
Captain Bernadou was still firing the forward gun.
The next minute he was dead.
Â«Ensign Bagley was lying on the deck nearly torn
to pieces, and the bodies of the other three were on top
of him. The coloured cook was a little apart from
the others, mangled, and in a cramped position. We
supposed he was dead, and covered him up the same
as the others. Nearly half an hour after that we heard
him calling, and saw that he was making a slight
movement under the clothes. I went up to him, and
Â«â€œÂ«QOh, boys, for Godâ€™s sake move me. I am lying
over the boiler and burning up.â€™
â€œThe deck was very hot, and his flesh had been
almost roasted. He complained that his neck was
cramped, but did not seem to feel his terrible wound.
We moved him into an easier position, and gave him
Â«â€œÂ«Thank you, sir,â€™ he said, and in five seconds he
Ensign Bagley had been fearfully wounded by a
U. S. S. AMPHITRITE,
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN. 123
shot, which practically tore through his body. He
sank over the rail, and was grasped by one of the
enlisted men, named Reagan, who lifted him up and
placed him on the deck.
The young officer, realising that the wound was
fatal, and that he had only a short time to live, allowed
no murmur of complaint or cry of pain to escape him,
but opened his eyes, stared at the sailor, and simply
â€œThank you, Reagan.â€
These were the last words he spoke.
May 12. The forts of San Juan, the capital of -
Porto Rico, were bombarded by a portion of Rear-
Admiral Sampsonâ€™s fleet on Thursday morning, May
12th. The vessels taking part in the action were the
battle-ships Mew Vork, Iowa, Indiana, the cruisers
Detroit and Montgomery, and the monitors Terror and
The engagement began at 5.15 and ended at 8.15
A.M., resulting in a loss to the Americans of one
killed and seven wounded, and the death of one from
prostration by heat. The Spanish loss, as reported
by cable to Madrid, was five killed and forty-three
Admiral Sampsonâ€™s orders were to refrain from
â€˜making any land attack so long as the batteries on
shore did not attempt to molest his ships; but in case
the Spaniards fired on his vessels, to destroy the
124 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
These orders were not issued until the Spanish fire
at different Cuban ports became so irritating to the
American bluejackets that discipline was, in a measure,
threatened ; but as soon as the men learned that they
were no longer to remain passive targets for the
Spaniards, but were to return any shots against them,
all grumbling against inaction ceased.
It was not Admiral Sampsonâ€™s original intention to
attack San Juan. He was looking for bigger game
than the poorly defended Porto Rican capital. His
orders from the Navy Department were to find and
capture or destroy the Spanish squadron that was en
route from the Cape Verde Islands, and it was this
business that took him into the neighbourhood of San
Juan, he being desirous of learning if the Spanish
squadron were there.
The fleet arrived off San Juan before daybreak on
Thursday. The tug Wampatuck was ordered to take
soundings in the channel, and at once proceeded to do
so. She was fully half a mile ahead of the fleet when
she entered the channel, and those aboard of her kept
the lead going at a lively rate.
It is supposed that Admiral Sampson had no inten-
tion at that time of entering the harbour itself, his
object, when he found that the Spanish squadron was
not at San Juan, being to learn for future use exactly
how much water there was in the channel, and if any
attempt had been made to block the way.
At all events, while the Wampatuck was engaged in
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN. 125
this work she was seen by the sentries at the Morro,
and a few minutes later was fired on.
Then, and not until then, did Admiral Sampson
determine to teach the Spaniards a lesson regarding
the danger of firing on the American flag.
â€œQuarters!â€ rang out aboard the war-ships almost
before the report of the Morro gun had died away, the
flag-ship having signalled for action.
The /owa opened the bombardment with her big
12-inch gun, the missile striking Morro Castle squarely,
and knocking a great hole in the masonry.
Then the /zdiana sent a 13-inch projectile from
the forward turret, and one after the other, with but
little loss of time, the remaining vessels of the fleet
aided in the work of destruction.
The French war-ship Admiral Rigault de Genoailly
was at anchor in the harbour, and a shell exploded
within a few hundred feet of where she lay, but worked
The French officers thus reported the action :
Â«The American gunners were generally accurate in
their firing, while the marksmanship of the Spaniards
was inferior. Some of the American shells, however,
passed over the fortifications into the city, where they
did terrible damage, crashing straight through rows of
buildings before exploding, and there killing many
â€œThe fortifications were irreparably injured. Re-
peatedly masses of masonry were blown skyward by
126 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
the shells from the American guns. Fragments from
one shell struck the commandanteâ€™s residence, which
was situated near the fortifications, damaging it
Morro Castle was speedily silenced, and then the
guns of the fleet were turned on the land-batteries
and the fortifications near the government buildings.
The inhabitants fled in terror from the city; the
volunteers, panic-stricken, ran frantically in every
direction, discharging their weapons at random, until
they were a menace to all within possible range. The
crashing of the falling buildings, the roar of the heavy
guns, the shrieks of the terrified and groans of the
wounded, formed a horrible accompaniment to the work
Three times the line of American ships passed from
the entrance of the harbour to the extreme eastward
battery, sending shot and shell into the crumbling
forts. Clouds of dust showed where the missiles
struck, but the smoke hung over everything. The
shells screeching overhead and dropping around were
the only signs that the Spaniards still stuck to their
At 7.45 a.m. Admiral Sampson signalled, â€œ Cease
â€œ Retireâ€™? was sounded on the /owa, and she headed
from the shore.
The Zerror was the last ship in the line, and, failing
to see the signal, banged away alone for about half an
THE BOMBARDMENT OF SAN JUAN, PORTO RICO.
CARDENAS: AND SAN JUAN. 127
hour, the concert of shore guns roaring at her and the
water flying high around her from the exploding shells.
But she possessed a charmed life, and reluctantly
retired at 8.15.
May 13. In the Spanish Cortes, Sefior Molinas,
deputy for Porto Rico, protested against the bombard-
ment of San Juan without notice, as an infringement of
To this General Correa, Minister of War, replied that
the conduct of the Americans was â€œvandalism,â€ and
â€˜that the government â€œwill bring their outrageous
action under the notice of the powers.â€ He echoed
Sefior Molinasâ€™s eulogy of the bravery of the Spanish
troops and marines, and promised that the government
would send its thanks.
An authority on international law thus comments
upon the bombardment, in the columns of the New
Â« There is nothing in the laws of war which requires
notice of bombardment to be given to a fortified place,
during the progress of war. When the â€˜Germans
threatened to bombard Port au Prince, a few months
ago, they gave a notice of a few hours, but in that case
- no state of war existed. Again, when Spain bombarded
Valparaiso, in 1865, an hourâ€™s interval was allowed be-
tween the blank charge that gave the notice, and
the actual bombardment. But that interval was
intended to allow Chili an opportunity to do the
specific thing demanded, namely, to salute the Spanish
128 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
flag, in atonement for a grievance. Besides, Valparaiso
was wholly unfortified, and the guns were directed,
not at military works, but at public buildings.
Â«The case of San Juan was far different. Hostilities
had been going on in Gulf waters for weeks, while, as
Doctor Snow, the well-known authority on international
law, says, â€˜In case of war, the very fact of a place being
fortified is evidence that at any time it is liable to at-
tack, and the non-combatants residing within its limits
must be prepared for a contingency of this kind.â€™ This
is true, also, of the investment of fortified places by
armies, where â€˜if the assault is made, no notice is given,
as surprise is essential to success.â€™ In the same spirit
Halleck says that â€˜every besieged place is for a time a
military garrison; its inhabitants are converted into
soldiers by the necessities of self-defence.â€™
â€œTurning to the official report of Admiral Sampson,
we find him saying that, as soon as it was light enough,
he began â€˜an attack upon the batteries defending the
city. This attack lasted about three hours, and resulted
in much damage to the batteries, and incidentally to a
portion of the city adjacent to the batteries.â€™ It is,
therefore, clear that this latter damage was simply the
result of the proximity of the defensive works to some
of the dwellings. The same thing would occur in bom-
barding Havana. Can any one imagine that the Span-
iards, if they suddenly appeared in New York Bay,
would be obliged to give notice before opening fire on
Fort Hamilton and Fort Wadsworth, for the reason that
CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN. I29
adjacent settlements would suffer from the fire? The
advantage of suddenness in the attack upona place, not
only fortified, but forewarned by current events, cannot
be renounced. Civilians dwelling near defensive works
know what they risk in war.
â€œJn the Franco-German war of 1870 there were
repeated instances, according to the authority already
quoted, of deliberately firing on inhabited towns instead
of on their fortifications, and â€˜there were cases, like
that of Peronne, where the town was partially destroyed
while the ramparts were nearly intact. The ground
taken was that which a military writer, General Le
Blois, had advocated five years before, namely, that the
pressure for surrender exercised by the people becomes
greater on subjecting them to the loss of life and prop-
erty. â€˜The governor is made responsible for all the
disasters that occur; the people rise against him, and
â€˜his own troops seek to compel him to an immediate
capitulation.â€™ At San Juan there was no attempt of
this sort, the fire being concentrated upon the batteries,
with the single view of destroying them. The likelihood
that adjacent buildings and streets would suffer did not â€”
require previous notice of the bombardment, and, in
fact, when the Germans opened fire on Paris without
notification, and a protest was made,on behalf of neu-
_trals, Bismarck simply replied that no such notification
was required by the laws-of war.â€
FROM ALL QUARTERS.
TAY rz. A state of siege proclaimed throughout
Spain. In a dozen cities or more continued riot-
ing and sacking of warehouses. The seacoast between
Cadiz and Malaga no longer lighted. The second divi-
sion of the Spanish navy, consisting of the battle-ship
Pelayo, the armoured cruiser Carlos V., the protected
cruiser Alphonso XIII, the converted cruisers Rapido
and Patria, and several torpedo-boats, remain in Cadiz
May 12. The story of an attempt to land American
troops in Cuba is thus told by one of the officers of
the steamer Gussze, which vessel left Tampa on the
â€œIn an effort to land Companies E and G of the first
U. S. Infantry on the shore of. Pinar del Rio this after-:
noon, with five hundred rifles, sixty thousand rounds
of ammunition, and some food supplies for the insur-
gents, the first land fight of the war took place. Each
side may claim a victory, for if the Spaniards frustrated
the effort to connect with the insurgents; the Ameri-
cans got decidedly the better of the battle, killing
FROM ALL QUARTERS, 131
twelve or more of the enemy, and on their own part
suffering not a wound.
Â« After dark last evening the old-fashioned side-
wheel steamer Gussze of the Morgan line, with troops
and cargo mentioned, was near the Cuban coast. At
sunrise she fell in with the gunboat Vicksburg on the
blockade off Havana. Other blockading vessels came
up also. The converted revenue cutter Manning, Cap-
tain Munger, was detailed to convoy the Gussze, and,
three abreast, the steamers moved along the coast.
â€œThe Cuban guides on the Gussie took their ma-
chetes to a grindstone on the hurricane-deck. Our
soldiers gathered around to see them sharpen their long
knives, but only one could be induced to test the edge
of these barbarous instruments with his thumb.
Â«By the ruined walls of an old stone house Spanish
troops were gathered. Several shots were fired by the
gunboat Manning, and presently no troops were visible.
It had been decided to land near here, but the depth of
water was not favourable.
â€œJust west of Port Cabanas Harbour the Gussze
anchored, the Manning covering the landing-place with
her guns, and the torpedo-boat Wasp came up eager
to assist. The first American soldier to step on the
Cuban shore from this expedition was Lieutenant Crof-
ton, Captain Oâ€™Connor with the first boatload having
gone a longer route. A reef near the beach threw
the men out, and they stumbled through the water up
to their breasts. When they reached dry land they
12 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
immediately went into the bush to form a picket-line.
Two horses had been forced to swim ashore, when
suddenly a rifle-shot, followed by continuous sharp
firing, warned the men that the enemy had been in
Â«The captain of the transport signalled the war-ships,
and the Manning fired into the woods beyond our
picket-line. Shrapnel hissed through the air like hot
iron plunged in water. The Wasp opened with her
small guns. The cannonade began at 3.15 and lasted
a quarter of an hour; then our pickets appeared, the
ships circled around, and, being told by Captain Oâ€™Con-
nor, who had come from shore with the clothing torn
from one leg, where the Spaniards were, a hundred
shots more were fired in that direction.
Â«Â«Â« Anybody hurt, captain ?â€™ some one asked.
Â« Â«None of our men, but we shot twelve Spaniards,â€™
he shouted back.
Â«The soldiers on board the Gussze heard the news
without a word, but learning where the enemy were
situated, gathered aft on the upper deck, and sent vol-
leys toward the spot.
â€œThe pickets returned to the bush. Several crept
along the beach, but. the Spaniards had drawn back.
It was decided that the soldiers should reÃ©mbark on
the Gussie, and that the guides take the horses, seek
the insurgents, and make a new appointment. They
rode off to the westward, and disappeared around a
FROM ALL QUARTERS. 133
Â«Â«Â« Say,â€™ shouted a man from Company G after them,
â€˜you forgot your grindstone.â€™ â€
May r2. On Thursday morning, May t2th, the
the gunboat W2zlmington stood in close to the coast, off
the town of Cardenas, with her crew at quarters.
She had come for a specific purpose, which was to
avenge the Winslow, and not until she was within
range of the gunboats that had decoyed the Winslow
did she slacken speed. Then the masked battery, which
had opened on the American boat with such deadly
effect, was covered by the Wlmzngtonâ€™s guns. .
There were no preliminaries. The war-vessel was
there to teach the Spaniards of Cardenas a lesson, and
set about the task without delay.
The town is three miles distant from the gulf
entrance to the harbour, therefore no time need be
wasted in warning non-combatants, for they were in
little or no danger.
During two weeks troops had been gathering near
about Cardenas to protect it against American inva-
sion; masked batteries were being planted, earthworks
thrown up, and blockhouses erected. There was no
lack of targets.
Carefully, precisely, as if at practice, the Wzlming-
ton opened fire from her 4-inch guns, throwing shells
- here, there, everywhere ; but more particularly in the
direction of that masked battery which had trained its
guns. on the Winslow, and as the Spaniards, panic-
stricken, hearing a death-knell in the sighing, whistling
134 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
missiles, fled in mad terror, the gunboatsâ€™ machine gunsâ€™
were called into play.
It is safe to assert that the one especial object of the
_ American sailorsâ€™ vengeance was completely destroyed.
Not a gun remained mounted, not a man was alive,
save those whose wounds were mortal. The punish-
ment was terrible, but complete.
Until this moment the Spaniards at Cardenas had
believed they might with impunity open fire on any
craft flying the American flag; but now they began to
understand that such sport was in the highest degree
During a full hour â€”and in that time nearly three
hundred shells had been sent on errands of destruction
â€” the Wilmington continued her bombardment of the
When the work was completed two gunboats had
been sunk so quickly that their crews had no more than
sufficient time to escape. Two schooners were con-
verted into wrecks at their moorings. One blockhouse
was consumed by flames, and signal- stations, masked
batteries, and forts were in ruins.
While this lesson was in progress the Spaniards did
their best to bring it to a close; but despite all efforts
the Wilmington was unharmed. There was absolutely
no evidence of conflict about her when she finally
steamed away, save such as might have been read _
on the smoke-begrimed faces of the hard-worked but
triumphant and satisfied crew.
FROM ALL QUARTERS. 135
May 13. An English correspondent, cabling from
Hongkong regarding the Spaniards in the Philippine
Islands, made the following statement :
â€œThey are in a position to give the Americans
a deal of trouble. There are twenty-five thousand
Spanish soldiers in the garrison at Manila, and one
hundred thousand volunteers enrolled. Scores of coast-
ing steamers are imprisoned on the river Pasig, which
is blocked at the mouth by some sunken schooners.
Â«Mr. Wildman, the American consul here, tells me
that, according to his despatches, a flag of truce is fly-
ing over Manila, and the people are allowed to proceed
freely to and from the ships in the harbour.
Â«â€œThe Americans are on duty night and day on the
lookout for boats which endeavour to run the blockade
with food supplies. The hospital is supported by the
â€˜Americans. The Spaniards are boasting that their big
battle-ship Pe/ayo is coming, and will demolish the
Americans in ten minutes.â€
On the afternoon of May 13th the flying squadron,
Commodore W. S. Schley commanding, set sail from
Old Point Comfort, heading southeast. The following
vessels comprised the fleet. The cruiser Brooklyn, the
flag-ship, the battle-ships A/assachusetts and. Texas, and
the. torpedo-boat destroyer Scorpzon. The Sterling,
with 4,000 tons of coal, was the collier of the squadron.
At eight oâ€™clock in the evening the J/xneapolis fol-
lowed, and Captain Sigsbee of the Sz. Paul received
orders to get under way at midnight.
136 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
May rg. Eleven steamers, chartered by the govern-
ment as troop-ships, sailed from New York for Key
West. At San Francisco, the cruiser Charleston, with
supplies and reinforcements for Admiral Deweyâ€™s fleet
at Manila, had been made ready for sea.
At Havana General Blanco had shown great energy
in preparing for the expected siege by American forces.
The city and forts were reported as being provisioned
sufficiently for three or four months, and Havana was
surrounded by entrenchments for a distance of thirty
miles. The troops in the garrison numbered seventy
thousand, and a like number were in the interior fighting
The condition of the reconcentrados in Havana had
grown steadily worse. The mortality increased among
this wretched class, who had taken to begging morsels
of food. ,
Nobody in Havana except a few higher officers knew
that the Spanish fleet was annihilated at Manila, and the
story was believed that the Americans were beaten there.
At Madrid in the Chamber of Deputies Sefior Bores
asked the government to inform the house of the con-
dition of the Philippines. After the pacification of the
islands, he said, outbreaks had occurred at Pansy and
Cebu and even in Manila. Was this a new rebellion,
he asked, or a continuation of the old one? If it was
a continuation of the old rebellion, then General Prima
de Riveraâ€™s pacification of the islands had been a perfect
FROM ALL QUARTERS. a7
General Correa, Minister of War, replied that the
old insurrection was absolutely over. The present one,
he said, arose from the incitements of the Americans.
Sefior Bores retorted that he had received a private
letter from the Philippines, dated April roth, prior to
the arising of any-fear of war with the United States,
giving pessimistic accounts of the risings there, and
passengers arriving by the steamer Leon ///. had told
similar stories. Now, he declared, the Spanish troops
in the Philippines were in a terrible condition, being
between two fires, the natives and the Americans.
Sefior Boresâ€™s remarks created a profound sensation.
The cruiser Charleston was reported as being ready
to sail from San Francisco for Manila. Three hundred
sailors and marines to reinforce Admiral Deweyâ€™s fleet
were to be sent on the cruiser.
The U.S.S. Ovegon, Marietta, and Nictheroy arrived
at Bahia, Brazil.
The Spanish torpedo-boat Terror, of the Cape Verde
fleet, reported as yet remaining at Port de France,
A press correspondent gives the following spirited
account, under the date of May 14th, of a second
attempt to entice the American blockading squadron
within range of the Santa Clara battery guns:
â€œ Captain-General Blanco, two hours before sunset
to-night, attempted to execute a ruse, which, if success-
ful, would have cleared the front of Havana of six ships
on that blockading station.
138 _ THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œUnable to come out to do battle, he adopted the
tactics of the spider, and cunningly planned to draw
the prey into his net, but, though a clever and pretty
scheme as an original proposition, it was practically a
repetition of the trick by which the gunboat Vicksburg
and the little converted revenue cutter JdZorri/l were
last week decoyed by a fishing-smack under the big
Krupp guns of Santa Clara batteries.
Â«Thanks to bad gunnery, both ships on that occasion
managed to get out of range without being sunk, though
some of the shells burst close aboard, and the Vzcks-
burgâ€™s Jacobâ€™s-ladder was cut adrift.
Â«Late this afternoon the ships on the Havana sta-
tion were dumfounded to see two vessels steam out
of Havana Harbour and head east. Dense smoke was
streaming like black ribbons from their stacks, and a
glance showed that they were under full head of steam.
Â«By aid of glasses Commander Lilly of the dMay-
flower, which was flying the pennant, made out the
larger vessel of the two, which was two hundred feet
long and about forty-five hundred tons displacement,
to be the cruiser A/honso X/I,, and the small one to
be the gunboat Legazpi, both of which were known
to be bottled up in Havana Harbour.
Â« At first he supposed that they were taking advan-
tage of the absence of the heavy fighting-ships, and
were making a bona-fide run for the open sea.
Â«As superior officer, he immediately signalled the
other war-ships on the station, the Vicksburg, Annapolis,
FROM ALL QUARTERS. 139
Wasp, Tecumseh, and Osceola. The little squadron gave
chase to the flying Spaniards, keeping up a running
fire as they advanced. The A/~honso and her consort
circled inshore about five miles below Havana, and
headed back for Morro Castle.
Â«Our gunboats and the vessels of the mosquito fleet
did not follow them in. Commander Lilly saw that
the wily Spanish ruse was to draw them in under the â€”
guns of the heavy batteries, where Spanish artillery
officers could plot out the exact range with their tele-
meters. So the return was made in line ahead, parallel
with the shore.
Â«Commander Lilly had not been mistaken. As his
ships came abreast of Santa Clara battery the big guns
opened, and fired thirteen shells at a distance of about
five miles. The range was badly judged, as more than
half the missiles overshot the mark, and others fell
short, some as much as a mile.
Â«The big Afonso and her convoy steamed swiftly
from the dark shadow of the harbourâ€™s mouth, and, turn-
ing sharply east, ran along the coast as though-to slip
through the cordon of blockade.
â€œTt was a bold trick and not at first transparent,
although the folly of it created a suspicion.
Â«The Spanish boats crowded on steam and stood
- along the coast as long as they dared, to give zest to
the chase. The Mayfiower signalled her consorts,
â€˜Close in and charge.â€™
Â«Seeing that the bait had apparently taken, the
140 THE BOYS OF 798.
Spaniards veered about, and, bringing their stern-
chasers to bear on the Americans, doubled back for
Â«â€œ Two of the shells from the Vicksburg burst in the
rigging of the Alphonso, and some of it came down,
but it was, of course, impossible to know whether any
fatalities occurred. The American fire was much more
accurate than the Spanish, as every shell of the latter
fell short of their pursuers.
Â«â€œ The Spaniards were a mile off Morro, and our ships
fully four miles out, when flame leaped from the bat-
teries of the Santa Clara forts, and clouds of white
smoke drifted up the coast. Half a minute later a dull,
heavy roar of a great gun came like a deep diapason
of an organ on high treble of smaller guns. It was
_ from one of the 12-inch Krupp guns mounted there,
and an 8s-pound projectile plunged into the water half
a mile inside of the American line, throwing up a tower
of white spray. It ricochetted and struck again half
a mile outside.
â€œThe mask was now off. Maddened by the failure
of their plot, the Spaniards continued to fire at inter-
vals of about ten minutes. In all, thirteen shots were
fired, but not one struck within two hundred yards of
â€œAs soon as the battery opened, Commander Lilly
signalled, and his fleet stood offshore. Captain McKen-
sie, on the bridge of the Vicksburg, watched the fall
of the shells, but he considered it useless to waste
FROM ALL QUARTERS. I4I
ammunition at that distance. He appeased the desire
of the men at the guns, however, by letting go a
final broadside at the Spanish ships, in the chance
hope of making them pay for their daring before they
gained the harbour, but they steamed under Morroâ€™s
guns untouched, and, as they disappeared, discharged
several guns. ;
â€œHalf a dozen shots were sent after them at that
moment by the Azzapolis, which dropped inside the
harbour, probably creating consternation among scores
of boats on the water-front.â€
May 15. The Spanish cruisers Maria Teresa, Viz-
caya, Almirante Oquendo, and Cristobal Colon, and
torpedo-boat destroyers, which arrived off the port of
Curacoa, sailed at sunset on the 15th, after having
purchased coal and provisions.
The flying squadron under command of Commodore
Schley arrived off Charleston, S. C.
Admiral Sampsonâ€™s squadron passed Cape Haytien.
All the members of the Spanish Cabinet have
A report from Ponce, Porto Rico, under date of May
15th, describes the inhabitants of the island as living
in constant fear of a renewal of the bombardment of
San Juan by Admiralâ€™s Sampsonâ€™s fleet. There are no
submarine mines in the harbour of Ponce, and the gen-
erally unprotected condition of the place is a cause of
May 16. Freeman Halstead, an American news-
142 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
paper correspondent, arrested at San Juan de Porto
Rico, while in the act of making photographs of the
fortifications. He was sentenced by a military tribunal
to nine yearsâ€™ imprisonment.
In a general order issued at the War Department,
the assignments to the different corps and other impor-
tant commands were announced. The order is as
â€œThe following assignments of general officers to
command is hereby made by the President :
â€œ Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt, U. S. A., the Depart-
ment of the Pacific.
â€œ Maj.-Gen. John R. Brooke, U. S. A., the first corps
and the Department of the Gulf.
â€œ Maj.-Gen. W. M. Graham, U. S. Volunteers, the
second corps, with headquarters at Falls Church, Va.
â€œMaj.-Gen. James M. Wade, U. S. Volunteers, the
third corps, reporting to Major-General Brooke,
â€˜Â«Â«Maj.-Gen. John J. Coppinger, U. S. Volunteers, the
fourth corps, Mobile, Ala.
Maj.-Gen. William R. Shafter, U. S. Volunteers,
the fifth corps, Tampa, Fla.
â€˜Â¢Maj.-Gen. Elwell S. Otis, U. S. Volunteers, to
report to Major-General Merritt, U. S. A., for duty
with troops in the Department of the Pacific.
â€œ Maj.-Gen. James H. Wilson, U. S. Volunteers, the
sixth corps, Chickamauga, reporting to Major-General
FROM ALL QUARTERS, 143
Â«â€œMaj.-Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, U. S. Volunteers, the
seventh corps, Tampa, Fla.
Â«â€œ Maj.-Gen. Joseph H. Wheeler, U. S. Volunteers,
the cavalry division, Tampa, Fla.â€
Orders were given by Admiral Sampson to Captain
Goodrich of the Sz. Louis, on May 15th, to take the
fleet tender in tow and proceed to Santiago de Cuba to
cut the cables at that point. The grappling imple
ments were secured from the tug Wampatuck on May
16th, and at eleven p.m. the expedition, in the small
boats, left the cruiser for the entrance of Santiago. It
was then perfectly dark and hazy, but the Santiago
light was burning brightly. Moonrise was not until
3.45 A.M. At three s4.m. on May 17th the expedition
returned with part of one cable, but it had failed to
find a second cable, which is close under the fort, and
was protected by two patrol-boats. Then a start was
made to cut the cable on the other side of the island.
At seven A. m. the SÂ¢. Louds fired her first gun at the
forts protecting the entrance to Santiago Harbour, and
after a little time the fire was returned by what must
have been a 2-pounder.
At eight a.m. the Sz Louis was about two miles
distant from the fort, which seemed to be unprovided
with modern guns. After three hours grappling in
.over five hundred fathoms, the cable had not been
found. At 12.15 Pp. m. the guns of Morro Castle
opened fire, followed by the shore battery on the
southerly point, and also the west battery. The Sz,
144 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Louis kept up a constant fire from her bow guns, and
soon succeeded in silencing the guns of Morro Castle,
the Spaniards running in all directions.
Most of the shots from the fort fell short of the ship.
Shells from the mortar battery went over the cruiser
and exploded in the water quite close to the St. Lowzs.
The mortar battery ceased at 12.56 p. M., after a fusi-
lade of forty-one minutes. After firing the cable was
grappled, hauled on board, and cut.
May r7. The Spanish squadron reported as yet
remaining at Cadiz.
The U.S. S. Wilmington had a slight action with a
Spanish gunboat off the Cuban coast, during which the
latter was disabled.
May 18. The U.S. cruiser Charleston left San
Francisco for the Philippines with supplies for Commo-
dore Deweyâ€™s fleet.
May 19. - By cable from Madrid it was learned that
the Spanish fleet had arrived at Santiago de Cuba.
The cruiser Charleston, which sailed for Manila,
returned to Mare Island navy yard with her con-
densers out of order.
May 21. An order was despatched to San Francisco
to prepare the Monterey for a voyage to Manila,
where she would join Commodore Deweyâ€™s fleet. The
Monterey is probably the most formidable monitor
in the world; technically described she is a barbed
turret, low freeboard monitor of fourâ€™ thousand tons
displacement, 256 feet long, fifty-nine feet beam, and
FROM ALL QUARTERS. 145
fourteen feet six inches draught. She carries in two
turrets, surrounded by barbettes, two 12-inch and
two ro-inch guns, while on her superstructure, be-
tween the turrets, are mounted six 6-pounders, four
I-pounders, and two Gatlings. The turrets are seven
and one-half and eight inches thick, and the sur-
rounding barbettes are fourteen inches and eleven
and one-half inches of steel.
One of the most important prizes captured during
the war was taken by the U. S. S. Minneapolis off the
eastern coast of Cuba. The craft was the Spanish
brig Santa Maria de Lourdes, \oaded with coal, ammu-
nition, arms, and supplies for Admiral Cervera.
Nearly four hundred men, with a pack-train and a
large quantity of arms and ammunition, sailed for a
point about twenty-five miles east of Havana, on the
steamer Florida. These men and their equipment
constituted an expedition able to operate independ-
ently, and to defend itself against any body of
Spanish troops which might oppose it.
. The Florida returned to Key West on the thirty-first,
after having successfully landed the ammunition and
May 22. The U.S. S. Charleston again left San
Francisco, bound for Manila.
May 25. The U. S. S. St.. Paul captured â€˜the
British steamer Restormel, loaded with coal, off Santi-
ago de Cuba. The prize is a long, low tramp collier
belonging to the Troy company of Cardiff, Wales, She
146 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
left there on April 22d, the day before war was de-
clared, with twenty-eight hundred tons of the finest
grade of Cardiff coal consigned to a Spanish firm in
San Juan de Porto Rico, where the Spanish fleet was
supposed to make its first stop.
Â«When we reached San Juan,â€ said the captain of
the Restormel, â€œthe consignees told me very curtly
that the persons for whom the coal was destined were
in Curacoa. At Porto Rico I learned that war had
been declared. I began to suspect that the coal was
going to Cerveraâ€™s fleet, but my Spanish consignees
said it would be all right. They told me not to ask any
questions, but to go to Curacoa as soon as possible. I
did so, placing my cargo under orders.
Â«The consignee at Curacoa was a Spanish officer.
He said there had been another change of base, and
that the coal was wanted at Santiago de Cuba. I tried
to cable my owners for instructions, but found that the
cables had been cut. Under the circumstances there
was nothing for me to do but to go to Santiago. By
this time I was pretty well convinced that the cargo
was for Cervera. I suspected that coal had been made
a contraband of war, so I wasnâ€™t a bit surprised when
the Sz. Paul brought us to, with a shot, three and a
half miles from shore.â€
In the prize court it was decided to confiscate the
coal, and release the steamer.
The President issued a proclamation calling for sev-
enty-five thousand men.
FROM ALL QUARTERS. 147
Three troop-ships, laden with soldiers, sailed from
San Francisco for Manila.
May 26. The battle-ship. Ovegon, which left San
Francisco March troth, arrived at Key West.
May 27. The Spanish torpedo-boat destroyer ar-
rived at San Juan de Porto Rico.
May 28. From Commodore Dewey the following
cablegram was received :
â€œ CavitE, May 25th, via Hongkong, May 27th.
â€œ Secretary Navy, Washington: â€”No change in the
situation of the blockade. Is effective. It is impos-
sible for the people of Manila to buy provisions, except
â€œThe captain of the Olympza, Gridley, condemned
by medical survey. Is ordered home. Leaves by
Occidental and Oriental steamship from Hongkong the
twenty-eighth. Commander Lamberton appointed com-
mander of the Olympia.â€
May 29. Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt issued an order
formally announcing that he had taken command of the
Philippine forces and expeditions.
May 31. United States troops board transports for
The beginning of June saw the opening of the first
regular campaign of the war, and it is eminently proper
the operations around and about Santiago de Cuba be
told in a continuous narrative, rather than with any
148 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
further attempt at giving the news from the various
parts of the world in chronological order.
Therefore such events, aside from the Santiago cam-
paign, as are worthy a place in history, will be set
down in regular sequence after certain deeds of the
boys of â€™98 have been related in such detail as is
warranted by the heroism displayed.
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC.
ME Y 29. The blockading fleet, under command of
Commodore Schley, off Santiago de Cuba, was
composed of the Brooklyn, Iowa, Massachusetts, Texas,
New Orleans, Marblehead, and Vixen.
At about midnight on May 2oth the officer of the
deck on board the Zexras saw, by aid of his night-
glass, two low-lying, swiftly-running steamers stealing
out of Santiago Harbour, and keeping well within the
shadows of the land.
As soon as might be thereafter the war-vesselâ€™s
search-lights were turned full on, and at the same
moment the sleeping crew were awakened.
It was known beyond a question that the Spanish
fleet under Admiral Cervera was hidden within the
harbour, not daring to come boldly out while the block-
ading squadron was so strong, and the first thought of
men as well as officers, when these stealthily moving
_ vessels were sighted, was that the Spaniards were
making a desperate effort to escape from the trap they
had voluntarily entered.
The search-lights of the Zeras revealed the fact that
150 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the two strangers were torpedo-boats, and a heavy fire
was opened upon them, instantly.
With the report of the first gun the call to quarters
was sounded on all the other ships, and a dozen rays of
blinding light flashed here and there across the en-
trance to the harbour, until the waters were so brilliantly
illumined that the smallest craft in which mariner ever
set sail could not have come out unobserved.
The same report which aroused the squadron told
the Spaniards that their purpose was no longer a secret,
and the two torpedo-boats were headed for the Bvook-
4yn and the Texas, running at full speed in the hope of
discharging their tubes before the fire should become
The enemy had not calculated, however, upon such a
warm and immediate reception. It was as if every gun
on board both the Brooklyn and Texas was in action
within sixty seconds after the Spaniards were sighted,
and there remained nothing for the venturesome
craft save to seek the shelter of the harbour again,
fortunate indeed if such opportunity was allowed -
May 37. The U.S. S. Marblehead, cruising inshore
to relieve the monotony of blockading duties, discov-
ered that lying behind the batteries at the mouth of
Santiago Harbour were four Spanish cruisers and two
When this fact was reported to the commodore he
decided to tempt the Spanish fleet into a fight, and at
U. S. S. MASSACHUSETTS,
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. I51
the same time discover the location of the masked bat-
teries. In pursuance of this plan he transferred his
flag from the Brooklyn to the more heavily armed
Two hours after noon the Massachusetts, New
Orleans, and Jowa, in the order named, and not more
â€˜than a cable length apart, steamed up to the harbour
mouth to within four thousand yards of Morro Castle.
Two miles out to sea lay the Brooklyn, Texas, and
other ships of the blockading fleet awaiting the sum-
mons which should bring them into the fight; but
The Massachusetts opened fire first, taking the Span-
ish flag-ship for its target. An 8-inch shell was the
missile, and it fell far short of. its mark. Then the big
_ machine tried her 13-inch guns.
The Cristobal Colon and four batteries â€” two on the
east side, one on the west, and one on an island in
the middle of the channel, replied. Their 10 and
12-inch Krupps spoke shot for shot with our sixes,
eights and thirteens. It was noisy and spectacular,
but not effective on either side.
The American fleet steamed across before the bat-
teries at full speed; circled, and passed again. Both
sides had found the range by the time of the second
passing, and began to shoot close. Several shots
burst directly over the /owa, three fell dangerously
near the Mew Orleans, and one sprayed the bow of
152 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
After half an hour both forts on the east and the one
on the island were silenced. Five minutes later our
ships ceased firing. The western battery and the
Spanish flag-ship kept up the din fifteen minutes
longer, but their work was ineffective.
June r. Rear-Admiral Sampson, with the Mew York
as his flag-ship, and accompanied by the Oregon, the
Mayflower, and the torpedo-boat Porter, joined Com-
modore Schleyâ€™s squadron off Santiago on the first
of June. ;
A naval officer with the squadron summed up the
situation in a communication to his friend at home:
Â«Pending the execution of Admiral Sampsonâ€™s plan
of campaign, our ships form a cordon about the entrance
of Santiago Harbour to prevent the possible egress of
â€˜the Spaniards, should Admiral Cervera be foolhardy
enough to attempt to cut his way out.â€
The officers of the blockading squadron were well
informed as to the situation ashore. Communication
with the Cubans had been established, and it was
known that a line of insurgents had been drawn
around Santiago, in order that they might be of
assistance when the big war-vessels had struck the
The defences of the harbour were fairly well-known
despite the vigilance of the enemy, and it was no secret
that within the narrow neck of the channel, which at
the entrance is hardly more than three hundred feet
wide, eighteen or twenty mines had been planted.
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC, 153
A report from one of the newspaper correspondents,
under date of June Ist, was as follows:
Â«So far as has been ascertained, there are three
new batteries on the west side of the entrance.
These appear to be formed entirely of earthworks.
Â«The embrasures for the guns can easily be dis:
cerned with the glasses. Cayo Smith, a small island
which lies directly beyond the entrance, is fortified,
and back of Morro, which sits on the rocky eminences
at the right of the entrance, are Estrella battery
and St. Carolina fort. Further up the bay, guarding
the last approach to the city of Santiago, is Blanco
â€œThe first are of stone, and were constructed in the
early sixties. St. Carolina fort is partially in ruins. The
guns in Morro Castle and Estrella are of old pattern, 18
and 24-pounders, and would not even be considered
were it not for the great height of the fortifications,
which would enable these weapons to deliver a plunging
â€œ Modern guns are mounted on the batteries to the
left of the entrance. On Cayo Smith and at Blanco
battery there are also four modern guns. The mines
in the narrow, tortuous channel, and the elevation of the
forts and batteries, which must increase the effective-
_ ness of the enemyâ€™s fire, and at the same time decrease
that of our own, reinforced by the guns of the Spanish
fleet inside, make the harbour, as it now appears, almost
impregnable. Unless the entrance is countermined it
154 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
would be folly to attempt to force its passage with our
â€œBut the Spanish fleet is bottled up, and a plan is
being considered to drive in the cork. If that is done,
the next news may be a thrilling story of closing the
harbour. It would release a part of our fleet, and leave
the Spaniards to starve and rot until they were ready
to hoist the white flag.â€
â€œTo drive in the cork,â€ was the subject nearest Rear-
Admiral Sampsonâ€™s heart, and he at once went into
consultation with his officers as to how it could best
be done. One plan after another was discussed and
rejected, and then Assistant Naval Constructor Rich-
mond Pearson Hobson proposed that the big: collier
Merrimac, which then had on board about six hundred
tons of coal, be sunk across the channel in such a
manner as to completely block it.
The plan was a good one; but yet it seemed certain
death for those who should attempt to carry it out as
proposed. Lieutenant Hobson, however, claimed that, if
the scheme was accepted, he should by right be allowed
to take command of the enterprise.
The end to be attained was so great that Admiral
Sampson decided that the lives of six or seven men
could not be allowed to outweigh the advantage to
be gained, and Lieutenant Hobson was notified that
his services were accepted ; the big steamer was at his
disposal to do with as he saw fit.
June rz. The preliminary work of this desperate
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC, 155
undertaking was a strain upon the officers and men.
On Wednesday morning the preparations to scuttle the
Merrimac in the channel were commenced. All day
long crews from the Mew York and Brooklyn were
on board the collier, never resting in their efforts
to prepare her. She lay alongside the Massachusetts,
discharging coal, when the work was first begun.
The news of the intended expedition travelled quickly
through the fleet, and it soon became known that
volunteers were needed for a desperate undertaking.
From the /ozwaâ€™s signal-yard quickly fluttered the an-
nouncement that she had 140 volunteers, and the other
ships were not far behind. On the Mew York the enthu-
siasm was intense. Over two hundred members of the
crew volunteered to go into that narrow harbour and
face death. The junior officers literally tumbled over
each other in their eagerness to get their names on the
When it was learned that only six men and Lieuten-
ant Hobson were to go, there was much disappointment
on all sides. All Wednesday night the crews worked
on board the Merrimac; and the other ships, as they
passed the collier, before sundown, cheered her. Lieu-
tenant Hobson paid a brief visit to the flag-ship shortly
before midnight, and then returned to the Merrimac.
While on board the flag-ship Lieutenant Hobson
thus detailed his plan of action:
â€œT shall go right into the harbour until about four
hundred yards past the Estrella battery, which is
156 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
behind Morro Castle. I do not think they can sink
me before I reach somewhere near that point. The
Merrimac has seven thousand tons buoyancy, and I
shall keep her full speed ahead. She can make about
ten knots. When the narrowest part of the channel
is reached I shall put her helm hard aport, stop the
engines, drop the anchors, open the sea connections,
touch off the torpedoes, and leave the Merrimac a
wreck, lying athwart the channel, which is not as
broad as the Merrimac is long. There are ten 8-
inch improvised torpedoes below the water-line, on the
Merrimacâ€™s port-side. They are placed on her side
against the bulk-heads and vital spots, connected with
each other by a wire under the shipâ€™s keel. Each tor-
pedo contains eighty-two pounds of gunpowder. Each
torpedo is also connected with the bridge ; they should
do their work in a minute, and it will be quick work
even if done in a minute and a quarter.
â€œOn deck there will be four men and myself. In
the engine-room there will be two other men. This
is the total crew, and all of us will be in our under-
clothing, with revolvers and ammunition in water-tight
packing strapped around our waists. Forward there
will be a man on deck, and around his waist will be
a line, the other end of the line being made fast to the
bridge, where I will stand. By that manâ€™s side will be
an axe. When I stop the engines I shall jerk this
cord, and he will thus get the signal to cut the lashing
which will be holding the forward anchor. He will
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. 157
then jump overboard and swim to the four-oared dingy,
which we shall tow astern. The dingy is full of life.
buoys, and is unsinkable. In it are rifles. It is to be
held by two ropes, one made fast at her bow and one
at her stern. The first man to reach her will haul in
the tow-line and pull the dingy to starboard. The next
to leave the ship are the rest of the crew. The quar-
termaster at the wheel will not leave until after having
put it hard aport, and lashed it so; he will then jump
â€œDown below, the man at the reversing gear will
â€˜stop the engines, scramble up on deck, and get over
the side as quickly as he is able. The man in the
engine-room will break open the sea connections with
a sledge-hammer, and will follow his leader into the
water. This last step ensures the sinking of the Wer-
vimac whether the torpedoes work or not. By this
time I calculate the six men will be in the dingy and
the Merrimac will have swung athwart the channel, to
the full length of her three hundred yards of cable,
which will have been paid out before the anchors are
cut loose. Then, all that is left for me is to touch the
button. I shall stand on the starboard side of the
bridge. The explosion will throw the Merrimac on
. her starboard side. Nothing on this side of New York
City will be able to raise her after that.â€
In reply to frequent questions, Hobson said:
â€œI suppose the Estrella battery will fire down on us
a bit, but the ships will throw their search-lights in the
158 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
gunnersâ€™ faces, and they wonâ€™t see much of us. If
we are torpedoed we should even then be able to
make the desired position in the channel. It wonâ€™t be
easy to hit us, and I think the men should be able to
swim to the dingy. I may jump before I am blown up.
But I donâ€™t see that it makes much difference what I
do. I have a fair chance of life either way. If our
dingy gets shot to pieces we shall then try to swim for
the beach right under Morro Castle. We shall keep
together at all hazards. Then we may be able to
make our way alongside, and perhaps get back to the
ship. We shall fight the sentries or a squad until the
last, and shall only surrender to overwhelming num-
bers, and our surrender will only take place as a last
and almost uncontemplated emergency.â€ .
The volunteers accepted for this most hazardous
enterprise were, after Lieutenant Hobson: George F.
Phillips, machinist on the Merrimac, Francis Kelly,
water tender on the JZferrimac; Randolph Clausen,
coxswain on the Wew York; George Charette, first-
class gunnerâ€™s mate on the Mew York; Daniel Monta-
gue, first class machinist on the Mew York; Osburn
Deignan, coxswain on the Merrimac, J. C. Murphy,
coxswain on the /owa.
June 27, At three o'clock in the morning the
admiral and Flag Lieutenant Staunton got into the
launch to make an inspection of the Merrimac. The
working gangs were still on board of her, and the offi-
cers of the flag-ship stood with their glasses focused on
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC, 159
the big black hull that was to form an impassable
obstacle for Spainâ€™s best ships.
The minutes slipped by, the crews had not completed
their work on the Merrimac, but at last a boatload of
men, black and tired out, came over to the flag-ship.
Last of all, at 4.30, came the admiral. He had been
delayed by a breakdown of the steam launch.
Dawn was breaking over Santiago de Cuba, and
nearly everybody thought it was too late for the
attempt to be made that morning. Then somebody
Â« She is going in.â€
Surely enough, the seemingly deserted collier was
seen heading straight for Morro Castle. A few nio-
ments later, however, she was recalled by Admiral
Sampson, who thought it sure death for Hobson to
venture in at that hour. The Merrimac did not return
at once. Word came back :
â€œLieutenant Hobson asks permission to continue on
his course. He thinks he can make it.â€
The admiral sent Hobson a message to the effect
that the Merrimac must return at once, and in due
course of time the doomed collier slowly steamed back,
her commander evidently disappointed with the order.
All day Thursday the collier lay near the flag-ship, and
. more elaborate preparations were made to carry out the
mission of the Merrimac successfully. During these
preparations Hobson was cool and confident, supervis-
ing personally every little detail.
160 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
When, finally, he went on board the Merrimac Thurs-
day night, he had been without sleep since Wednesday
morning. His uniform was begrimed, his hands were
black, and he looked like a man who had been hard at
work in and about an engine-room for a-long time.
As he said good-bye, the lieutenant remarked that his
only regret was that all of the Mew York's volunteers
could not go with him,
June 3. The hazardous voyage was begun at three
oâ€™clock Friday morning. The Merrimac was lying to
the westward. Under cover of the clouds over the
moon, she stole in toward the coast and made her
way to the eastward, followed by a steam launch
from the Vew York, with the following crew on board:
Naval Cadet J. W. Powell, of Oswego, N. Y.; P. K.
Peterson, coxswain; H. Handford, apprentice of the
first class; J. Mullings, coal passer; G. L. Russell,
machinist of the second class. In the launch were
bandages and appliances for the wounded.
From the crowded decks of the Mew York nothing
could be seen of the Merrimac after she got under the
shadow of the hills. For half an hour officers and men
strained their eyes peering into the gloom, when, sud-
denly, the flash of a gun streamed out from Morro
Castle, and then all on board the Mew York knew the
Merrimac was nearing her end.
The guns from the Spanish battery opposite Morro
Castle answered quickly with more flashes, and for
about twenty minutes tongues of fire seemed to leap
U. S. S. NEW YORK.
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. 161
across the harbour entrance. The flag-ship was too
far away to hear the reports, and when the firing
ceased it was judged that Hobson had blown up the
During an hour the anxious watchers waited for
daylight. Rear-Admiral Sampson and Captain Chad-
wick were on the bridge of the Mew York during
the entire time. At five oâ€™clock thin streams of
smoke were seen against the western shore, quite
close to the Spanish batteries, and strong glasses
made out the launch of the Mew York returning to
Scarcely had the small craft been sighted before a
puff of smoke issued from a battery on the western
arm of the harbour, and a shot plunged far over the
launch. Then for fifteen minutes the big guns ashore
kept up an irregular fire on the little craft. As the
shells fell without hitting the object for which they
were intended, the men on board the Mew. Vork
jeered at the Spanish marksmanship, and cheered
At 6.15 the launch came alongside the flag-ship, but
she did not have on board any of the Merrimacâ€™s crew.
Cadet Powell reported that he had been unable to see
any of the men. It was learned that the cadet had
~ gone directly under the batteries, and only returned
when heâ€˜found his efforts were useless.
He also reported that he had clearly seen the Merri-
mac's masts sticking up just where Hobson hoped to
162 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
sink her, north of the Estrella battery, and well past
the guns of Morro Castle.
Cadet Powell thus related the last interview he had
with the officer whom it seemed certain had voluntarily |
gone to his death:
Â«Lieutenant. Hobson took a short sleep for a few
hours, which was often interrupted. At a quarter
before two he came on deck and made a final inspec-
tion, giving his last instructions. Then we had a little.
lunch. Hobson was as cool as a cucumber. At about
half past two I took the men who were not going on
the trip into the launch, and started for the 7evras, the
nearest ship, but had to go back for one of the assistant
engineers, whom Hobson finally compelled to leave. I
shook hands with Hobson last of all. He said:
Â«Â¢ Powell, watch the boatâ€™s crew when we pull out
of the harbour. We will be cracks, pulling thirty strokes
to the minute.â€™
Â« After leaving the Zeras I saw the Merrimac steam-
ing slowly in.
â€œIt was only fairly dark then, and the shore was
quite visible. We followed about three-quarters of a
mile astern. The Merrimac stood about a mile to the
westward of the harbour, and seemed a bit mixed, turn-
ing completely around, and finally heading to the east,
she ran down and then turned in. We were then
chasing him because I thought Hobson had lost his
Â«When Hobson was about two hundred yards from
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. 163
the harbour the first gun was fired, from the eastern
bluff. We were then about half a mile offshore, and
nearing the batteries. The firing increased rapidly.
We steamed in slowly, and lost sight of the Merrimac
in the smoke which the wind carried offshore. It hung
heavily. Before Hobson could have blown up the
Merrimac the western battery picked us up and com-
menced firing. They shot wild, however, and we ran
in still farther to the shore until the gunners lost sight
of us. Then we heard the explosion of the torpedoes
on the Merrimac.
Â« Until daylight we waited just outside the breakers,
half a mile to the westward of Morro, keeping a sharp
lookout for the boat or for swimmers, but saw nothing.
Hobson had arranged to meet us at that point, but
thinking that some one might have drifted out, we
crossed in front of Morro and the mouth of the harbour,
to the eastward.
â€œ At about five oâ€™clock we crossed the harbour again,
and stood to the westward. In passing we saw one
spar of the Merrimac sticking out of the water. We
hugged the shore just outside of the breakers for a
mile, and then turned toward the Zeras, when the
batteries saw us and opened fire. It was then broad
daylight. The first shot dropped thirty yards astern,
but the others went wild, I drove the launch for all
she was worth, finally making the Mew York. The
men behaved splendidly.â€
June 3. Water in the day a boat with a white flag put
164 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
out from the harbour, and Captainâ€™ Oviedo, chief of
staff of Admiral Cervera, boarded the Mew York, and
informed Admiral Sampson that the whole party had
been captured; that only two were injured. Lieuten-
ant Hobson was not hurt. The Spanish admiral was
so impressed with the courage of the Merrimacâ€™s crew
that he decided to inform Admiral Sampson of the fact
that they had not lost their lives, but were prisoners of
war and could be exchanged.
To a newspaper correspondent Commodore Schley
said, as he stood on his flag-ship pointing towards
â€œHistory does not record an act of finer heroism
than that of the gallant men who are prisoners over
there. I watched the Merrimac as she made her way
to the entrance of the harbour, and my heart sank as I |
saw the perfect hell of fire that fell upon those devoted
men. I did not think it possible one of them could
have gone through it alive.
â€œThey went into the jaws of death. It was Bala-
klava over again without the means of defence which
the Light Brigade had. Hobson led a forlorn hope
without the power to cut his way out; but fortune
once more favoured the brave, and I hope he will have
the recognition and promotion he deserves. His name
will live as long as the heroes of the world are
Admiral Sampson made the following report to the
Navy Department :
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. 165
Â«Permit me to call your especial attention to
Assistant Naval Constructor Hobson.
â€œ As stated in a special telegram, before coming here
I decided to make the harbour entrance secure against
the possibility of egress by Spanish ships, by obstruct-
ing the narrow part of the entrance by sinking a collier
at that point.
â€œUpon calling upon Mr. Hobson for his professional
opinion as to a sure method of sinking the ship, he
manifested the most lively interest in the problem.
After several daysâ€™ consideration, he presented a solu-
tion which he considered would ensure the immediate:
sinking of the ship when she reached the desired point
in the channel. This plan we prepared for execution
when we reached Santiago.
â€œThe plan contemplated a crew of only seven men
and Mr. Hobson, who begged that it might be entrusted
to him. The anchor chains were arranged on deck for
both the anchors, forward and aft, the plan including
the anchoring of the ship automatically. As soon
as I reached Santiago, and I had the collier to work
upon, the details were completed and diligently prose-
cuted, hoping to complete them in one day, as the
moon and tide served best the first night after our
â€œ Notwithstanding every effort the hour of four
oâ€™clock arrived, and the preparation was scarcely com-
pleted. After a careful inspection of the final prepara-
tions, I was forced to relinquish the plan for that
166 â€˜THE BOYS OF â€˜9d.
morning, as dawn was breaking. Mr. Hobson begged
to try it at all hazards.
â€œThis morning proved more propitious, as a prompt
start could be made. Nothing could have been more
â€œWe waited impatiently after the firing by the
Spaniards had ceased. When they did not reappear
from the harbour at six oâ€™clock, I feared that they
had all perished. A steam launch, which had been
sent in charge of Naval Cadet Powell to rescue the
men, appeared at this time, coming out under a per-
sistent fire of the batteries, but brought none of the
â€œA careful inspection of the harbour from this ship
showed that the vessel Merrimac had been sunk in the
Â«This afternoon the chief of staff of Admiral
Cervera came out under a flag of truce, with a letter
from the admiral, extolling the bravery of the crew in
an unusual manner.
â€œTI cannot myself too earnestly express my apprecia-
tion of the conduct of Mr. Hobson and his gallant crew.
I venture to say that a more brave or daring thing has
not been done since Cushing blew up the Albermarle.
â€œReferring to the inspiring letter which you ad-
dressed to the officers at the beginning of the war,
I am sure you will offer a suitable professional reward
to Mr. Hobson and his companions. I must add that
Commander J. M. Miller relinquished his command with
HOBSON AND HIS MEN ON THE RAFT.
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC, 167
the very greatest reluctance, believing he should retain
his command under all circumstances.
Â« He was, however, finally convinced that the attempt
of another person to carry out the multitude of details
which had been in preparation by Mr. Hobson might
endanger its proper execution. I therefore took the
liberty to relieve him, for this reason only.
Â«There were hundreds of volunteers who were anxious
to participate. There were a hundred and fifty men
from the /owa,.nearly as many from this ship, and large
numbers from all the other ships, officers and men alike.
Â«W. T. SAMPSON.â€
Not until the sixth of July were Hobson and his brave
comrades exchanged, and then to his messmates the
gallant lieutenant told the story of his perilous voyage
on that morning of June 4th:
Â«J did not miss the entrance to the harbour,â€ he
said, â€˜as Cadet Powell in the launch supposed. I
headed east until I got my bearings, and then made
for it straight in. Then came the firing. It was
grand, flashing out first from one side of the harbour
and then from the other, from those big guns on the
hill, the Vizcaya, lying inside the harbour, joining in.
â€œTroops from Santiago had rushed down when the
news of the Merrimacâ€™s coming was telegraphed, and
soldiers lined the foot of the cliffs, firing wildly across,
and killing each other with the cross-fire.
â€œThe Merrimacâ€™s steering-gear broke as she got to
168 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Estrella Point. Only three of the torpedoes on her
side exploded when I touched the button. A huge
submarine mine caught her full amidships, hurling the
water high in the air, and tearing a great rent in her
Â«â€œ Her stern ran upon Estrella Point. Chiefly owing
to the work done by the mine, she began to sink slowly.
At that time she was across the channel, but before she
settled the tide drifted her around. We were all aft,
lying on the deck. Shells and bullets whistled around.
Six-inch shells from the Vzscaya came tearing into the
Merrimac, crashing into wood and iron, and passing
clear through, while the plunging shots from the forts
broke through her deck.
Â«Â«Not a man must move,â€™ I said, and it was only
owing to the splendid discipline of the men that we all
were not killed, as the shells rained over us, and the
minutes became hours of suspense. The menâ€™s mouths
became parched, but we must lie there till daylight, I
told them. Now and again, one or the other of the
men, lying with his face glued to the deck and wonder-
ing whether the next shell might not come our way,
would say, â€˜Hadnâ€™t we better drop off now, sir?â€™ But
I said, â€˜ Wait till daylight.â€™
Â«Tt would have been impossible to get the catamaran
anywhere but on to the shore, where the soldiers stood
shooting, and I hoped that by daylight we might be
recognised and saved. /
Â«The grand old Merrimac kept sinking. I wanted to
HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC. TOom
go forward and see the damage done there, where nearly
all the fire was directed. One man said that if I rose
it would draw all the fire on the rest. So I lay motion-
less. It was splendid the way these men behaved.
Â«The fire of the soldiers, the batteries and the Viz-
caya was awful. When the water came up on the
Merrimacâ€™s deck the catamaran floated amid the wreck-
age, but she was still made fast to the boom, and we
caught hold of the edges and clung on, our heads only
being above water.
Â«One man thought we were safer right there ; it was
quite light, the firing had ceased, except that on the
New York's launch, and I feared Cadet Powell and his
men had been killed. .
Â« A Spanish launch came toward the Merrimac. We
agreed to capture her and run. Just as she came close
the Spaniards saw us, and half a dozen marines jumped
up and pointed their rifles at our heads sticking out of
Â«Â«Ts there any officer in that boat to receive a
surrender of prisoners of war?â€™ I shouted.
Â«An old man leaned out under the awning and
waved his hand. It was Admiral. Cervera. The
marines lowered their rifles and we were helped
into the launch.
Â«Then we were put in cells in Morro Castle. It
was a grand sight a few days later to see the bombard-
ment, the shells striking and bursting around El Morro.
Then we were taken into Santiago. I had the court
170 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
martial room in the barracks. My men were kept
prisoners in the hospital.
â€œFrom my window I could see the army moving,
and it was terrible to watch those poor lads coming
across the opening and being shot down by the Spaniards
in the rifle-pits in front of me.
â€œYesterday the Spaniards became as polite as could
be. I knew something was coming, and then I was
QUEEN REGENT, MARIA CHRISTINA OF SPAIN,
â€˜AY 30. The auxiliary cruisers Leyden and Uncas
made an attack on one of the outlying block-
houses at Cardenas, plying their 3-pounders until the
Spaniards deserted their batteries.
June rz. The government of Paraguay represented
â€™ to the American consul at Asuncion that the Spanish
torpedo-boat Zemerario was disabled, and had been
granted permission to remain at that port until the war
between the United States and Spain had come to an
In Spain there are many differences of opinion re-
garding the conduct of the war, as evinced by a news-
paper article to which was signed the name of Emilio
Castelar, the distinguished republican statesman.
Sefior Castelar attacked the queen regent, reproach-
ing her with being a foreigner and unpopular, and with
interfering unjustifiably in political affairs. He com-
pared her position with that of Queen Marie Antoinette
on the eve of the French revolution.
The matter came before the Senate ; Duke de Roca
demanded the prosecution of Castelar, andâ€™ other Sena-
ie THE BOYS OF â€™98.
tors expressed in violent terms their indignation at
Sefior Castelarâ€™s conduct.
June 2. The British steamer Restorme/, captured by
the auxiliary cruiser St. Paul off Santiago de Cuba,
was released by the government. It was shown that
the Restormel sailed previous to the declaration of war,
there being no evidence that the steamerâ€™s owners were
wilfully and knowingly guilty of aiding the enemyâ€™s
fleet, and she was ordered released. The cargo was
The names of the captainsand commanders of the
ships in Admiral Deweyâ€™s squadron were sent to the
Senate, by the President, for advancement because of
their conspicuous conduct.
The House of Representatives passed an urgency
appropriation of nearly eighteen million dollars for war
From Captain Clarkâ€™s report, the Navy Department
â€œmade public the following extract relative to the
extraordinary voyage of the Oregon:
â€œJt is gratifying to call the departmentâ€™s attention
to the spirit aboard this ship in both officers and men.
This best can be described by referring to instances
such as that of the engineer officers in voluntarily
doubling their watches when high speed was to be
made, to the attempt of men to return to the fire-room
after being carried out of it insensible, and to the fact
that most of the whole crew, who were working by
watches by day and night at Sandy Point, preferred to
BY WIRE, 178
leave their hammocks in the nettings until they could
get the ship coaled and ready to sail from Sandy
June 3. The collier Merrimac was sunk in the
channel of Santiago Harbour, as has already been told.
June g. Captain Charles Vernon Gridley, com-
mander of the cruiser Olympia, and commanding her
during the battle of Manila Bay, died at Kobe, Japan.
June 5. An account of personal heroism which
should be set down in every history, that future genera-
tions may know of what metal the boys of â€™98 were
made, was telegraphed from Tampa, Florida.
Lieutenant Parker, who was in charge of the old club-
house on Lafayette Street, near the brigade head-
quarters, and which was being used by the government
as a storehouse, and Thomas McGee, a veteran of the
civil war, prevented what might have been a calamity.
While a force of soldiers was engaged in carrying
boxes of ammunition from the warehouse and loading
them to waiting army wagons, smoke was seen issuing
from a box of ammunition. In an instant the cry of
fire went up, and soldiers and negro roustabouts
piled over each other in .their scramble for safety.
McGee, however, rushed toward the box, picked it up,
and was staggering in the direction of the river, some
distance away, when Lieutenant Parker, who had heard
the warning cry, came to his assistance. Together
they carried the smoking box until it was possible to
throw it into the water.
Le THE BOYS OF â€™98.
How the fire originated is a mystery. In the store-
house were piled hundreds of boxes of ammunition,
each containing one thousand cartridges. Had the
cartridges in the burning box exploded, a great loss of
life might have resulted, as there were at least a score
of soldiers working in and around the building.
At Madrid the Spanish Minister of Marine issued
orders that every one connected with the admiralty
must abstain from giving information of any kind
regarding naval affairs.
General Blanco in Havana published an order pro-
hibiting foreign newspaper correspondents from re-
maining in Cuba, under the penalty of being treated
June 6. As is told in that chapter relating to
Santiago de Cuba, American troops were landed a few
miles east of the city, ata place known as Aguadores ;
the forts at the entrance of Santiago Harbour were
The Navy Department: made public a cablegram
from Admiral Dewey:
Â« The insurgents are acting energetically in the prov-
ince of Cavite. During the past week they have won
several victories, and have taken prisoners about eight-
een hundred men and fifty officers of the Spanish
troops, not natives. The arsenal of Cavite is being
prepared for occupation by United States troops on
the arrival of the transports.â€ :
Cablegrams from Hongkong announced that the
BY WIRE. 175
insurgents had cut the railway lines and were closing
in on Manila. Frequent actions between Aguinaldoâ€™s
forces and the Spaniards had taken place, and the
foreign residents were making all haste to leave the
city. A proclamation issued by the insurgent chief
points to a desire to set up a native administration
in the Philippines under an American protectorate.
Aguinaldo, with an advisory council, would hold the
dictatorship until the conquest of the islands, and would
then establish a republican assembly.
June 7. The monitor Monterey and the collier Bru-
tus sailed from San Francisco for Manila. The double-
turreted monitor Jfonadnock has been ordered to set
out for the same port within ten days.
June g. The Spanish bark Maria Dolores, laden with
coal and patent fuel, was captured by the cruiser J/in-
neapolis twelve miles off San Juan de Porto Rico.
June ro. A battalion of marines was landed in
the harbour of Guantanamo, forty miles east of
A blockhouse at Daiquiri shelled by the transport
June rzâ€”-12: Attack upon American marines in
Guantanamo Bay by Spanish regulars and guerillas.*
June rz. The British steamer Twickenham, laden
. with coal for Admiral Cerveraâ€™s fleet, was captured off
San Juan de Porto Rico by the U. S. S. Sz Louis.
June r2. Major-General Merritt issued orders to the
* See Chapter X.
176 THE BOYS OF 798.
officers assigned to the second Philippine expedition, to
the effect that they must be.ready to embark their
troops not later than the fifteenth instant.
The following cablegram was made public by the
Navy Department :
â€œ Cavite, June 12. The insurgents continue hos-
tilities, and have practically surrounded Manila. They
have taken twenty-five hundred Spanish prisoners, whom
they treat most humanely. They do not intend to attack
the city at the present time.
â€œTwelve merchant vessels are anchored in the bay,
with refugees on board, under guard of neutral men-of-
war; this with my permission. Health of the squad-
ron continues excellent. German commander-in-chief
arrived to-day. Three Germans, two British, one
French, one Japanese man-of-war in port. Another
German man-of-war expected.
Â«The following is a corrected list of vessels cap-
tured or destroyed: Two protected cruisers, five unpro-
tected cruisers, one transport, one surveying vessel,
both armed. The following are captured: Transport
Mantla, gunboat Callao.
Advices from Honolulu report that on June 1st H.
Renjes, vice-consul for Spain, at Honolulu, sent the
following letter to H. E. Cooper, Hawaiian Minister
of Foreign Affairs, relative to the entertainment of the
American troops at Honolulu:
BY WIRE. ae 177
Â« Siy:â€”In my capacity as vice-consul for Spain, I
have the honour to-day to enter formal protest with
the Hawaiian government against the constant violation
of neutrality in this harbour, while actual war exists
â€˜between Spain and the United States of America.â€
June 6. On June 6th Minister Cooper replied as -
Â«Sir: â€” In reply to your note of the first instant, I
have the honour to say that, owing to the intimate rela-
tions now existing between this country and the United
States, this government has not proclaimed a procla-
mation of neutrality having reference to the present
conflict between the United States and Spain, but, on
the contrary, has tendered to the United States privi-
leges and assistance, for which reason your protest can
receive no further consideration than to acknowledge
June 13. American troops sailed from Tampa and
Key West for Santiago.
The Spaniards again attacked the American marines
at Guantanamo Bay, and were repulsed after seven
hoursâ€™ hard fighting.â€™
President McKinley signed the war revenue bill.
Secretary Gage issued a circular inviting subscriptions
to the popular loan.
* See Chapter X.
178 THE BOYS OF â€™98.,
The dynamite cruiser Vesuvius joined Admiral
While the U. S. S. Yankee was off Cienfuegos on
this day, a Spanish gunboat steamed out of the har-
bour, evidently mistaking the character of the new-
comer; but on learning that the Vankee was ready
for business, put back in hot haste. Both vessels
opened fire, and after the gunboat had gained the
security of the harbour the Vankee engaged the east-
ern and western batteries. During the brief action a
shell burst over the American ship, its fragments
wounding one man.
June rg. The American marines at Guantanamo
Bay again attacked by the Spaniards."
The heroes of Santiago Bay, who sank the Merrimac,
rewarded by the Navy Department.
First trial of the dynamite cruiser Vesuvius.
The war tax on beer, ale, tobacco, cigars, and ciga-
rettes went into effect on this date.
June rg. From Manila on June 14th much of inter-
est was received. A severe engagement occurred, when
one thousand insurgents attacked twice that number of
Spaniards, inflicting heavy losses. The insurgents had
drawn their lines closely around the landward side of
the city, and Captain-General Augusti published a
decree ordering all the male population under arms.
Mr. E. W. Harden, correspondent of the New York
World, thus summed up the situation: Â«
* See Chapter X.
BY WIRE. 179
â€œTerrific fighting has been going on for six days
between the Philippine insurgents and the Spaniards.
The rebels, under Aguinaldo, more than held their
ground, while the Spaniards lost heavily. The insur-
gents now hold three thousand prisoners, mostly
Â«â€œT have been in the field with the rebels, and I was
present at the taking of the garrisoned church at Old
Cavite, June 7th, where three hundred insurgents cap-
tured a superior force of Spaniards after an eight daysâ€™
bombardment. The rebels are competent, courageous
fighters. They have captured the entire provinces of
Cavite and Bataan, and parts of the provinces of
Pampagna, Bulucan, and Manila.
Â« Aguinaldoâ€™s troops, in three divisions, have now
surrounded Manila. They have the Spaniards hemmed
in, and could capture the city if they wanted to, but
will await the arrival of the American troops before
Â«The rebels have captured Gov. Leopoldo Garcia
Penas, of Cavite province, and Gov. Antonio Cardola,
of Bataan province. Cardola tried to commit suicide
before surrendering. He shot himself three times in
- the head, but will recover. The insurgents behaved
gallantly in the fight for the possession of the stone
convent in Old Cavite, June 1st. General Augusti sent
two thousand Spanish regulars of the Manila force to
-attack Aguinaldoâ€™s forces at Cavite. The fight lasted
all day. The Spaniards were repulsed, and the officers
180 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
led in retreat. They took refuge in the old convent, a
substantial building, with walls five feet thick, built for
â€œ Aguinaldo surrounded the convent, and his first
-plan was to starve out the beleaguered ones, but he
found, June 6th, that provisions were being smuggled
in to them, and so he attacked the building, beginning
â€˜by opening fire with his mountain guns. Meantime, Gen-
Ã©ral Augusti, hearing of his soldiersâ€™ plight, sent four
thousand regulars to relieve them.
Â« Aguinaldo led the attack on these four thousand.
But after the first brush he adopted another method.
He sent detachments of three hundred or four hundred
men, armed with machetes, on the flanks of the Span-
iards, who constantly harassed them. In the first attack
â€˜of these detachments one hundred and fifty Spanish
soldiers and a lieutenant-colonel were killed. In the
second onslaught -four officers and sixty men were
Â« Again and again these attacks were repeated until
nine hundred Spaniards had been killed, the insurgents
report. The convent, too, became untenable. The
â€˜Spaniards retreated along the road to Manila, but made
a stand at Bacoor.
â€œ Aguinaldo and his men fought them fiercely there,
and the Spanish fled again. The rebels pursued the
enemy to within sight of Manila. Returning, Agui-
naldo stormed the old convent, and of the Spaniards
who remained there he killed ninety and captured 250.â€
BY WIRE. 181
June 15. The second fleet of transports, comprised
of the steamers China, Colon, Senator, and Zealandia,
carrying 3,465 men, left San Francisco for Manila.
The war loan of two hundred million dollars sub-
scribed for twice over.
Bombardment of the fortifications in Guantanamo
The House of Representatives passed the Hawaiian
June 16. Third bombardment of the batteries near
The Spanish forces in and near Cardenas had re-
paired the damages inflicted by the American vessels
when they bombarded the works, and on June 16th
another lesson was given those who killed Ensign Bag-
ley and his brave comrades. Five blockhouses were
completely demolished, the enemy beating a hasty
retreat without having fired a shot.
June r7._ Fortifications in Guantanamo Bay shelled
by American naval force.â€™
Capture of the Spanish sloop Chato in Goncnans
June 18. Bombardment of blockhouse in Guanta-
Battery at Cabanas shelled by the U.S. S. Texas."
June rg. First American troops landed on Cuban soil."
june 20. General Shafter and Admiral Sampson
visit General Garcia in his camp.â€™
' See Chapter X.
182 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
| June 21. Landing of General Shafterâ€™s army begun.*
-Bombardment of all the fortifications near about San-
Captain-General Augusti cabled the Madrid govern-
ment that he, having been forced to take refuge in the
walled city,? would be unable to continue communica-
June 22. By a decision of the Attorney-General,
the United States government will surrender to the
ambassadors of France and Germany, as the diplomatic
representatives of Spain, the non-combatants and crews
of the prize merchant vessels captured by ships of the
American navy since the declaration of war.
Boatsâ€™ crews from the U. S. S. Marblehead and Dol-
phin remove the mines from Guantanamo Bay.*
Bombardment of the Socapa battery near Santiago.'
Spaniards set fire to the town of Aguadores.!
The U. S. S. Zeras engages the west battery of
Captain Sigsbee of the U. S. S. Sz Paul, in report-
ing his cruise of twenty-three days, gave the following
account of a meeting with the enemy off San Juan de
Porto Rico on the 22d of June:
June 22. â€œWecame off the port on the twenty-second.
The weather was fair, the trade wind blowing fresh
from the eastward and raising somewhat of a sea. At
about 12.40 the third-class cruiser /sabel [//. came out,
and, steaming under the Morro until she was abreast
*See Chapter X. * See Appendix A for description of Manila.
BY WIRE. 183
of the batteries, commenced edging out toward us,
firing at such a long range that her shots were ineffec-
Â« As her purpose evidently was to put us within fire
of the batteries, we took but little notice of her, lying
still and occasionally sending in our largest shell at her
to try the range.
Â«Soon afterward she dropped to the westward, and
the torpedo-boat destroyer Terror, or it may have been
her sister ship, the Furor, was sighted steaming along
shore under the batteries.
Â«We watched her for awhile, and worked along with
her, in order to separate her from the cruiser and keep
her in trough if she came for us. She then circled to
get up speed, and headed for us, firing straight as far
as direction went, but her shots fell short.
Â« When within range of our guns, the signal â€˜com-
mence firingâ€™ was made, and for several minutes we let
fly our starboard battery at her at from fifty-five hun-
dred to six thousand yards, the shells striking all around
Â«This stopped her. She turned her broadside to us
and her fire soon ceased. She then headed inshore,
to the southward and westward, going slow, and it was
evident to all on board that she was crippled. Off
the Morro she flashed some signals to the shore,
and afterward a tug came out and towed her into the
Â« All this time the cruiser was firing at us, and some
184 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
of her shots and those of the Zevror fell pretty close.
The cruiser followed the Zerror back toward the port
and soon afterward was joined by a gunboat, and the
two steamed under the batteries to the eastward; but
when the SÂ¢. Pau/, making an inshore turn, seemed to
be going for them, they returned to the harbour, and we
saw no more of them.â€
June 23. The U. S. monitor Monadnock left San
Francisco for Manila.
The U. S. dynamite cruiser Vesuvius again shells
the Santiago fortifications.'
June 24. The Spanish Cortes suspended by royal
decree. The Chamber of Deputies adjourned without
the customary cheers for the throne.
â€˜Major-General Lawton advancing on Santiago.*
Action near Juragua.â€™
June 25. Skirmish near Sevilla.
The American government protested a draft drawn
by its consul at St. Thomas, D. W. I., under circum-
stances calculated to make an extremely dangerous
precedent. The draft was made by Consul Van Horne
for the purchase of twenty-seven hundred tons of coal,
which arrived in St. Thomas in the Ardenrose about
the twenty-eighth of May. The consul bought it for
ten dollars a ton when the Spanish consul had offered
twenty dollars a ton for it. Van Horne apparently did
the proper thing and did not exceed instructions.
June 26. General Garcia with three thousand
t See Chapter X.
â€œBY WIRE. 185
Cuban insurgents landed at Juragua by American
The troops comprising the third expedition to Manila
embarked at San Francisco.
The sloop /sabel arrived at Key West flying the
Cuban flag. On her were Capt. Rafael Mora, Lieut.
Felix de los Rios and four others of the Cuban army,
carrying sealed dispatches from the Cuban government
to Sefior T. Estrada Palma, of the New York junta.
The U. S. dynamite cruiser Vesuvius shelled the
fortifications at the entrance to Santiago harbour.
The water-supply of Santiago cut off by the Ameri-
A Spanish fleet entered the harbour. of Port Said,
Egypt, at the head of the Suez Canal, on the twenty-
sixth. It was composed of:
Battle-ship Pe/ayo, Admiral Camaraâ€™s flag-ship.
Armoured cruiser Emperador Carlos V.
' Auxiliary cruiser Patriota, equipped with twelve
guns, and carrying troops and marines.
Auxiliary cruiser Buenos Ayres, equipped with ten
guns, and carrying stores and a few troops.
Torpedo destroyer Azdaz.
Armed merchantman J/s/a de Pany, equipped with
â€œtwo guns, and carrying stores and a few troops.
Auxiliary cruiser Rapzdo, equipped with twelve guns,
Steamship Colon, unarmed and with no troops.
Torpedo destroyer Proserpina.
? See Chapter X.
186 THE BOYS OF 98.
Torpedo-boat destroyer Osada.
Transport Covadonga, carrying no guns.
Collier San Francisco.
June 27. The United States government, determined
to delay, if possible, the progress of the fleet toward
the Philippines, instructed its consul to protest to the
English government against the coaling of the fleet at
Port Said. In response to such protest the Egyptian
government refused Admiral Camaraâ€™s request to buy
coal, and also refused to allow him to hire a hundred
and fifty native stokers.
The U. S. transport Yale, laden with troops, arrived
The President sent to Congress the following mes-
â€œTo the Congress of the United States :â€” On the
morning of the third of June, 1898, Assistant Naval
Constructor Richmond P. Hobson, U. S. N., with a
volunteer crew of seven men, in charge of the partially
dismantled collier MW/errimac, entered the fortified
harbour of Santiago, Cuba, for the purpose of sinking
the collier in the narrowest portion of the channel and
thus interposing a serious obstacle to the egress of
the Spanish fleet, which had recently entered that
Â«This enterprise, demanding coolness, judgment and
bravery amounting to heroism, was carried into success-
* See Chapter X.
BY WIRE. 187
ful execution in the face of a persistent fire from the
hostile fleet as well as from the fortifications on shore.
Rear-Admiral Sampson, commander-in-chief of our
naval force in Cuban waters, in an official report ad-
dressed to the Secretary of the Navy, referring to Mr.
Hobsonâ€™s gallant exploit, says :
Â«Â«T decided to make the harbour entrance secure
against the possibility of egress of the Spanish ships
by obstructing the narrow part of the entrance, by
sinking a collier at that point.
Â«Â«Â¢Â«Mr. Hobson, after several days consideration, pre-
sented a solution which he considered would ensure the
immediate sinking of the ship when she had reached
the desired point in the channel. The plan contem-
plated a crew of only seven men, and Mr. Hobson
begged that it might be entrusted to him.
Â«Â«T cannot myself too earnestly express my appre-
ciation of the conduct of Mr. Hobson and his gallant
crew. I venture to say that a more brave and daring
thing has not been done since Cushing blew up the
â€œThe members of the crew who were with Mr.
Hobson on the memorable occasion have already been
rewarded for their services by advancement, which,
under the provisions of law and regulation, the Secre-
tary of the Navy was authorised to make; and the
nomination to the Senate of Naval Cadet Powell, who,
in a steam launch, followed the Merrimac on her
perilous trip, for the purpose of rescuing her force
188 THE BOYS OF '98.
after the sinking of that vessel, to be advanced in rank
to the grade of ensign, has been prepared and will be
â€œCushing, with whose gallant act in blowing up the
Albemarle, during the civil war, Admiral Sampson com-
pares Mr. Hobsonâ€™s sinking of the Merrimac, received
the thanks of Congress upon recommendation of the.
President, by name, and was in consequence, under
the provisions of Section 1,508 of the Revised Statutes,
advanced one grade, such advancement embracing fifty-
six numbers. â€˜The section cited applies, however, to
line officers only, and Mr. Hobson, being a member of
the staff of the navy, could not, under the provisions, be
â€œIn considering the question of suitably rewarding
Assistant Naval Constructor Hobson for his valiant
conduct on the occasion referred to, I have deemed it
proper to address this message to you with the recom-
mendation that he receive the thanks of Congress, and
further that he be transferred to the line of the navy
and promoted to such position therein as the President,
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, may
â€œMr. Hobsonâ€™s transfer from the construction corps
to the line is fully warranted, he having received the
necessary technical training as a graduate of the naval
academy, where he stood number one in his class, and
such action is recommended partly in deference to
what is understood to be his own desire, although, he
BY WIRE. 189
being a prisoner now in the hands of the enemy, no
direct communication on the subject has been received
from him, and partly for the reason that the abilities
displayed by him at Santiago are of such a character
as to indicate especial fitness for the duties of the line.
Â« Wittiam McKINLEY.
â€œ Executive Mansion, June 27.â€
The second message was as follows:
â€œTo the Congress of the United States: â€”On the
eleventh day of May, 1898, there occurred a conflict
in the bay of Cardenas, Cuba, in which the naval
torpedo-boat Wznslow was disabled, her commander
wounded, and one of her officers and a part of her
crew killed by the enemyâ€™s fire.
â€œIn the face of a most galling fire from the enemyâ€™s
guns the revenue cutter Madson, commanded by First
Lieut. Frank H. Newcomb, U. S. Revenue Cutter Ser-
vice, rescued the disabled Wins/ow and her wounded
crew. The commander of the Hudson kept his vessel
in the very hottest fire of the action, although in con-
stant danger of going ashore on account of the shallow
water, until he finally got a line made fast to the Wins-
Zow, and towed that vessel out of range of the enemyâ€™s
guns, a deed of special gallantry.
â€œT recommend that, in recognition of the signal act
of heroism of First Lieut. Frank H. Newcomb, U. S.
Revenue Cutter Service, above set forth, the thanks of
190 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Congress be extended to him and to his officers and
men of the Hudson, and that a gold medal of honour
be presented to Lieutenant Newcomb, a silver medal
of honour to each of his officers, and a bronze medal of
honour to each member of his crew who served with
him at Cardenas.
(Signed) Â«Wittiam McKINLEy.â€
The President also sent the following special nomina-
tion to Congress :
Â« EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, June 27, 1898.
â€œTo the Senate of the United States :â€” 1 nominate
Naval Cadet Joseph W. Powell to be advanced two num-
bers under the provisions of section 1,506 of the Revised
Statutes, and to be an ensign in the navy, for extraor-
dinary heroism while in charge of the steam launch
which accompanied the collier Merrimac, for the pur-
pose of rescuing her gallant force when that vessel was,
under the command of Naval Constructor Hobson, run
into the mouth of the harbour of Santiago, Cuba, on
the third instant, and dexterously sunk in the channel.
(Signed) Â« Witttam McKIntey.â€
June 27. The third fleet of vessels, laden with
soldiers, sailed from San Francisco for the Philippines.
From London the following news was received from
the Canary Islands:
Most of the new forts have guns mounted, but are
BY WIRE. 191
still quite exposed to view. The earthworks are not
nearly completed. It is reported that ten thousand
more soldiers are on the way from Spain. Of these
five thousand are for the Grand Canary, and the
others are for Teneriffe. The Spanish government is
determined to hold the islands at any cost.
Nearly all business is absolutely at a standstill, and
many of the sugar mills are closed. If this state of
uncertainty continues much longer it will mean star-
vation to the working classes. All lights that can be
seen from the sea are ordered extinguished at night,
though the lighthouse on Isletta is still lighted.
The U. S.S. Yankee, off the Isle of Pines, captured
and destroyed the Spanish sloops Wemesza, of Batabano,
Amistad and Manuelita, of Coloma, and the pilot-boats
Lug and Jacinto.
June 28. The President issued a proclamation
extending the blockade of Cuba to the southern
coast, from Cape Frances to Cape Cruz, inclusive,
and also blockading San Juan, Porto Rico.
The proclamation was as follows :
â€œâ€˜ Whereas, for the reasons set forth in my proclama-
tion of April 22, 1898, a blockade of ports on the
northern coast of Cuba, from Cardenas to Bahia Honda,
inclusive, and of the port of Cienfuegos, on the south
_ coast of Cuba, was declared to have been instituted, and
â€œ Whereas, it has become desirable to extend the
blockade to other southern ports,
â€œNow, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of
192 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the United States, do hereby declare and proclaim that,
in addition to the blockade of the ports specified in my
proclamation of April 22, 1898, the United States of
America has instituted and will maintain an effective
blockade of all of the ports on the south coast of Cuba,
from Cape Frances to Cape Cruz, inclusive, and also of
the port of San Juan in the island of Porto Rico.
â€œ Neutral vessels lying in any of the ports to which
the blockade is by the present proclamation extended,
will be allowed thirty days to issue therefrom with
The Spanish cruiser Antonio Lopez, while trying to
enter the river San Juan, near San Juan de Porto Rico,
secretly, with a cargo of provisions and war material,
was detected by two American war-ships, but escaped
by swiftly changing her course. Her captain, deter-
mined to land his cargo, headed for the shore at
Salinas. The shock of grounding exploded the boiler.
The Spanish gunboats Concha and /sabella issued to the
assistance of the Aztonio Lopez, whereupon the Ameri-
cans withdrew, and the AzÃ©onio Lopez landed her
Captain-General Augusti sent the following by cable
from Manila to the government at Madrid :
Â«The situation is still as grave. I continue to main-
tain my position inside the line of blockhouses, but the
enemy is increasing in numbers, as the rebels occupy
the provinces, which are surrendering. Torrential rains
are inundating the entrenchments, rendering the work
BY WIRE. 193
of defence difficult. The number of sick among the
troops is increasing, making the situation very dis-
tressing, and causing increased desertions of the native
â€œTt is estimated that the insurgents number thirty
thousand armed with rifles, and one hundred thousand
armed with swords, etc.
Â« Aguinaldo has summoned me to surrender, but I
have treated his proposals with disdain, for I am
resolved to maintain the sovereignty of Spain and the
honour of the flag to the last extremity.
Â«7 have more than one thousand sick and two hun-
dred wounded. The citadel has been invaded by the
suburban inhabitants, who have abandoned their homes,
owing to the barbarity of the rebels. These inhabi-
tants constitute an embarrassment, aggravating the
situation, in view of a bombardment, which, however,
is not seriously apprehended for the moment.â€
The captain-generalâ€™s family was made prisoners by
the insurgents several days prior to the sending of this
despatch, and all efforts to effect their release had thus
far been in vain.
From all parts of the world the Spanish people,
during the last days of June, looked toward Santiago
de Cuba, in whose harbour was imprisoned Cerveraâ€™s
fleet, for there only could they hope to resist the
SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
HE campaign of Santiago, during which the Span-
ish fleet under Admiral Cervera was entirely de-
stroyed, and which ended with the capture of the city,
can best be told as a continuous story. The record
of other events will be found elsewhere in regular
Even though a repetition, it should be set down that
the North Atlantic fleet, Rear-Admiral W. T. Samp-
son commanding, with Commodores J. C. Watson and
W. S. Schley of the first and second squadrons respec-
tively, which blockaded the port of Santiago, consisted
of the battle-ships A/assachusetts, Iowa, Texas, Indiana,
Oregon ; armored cruisers Mew York, Admiral Samp-
sonâ€™s flag-ship, Brooklyn; Commodore Schleyâ€™s flag-ship ;
protected cruisers Vew Orleans, Newark, Commodore
Watsonâ€™s flag-ship ; converted yachts Viren, Gloucester.
Inside the harbour, caught like rats in a trap of
their own making, lay the Spanish fleet under command
of Admiral Pasquale Cervera, consisting of the armoured
cruisers Cristobal Colon, Viscaya, Almirante Oquendo,
* For types of war-ships see Appendix B.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 195
Maria Teresa, Admiral Cerveraâ€™s flag-ship; torpedo-
boat destroyers Furor and Pluton.
The Americans were on the alert, lest by some inad-
vertence their prey should escape, and it may well be
supposed that the Spaniards, knowing full well they
were not in sufficient strength to give battle, awaited a
favourable opportunity to slip through the blockading
June 2. The first detachment of troops, including
heavy and light artillery and the engineer corps, em-
barked for Santiago on the second of June. Four days
later this force was landed at Aguadores, a few miles
east of Santiago, under the cover of Admiral Sampsonâ€™s
June 6. The American fleet began the bombard-
ment of the batteries guarding the entrance to the har-
bour at six oâ€™clock in the morning, having â€˜steamed in
to within three thousand yards of the shore, the Brook-
Zyn in advance of the first column, with the Marble-
head, the Texas, and the Massachusetts in line. The
second column was led by the Mew York, with the Mew
Orleans, Yankee, Iowa,and Oregon in the order named.
On the left flank were the VÃ©rex and the Szzvanee, and
on the right the Do/phin and the Porter kept watchful
eyes upon the riflemen ashore. The first column took
station opposite the Estrella and Catalina batteries,"
while the second was stationed off the new earthworks
near Morro Castle. Orders had been given that no
' See Appendix C for description of Santiago Harbour.
196 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
shots should be thrown into El Morro, because of the
fact that Lieutenant Hobson and his crew were impris-
The fleet continued the bombardment without mov-
ing from the stations originally taken. It was the Jowa
which opened the action with a 12-inch shell, and
the skill of the gunners was shown by the shower of
stone which spouted up from the base of the Estrella
battery. As if this shot was the signal agreed upon,
the other vessels of the fleet opened fire, the enemy
answering promptly but ineffectively.
Very quickly were the shore-batteries silenced by the
Brooklyn and the Zevas. Estrella Fort was soon on
fire; the Catalina battery gave up the struggle in less
than an hour, and the Vixen and Suwanee engaged
with some light inshore works, speedily reducing them
to ruins. Until-nine oâ€™clock the bombardment contin-
ued without interruption, and then the American fire
ceased until the ships could be turned, in order that
their port batteries might be brought into play.
One hour more, that is to say, until ten oâ€™clock, this
terrible rain of iron was sent from the fleet to the
shore, and then on the flag-ship was hoisted the signal :
â€œ Cease firing.â€
The American fleet withdrew absolutely uninjured,â€”
not a ship had been hit by the Spaniards nor a man
On board the Spanish ship Rezna MercÃ©des, a lieuten-
ant and five seamen had been killed, and seventeen
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 197
wounded ; the vessel was set on fire no less than three
times, and otherwise seriously damaged by the missiles.
Near about Morro Castle, although none of the Ameri-
can guns were aimed at that structure, two were killed
and four wounded, while on Smith Cay great havoc was
Admiral Cervera made the following report to his
Â« Six American vessels have bombarded the fortifica-
tions at Santiago and along the adjacent coast.
Â«Six were killed and seventeen were wounded on
board the Reina Mercedes; three officers were killed
and an officer and seventeen men were wounded among
Â«The Americans fired fifteen hundred shells of dit-
ferent calibres. The damage inflicted upon the batter-
ies of La Socapa and Morro Castle were unimportant.
The barracks at Morro Castle suffered damage.
Â«â€œ The enemy had noticeable losses.â€â€™
June 8. Nearly, if not quite, twenty-seven thousand
men were embarked at Tampa for Santiago on the
eighth of June, under the command of Maj.-Gen.
William R. Shafter.
Fire was opened by the Marblehead and the Vankee
of the blockading squadron upon the fortifications of
Camianera, a port on Cumberland Harbour fifteen miles
distant from Guantanamo. The enemy was forced to
retire to the town, but no great injury was inflicted.
The Vixen entered Santiago Harbour under a flag of
198 THE BOYS OF 98.
truce from Admiral Sampson, to arrange for an ex-
change of Lieutenant Hobson and his men. Admiral
Cervera said in reply that the matter had been referred
to General Blanco.
The Swzvanee landed weapons, ammunition, and pro-
visions for the insurgents at a point fifteen miles west
In Santiago were about twenty thousand Spanish
soldiers, mostly infantry ; but with cavalry and artillery
that may be drawn from the surrounding country. On
the mountains five thousand insurgents, many unarmed,
watched for a favourable opportunity to make a descent
upon the city.
Orders were sent by the Navy Department to Ad-
miral Sampson to notify Admiral Cervera that, if the
latter destroyed his four armoured cruisers and two
torpedo-boat destroyers to prevent their capture, Spain,
at the end of the war, would be made to pay an addi-
tional indemnity at least equivalent to the value of
June ro. The American troops made a landing on
the eastern side of Guantanamo Harbour, forty miles
east of Santiago, at two P.M. onthe tenth of June. The
debarkation was effected under the cover of the guns
of the Oregon, Marblehead, Dolphin, and Vixen.
The war-vessels prepared the way by opening fire
on the earthworks which lined the shore, a blockhouse,
and a cable station which was occupied by Spanish
soldiers. The defence was feeble ; the enemy retreated
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 199
in hot haste after firing a few shots. A small gunboat
came down from Guantanamo, four miles away, at the
beginning of the bombardment, but she put back with
all speed after having approached within range.
Soon after the enemy had been driven away, the
steamer Panther arrived with a battalion of marines
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Huntington.
She reported having shelled a blockhouse at Daiquiri,
ten miles east of Santiago, but without provoking any
Colonel Huntingtonâ€™s force took possession of the
heights overlooking the bay, where was a fortified
camp which had been abandoned by the Spaniards.
There was nothing to betoken the presence of the
enemy in strong numbers, and the men soon settled
down to ordinary camp duties, believing their first
serious work would be begun by an attack on Guanta-
June rz. It was three o'clock on Saturday after-
noon; Colonel Huntingtonâ€™s marines were disposed
about the camp according to duty or fancy; some
were bathing, and a detail was engaged in the work of
carrying water. Suddenly the sharp report of a mus-
ket was heard, followed by another and another until.
the rattle of firearms told that a skirmish of consider-
- able importance was in progress on the picket-line.
The principal portion of the enemyâ€™s fire appeared
to come from a small island about a thousand yards
away, and a squad of men was detailed with a 3-inch
200 THE BOYS OF 798.
field-gun to look out for the enemy in this direction,
while the main force defended the camp.
After perhaps an hour had passed, during which time
the boys of â€™98 were virtually firing at random, the
men on the picket-line fell back on the camp. Two of
their number were missing. The battalion was formed
on three sides. of a hollow square, and stood ready to
resist an attack which was not to be made until
The firing ceased as abruptly as it had begun. Skir-
mishers were sent out and failed to find anything save
a broad trail, marked here and there by blood, which
came to an end at the waterâ€™s edge.
There were no longer detonations to be heard from
the island. The 3-inch gun had been well served.
The skirmishers which had been sent out returned,
bearing the bodies of two boys in blue who had been
killed by the first shots, and, after death, mutilated by
blows from Spanish machetes.
Night came; heavy clouds hung low in the sky ; the
force of the wind had increased almost to a gale; below
in the bay the war-ships were anchored, their search-
lights streaming out here and there like ribbons of gold
on a pall of black velvet.
No signs of the enemy on land or sea, and, save for
those two cold, lifeless forms on the heights, one might
have believed the previous rattle of musketry had been
heard only by the imagination.
Until nine oâ€™clock in the evening the occupants of
U. S. S. MARBLEHEAD.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 201
the camp kept careful watch, and then without warning,
as before, the crack of repeating rifles broke the almost
The enemy was making his presence known once
more, and this time it became evident he was in
Another 3-inch gun was brought into play; a launch
from the Marblehead, with a Colt machine gun in
her bow, steamed swiftly shoreward and opened fire ;
skirmish lines were thrown out through the tangle of
foliage, and only when a dark form was seen, which
might have been that of a Spaniard, or only the swaying
branches of the trees, did the boys in blue have a
It was guerrilla warfare, and well-calculated to test
the nerves of the young soldiers who were receiving
their â€œbaptism of blood.â€
Until midnight this random firing continued, and
then a large body of Spanish troops charged up the hill
until they were face to face with the defenders of the
camp, when they retreated, being lost to view almost
immediately in the blackness of the night.
June r2. Again and again the firing was renewed
from this quarter or that, but the enemy did not show
himself until the morning came like a flash of light, as.
it does in the tropics, disclosing scurrying bands of
Spanish soldiers as they sought shelter in the thicket.
Now more guns were brought into play at the camp;
the war-ships began shelling the shore, and the action
202 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
was speedily brought to an end. Four Americans had
been killed, and among them one of the surgeons.
At intervals during the day the crack of a rifle would
tell that Spanish sharpshooters were hovering around
the camp; but not until eight oâ€™clock in the evening
did the enemy approach in any great numbers.
Then the battle was on once more; again did the
little band of bluejackets stand to their posts, fighting
against an unseen foe. Again the war-ships flashed
their search-lights and sent shell after shell into the
thicket, and all the while the Spanish fire was continued
with deadly effect.
Lieutenants Neville and Shaw, each with a squad of
ten men, were sent out to dislodge the advance line
of the enemy, and as the boys in blue swung around
into the thicket with a steady, swinging stride, the
Spaniards gave way, firing rapidly while so doing.
The Americans, heeding not the danger, pursued,
following the foe nearly to a small stone house near
the coast, which had been used as a fort. They were
well up to this structure when the bullets rained upon
them in every direction from out the darkness. Ser-
geant Goode fell fatally wounded, and the Spaniards
charged, forcing the Americans to the very edge of a
cliff, over which one man fell and was killed; another
fell, but with no further injury than a broken leg. A
third was shot through the arm, after which he and the
man with the broken limb joined forces, fighting on
their own account. One more was wounded, and then
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 203
the Americans made a desperate charge, forcing the
enemy back into the stone house, and then out again,
after fifteen had been killed.
Meanwhile severe fighting was going on in the vicin-
ity of the camp ; but six field-pieces were brought up,
and the second battle was ended after two Americans
had been killed and seven wounded.
June 13. The camp was moved to a less exposed
position, while the war-ships poured shell and shrapnel
into the woods, and then the marines filed solemnly out
to a portion of the hill overlooking the bay where were
six newly made graves.
All the marines could not attend the funeral, many
having to continue the work of moving camp, or to rest
on their guns, keeping a constant watch for the lurk-
ing Spaniards; but all who could do so followed the
stumbling bearers of the dead over the loose gravel,
and grouped themselves about the graves.
The stretcher bearing the bodies had just been lifted
to its place, and Chaplain Jones of the Zeras was
about to begin the reading of the burial service, when
the Spaniards began shooting at the party from the
Â«Fall in, Company A, Company B, Company C, fall
â€œFall in!â€ was the word from one end of the camp
to the other. The graves were deserted by all save
the chaplain and escort, who still stood unmoved.
The men sprang to arms, and then placed themselves
204 â€˜THE BOYS OF â€™98.
behind the rolled tents, their knapsacks, the bushes in
the hollows, boxes and piles of stones, their rifles
ready, their eyes strained into the brush.
Howitzers roared, blue smoke arose where the shells
struck and burst in the chaparral, and rifles sounded
The Zeras fired seven shots at the place from which
the shooting came, and the Spaniards, as usual, fled
out of sight.
The funeral services had hardly been resumed when
there was another attack; but this time the pits near
the old blockhouse got the range of the malignant marks-
men and shattered them with a few shots. The Zevras
and Panther shelled the brush to the eastward, but the
chaplain kept right on with the service, and from that
time until night there was little shooting from the
On this day the dynamite cruiser Veswwius joined
Admiral Sampsonâ€™s fleet, and the weary marines, hold-
ing their posts on shore against overwhelming odds,
hoped that her arrival betokened the speedy coming of
the soldiers who were so sadly needed.
June rg. Substantial recognition was given by the
Navy Department to the members of the gallant
crew who took the Merrimac into the entrance of
Santiago Harbour and sunk her across the channel
under the very muzzles of the Spanish guns.
The orders sent to Admiral Sampson directed the |
promotion of the men as follows :
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 205
Daniel Montague, master-at-arms, to be a boatswain,
from fifty dollars a month to thirteen hundred dollars
George Charette, gunnerâ€™s mate, to be a gunner,
from fifty dollars a month to thirteen hundred dollars a
phy, coxswains, to be chief boatswainâ€™s mates, an in-
Rudolph Clausen, Osborne Deignan, and
crease of twenty dollars a month.
George F. Phillips, machinist, from forty dollars a
month to seventy dollars a month.
Francis Kelly, water tender, to be chief machinist,
â€˜from thirty-seven dollars a month to seventy dollars
Lieutenant Hobsonâ€™s reward would come through
While a grateful people were discussing the manner
in which their heroes should be crowned, that little
band of marines on the shore of Guantanamo Bay,
worn almost to exhaustion by the harassing fire of the
enemy during seventy-two hours, was once more bat-
tlng against a vastly superior force in point of
From the afternoon of the eleventh of June until
this morning of the fourteenth, the Americans had
remained on the defensive, â€” seven hundred against
two thousand or more. Now, however, different tactics
were to be used. Colonel Huntington had decided
that it was time to turn the tables, and before the night
206 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
was come the occupants of the graves on the crest of
the hill had been avenged.
A scouting party, made up of nine officers, two
hundred and eighty marines, and forty-one Cubans, was
divided into four divisions, the first of which had
orders to destroy a water-tank from which the enemy
drew supplies. The second was to attack the Spanish
camp beyond the first range of hills. The third had
for its objective point a signal-station from which in-
-formation as to the movements of the American fleet
had been flashed into Santiago. The fourth division
was to act as the reserve,
In half an hour from the time of leaving camp the
signal-station was in the hands of the Americans, and
the heliograph outfit lost to the enemy. The boys of
â€™98 had suffered no loss, while eight Spaniards lay with
faces upturned to the rays of the burning sun.
At noon the Spanish camp had been taken, with a
loss of two Cubans killed, one American and four
Cubans wounded. Twenty-three Spaniards were dead.
The water-tank was destroyed, and the enemy, panic-
stricken, was fleeing here and there, yet further har-
assed by a heavy fire from the Dolphin, who sent her
shells among the fugitives whenever they came in view.
When the day drew near its close, and the weary but
triumphant marines returned to camp, a hundred of
the enemy lay out on the hills dead; more than twice
that number must have been wounded, and eighteen
were being brought in as prisoner:
U. S. S. VESUVIUS.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 207
On this night of June 14th, at the entrance to
Santiago Harbour, the dynamite cruiser Vesuvius â€”
that experimental engine of destruction was given
a test in actual warfare, and the result is thus
graphically pictured by a correspondent of the New
â€œThree shells, each containing two hundred pounds
of guncotton, were fired last night from the dynamite
guns of the Vesuvius at the hill at the western entrance
to Santiago Harbour, on which there is a fort.
â€œThe frightful execution done by those three shots
will be historic.
â€œGuns in that fort had not been silenced when the
fleet drew off after the attack that followed the dis-
covery of the presence of the Spanish fleet in the
â€œIn the intense darkness of last night the Vesu-
vius steamed into close range and let go one of her
â€œThere was no flash, no smoke. There was no noise
at first. The pneumatic guns on the little cruiser did
their work silently. It was only when they felt the
shock that the men on the other war-ships knew
the Vesuvius was in action.
Â« A few seconds after the gun was fired there was
a frightful convulsion on the land. On the hill, where
the Spanish guns had withstood the missiles of the
ordinary ships of war, tons of rock and soil leaped in
air. The land was smitten as by an earthquake.
208 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Â«Terrible echoes rolled around through the shaken
hills and mountains. Sampsonâ€™s ships, far out at sea,
trembled with the awful shock. Dust rose to the
clouds and hid the scene of destruction.
â€œThen came a long silence; next another frightful
upheaval, and following it a third, so quickly that the
results of the work of the two mingled in mid-air.
Â« Another still, and then two shots from a Spanish
battery, that, after the noise of the dynamite, sounded
like the crackle of firecrackers.
â€œThe Vesuvius had tested herself. She was found
perfect as a destroyer. She proved that no fortification
can withstand her terrible missiles.
â€œJust what damage she did I could not. tell from |
the sea. Whatever was within hundreds of feet of the
point of impact must have gone to destruction.â€
Fune 16. On the fifteenth of June the marines at
Guantanamo Bay were given an opportunity to rest, for
the lesson the Spaniards received on the fourteenth
had been a severe one, and the fleet off Santiago
remained inactive. It was but the lll before the
storm of.iron which was rained upon the Spanish on
the sixteenth. _
The prelude to this third bombardment of Santiago
was a second trial of the Vesuvius at midnight. on the
fifteenth, when she sent three more 250-pound charges
of guncotton into the fortifications. This done, the
fleet remained like spectres, each vessel.at its respec-
tive station, until half-past three oâ€™clock on the morning
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 209
of the sixteenth, when the bluejackets were aroused
and served with coffee.
Immediately the first gray light of dawn appeared,
the ships steamed in toward the fortifications of Santi-
ago until within three thousand yards, and there, lying
broadside on, three cablesâ€™-lengths apart, they waited for
the day to break.
It was 5.25 when the ew York opened with a broad-
side from her main battery, and the bombardment was
All along the crescent-shaped line the big guns
roared and the smaller ones crackled and snapped, each
piece throughout the entire squadron being worked
with such energy that it was like one mighty, continuous
wave of crashing thunder, and from out this convulsion
came projectiles of enormous weight, until it seemed
as if all that line of shore must be rent and riven.
Not a gun was directed at El Morro, for there it was
believed the brave Hobson and his gallant comrades
were held prisoners.
When the signal was given for the fleet to retire, not
a man had been wounded, nor a vessel struck by the
fire from the shore.
The governor of Santiago sent the following mes-
sage to Madrid relative to the bombardment :
_ â€œThe Americans fired one thousand shots. Several
Spanish shells hit the enemyâ€™s vessels. Our losses are
three killed and twenty wounded, including two officers.
The Spanish squadron was not damaged.â€
210 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
While the Americans were making their presence
felt at Santiago, those who held Guantanamo Bay were
notidle. The 7exas, Marblehead, and the Suwanee bom-
barded the brick fort and earthworks at Caimanera, at
the terminus of the railroad leading to the city of
Guantanamo, demolishing them entirely after an hour
and a half of firing. When the Spaniards fled from
the fortifications, the S7. Paw~ shelled them until they
were hidden in the surrounding forest.
An hour or more after the bombardment ceased the
Marbleheadâ€™s steam launch began dragging the harbour
near the fort for mines. One was found and taken up,
and while it was being towed to the war-ship a party of
Spaniards on shore opened fire. The launch headed
toward shore and began banging away, but the bow
gun finally kicked overboard, carrying the gunner with
it. At this moment the enemy beat a prompt retreat ;
the gunner was pulled inboard, and the bluejackets
continued their interrupted work.
Fune r7. Next day the batteries on Hicacal Point
and Hospital Cay were shelled, the Marblehead and the
St. Paul attending to the first, and the Swzanee car-
ing for the latter, while the Dolphin and even the
collier Sczndza fired a few shots for diversion. The
task was concluded in less than half an hour, and had
no more than come to an end when a small sloop was
sighted off the entrance to the bay.
The Marbleheadâ€™s steam launch was sent in pursuit,
and an hour later returned with the prize, which proved
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 211
to be the Chato. Her crew of five were taken on
board the JZarblehead as prisoners.
Fune r8. The active little steam launch made
another capture next day while cruising outside the
bay; a nameless sloop, on which were four men who
claimed to have been sent from the lighthouse at Cape
Maysi to Guantanamo City for oil. There were strong
reasons for believing this party had come to spy out
the position of the American ships, and all were trans-
ferred to the Marblehead.
The crew of the Oregon had gun practice again on
this day when they shelled and destroyed a blockhouse
three miles up the bay, killing, so it was reported, no
less than twenty of the enemy.
The first vessel of a long-expected fleet of transports,
carrying the second detachment of General Shafterâ€™s.
army, hove in sight of Admiral Sampsonâ€™s squadron on
the evening of June 18th, and next morning at daylight
the launches of the Mew York and Massachusetts recon-
noitred the shore between Cabanas, two miles off the
entrance to Santiago Harbour, and Guayaganaco, two
miles farther west, in search of a landing-place.
Lieutenant Harlow, in command of the expedition,
made the following report :
Â«The expedition consisted of a steam launch from
the Massachusetts, in charge of Cadet Hart, and a
launch from the Mew York, in charge of Cadet Powell.
I took passage on the Massachusettsâ€™ launch, leading
the way. Soundings were taken on entering the bay
212 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
close under the old fort, and we were preparing to cir-
cumnavigate the bay at full speed when fire was opened
from the fort and rocks on the shore. The d/assachu-
settsâ€™ launch was some distance ahead and about forty -
yards off the fort. There was no room to turn, and
our 1I-pounder could not be brought to bear. We
backed and turned under a heavy fire.
Â«Cadet Hart operated the gun as soon as it could be
brought to bear, sitting exposed in the bow, and work-
ing the gun as coolly and carefully as at target
Â«Cadet Powell had been firing since the Spaniards
opened. He was also perfectly cool. Both launches
ran out under a heavy fire of from six to eight minutes.
I estimate that there were twenty-five Spaniards on the
parapet of the old fort. The number along shore was
larger, but indefinite. The launches, as soon as it was
practicable, sheered to give the Vzxen the range of the
fort. The Vixen and the Zexas silenced the shore fire
Â«â€˜T strongly commend Cadet Hart and Cadet Powell
for the cool management of the launches. One launch
was struck seven times. Nobody in either was hurt.
A bullet struck a shell at Cadet Hartâ€™s feet between
the projectile and the powder, but failed to explode the
Â«Coxswain Oâ€™Donnell and Seaman Bloom are com-
mended, as is also the coolness with which the marines
and sailors worked under the Spanish fire.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. : 213
_Â« Nothing was learned at Cabanas Bay, but at Guay-
aganaco it is evident a landing is practicable for shipsâ€™
boats. The same is true of Rancho Cruz, a small bay
to the eastward. Both would be valuable with Cabanas,
but useless without it.
â€œTam informed that to the north and westward of
Cabanas Bay there is a large clearing, with plenty
of grass and water.
Â«T think a simultaneous landing at the three places
named would be practicable if the ships shelled the
adjacent wood. A junction would naturally follow at
Cuban scouts reported to Colonel Huntington on
Guantanamo Bay that the streets of Caimanera have
been covered with straw saturated in oil, in order that
the city may be destroyed when the Americans evince
any disposition to take possession. The Spanish gun-
boat Sandoval, lying at one of the piers, has been loaded
with inflammables, and will be burned with the city, her
commander declaring that she shall never become an
During this Sunday night the Veswvius again dis-
charged her dynamite guns, with the western battery
as a target, and because of the frightful report which
followed the second shot, it was believed a magazine had
Fune 20. The fleet of transports arrived off Santiago
at noon on the twentieth, and hove to outside the cordon
of war-vessels. General Shafter immediately went on
214 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
board the flag-ship, and returned to his own ship an
hour later in company with Admiral Sampson, when
the two officers sailed for Asserradero, seventeen
miles from Santiago, where General Calixto Garcia
was encamped with his army of four thousand Cubans.
Here a long conference was held with the insurgent
general, after which the two commanders returned to
June 21. The despatch quoted below was sent by
Admiral Sampson to the Navy Department, and gives
in full the work of the day:
â€œLanding of the army is progressing favorably at
Daiquiri. There is very little, if any, resistance. The
New Orleans, Detroit, Castine, Wasp, and Suwanee
shelled the vicinity before the landing. We made a
demonstration at Cabanas to engage the attention of
the enemy. The Zexas engaged the west battery for
some hours. She had one man killed. Ten submarine
mines have been recovered from the channel of Guan-
tanamo. Communication by telegraph has been estab-
lished at Guantanamo.â€
Daiquiri was chosen as the point of debarkation by
General Shafter, and its only fortifications were a
blockhouse on a high cliff to the right of an iron pier,
together with a small fort and earthworks in the rear.
From this town extends a good road to Santiago, and
in the immediate vicinity of the port the water-supply
is plentiful. :
June 22. Bombarding the coast as a cover for the
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 215
troops which were being disembarked, was the principal
work of the war-ships on the twenty-second of June,
except in Guantanamo Harbour, where volunteers were
called for from the Marblehead and the Dolphin to
grapple for and remove the contact mines in the har-
pour. It was an undertaking as perilous as anything
that had yet been accomplished, but the bluejackets
showed no fear. Four times the designated number
came forward in response to the call, and before night-
fall seven mines had been removed.
The battle-ship 7exas was assigned to duty off Mata-
moras, the works of which were to be bombarded as a
portion of the general programme for this day while the
troops were being landed. The men of the Zeras per-
formed their part well; the Socapa battery was quickly
silenced ; but not quite soon enough to save the life of
one brave bluejacket. The last shell fired by the
retreating Spaniards struck the battle-ship twenty feet
abaft the stem on the port side. It passed through the
hull about three feet below the main-deck line, and
failed to explode until striking an iron stanchion at the
centre line of the berth-deck. Here were two gunsâ€™
crews, and among them the fragments of the shell flew
in a deadly shower, killing one and wounding eight.
- Later in the day the Zexas steamed out to sea to bury
the dead, and, this sad duty performed, returned before
nightfall to her station on the blockade.
June 23. General Shafter thus reported to the War
216 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œDaiquiri, June 23. â€” Had very fine voyage; lost
less than fifty animals, six or eight to-day; lost more
putting them through the surf to land, than on
â€œCommand as healthy as when we left ; eighty men
sick; only deaths, two men drowned in landing ; land-
ings difficult; coast quite similar to that in vicinity
of San Francisco, and covered with dense growth of
bushes. Landing at Daiquiri unopposed ; all points
occupied by Spanish troops heavily bombarded by
navy to clear them out.
Â« Sent troops toward Santiago, and aecumied es
a naturally strong place, this morning. Spanish troops
retreating as soon as our advance was known. Had no
mounted troops, or could have captured them, about
six hundred all told.
â€œRailroad from there in. Have cars and engine in
Â«With assistance of navy disembarked six thousand
men yesterday, and as many more to-day.
Â«Will get all troops off to-morrow, including light
artillery and greater portion of pack-train, probably all
of it, with some of the wagons; animals have to be
jumped to the water and towed ashore.
â€œHad consultation with Generals Garcia, Rader and
Castillo, on afternoon of twentieth, twenty miles west
of Santiago. These officers were unanimously of the
opinion that the landing should be made east of
Santiago. I had come to the same conclusion.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 217
â€œGeneral Garcia promises to join me at Juragua
to-morrow with between three thousand and four
thousand men, who will be brought from west of
Santiago by ships of the navy to Juragua, and there
â€œ This will give me between four thousand and five
thousand Cubans, and leave one thousand under
General Rabi to threaten Santiago from the west.
Â«General Kentâ€™s division is being disembarked this
afternoon at Juragua, and this will be continued during
the night. The assistance of the navy has been of the
greatest benefit and enthusiastically given; without them
I could not have landed in ten days, and perhaps not at
all, as I believe I should have lost so many boats in the
Â« At present want nothing; weather has been good,
no rain on land, and prospects of fair weather.
â€œ Major-General U. S. Commanding.â€
' The boys of â€™98 occupied the town of Aguadores
before nightfall on the twenty-third of June, the Span-
iards having applied the torch to many buildings before
they fled. The enemy was driven back on to San-
tiago, General Linares commanding in person, and
close to his heels hung General Lawton and the
advance of the American forces.
June 24. It was evident that the Spanish intended
to make a stand at Sevilla, six miles from Juragua, and
218 THE BOYS OF â€™098.
five miles from Santiago. The Americans were press-
ing them hotly to prevent General Linares from gaining
time to make preparations for an encounter, when the
Rough Riders, as Colonel Woodâ€™s regiment was termed,
and the First and Tenth Cavalry fell into an ambuscade.
Then what will probably be known as the battle of
La Quasina was fought.
It is thus described by a correspondent of the
Associated Press :
That the Spaniards were thoroughly posted as to
the route to be taken by the Americans in their move-
ment toward Sevilla was evident, as shown by the
careful preparations they had made.
The main body of the Spaniards was posted on a
hill, on the heavily wooded slopes of which had been
erected two blockhouses flanked by irregular intrench-
ments of stone and fallen trees. At the bottom of
these hills run two roads, along which Lieutenant-Col-
onel Rooseveltâ€™s men, and eight troops of the First
and Tenth Cavalry, with a battery of four howitzers,
_ advanced. These roads are but little more than gullies,
rough and narrow, and at places almost impassable.
In these trails the fight occurred. Nearly half a
mile separated Roosevelt's men from the regulars,
and between, and on both sides of the road in the
thick underbrush, was concealed a force of Spaniards
that must have been large, judging from the terrific
and constant fire they poured in on. the Americans.
The fight was opened by the First and Tenth Cavalry,
EL THEODORE ROOSEVELT
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 219
under General Young. A force of Spaniards was known
to be in the vicinity of La Quasina, and early in the
morning Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt's men started off
up the precipitous bluff, back of Siboney, to attack
the enemy on his right flank. General Young at the
same time took the road at the foot of the hill.
About two and one-half miles out from Siboney
some Cubans, breathless and excited, rushed into camp
with the announcement that the Spaniards were but a
little way in front, and were strongly entrenched.
Quickly the Hotchkiss guns in the front were brought
to the rear, while a strong scouting line was thrown
Then cautiously and in silence the troops moved for-
ward until a bend in the road disclosed a hill where the
Spaniards were located. The guns were again brought
to the front and placed in position, while the men
crouched down in the road, waiting impatiently to give
Rooseveltâ€™s men, who were toiling over the little trail
along the crest of the hill, time to get up.
At 7.30 a.m. General Young gave the command to
the men at the Hotchkiss guns to open fire. That
command was the signal for a fight that for stubborn-
ness has seldom been equalled. The instant the
Hotchkiss guns were fired, from the hillside command-
ing the road came volley after volley from the Mausers
of the Spaniards.
Â«Donâ€™t shoot until you see something to shoot at,â€
yelled General Young, and the men, with set jaws and
220 THE BOYS OF â€™098.
gleaming eyes, obeyed the order. Crawling along the
edge of the road, they protected themselves as much as
possible from the fearful fire of the Spaniards, the
troopers, some of them stripped to the waist, watching
the base of the hill, and when any part of a Spaniard
became visible, they fired. Never for an instant did
One dusky warrior of the Tenth Cavalry, with a
ragged wound in his thigh, coolly knelt behind a rock,
loading and firing, and when told by one of his com-
rades that he was wounded, laughed and said :
â€œOh, thatâ€™s all right. Thatâ€™s been there for some
In the meantime, away off to the left could be
heard the crack of the rifles of Colonel Woodâ€™s men,
and the regular, deeper-toned volley-firnmg of the
Over there the American losses were the greatest.
Colonel Woodâ€™s men, with an advance-guard well out
in front, and two Cuban guides before them, but ap-
parently with no flankers, went squarely into the trap
set for them by the Spaniards, and only the unfaltering
courage of the men in the face of a fire that would
even make a veteran quail, prevented what might easily
have been a disaster. As it was, Troop L, the advance-
guard under the unfortunate Captain Capron, was
almost surrounded, and but for the reinforcement
hurriedly sent forward every man would probably have
been killed or wounded.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 221
When the reserves came up there was no hesitation.
Colonel â€˜Wood, with the right wing, charged straight at
a blockhouse eight hundred yards away, and Colonel
Roosevelt, on the left, charged at the same time. Up
the men went, yelling like fiends, and never stopping to
return the fire of the Spaniards, but keeping on with
a grim determination to capture that blockhouse.
That charge wasthe end. When within five hundred
yards of the coveted point, the Spaniards broke and
_ran, and for the first time the boys of â€™98 had the
pleasure which the Spaniards had been experiencing all
through the engagement, of shooting with the enemy
The losses among the Rough Riders were reported
as thirteen killed and forty wounded ; while the First
Cavalry lost sixteen wounded. Edward Marshall, a
newspaper correspondent, was seriously wounded.
While the land-forces were fighting four miles north-
west of Juragua, Rear-Admiral Sampson learned that
the Spaniards were endeavouring to destroy the railroad
~ leading from Juragua to Santiago de Cuba.
This road runs west along the seashore, under cover
of the guns of the American fleet, until within three
miles of El Morro, and then cuts through the moun-
tains along the river into Santiago.
When the attempt of the Spaniards was discovered,
the New York, Scorpion, and Wasp closed in and cleared
the hilland brush of Spaniards.
222 THE BOYS OF â€™908.
June 26. The American lines were advanced to
within four miles of Santiago, and the boys could look
into the doomed city. It was possible to make accurate
note of the defences, and most likely officers as well as
men were astonished by the preparations which had
There were blockhouses on every hill; from the har-
bour batteries, sweeping in a semicircle to the eastward
of the city, were rifle-pits and intrenchments skilfully
arranged. Earthworks, in a regular line, completely
shut off approach to the city, and in front of the
entrenchments and rifle-pits were barbed-wire fences,
Three more charges of guncotton did the dynamite
cruiser Vesuvius throw into the batteries at the
mouth of Santiago Harbour on the night of June
26th, and next morning the evidences of her work
could be seen on the western battery, a portion of
which was in ruins. The water-mains which supplied
the city of Santiago were cut on the same night, and
the doomed city thus brought so much nearer to
July r. Knowing that with the close of June the
American army was in readiness for a decisive action,
the people waited anxiously, tearfully, for the first terri-
ble word which should be received telling of slaughter
and woeful suffering, and it came on the evening of
July 1st, when the cablegram given below was flashed
over the wires to the War Department :
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 223
Â«â€œPLava DEL EsTE, July 1, 1898.
Â«4. G.0., U. S. Army, Washington:
Â« Siboney, July 1.â€” Had a very heavy engagement
to-day, which lasted from eight a. o. till sundown.
Â«We have carried their outer works and are now in
possession of them.
â€œThere is now about three-quarters of a mile of open
â€˜country between my lines and city; by morning troops
will be entrenched and considerable augmentation of
forces will be there.
Â«General Lawtonâ€™s division and General Batesâ€™s
brigade, which had been engaged all day in carrying
El Caney, which was accomplished at four P. M., will be
in line and in front of Santiago during the night.
Â«I regret to say that our casualties will be above
four hundred ; of these not many are killed.
(Signed) Â«â€œW. R. Suarrer, Vajor-General.â€
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS.
ENERAL W. R. SHAFTER, in his official -
report of the operations around Santiago, says:
Â«On June 30th I reconnoitred the country about
Santiago and made my plan of attack. From a high
hill, from which the city was in plain view, I could see
the San Juan Hill and the country about El Caney.
The roads were very poor and, indeed, little better than
bridle-paths until the San Juan River and El Caney
were reached. The position of El Caney, to the
northeast of Santiago, was of great importance to
the enemy, as holding the Guantanamo road, as well
as furnishing shelter for a strong outpost that might
be used to assail the right flank of any force oper-
ating against San Juan Hill. In view of this, I decided
to begin the attack next day at El Caney with one
division, while sending two divisions on the direct
road to Santiago, passing by the El Pozo house, and
as a diversion to direct a small force against Agua-
dores, from Siboney along the railroad by the sea, with
a view of attracting the attention-of the Spaniards
in the latter direction, and of preventing them from
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 225
attacking our left flank. .. . But we were in a sickly
climate ; our supplies had to be brought forward by a
narrow wagon-road which the rain might at any time
render impassable; fear was entertained that a storm
might drive the.vessels containing our stores to sea,
thus separating us from our base of supplies, and,
lastly, it was reported that General Pando, with eight
thousand reinforcements for the enemy, was en route
for Manzanillo, and might be expected in a few days.
Under these conditions I determined to give battle
Â« Early on the morning of July 1st Lawton was in
position. around El Caney, Chaffeeâ€™s brigade on the
right across the Guantanamo road, Milesâ€™s brigade in.
the centre and Ludlowâ€™s on the left. The duty of
cutting off the enemyâ€™s retreat along the Santiago
road was assigned to the latter brigade. The artillery
opened on the town at 6.15 a.m. The battle here soon
became general, and was hotly contested. The enemyâ€™s
position was naturally strong, and was rendered more
so by blockhouses, a stone fort and entrenchments cut
in solid rock, and the loopholing of a solidly built
stone church. The opposition offered by the enemy
was greater than had been anticipated, and prevented
Lawton from joining the right of the main line during
the day, as had been intended. After the battle had
continued for some time, Batesâ€™s brigade of two regi-
ments reached my headquarters from Siboney. I di-
rected him to move near El Caney, to give assistance if
226 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
necessary. He did so, and was put in position between
Miles and Chaffee. The battle continued with varying
intensity during most of the day and until the place
was carried by assault about 4.30 p.m. As the Span-
iards endeavoured to retreat along the Santiago road,
Ludlowâ€™s position enabled him to do very effective
work, and practically to cut off all retreat in that di-
Â« After the battle at El Caney was well opened, and
the sound of the small-arms fire caused us to believe
that Lawton was driving the enemy before him, I di-
rected Grimesâ€™s battery to open fire from the heights of
El Pozo on the San Juan blockhouse, situated in the
enemyâ€™s entrenchments, extending along the crest of
San Juan Hill. This fire was effective, and the enemy
could be seen running away from the vicinity of the
blockhouse. The artillery fire from El Pozo was soon
returned by the enemyâ€™s artillery. They evidently had
the range of this hill, and their first shells killed and
wounded several men. As the Spaniards used smoke-
less powder, it was very difficult to locate the position
of their pieces, while, on the contrary, the smoke caused
by our black powder plainly indicated the position of
Â«At this time the cavalry division, under General
Sumner, which was lying concealed in the general
vicinity of the El Pozo house, was ordered forward
with directions to cross the San Juan River and deploy
to the right on the Santiago side, while Kentâ€™s division
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 227
was to follow closely in its rear and deploy to the left.
These troops moved forward in compliance with orders,
but the road was so narrow as to render it impracticable
to retain the column of fours formation at all points,
while the undergrowth on both sides was so dense as
to preclude the possibility of deploying skirmishers.
It naturally resulted that the progress made was slow,
and the long-range rifles of the enemyâ€™s infantry killed
and wounded a number of our men while marching
along this road, and before there was any opportunity
to return this fire. At this time Generals Kent and
Sumner were ordered to push forward with all possible
haste, and place their troops in position to engage the
enemy. General Kent, with this end in view, forced
the head of his column alongside the cavalry column
as far as the narrow trail permitted, and thus hurried
his arrival at the San Juan, and the formation beyond
that stream. A few hundred yards before reaching the
San Juan, the road forks, a fact that was discovered
by Lieutenant-Colonel Derby of my staff, who had
approached well to the front in a war balloon. This
information he furnished to the troops, resulting in
Sumner moving on the right-hand road while Kent was
enabled to utilise the road to the left. General
Wheeler, the permanent commander of the cavalry
_ division, who had been ill, came forward during the
morning, and later returned to duty and rendered most
gallant and efficient service during the remainder of the
day. After crossing the stream the cavalry moved to
228 THE BOYS OF 798.
the right, with a view to connecting with Lawtonâ€™s left
when he would come up, with their left resting near
the Santiago road.
Â«In the meantime, Kentâ€™s division, with the exception |
of two regiments of Hawkinsâ€™s brigade, being thus
uncovered, moved rapidly to the front from the forks
previously mentioned in the road, utilising both trails,
but more especially the one to the left, and, crossing
the creek, formed for attack in the front of San Juan
Hill. During this formation the Third Brigade suffered
severely. While personally superintending this move-
ment its gallant commander, Colonel Wikoff, was
killed. .The command of the brigade then devolved
upon Lieutenant-Colonel Worth, Thirteenth Infantry,
who was soon severely wounded, and next upon Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Liscum, Twenty-fourth Infantry, who,
five minutes later, also fell under the terrible fire
of the enemy, and the command of the brigade then
devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Ewers of the Ninth
Â«Â« While the formation just described was taking place,
General Kent took measures to hurry forward his rear
brigade. The Tenth and Second Infantry were ordered
to follow Wikoffâ€™s brigade, while the Twenty-first was
sent on the right-hand road to support the First Brigade
under General Hawkins, whe had crossed the stream
and formed on the right of the division. The Second
and Tenth Infantry, Colonel E. P. Pearson commanding,
moved forward in good order on the left of the division,
THE ATTACK ON SAN JUAN HILL.
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 229
passing over a green knoll, and drove the enemy back
toward his trenches.
Â« After completing their formation under a destructive
fire, advancing a short distance, both divisions found in
their front a wide bottom, in which had been placed a
barbed-wire entanglement, and beyond which there was
a high hill, along the crest of which the enemy was
strongly posted. Nothing daunted, these gallant men
pushed. on to drive the enemy from his chosen position,
both divisions losing heavily. In this assault Colonel
Hamilton, Lieutenants Smith and Shipp were killed,
and Colonel Carroll, Lieutenants Thayer and Myer, all
in the cavalry, were wounded. Great credit is due to
Brigadier-General H. S. Hawkins, who, placing himself
between his regiments, urged them on by voice and
bugle-call to the attack so brilliantly executed.
Â«Tn this fierce encounter words fail to do justice to
the gallant regimental commanders and their heroic
men, for, while the generals indicated theÂ» formation
and the points of attack, it was, after all, the intrepid
bravery of the subordinate officers and men that planted
our colours on the crest of San Juan Hill and drove the
enemy from his trenches and blockhouses, thus gaining
a position which sealed the fate of Santiago.
â€œIn the action on this part of the field, most efficient
service was rendered by Lieutenant J. H. Parker, Thir-
teenth Infantry, and the Gatling gun detachment under
Â« The fighting continued at intervals until nightfall, but
230 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
our men held resolutely to the position gained at the
cost of so much blood and toil.
â€œOn the night of July 1st I ordered General Duffield,
at Siboney, to send forward the Thirty-fourth Michigan
and the Ninth Massachusetts, both of which had just
arrived from the United States.
Â« All day on the second the battle raged with more or
less fury, but such of our troops as were in position at
daylight held their ground, and Lawton gained a strong
and comtnanding position on the right. About ten Pp. M.
the enemy made a vigorous assault to break through my
lines, but he was repulsed at all points.
Â« On the morning of the third the battle was renewed,
but the enemy seemed to have expended his energy in
the assault of the previous night, and the firing along
the line was desultory.â€
Such is the official report of the battle before
Santiago, where were killed of the American forces
twenty-three officers, and 208 men; wounded eighty
officers, and 1,203 men; missing, eighty-one; total,
An account of any engagement is made more vivid by
a recital of those who participated in the bloody work,
since the commanding officer views the action as a
whole, and purely from a military standpoint, while the
private, who may know little or nothing regarding the
general outcome, understands full well what took place
immediately around him. Mr. W. K. Hearst, the pro-
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 231
prietor of the New York Journal, told the following
graphic story in the columns of his paper :
Â«T set out before daybreak this morning on horseback
with Honore Laine, who is a colonel in the Cuban army.
We rode over eight miles of difficult country which
intervenes between the army base, on the coast, and
the fighting line, which is being driven forward toward
Â« Pozo, as a position a our battery, was ill chosen.
The Spaniards had formerly occupied it as a fort, and
they knew precisely the distance to it from their guns,
and so began their fight with the advantage of a perfect
knowledge of the range.
â€œTheir first shell spattered shrapnel in a very unpleas-
ant way all over the tiled roof of the white house at the
back of the ridge. It was the doors of this house which
we were approaching for shelter, and later, when we
came to take our luncheon, we found that a shrapnel
ball had passed clean through one of our cans of pressed
beef which our pack-mule was carrying.
Â« We turned here to the right toward our battery on
the ridge. When we were half-way between the white
house and the battery, the second shell which the
Spaniards fired burst above the American battery, not
ten feet over the heads of our men. Six of our fellows
were killed, and sixteen wounded.
â€œThe men in the battery wavered for a minute ; then
rallied and returned to their guns, and the firing went
on. We passed from there to the right again, where
230 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
General Shafterâ€™s war balloon was ascending. Six
shells fell in this vicinity, and then our batteries ceased
Â«The smoke clouds from our guns were forming
altogether too plain a target for the Spaniards. There
was no trace to be seen of the enemyâ€™s batteries, by
reason of their use of smokeless powder.
â€œOff to the far right of our line of formation, Captain
Capronâ€™s artillery, which had come through from
Daiquiri without rest, could be heard banging away at
Caney. We had started with a view of getting where
we could observe artillery operations, so we directed
our force thither.
Â«We found Captain Capron blazing away with four
guns, where he should have had a dozen. He had be-
gun shelling Caney at four oâ€™clock in the morning. It
was now noon, and he was still firing. He was aiming
to reduce the large stone fort which stood on the hill
above the town and commanded it. Captain Oâ€™Connell
had laid a wager that the first shot of some one of the
four guns would hit the fort, and he had won his bet.
Since that time dozens of shells had struck the fort,
but it was not yet reduced. It had been. much weak-
Â« Through glasses our infantry could be seen advanc-
ing toward this fort. As the cannon at our side would
bang, and the shell would swish through the air with its
querulous, vicious, whining note, we would watch its
explosion, and then turn our attention to the little black
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 233
specks of infantry dodging in and out among the
groups of trees. Now they would disappear wholly
from sight in the brush, and again would be seen hurry-
ing along the open spaces, over the grass-covered
slopes, or across ploughed fields. The infantry firing
was ceaseless, our men popping away continuously, as
a string of firecrackers pops.
â€œThe Spaniards fired in volleys against our men.
Many times we heard the volley fire, and saw the brave
fellows pitch forward and lie still on the turf, while the
others hurried on to the next protecting clump of
Â«â€œ For hours the Spaniards had poured their fire from
slits in the stone fort, from their deep trenches, and
from the windows of the town. For hours our men
answered back from trees and brush and gullies. For
hours cannon at our side banged and shells screamed
through air and fell upon fort and town. Always our
infantry advanced, drawing nearer and closing up on
the village, till at last they formed under a group of
mangrove-trees at the foot of the very hill on which
the stone fort stood.
â€œWith a rush they swept up the slope and the stone
fort was ours. Then you should have heard the yells
that went up from the knoll on which our battery stood.
Gunners, drivers, Cubans, correspondents, swung their
hats and gave a mighty cheer. Immediately our bat-
tery stopped firing for fear we should hurt our own
men, and, dashing down into the valley, hurried across
234 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
to take up a position near the infantry, who were now
firing on Caney from the blockhouse. The town ar-
tillery had not sent half a dozen shots from its new
position before the musketry firing ceased, and the
Spaniards, broken into small bunches, fled from Caney
in the direction of Santiago.
Â« Laine and I hurried up to the stone fort and found
that James Creelman, a Journal correspondent with the
infantry column, had been seriously wounded and was
lying in the Twelfth Infantry hospital. Our men were
still firing an occasional shot, and from blockhouses
and isolated trenches, from which the Spaniards could
not safely retreat, flags of truce were waving.
â€œGuns and side-arms were being taken away from
such Spaniards as had outlived the pitiless fire, and
their dead were being dumped without ceremony into
the trenches, after the Spanish fashion.
Â«When I left the fort to hunt for Creelman, I found
him, bloody and bandaged, lying on his back on a
blanket on the ground, but shown all care and attention
that kindly and skilful surgeons could give him. His
first words to me were that he was afraid he could not
write much of a story, as he was pretty well dazed, but
if I would write for him he would dictate the best he
could. I sat down among the wounded, and Creelman
told me his story of the fight. Here it is:
Â«Â«The extraordinary thing in this fight of all the
fights I have seen, is the enormous amount of ammu-
nition fired. There was a continuous roar of musketry
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 235
from four oâ€™clock in the morning until four in the
Â«â€œÂ«Chaffeeâ€™s brigade began the fight by moving along
the extreme right, with Ludlow down in the low coun-
try to the left of Caney. General Chaffeeâ€™s brigade
consisted of the Seventeenth, Seventh, and Twelfth
Infantry, and was without artillery. It occupied the
triangle, Ludlow to the south, and Chaffee to the east.
Â«â€œÂ¢Ludlow began firing through the brush, and we
could see through the palm-trees and tangle of bushes
the brown and blue figures of our soldiers in a linea
mile long, stealing from tree to tree, bush to bush,
firing as they went.
Caney, moved his troops very early in the morning, and
the battle opened by Ludlowâ€™s artillery firing on the
fort and knocking several holes in it.
town, and finally demolished the fort. Several times
the Spaniards were driven from it, but each time they
returned before our infantry could approach it.
Â«Â¢ Our artillery had but four small guns, and, though
they fired with great accuracy, it was ten hours be-
fore they finally reduced the stone fort on the hill and
enabled our infantry to take possession.
â€œÂ¢The Twelfth Infantry constituted the left of our
attack, the Seventeenth held the right, while the
236 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Seventh, made up largely of recruits, occupied the
â€œÂ«The Spanish fired from loopholes in the stone
houses of the town, and, furthermore, were massed in
trenches on the east side of the fort. They fought
like devils. .
â€œÂ«From all the ridges round about the stream of fire
was kept up on Chaffeeâ€™s men, who were kept wonder-
ing how they were being wounded. For a time they
thought General Ludlowâ€™s men were on the opposite
side of the fort and were firing over it.
Â«The fact was the fire came from heavy breastworks
on the northwest corner of Caney, where the principal
Spanish force lay, with their hats on sticks to deceive
our riflemen. From this position the enemy poured in
a fearful fire. The Seventeenth had to lie down fat
under the pounding, but even then men were killed.
â€œGeneral Chaffee dashed about with his hat on the
back of his head like a magnificent cowboy, urging his
men on, crying to them to get in and help their country
win a victory. Smokeless powder makes it impossible
to locate the enemy, and you wonder where the fire
comes from. When you stand up to see you get a
â€œÂ«We finally located the trenches, and could see the
officers moving about urging their men. The enemy
was making a turning movement to the right. To turn
the left of the Spanish position it wasâ€™ necessary to
get a blockhouse, which held the right of our line.
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 237
General Chaffee detailed Captain Clark to approach
and occupy this blockhouse as soon as the artillery had
sufficiently harried its Spanish defenders.
â€œClark and Captain Haskell started up the slope.
I told them I had been on the ridge and knew the
condition of affairs, so I would show them the way.
Â« Â«We pushed right up to the trench around the fort,
and, getting out our wire-cutters, severed the barbed
wire in front of it. I jumped over the severed strand
and got into the trench.
Â« Â«Tt was a horrible, blood-splashed thing, and an
inferno of agony. Many men lay dead, with gleaming
teeth, and hands clutching their throats. Others were
crawling there alive.
Â«Â¢JT shouted to the survivors to surrender, and they
held up their hands.
Â«Then I ran into the fort and found there a Spanish
officer and four men alive, while seven lay dead in one
room. The whole floor ran with blood. Blood splashed
all the walls. It was a perfect hog-pen of butchery.
Â«Three poor wretches put their hands together in
supplication. One had a white handkerchief tied on
a stick. This he lifted and moved toward me. The
other held up his hands, while the third began to pray
Â«<Â«T took the guns from all three and threw them
outside the fort. Then I called some of our men and
put them in charge of the prisoners.
Â«J then got out of the fort, ran around to the other
238 THE BOYS OF 798.
side, and secured the Spanish flag. I displayed it to
our troops, and they cheered lustily.
â€œ Â«Just as I turned to speak to Captain Haskell I was
struck by a bullet from the trenches on the Spanish
Before five oâ€™clock, on the morning of July 2d, the
crew of the flag-ship Mew York was astir, eating a
At 5.50 general quarters was sounded, and the flag-
ship headed in toward Aguadores, about three miles
east of Morro Castle. The other ships retained their
blockading stations. Along the surf-beaten shore the
smoke of an approaching train from Altares was seen.
It was composed of open cars full of General Duffieldâ€™s
At a cutting a mile east of Aguadores the train
stopped, and the Cuban scouts proceeded along the
railroad track. The troops got out of the cars, and
soon formed in a long, thin line, standing out vividly
against the yellow rocks that rose perpendicularly
above, shutting them off from the main body of the
army, which was on the other side of the hill, several
From the quarter of the flag-ship there was a signal,
by a vigorously wigwagged letter, and a few minutes
later, from a clump of green at the waterâ€™s edge, came
an answer from the army. This was the first codpera-
tion for offensive purposes between the army and navy.
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS... 239
The landing of the army at Daiquiri and Altares was
purely a naval affair.
With the flag in his hand, the soldier ashore looked
like a butterfly.
Â« Are you waiting for us to begin?â€ was the signal
made by Rear-Admiral Sampson to the army.
â€œGeneral Duffield is ahead with the scouts,â€™ came
the answer from the shore to the flag-ship.
By this time it was seven a.m. The admiral ran the
flag-shipâ€™s bow within three-quarters of a mile of the
beach. She remained almost as near during the fore-
noon, and the daring way she was handled by Captain
Chadwick, within sound of the breakers, made the
Cuban pilot on board stare with astonishment.
The Suwanee was in company with the flag-ship,
still closer inshore, and the Gloucester was to the
westward, near Morro Castle. From the southward
the Vewark came up and took a position to the west-
ward. Her decks were black with fifteen hundred or
She went alongside of the flag-ship, and was told to
disembark the troops at Altares.
Then Admiral Sampson signalled to General Duffield:
â€œWhen do you want us to commence firing?â€
In a little while a white flag on shore sent back the
Â«When the rest of the command arrives; then I
will signal you.â€
It was a long and tedious wait for the ships before
240 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the second fiftyâ€™car-loads of troops came puffing along
By 9.30 the last of the soldiers had left the open
railroad tracks, disappearing in the thick brush that
covered the eastern side of Aguadores inlet,
The water in the sponge tubes under the breeches of
the big guns was growing hot in the burning sun.
Ashore there was no sign of the Spaniards, They
were believed to be on the western bluff.
Between the bluffs ran a rocky gully, leading into
Santiago City. On the extremity of the western arm
was an old castellated fort, from which the Spanish flag
was flying, and on the parapet on the eastern hill, com-
manding the gully, two stretches of red earth could
easily be seen against the brush. These were the
At 10.15 a signal-flag ashore wigwagged to Admiral
Sampson to commence firing, and a minute later the
New York's guns blazed away at the rifle-pits and at
the old fort.
The Suwzvanee and Gloucester joined in the firing.
Of our troops ashore in the brush nothing could be
seen, but the ping, ping, of the small arms of the army
floated out to sea during the occasional lull in the
firing of the big guns, which peppered the rifle-pits
until clouds of red earth rose above them.
An 8-inch shell from the Newark dropped in the
massive old fort, and clouds of white dust and huge
stones filled the air. When the small shells hit its
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 241
battlements, almost hidden by green creepers, frag-
ments of masonry came tumbling down. A shot from
the Swzanee hit the eastern parapet, and it crumbled
away. Amid the smoke and dÃ©bris, the flagstaff was
seen to fall forward.
â€œThe flag has been shot down!â€ shouted the shipâ€™s
crew, but, when the smoke cleared away, the emblem
of Spain was seen to be still flying and blazing bril-
liantly in the sun, though the flagstaff was bending
toward the earth.
A few more shots from the Swzwance levelled the
battlements until the old castle was a pitiful sight.
When the firing ceased, Lieutenant Delehanty of the
Suwanee was anxious to finish his work, so he signalled
to the Mew York, asking permission to knock down the
â€œYes,â€ replied Admiral Sampson, â€œif you can do it
in three shots.â€
The Suwanee then lay about sixteen hundred yards
from the old fort. She took her time. Lieutenant
Blue carefully aimed the 4-inch gun, and the crews of all
the ships watched the incident amid intense excitement.
When the smoke of the Suwaneeâ€™s first shot cleared
away, only two red streamers of the flag were left. The
shell had gone through the centre of the bunting.
A delighted yell broke from the crew of the Swzanee.
Two or three minutes later the Swzanee fired again,
and a huge cloud of dÃ©bris rose from the base of the
242 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
For a few seconds it was impossible to tell what had
been the effect of the shot. Then it was seen that the
shell had only added to the ruin of the fort.
The flagstaff seemed to have a charmed existence,
and the Suzvanee only had one charge left. It seemed
hardly possible for her to achieve her object with the
big gun, such a distance, and such a tiny target.
There was breathless silence among the watching
crews. They crowded on the shipsâ€™ decks, and all eyes
were on that tattered flag, bending toward the top of
what had once been a grand old castle. But it was
only bending, not yet down. Lieutenant-Commander
Delehanty and Lieutenant Blue took their time. The
Suwanee changed her position slightly.
Then a puff of smoke shot out from her side, up
went a shooting cloud of dÃ©bris from the parapet, and
down fell the banner of Spain.
Such yells from the flag-ship will probably never be
heard again. There was more excitement than wit-
nessed at the finish of a college boat-race, or a popular
race between first-class thoroughbreds on some big
The Swwaneeâ€™s last shot had struck right at the
base of the flagstaff, and had blown it clear of the
wreckage, which had held it from finishing its fall.
Â«Well done!â€â€™ signalled Admiral Sampson to Lieu-
At 11.30 General Duffield signalled that his scouts
reported that no damage had been done to the Spanish
ADMIRAL W. T. SAMPSON.
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 243
rifle-pits by the shells from the ships, and Admiral
Sampson told him they had been hit several times, but
that there was no one in the pits. However, the
Suwanee was ordered to fire a few more shots in their
At 12.18 p.m. the Mew York having discontinued
fire at Aguadores, commenced firing 8-inch shells
clear over the gully into the city of Santiago de Cuba.
Every five minutes the shells went roaring over the
hillside. What destruction they wrought it was im-
possible to tell, as the smoke hid everything. In reply
to General Duffieldâ€™s question :
Â«What is the news?â€
Admiral Sampson replied :
â€œThere is not a Spaniard left in the rifle-pits.â€
Later General Duffield signalled that his scouts
thought reinforcements were marching to the battered
old fort, and Admiral Sampson wigwagged him :
â€œThere is no Spaniard left there. If any come the
Gloucester will take care of them.â€
A little later the Oregon joined the New Vork in-
sending 8-inch shells into the city of Santiago. This
was kept up until 1.40 p.m. By that time General
Duffield had sent a message saying that his troops
could not cross the stream, but would return to Altares.
On the report that some Spanish troops were still
in the gully, the Mew Vork and Gloucester shelled it
once more, and the Mewark, which had not fired,
244 THE BOYS OF â€™98,
â€œCan I fire for target practice? Have had no
Permission for her to do so was signalled, and she
blazed away, shooting well, her 6-inch shells exploding
with remarkable force among the rocks,
At 2.40 p.m. Admiral Sampson hoisted the signal to
cease firing, and the flag-ship reuurncd to the blockad-
On the railroad a train-load of troops had already left
Mr. A. Maurice Low, of the Boston GloÃ©e, thus relates
his personal experience:
Â«When the fighting ceased on Friday evening, July
Ist, every man was physically spent, and needed food
and rest more than anything else. For a majority of
the troops there was a chance to cook bacon and make
coffee ; for the men of the hospital corps, the work of
the day was commencing. At convenient points hospi-
tals were established, and men from every company
were sent out to search the battle- ground for the dead
â€œIt is the men of the hospital corps who have the
ghastly side of war. There is never any popular glory
for them; there is no passion of excitement to sustain
them. The emotion of battle keeps a man up under
fire. Something in the air makes even a coward brave.
But all that is wanting when the surgÃ©ons go into
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 245
â€œMen come staggering into the hospital with blood
dripping from their wounds ; squads of four follow one
another rapidly, bearing stretchers and blankets, on
which are limp, motionless, groaning forms.
â€œTo those of us at home who are in the habit of
seeing our sick and injured treated with the utmost
consideration and delicacy, who see the poor and out-
cast and criminal put into clean beds and surrounded
with luxuries, the way in which the wounded on a
battle-field are disposed of seems barbarous in the
extreme. Of course it is unavoidable, but it is never-
Â« As soon as men were brought in they were at once
taken off the litters and placed on the bare ground.
Time was too precious, and there were too many men
needing attention for a soldier to monopolise a stretcher
until the surgeon could reach him.
Â«There was no shelter. The men lay on the bare
ground with the sun streaming down on them, many
of them suffering the greatest agony, and yet very few
giving utterance to a groan. Where I watched opera- .
tions for a time there was only one surgeon, who took
every man in his turn, and necessarily had to make
â€˜many of them wait a long time.
Â« And yet these men were much more fortunate than
many others, some of whom lay on the battle-field for
twenty-four hours before they were found. There was
no chloroform ; very little of anything to numb pain.
Painful gunshot wounds were dressed hastily, almost
246 THE BOYS OF â€™98,
roughly, until ambulances could be sent out to take
the men to the divisional hospitals in the rear.
â€œTt is claimed that the hospital arrangements were
inadequate, and that many regiments went into action
without a surgeon. From what I saw I think the
criticism to be justified. Naturally the wounded were
taken care of first, â€”the last duties to the dead could
be performed later.
â€œIt was ghastly as one moved over the battle-field to
come across an upturned face lying in a pool of blood,
to see what was once a man, bent, and twisted, and
doubled. And still more horrible was it as the moon-
light fell over the field, and at unexpected places one
ran against this fruit of war and saw faces in the pallor
of death made even more ghostlike by the light, while
the inevitable sea of crimson stood out in more startling
vividness by the contrast.
â€œWe had won the battle, but our position was a
somewhat precarious one.
â€œOur line was long and thin, and there was a danger
of the Spaniards breaking through and attacking us in
the rear or left flank. To guard against this possibility,
Lawtonâ€™s division at El Caney was ordered to move on
to El Pozo, and Kentâ€™s division was under orders to
draw in its left. The men who had fought at El Caney
were hoping to be allowed to sleep on the battle-field
and obtain the rest which they so badly needed, but
after supper they were placed under arms and the
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 247
â€œThe Seventh U. S. Infantry led. It was a weird
march. Immediately after leaving El Caney we crossed
an open field, a skirmish line was thrown out, and the
men were commanded to maintain absolute silence.
We were in the heart of the enemyâ€™s country, and
caution was necessary.
Â« After crossing this field we came to a deep gully
through which ran a swift stream almost knee-deep.
Our way led across this stream, and there was only
one means of getting over. That was to plunge in
and splash through. Tired as we all were, after getting
thoroughly wet our feet felt like lead, and marching
was perfect torture. Still there was no let-up.
Â« We pressed steadily forward until we came to where
the road forked off. Our directions had not been very
explicit, we had no maps, and our commander took the .
road which he thought was the right one. It soon led
between high banks of dense growth of chaparral on:
either side. The moon had disappeared behind the
clouds, and had the Spaniards wanted to ambuscade
us we were at their mercy.
Â«J will not say that we were nervous, exactly, but I
think we would all rather have been out of that lane.
- The fear that your enemy may be crouching behind
bushes, that you know nothing of his presence until
he pours a rifle fire into you, is rather trying on the
Â«The command was frequently halted for the officers
to consult, and after we had gone about a mile they
248 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
concluded they were on the wrong road, and went to
the right about. When we came out where we had
started we found Brigadier- General Chaffee sitting
silent on a big horse and watching a seemingly never-
ending line of men marching past him. We fell into
position and pushed on the road to Santiago.
â€œ How long we marched that night I cannot tell. It
seemed interminable. My watch had run down and no
one around me had the time. Finally we were ordered
to halt, and the men were told to stack arms, take off
their packs, and rest.
â€œ]T dropped my blanket roll, which seemed to me
weighed not less than two hundred pounds, on the
muddy road, and sat down to rest. The next thing
I knew some one tapped me on the shoulder. It was
three oâ€™clock, and I had been asleep for some hours.
The regiment was again under arms, and was receiving
ammunition from a pack-train which had come up from
the rear. We pressed on until early dawn, when we
were well in front of Santiago. Entrenchments were
hastily thrown up, and we were ready for the enemy.
The enemy did not give us much time for rest. They
made an assault upon our position early in the morning,
which we repulsed... .
â€œWhile the Spaniards were unable to dislodge us,
they succeeded in forcing our artillery back, which had
taken a position that subjected it to a withering infantry
fire. Later in the day this position was recovered and
entrenchments thrown up, which, it was claimed, made
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 249
the position impregnable. The guns were so placed
they could do tremendous destruction.
Â«There was a lull that afternoon, but in the evening
the Spaniards opened up an attack along our entire line,
with the intention, evidently, of taking us by surprise and
rushing us out of our entrenchments. But their purpose
was a failure.â€
General Lawton, in his report after the assault upon
and the capture of El Caney by his division during the
first dayâ€™s fighting, says:
â€œIt may not be out of place to call attention to this
peculiar phase of the battle.
â€œIt was fought against an enemy fortified and en-
trenched within a compact town of stone and concrete
houses, some with walls several feet thick, and sup-
ported by a number of covered solid stone forts, and
the enemy continued to resist until nearly every man
was killed or wounded, with a seemingly desperate
It was Sergeant McKinnery, of Company B, Ninth
Infantry, who shot and disabled General Linares, the
commander of the Spanish forces in Santiago. The
Spanish general was hit about an hour after San Juan
Hill was taken, during the first dayâ€™s fighting. The
American saw a Spaniard, evidently a general officer,
followed by his staff, riding frantically about the Spanish
position, rallying his men.
250 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
Sergeant McKinnery asked Lieutenant Wiserâ€™s per-
mission to try a shot at the officer, and greatly regretted
to find the request refused. Major Bole was consulted.
He acquiesced, with the injunction that no one else
should fire. Sergeant McKinnery slipped a shell into
his rifle, adjusted the sights for one thousand yards,
and fired. The shell fell short. Then he put in
another, raised the sights for another one thousand
yards, took careful aim, and let her go. The officer on
the white horse threw up his arms and fell forward.
Â«That is for Corporal Joyce,â€™ said McKinnery as he
saw that his ball had reached the mark. The officer on
the white horse was General Linares himself. It was
afterward learned that he was shot in the left shoulder.
He immediately relinquished the command to General
On the evening of July 3d, General Shafter sent
the following cablegram to the War Department :
â€œ HEADQUARTERS FirTH ARMy Corps,
Â«To-night my lines completely surrounded the town
from beyond the north of the city to point of San Juan
River on the south. The enemy holds from west bend
San Juan River at its mouth up the railroad to the city.
General Pando, I find to-night, is some distance away,
and will not get into Santiago.
(Signed) â€œ SHAFTER.â€
EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 251
July 4th Secretary Alger received the communication
Â« HEADQUARTERS FirtH ARMY CORPS, July 3.
Â«The following is my demand for the surrender of
the city of Santiago :
Â«<Â«FEaADQUARTERS U. S. FORCES, NEAR San JUAN
River, Cusa, July 3, 1898, 8.30 A. M.
Â«â€œ<Â«To THE COMMANDING GENERAL OF THE SPANISH
Forces, Santiago de Cuba.
Â«â€œÂ« Sjy:â€”JI shall be obliged, unless you surrender, to
shell Santiago de Cuba. Please inform the citizens of
foreign countries and all women and children that they
should leave the city before ten oâ€™clock to-morrow
morning. Very respectfully,
Â«Â¢Vour obedient servant,
Â«Â¢W. R. SHAFTER,
Â«â€œÂ« Major-General, U. S. Av
Â« Following is the Spanish reply which Colonel Dorst
has returned at 6.30 P.M:
Â«SANTIAGO DE CuBA, 2 P. M., July 3, 1898.
Â«Â¢His EXxcELLENCY, THE GENERAL COMMANDING
Forces or Unitep States, San Juan River.
Â«â€œ<Â« Sir: â€”I have the honour to reply to your com-
munication of to-day, written at 8.30 A.M. and received
at 1 p.., demanding the surrender of this city; on the
252 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
contrary case announcing to me that you will bombard
this city, and that I advise the foreigners, women, and
children that they must leave the city before ten oâ€™clock
to-morrow morning. It is my duty to say to you that
this city will not surrender, and that I will inform the
foreign consuls and inhabitants of the contents of your
â€œÂ« Commander-in-chief, Fourth Corps.
â€œThe British, Portuguese, Chinese, and Norwegian
consuls have come to my line with Colonel Dorst.
They ask if non-combatants can occupy the town of
Caney and railroad points, and ask until ten oâ€™clock of
fifth instant before city is fired on. They claim that
there are between fifteen thousand and twenty thousand
people, many of them old, who will leave. They ask
if I can supply them with food, which I cannot do for
want of transportation to Caney, which is fifteen miles
from my landing. The following is my reply:
Â« Â«Santiago de Cuba.
â€œÂ« S7r:â€”In consideration of the request of the
consuls and officers in your city for delay in carrying
out my intention to fire on the city, and in the interest
of the poor women and children, who will suffer very
greatly by their hasty and enforced departure from the
' EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 253
city, I have the honour to announce that I will delay
such action solely in their interest until noon of the
fifth, providing, during the interval, your forces make
no demonstration whatever upon those of my own. I
am, with great respect,
Â«â€œÂ¢Vour obedient servant,
Â«Â«W. R. SHAFTER,
Â«<Â¢ Major-General U. S. A?
(Signed) Â« SHAFTER,
â€œ Major-General Commanding.â€
THE SPANISH FLEET.
â€œ Donâ€™t cheer ; the poor devils are dying.â€
T was Sunday morning (July 3d), and the American
squadron, lay off Santiago Harbour intent only on
blockade duty. No signs of life were visible about old
Morro. Beyond and toward the city all was still. After
two days of fighting the armies of both nations were
resting in their trenches.
The fleet had drifted three miles or more from the
land. The battleship MMJassachusetts, the protected
cruiser Mew Orleans, and Commodore Watsonâ€™s flag-
ship, the cruiser Mewark, were absent, coaling fifty
miles or more away.
Shortly before nine oâ€™clock Admiral Sampson, desir-
ing to ascertain the exact condition of the Spanish
coast defences about Aguadores, ordered the flag-ship
to go that way, and after flying the signal, â€œ Disregard
the motions of the commander-in-chief,â€ the Mew York
steamed leisurely off to the eastward.
The little Gloucester lay nearest the shore; the Viren
was opposite in a straight line, and to-the eastward of
her about five miles. A mile or less from the Gloucester,
THE SPANISH FLEET. 255
to the seaward, was the /udiana. Nearly as far from
the latter ship, and southeast of her, lay the Oregon.
The /owa was the outermost ship of the fleet, lying
four miles from the harbour entrance ; next her, to the
eastward, each vessel slightly nearer inshore, were the
Texas and the Brooklyn in the order named.
Shoreward, inside the harbour, could be seen a long
line of black smoke. On board the fleet religious
services were being held, but the lookouts of every
ship were at their stations. ,
Suddenly, at about half past nine, a dark hull was
seen coming out past the point of the harbour, and
instantly all was seemingly confusion on the big fight-
â€œThe enemy is escaping,â€ was the signal run up on
Commodore Schleyâ€™s flag-ship, and within a few seconds
the roar of a 6-pounder on the /owa broke the stillness
of the Sabbath morning.
It was as if every American vessel was put in motion
at the same instant, and even as the flag-shipâ€™s signal
appeared, the clouds of dense smoke from their stacks
told that the men in the furnace-rooms had already
begun their portion of the task so unexpectedly set for
all the fleet.
John R. Spear, author of â€œThe History of our
Navy,â€ who was with Sampsonâ€™s fleet, wrote this com-
plete story of the marvellous naval battle off Santiago
and along the southern shore of Cuba, for the World:
Â«The enemy was first seen at 9.30, and at 9.32 the
256 THE BOYS OF 798.
men of the American batteries were standing erect
and silent beside their loaded guns, waiting for the
order to commence firing, and watching out of the
corners of their eyes the boys who were still sprinkling
the decks with sand that no oneâ€™s foot might slip when
blood began to flow across the planks. â€”
Â« But though silence prevailed among the guns, down
in the sealed stoke-hole the click and ring of the shovels
that sprayed the coal over the glowing grate-bars, the
song of the fans that raised the air pressure, and
the throb of pump and engine made music for the
whole crew, for the steam-gauges were climbing, and
the engineers were standing by the wide-open throttles
as the ships were driven straight at the enemy.
â€œFor, as it happened, the Zeras had been lying di-
rectly off the harbour, and a little more than two miles
away the /owa was but a few lengths farther out and to
the westward, while Capt. Jack Philip of the one, and
â€˜Fighting Bobâ€™ Evans of the other, were both on
deck when the cry was raised announcing the enemy.
Hastening to their bridges, they headed away at once
for the Spaniards, while the Oregon and the Brooklyn
went flying to westward to intercept the leader.
â€œThe mightiest race known to the history of the
world, and the most thrilling, was begun.
Â« They were all away in less time than it has taken the
reader to get thus far in the story, and in much less
time still,â€” indeed, before the gongs in the engine-
rooms of the Yankee ships had ceased to vibrate
CAPTAIN R. D. EVANS.
THE SPANISH FLEET. CCE
under the imperative order of â€˜Ahead, full speed!â€™
â€”the Almirante Oquendo, fugitive as she was, had
opened the battle. With impetuous haste, and while yet
more than two miles away, the Spaniard pointed one of
his long 11-inch hontoria rifles in the direction of
the Zeras and pulled the lanyard. The shell came
shrieking out to sea, but to sea only.
â€œInstantly the great guns of the Morro, 180 feet
above the water, and those of the Socapa battery,
lying higher still, with all the batteries beneath those
two, began to belch and roar as their crews strove with
frantic energy to aid the flying squadron.
Â« Now, it was about three minutes from the appearance
of the first Spaniard to the firing of the first American
â€œIn these three minutes the distance between the
squadrons was lessened by at least a mile, â€” the range
was not more than two thousand yards.
Â«But while two thousand yards is the range (about
one and one-sixth miles) selected for great gun target
practice, it will never do for an eager fight, and as the
trend of the land still headed the Spanish off to south-
ward, the battle-ships were able to reduce the range to
fifteen hundred yards before they were obliged to head
a course parallel with the Spaniards.
Â« Meantime the Oregon and the Brooklyn, as they were
stretching away toward the coast, had opened fire also,
and then the last of the big Spaniards, the /nfanta
Maria Teresa, having rounded the point, the magnifi-
258 THE BOYS OF 798,
cent spectacle of a squadron battle on the open sea â€”
of a battle between four of the best modern armed
cruisers on the Spanish side, against three battle-ships
and an armoured cruiser on our side â€” was spread out
Â« And their best was the worst struggle the world
ever saw, for it was a struggle to get out of range
while firing with hysterical vehemence their unaimed
Â«The first shot from the American ships fell short,
and a second, in like fashion, dropped into the sea. At
that the gunner said things to himself under his breath
(it was in the forward turret of the /oza), and tried it
Â«For a moment after it the cloud of gun smoke
shrouded the turret, but as that thinned away the eager Â©
crew saw the 12-inch shell strike into the hull of the
Lifanta Marta Teresa. Instantly it exploded with
tremendous effect. Flame and smoke belched from
the hole the shell had made, and puffed from port and
hatch. And then in the wake of the driven blast rolled
up a volume of flame-streaked smoke that showed the
woodwork had taken fire and was burning fiercely all
over the after part of the stricken ship.
â€œThe yell that rose from the Yankee throats at that
sight swelled to a roar of triumph a moment later, for
as he saw that smoke, the captain of the Zeresa threw
her helm over to port, and headed her for the rocky
beach. The one shell had given a mortal wound.
THE SPANISH FLEET. 259
Â« And then came Wainwright of the Maine, â€” Lieut.-
Commander Richard Wainwright, who for weeks con-
ducted the weary search for the dead bodies of ship-
mates on the wreck in the harbour of Havana. He
was captain of the Gloucester, that was once known as
the yacht Corsair. A swift and beautiful craft she, but
only armed with lean 6-pounders.
Â«Â« Ahead, full speed,â€™ said Wainwright.
Â« And fortune once more favoured the brave, for in the
wake of the mighty Maria Teresa came Spainâ€™s two big
torpedo-boats, called destroyers, because of their size,
â€”the Pluton and the Furor. Either was more than a
match for the Gloucester, for one carried two 12-
pounders, and the other two 14-pounders, besides the
6-pounders that both carried.
â€œMoreover, both overmatched the speed of the
Gloucester by at least ten knots per hour. But both
had thin-plated sides. The shells of the Gloucester
could pierce them, and at them went Wainwright, with
the memory of that night in Havana uppermost in his
â€œThe two boats â€”even the whole Spanish fleet â€”
were still within easy range of the Spanish forts, and to
_ reach his choice of enemies the Gloucester was obliged
to risk not only the land fire, but that of the Vzecaya
and the Zeresa. Nevertheless, as the torpedo-boats
steered toward the Brooklyn, evidently bound to tor-
pedo her, Wainwright headed them off, and they never
got beyond range of the forts.
260 THE BOYS OF 798.
Â«The shots they threw at him outweighed his three
to one, but theirs flew wild, and his struck home.
Â«The day of the destroyers was done. As the big
Maria Teresa turned toward the shore, these two
destroyers, like stricken wild fowl, fled fluttering and
splashing in the same direction, and they floundered as
Â«While the /zfanta Maria Teresa was on fire, and
running for the beach, her crew was still working their
guns, and the big Vizcaya was handily by to double the
storm of projectiles she was hurling at the /owa and
â€œTt was not that the Vzzcayaâ€™s crew were manfully
striving to protect the Zevesa; they were making the
snarling, clawing fight of a lifetime to escape the relent-
less Yankees that were closing upon them. For both
the Zexras and the /owa had the range, and it was only
when the smoke of their own guns blinded them that
their fire was. withheld, or a shot went astray.
Â«The Jowa and the Zexas had headed off both the
Vizcaya and the [nfanta Maria Teresa, while the [udz-
ana was coming with tremendous speed to join them.
Â«And then came the finishing stroke. A 12-inch
shell from the 7Zeras went crashing into the stoke-hole,
and the Vizcaya, â€”the ship whose beauty and power
once thrilled the hearts of New Yorkers with mingled
pleasure and fear â€” was mortally wounded. Hope
was gone, and with helm aport she headed away for the
beach, as her consort had done.
THE SPANISH FLEET. 261
â€œThe battle had opened on our side at 9.33 oâ€™clock,
and at 9.58 two of the magnificent armoured cruisers of
the Spanish navy were quivering, flaming wrecks on the
Cuban beach, with the 7exas rounding to less than a
. thousand yards away off the stern of the Vzzcaya.
Â«For a moment the Zexas tarried there to let the
smoke clear, and to see accurately the condition of
the enemy, but while her gunners were taking aim for
a final broadside a half-naked quartermaster on the Vzz-
caya, with clawing hands on the halliards, hauled down
the fever-hued ensign from her peak and hoisted the
white flag instead.
Â«â€œ Â«Cease firing!â€™ commanded Captain Jack Philip of
â€œSo far as the zzcaya and the /nfanta Maria Teresa
were concerned, the battle â€”and for that matter the
war â€” was ended.
â€œHuge volumes of black smoke, edged with red
flame, rolled from every port and shot hole of the Vzz-
caya, as from the Teresa. They were both furnaces of
glowing fire. Though they had come from the harbour
to certain battle, not a wooden bulkhead, nor a parti-
tion in the quarters either of officers or men had been
taken out, nor had trunks and chests been sent ashore.
Neither had the wooden decks nor any other wooden
fixtures been prepared to resist fire. Apparently the
crew had not even wet down the decks.
Â«But the Zeras tarried at this gruesome scene only
for a moment. They wished only to make sure that
262 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the two Spaniards were really out of the fight, and
when they saw the /owa was going to stand by both,
away they went to join the race between the Brooklyn
and the Oregon on our side, and the Cristobal Colon
and Almirante Oquendo on the other.
â€œIn spite of the original superior speed on the part
of the Spaniards, and in spite of the delay on the part
of the Zexas, the Spaniards were not yet wholly out of
range, though the Crzstobal Colon was reaching away at
a speed that gave the Spanish shore forces hope.
â€œUnder battened hatches the Yankee firemen,
stripped to their trousers, plied their shovels and
raised the steam-gauges higher. The Yankee ships
were grass-grown and barnacled, but now they were
driven as never before since their trial trips. The
Spaniards had called us pigs, but Nemesis had turned
us into spear-armed huntsmen in chase of game that
neither tusks nor legs could save.
_ For while the Colox was showing a speed that was
the equal at least of our own Brooklyn, long-headed
Commodore Schley saw that she was hugging the
coast, although a point of land loomed in the distance
to cut her off or drive her out to sea.
â€œInstead of striving to close in on the Spaniards,
Schley headed straight for that point, â€” took the short-
est cut for it, so to speak,â€”and in that way drew
steadily ahead of the Colon, leaving to the Oregon and
Texas the task of holding the Spaniards from turning
out across the Brooklynâ€™s stern.
THE SPANISH FLEET. 263
â€œIt was a splendid piece of strategy, well worthy of
the gallant officer, and it won.
Â«The task of the battle-ships was well within their
powers. It is not without reason that both the Oregon
and the Zerxas are the pride of the nation as well as of
â€œThe Oregon and the Brooklyn had hurled a relent-
less fire at the flying Spaniards, and it had told on
the Almirante Oquendo with increasing effect.
â€œFor the Oregon was fair on the Oguendoâ€™s beam,
and there was not enough armour on any Spanish ship
to stop the massive 13-inch projectiles the ship from
the Pacific was driving into her with unerring aim.
Â«At ten oâ€™clock sharp the Ogwendo was apparently
still fore and aft, but within five minutes she wavered
and lagged, and a little later, flag-ship though she was,
she put her helm to port, as her consorts had done, and
fled for life to the beach.
â€œThe Zeras was coming with unflagging speed astern,
and off to the east could be seen the flag-ship of
Admiral Sampson racing as never before to get a
shot in at the finish. An auxiliary had been sent by
Commodore Schley to call her, and it had met her
coming at the call of the guns of the Spanish fleet.
She had overhauled and passed the /zdiana long since,
and was well-nigh abreast of the Zexas. So the Oregon,
in order to vie with the Mew York in the last of the
mighty race, abandoned the Oguendo to her fate and
stretched away after the Cristobal Colon.
264 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
- â€œSome of the crew who looked back saw the Zexas
bring to near the Ogwendo, and then the sea trembled
under the impulse of a tremendous explosion on board
the doomed Spaniard, while a vast volume of smoke
filled with splintered wreck rose in the air. Had they
been near enough they would have heard the crew of the
Texas start in to cheer, and have heard as well the voice
of Captain Philip say, as he raised his hand to check it:
â€œDonâ€™t cheer; the poor devils are dying,â€
â€œOnly a man fit to command could have had that
â€œThe battle was well-nigh over. But one ship of the
Spanish squadron remained, and she was now in the
last desperate struggle, â€”the flurry of a monster of
the deep. Her officers peered with frowning brows
through gilded glasses at the Brooklyn forging ahead
far off their port bow; at the Oregon within range off
the port quarter; at the Mew York just getting the
range with her beautiful 8-inch rifles astern. They
shivered in unison with the quivering hulk as shot
after shot struck home. They screamed at their crews
and stamped and fumed. At the guns their crews
worked with drunken desperation, but down in the
stoke-hole the firemen plied their shovels with a will
and a skill that formed the most surprising feature of
the Spanish side of the battle. Because of them this
was a race worthy of the American mettle, for it put
to the full test the powers of the men of the three
ships in chase.
THE SPANISH FLEET. 265
â€œTn the open sea they might have led the Yankees
for an hour or more beyond, but the strategy of Schley
had cut them off, and yet it was not until 1.15 oâ€™clock
â€”three hours and three-quarters after the first gun of
the Oguendoâ€”that the Colonâ€™s gallant captain lost all
hope, and, from a race to save the ship, turned to the
work of destroying her, so that we should not be able
to float the stars and stripes above her.
â€œThe Oregon had drawn up abeam of her, and was
about a mile away. The shots from the Mew York
astern were beginning to tell, and those from the
Brooklyn had all along been smiting her in the face.
' Â« Baffled and beaten she turned to the shore, ran hard
aground near Tarquino Point, fifty miles from Santiago,
and then hauled down her flag.
â€œThe most powerful sea force that ever fought under
the American flag had triumphed ; the most remarkable
race in the history of the world was ended.â€
On board the flag-ship Vew York is published a tiny
daily newspaper, 4 x 7 inches in size, with the name
Â«Squadron Bulletinâ€ on the title-page. Following is
the account of the destruction of the Spanish fleet as
given in that publication :
Â«This is a red-letter day for. the American navy, as
dating the entire destruction of Admiral Cerveraâ€™s for-
midable fleet; the J/ufanta Maria Teresa, Vizcaya,
Oquendo, Cristobal Colon, and the deep-sea torpedo-
boats Furor and Pluton.
Â« The flag-ship had started from her station about nine
266 THE BOYS OF 98.
to go to Siboney, whence the admiral had proposed
going for a consultation with General Shafter; the
_other ships, with the exception of the Massachusetts
and Szwanee, which had, unfortunately, gone this
motning to Guantanamo for coal, were in their usual
positions, viz. beginning at the east, the Gloucester,
Indiana, Oregon, lowa, Texas, Brooklyn, and Vixen.
Â«When about two miles off from Altares Bay, and
about four miles east of her usual position, the Spanish
fleet was observed coming out and making westward in
the following order: /nfanta Maria Teresa (flag), Viz-
caya, Cristobal Colon, Almirante Oquendo, Furor, and
Â«They were at once engaged by the ships nearest,
and the result was. practically established in a very
short time. The heavy and rapid shell fire was very
destructive to both ships and men. The cruisers /z-
fanta Maria Teresa, Almirante Oquendo, and Vizcaya
were run ashore in the order named, afire and burning
fiercely. The first ship was beached at Nima, nine and
one-half miles west of the port; the second at Juan
Gonzalez, six miles west; the third at Acerraderos,
fifteen miles. The torpedo-boat destroyers were both
sunk, one near the beach, the other in deep water about
three miles west of the harbour entrance.
â€œThe remaining ship, the Cristobal Colon, stood on
and gave a long chase of forty-eight miles, in which
the Brooklyn, Oregon, Texas, Vixen, and New York
took part. The Colon is reputed by her captain to
THE DESTRUCTION OF CERVERAâ€™S FLEET.
THE SPANISH FLEET. 267
have been going at times as much as seventeen and a
half knots, but they could not keep this up, chiefly on
account of the fatigue of her men, who, many of them,
had been ashore at Santiago the day before, and had
been, while there, long without food; her average speed
was actually thirteen and seven-tenths knots, the ship
leaving the harbour at 9.43 A.M. and reaching Rio
Tarquino (forty-eight miles from Santiago entrance)
Â«She was gradually forced in toward the shore, and,
seeing no chance of an escape from so overwhelming a
force, the heavy shells of the Ovegon already dropping
around and beyond her, she ran ashore at Rio Tarquino
and hauled down her flag.
Â« She was practically uninjured, but her sea-valves
were treacherously opened, and in spite of all efforts
she gradually sank, and now lies near the beach in
water of moderate depth. It is to be hoped that she
may beâ€™ floated, as she was far the finest ship of the
squadron. All her breech plugs were thrown overboard
after the surrender, and the breech-blocks of her
Mauser rifles thrown away.
Â«The flag-ship remained at Rio Tarquino until eleven
Pp. M., and then returned to Santiago. The Teras, Oregon,
and Vixen remained by the prize. Commodore second
in command of fleet, Captain de Navio of the first class,
Don Jose de Paredes y Chacon, Captain de Navio Don
Emilio Moreu, commanding the Colon, and Teniente de
Navio Don Pablo Marina y Briengas, aid and secretary
268 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
to the commodore, were taken on board the Mew York,
The 525 men of the crew of the Colon were placed
aboard the Resolute, which came from Santiago to
report sighting a Spanish armoured cruiser, which
turned out to be the Austrian Maria Teresa. The
other officers were placed aboard the Resolute and
Â« Admiral Cervera and many of his officers were taken
off the shore by the Gloucester, and transferred to the
Towa, which ship had already taken off many from the
Vizcaya; thirty-eight officers and 238 men were on
board the /owa, and seven officers and 203 men were
aboard the /udiana.
Â« All these were in a perfectly destitute condition,
having been saved by swimming, or having been taken
from the water by our boats. Admiral Cervera was in
a like plight. He was received with the usual honours
when he came aboard, and was heartily cheered by the
The Independence Day number is very brief. It
announces that the prisoners are to be sent north on
the Harvard and St. Louis ; that they number 1,750;
that the dead among the Spanish ships were over six
hundred; that General Pando had reached Santiago
with five thousand men; that the Brooklyn and Marble-
head had gone to Guantanamo to overhaul and coal,
and then tells of the Rezaa Mercedesâ€™s skirmish on that
day, saying :
U. S. S. INDIANA,
THE SPANISH FLEET. 269
â€œJust before midnight of this date the Massachusetts,
which was in front of the port with her search-light up
to the entrance, reported an enemyâ€™s vessel coming out,
and she and the Zexas fired a number of shots in the
direction of the harbour mouth. The batteries also
opened, and a number of shell fell at various points, the
attention paid by the batteries to the ships being gen-
eral. The /zdiana was struck on the starboard side of
the quarter-deck by a mortar shell, which exploded on
reaching the second deck near the ward-room ladder ;
it caused a fire which was quickly extinguished. This
was the first accident of the kind to the fleet. The ves-
sel inside turned out to be the Reina Mercedes, which
was sunk on the east edge of the channel just by the
Estrella battery. She heads north, and is canted over
to port with her port rail under water. She does not
appear to obstruct the channel.â€
The issue of July 5th is of greater interest :
Â« Mention of the presence of the torpedo-boat Erics-
son, on the third instant, was unfortunately omitted.
She was in company with a flag-ship, and turned at
once upon sighting the enemy. As she was drawing
away from the Mew York she signalled, asking permis-
sion to continue in chase, but she was directed to pick
up two men in the water, which she did, and on reach-
ing the Vizcaya she was directed by the /owa, the
flag-ship having gone ahead, to assist in the rescue of
the Vizcayaâ€™s crew. She took off eleven officers and
ninety men. The guns of the Vzzcaya during the oper-
270 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
ation were going off from the heat, and explosions
were frequent, so that the work was trying and perilous
for the boats of the two vessels (owa and Ericsson)
Â«The former report from the army, which was offi-
cial, regarding General Pandoâ€™s entry into Santiago,
was. an error. General Shafter thought that he had
been enabled to form a junction, but some few of his
men only had been able to do so; the general himself
and his remaining force, it is thought, will not be
Â« The day was an uneventful one from a naval stand-
point. The flag-ship went to the wrecks of the /ufanta
Maria Teresa and the Almirante. The former lies in
an easy position on sand, and with almost her normal
draught of water. She is, of course, completely burned
out inside above her protective deck, but the shell of
her hull seems very good, and her machinery is probably
not seriously injured.
â€œIt looks very much as if she were salvable. The
Almirante was much worse of. She had been sub-
jected to a much heavier gun fire, being racked and
torn in every part; she is much more out of water,
and the forward part is much distorted and torn by the
explosion of her magazine and torpedoes. The loss of
life was very great. Charred bodies are strewn every-
where, the vicinity of the port forward torpedo-room,
particularly, was almost covered. The torpedo exploded
in the tube; it may be bya shot. This is a question
THE SPANISH FLEET, 271
which it is hoped may be conclusively decided. The
fact of so many bodies being about would seem to bear
this out, but two of her crew, taken off the beach this
afternoon, were questioned, and both stated that it was
the result of fire, and that the number of bodies is to
be accounted for by the fact that the operating-room is
just below, and that many wounded came up that far
and were suffocated. The two men were intelligent
young fellows, and talked freely. They said that the
_ gun fire was such that it was impossible to keep
the men at the guns. One was a powder passer, the
other at a 57-mm gun. In the forward turret were two
officers and five men, evidently killed by the entry of a
6-pounder shell between the top of the turret and the
gun shield. Altogether the ship was a most striking ~
instance of what rapid and well-directed gun fire may
accomplish. She was terribly battered about.
â€œWhile the flag-ship was lying near the Almirante,
and her steam cutter was alongside, and a small boat
from the press tug Aercules lying on the starboard
quarter, a shell exploded in a 15-centimetre gun, and
a piece went through the tugâ€™s boat, cutting it in two ;
the man in the boat was not hurt. It is somewhat
_ extraordinary that this shell should have waited so long
to act, as the after part of the ship was generally well
cooled off. There was still much heat and some flames
about the bow. One extraordinary fact is the survival,
in proper shape, of many powder grains, baked hard ;
several of these were picked up about the deck.
ae THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Â« A board has been ordered by the commander-in-
chief to report in detail upon the stranded ships.â€
On the fifteenth of July Admiral Sampson made his
official report, which is given in full :
â€œU. S. Fracssie New Yors, First Rate, OFF
SANTIAGO DE CuBa, Cua, July 15, 1898.
Â« Siv:â€”â€”I have the honour to make the following
report upon the battle with and the destruction of the
Spanish squadron, commanded by Admiral Cervera, off
Santiago de Cuba, on Sunday, July 3, 1898:
Â«2, The enemyâ€™s vessels came out of the harbour
between 9.35 and 10 a.M., the head of the column
appearing around Cay Smith at 9.31, and emerging
from the channel five or six minutes later.
Â«3. The positions of the vessels of my command
off Santiago at that moment were as follows: The flag-
ship New York was four miles east of her blockading
station and about seven miles from the harbour en-
trance. She had started for Siboney, where I had
intended to land, accompanied by several of my staff,
and go to the front to consult with General Shafter.
A discussion of the situation, and a more definite under-
standing between us of the operations proposed, had
been rendered necessary by the unexpectedly strong
resistance of the Spanish garrison at Santiago.
Â«Thad sent my chief of staff on shore the day
before to arrange an interview with General Shafter,
THE SPANISH FLEET. 273
who had been suffering from heat prostration. I made
arrangements to go to his headquarters, and my flag-
ship was in the position mentioned above when the
Spanish squadron appeared in the channel.
Â«The remaining vessels were in or near their usual
blockading positions, distributed in a semicircle about
the harbour entrance, counting from the eastward to
the westward in the following order: The J/ndiana,
about a mile and a half from shore, the Oregon, â€”
the Vew York's place between these two, â€” the Jowa,
Texas, and Brooklyn, the latter two miles from the shore
west of Santiago.
Â«The distance of the vessels from the harbour
entrance was two and a half to four miles, â€”the latter
being the limit of day blockading distance. The length
of the arc formed by the ships was about eight miles.
â€œ The Massachusetts had left at four a.m. for Guan-
tanamo for coal. Her station was between the Jozwa
and Zeras. The auxiliaries, Gloucester and Vixen, lay
close to the land and nearer the harbour entrance than
the large vessels, the Gloucester to the eastward and
the Vzxrenx to the westward.
â€œThe torpedo-boat Evzcsson was in company with
the flag-ship, and remained with her during the chase
~until ordered to discontinue, when she rendered very
efficient service in rescuing prisoners from the burning
Vizcaya. I enclose a diagram showing approximately
the positions of the vessels as described above.
â€œ4. The Spanish vessels came rapidly out of the
274 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
harbour, at a speed estimated at from eight to ten knots,
- and in the following order: /nzfanta Maria Teresa (flag-
ship), Vizcaya, Cristobal Colon, and the Almzrante
â€œThe distance between these ships was about eight
hundred yards, which means that, from the time the
first one became visible in the upper reach of the chan-
nel until the last one was out of the harbour, an interval
of only about twelve minutes elapsed.
â€œFollowing the Ogwendo, at a distance of about
twelve hundred yards, came the torpedo-boat destroyer
Pluton, and after her came the Furor. The armoured
cruisers, as rapidly as they could bring their guns to
bear, opened a vigorous fire upon the blockading ves-
sels, and emerged from the channel shrouded in the
smoke from their guns.
Â«e. The men of our ships in front of the port were
at Sunday â€˜quarters for inspection.â€™ The signal was
given simultaneously from several vessels, â€˜Enemyâ€™s
ships escaping,â€™ and general quarters were sounded.
The men cheered as they sprang to their guns, and
fire was opened, probably within eight minutes, by the
vessels whose guns commanded the entrance.
â€œThe Wew York turned about and steamed for the
escaping fleet, flying the signal, â€˜Close in toward
harbour entrance and attack vessels,â€™ and gradually
increasing speed until toward the end of the chase she
was making sixteen and one-half knots, and was rapidly
closing on the Cristobal Colon.
U. S. S, OREGON,
THE SPANISH FLEET. 275
Â« She was not, at any time, within the range of the
heavy Spanish ships, and her only part in the firing was
to receive the undivided fire from the forts in pass-
ing the harbour entrance, and to fire a few shots at
one of the destroyers, thought at the moment to be
attempting to escape from the Gloucester.
Â«6, The Spanish vessels, upon clearing the harbour,
turned to the westward in column, increasing their
speed to the full power of their engines. The heavy
blockading vessels; which had closed in toward the
Morro, at the instant of the enemyâ€™s appearance, and
at their best speed, delivered a rapid fire, well sus-
tained and â€˜destructive, which speedily overwhelmed
and silenced the Spanish fire.
â€œThe initial speed of the Spaniards carried them
rapidly past the blockading vessels, and the battle
developed into a chase in which the Brooklyn and
Texas had at the start the advantage of position. The
Brooklyn maintained this lead.
â€œThe Oregon, steaming with amazing speed from the
commencement of the action, took first place. The
Towa and the /ndiana having done good work, and not
having the speed of the other ships, were directed by
me, in succession, at about the time the Vizcaya was
â€œbeached, to drop out of the chase and resume blockad-
ing stations. These vessels rescued many prisoners.
The Viren, finding that the rush of the Spanish ships
would put her between two fires, ran outside of our own
column and remained there during the battle and chase.
276 THE BOYS OF 98.
Â«7, The skilful handling and gallant firing of the
Gloucester excited the admiration of every one who
witnessed it, and merits the commendation of the Navy
Department. She is a fast and entirely unprotected
auxiliary vessel, â€” the yacht Corsair, â€”and has a good
battery of light rapid-fire guns.
Â«She was lying about two miles from the harbour
entrance to the southward and eastward, and im-
mediately steamed in, opening fire upon the large
Â« Anticipating the appearance of the Plutow and
Furor, the Gloucester was slowed, thereby gaining more
rapidly a high pressure of steam, and whenâ€™the destroy-
ers came out she steamed for them at full speed and
was able to close at short range, where her fire was
accurate, deadly, and of great volume.
Â«During this fight the Gloucester was under the fire
of the Socapa battery. Within twenty minutes from
the time they emerged from Santiago Harbour the
careers of the Furor and the P/uton were ended, and
two-thirds of their people killed. The Furor was
beached and sunk in the surf; the P/wton sank in deep
water a few minutes later. The destroyer probably
suffered much injury from the fire of the secondary
batteries of the battle-ships Jowa, Judiana, and the
Texas, yet I think a very considerable factor in their
speedy destruction was the fire, at close range, of the
Gloucester s battery.
Â« After rescuing the survivors of the destroyers, the
THE SPANISH FLEET. 277
Gloucester did excellent service in landing and securing
the crew of the Jzfanta Maria Teresa.
Â«8. The method of escape attempted by the
Spaniards â€”all steering in the same direction, and
in formation â€” removed all practical doubts or difficul-
ties, and made plain the duty of every United States
vessel to close in, immediately engage and pursue.
This was promptly and effectively done.
â€œAs already stated, the first rush of the Spanish
squadron carried it past a number of the blockading
ships, which could not immediately work up to their
best speed, but they suffered heavily in passing, and
the [nfanta Maria Teresa and the Oguendo were proba-
bly set on fire by the shells fired during the first fifteen
minutes of the engagement. It was afterward learned
that the /uzfanta Maria Teresaâ€™s fire main had been cut
by one of our first shots, and that she was unable to
extinguish the fire. :
Â«With large volumes of smoke rising from their lower
deck aft these vessels gave up both fight and flight, and
ran in on the beach,â€”the Jufanta Maria Teresa at
about 10.15 A.M. at Nima, nine and one-half miles
from Santiago Harbour entrance, and the Adnzranie
- Oquendo at about 10.30 A.M., at Juan Gonzales, seven
miles from the port.- ,
â€œ9. The Vizcaya was still under the fire of the
leading vessels. The Cristobal Colon had drawn ahead,
leading the chase, and soon passed beyond the range ~
of the guns of the leading American ships. The Vzz-
278 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
caya was soon set on fire, and at 11.15 she turned in-
shore and was beached at Acerraderos, fifteen miles
from Santiago, burning fiercely, and with her reserves
of ammunition on deck already beginning to explode.
Â«When about ten miles west of Santiago the /udzana
had been signalled to go back to the harbour entrance,
and at Acerraderos the Jowa was signalled to â€˜resume
blockading station.â€™ The /owa, assisted by the Zricsson
and the His, took off the crew of the Vzscaya, while
the Harvard and the Gloucester rescued those of the
Infanta Maria Teresa and the Almirante Oquendo.
Â«This rescue of prisoners, including the wounded
from the burning Spanish vessels, was the occasion of
some of the most daring and gallant conduct of the
day. The ships were burning fore and aft, their guns
and reserve ammunition were exploding, and it was not
known at what moment the fire would reach the main
â€œTn addition to this a heavy surf was running just
inside of the Spanish ships. But no risk deterred our
officers and men until their work of humanity was
â€œ10, There remained now of the Spanish ships only
the Cristobal Colon, but she was their best and fast-
est vessel. Forced by the situation to hug the Cuban
coast, her only chance of escape was by superior and
Â«When the Vizcaya went ashore the Co/on was about
six miles ahead of the Zrooklyn and the Oregon, but
THE SPANISH FLEET. 279
her spurt was finished, and the American ships were
now gaining upon her. Behind the Brooklyn and the
Oregon came the Texas, Vixen, and New York.
â€œTt was evident from the bridge of the Mew York
that all the American ships were gradually overhauling
the chase, and that she had no chance of escape. At
12.50 the Brooklyn and the Oregon opened fire and
got her range,â€”the Oregon's heavy shells striking
beyond her, â€”and at 1.20. she gave up without firing
another shot, hauled down her colours and ran ashore
at Rio Tarquino, forty-eight miles from Santiago.
Â«Captain Cook of the Brooklyn went on board to
receive the surrender. While his boat was alongside I
came up in the Mew York, receiving his report, and
placed the Ovegon in charge of the wreck to save her,
if possible, and directed the prisoners to be transferred
to the Resolute, which had followed the chase. Com-
modore Schley, whose chief of staff had gone on board
to receive the surrender, had directed that all their
personal effects should be retained by the officers.
This order I did not modify.
â€œThe Cristobal Colon was not injured by our firing,
and probably is not injured by beaching, though she
ran ashore at high speed. The beach was so steep that
she came off by the working of the sea. But her sea
_valves were opened or broken, treacherously, I am sure,
after her surrender, and despite all efforts she sank.
When it became evident that she could not be kept
afloat she was pushed by the Mew York bodily upon
280 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the beach, the Mew York's stem being placed against
her for this purpose, the ship being handled by Captain
Chadwick with admirable judgment, and sank in shoal
water, and may be saved. Had this not been done she
would have gone down in deep water, and would have
been to a certainty a complete loss.
Â«tr. I regard this complete and important vic-
tory over the Spanish forces as the successful finish
of several weeks of arduous and close blockade, so
stringent and effective during the night that the enemy
was deterred from making the attempt to escape at
night, and deliberately elected to make the attempt in
daylight. That this was the case I was informed by
the commanding officer of the C7zstobal Colon.
â€œ12. It seems proper to briefly describe here the
manner in which this was accomplished. The harbour
of Santiago is naturally easy to blockade, there being
but one entrance and that.a narrow one, and the deep
water extending close up to the shore line} presenting
no difficulties of navigation outside of the entrance.
At the time of my arrival before the port, June Ist,
the moon was at its full, and there was sufficient light
during the night to enable any movement outside of
the entrance to be detected; but with the waning
of the moon and the coming of dark nights there was
opportunity for the enemy to escape, or for his torpedo-
boats to make an attack upon the blockading vessels.
â€œTt was ascertained with fair conclusiveness that the
Merrimac, so gallantly taken into the channel on June
THE SPANISH FLEET. 281
3d, did not obstruct it. I therefore maintained the
blockade as follows: To the battle-ships was assigned
the duty, in turn, of lighting the channel. Moving up
to the port, at a distance of from one to two miles
from the Morro, â€”dependent upon the condition of the
atmosphere, â€” they threw a search-light beam directly
up the channel and held it steadily there.
â€œThis lighted up the entire breadth of the channel
for half a mile inside of the entrance so brilliantly that
the movement of small boats could be detected.
â€œWhy the batteries never opened fire upon the
search-light-ship was always a matter of surprise to
me; but they never did. Stationed close to the en-
trance of the port were three picket-launches, and, at
a little distance further out, three small picket-vessels
â€”usually converted yachtsâ€”and, when they were:
available, one or two of our torpedo-boats.
â€œWith this arrangement there was at least a certainty
that nothing could get out of the harbour undetected.
â€œAfter the arrival of the army, when the situation
forced upon the Spanish admiral a decision, our vigi-
lance increased. The night blockading distance was
reduced to two miles for all vessels, and a battle-ship
was placed alongside the search-light-ship, with her
broadside trained upon the channel in readiness to fire
the instant a Spanish ship should appear. The com-
manding officers merit great praise for the perfect
manner in which they entered into this plan, and put
it into execution. The Massachusetts, which, according
282 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
to routine, was sent that morning to coal at Guan-
tanamo, like the others, had spent weary nights upon
this work, and deserved a better fate than to be absent
â€œTI enclose, for the information of the department,
copies of orders and memorandums issued from time
to time, relating to the.manner of maintaining the
blockade. When all the work was done so well, it is
difficult to discriminate in praise.
â€œThe object of the blockade of Cerveraâ€™s squadron
was fully accomplished, and each individual bore well
his part in it, the commodore in command of the second
division, the captains of ships, their officers, and men.
Â«13, The fire of the battleships was powerful and
destructive, and the resistance of the Spanish squad-
ron was, in great part, broken almost before they had
got beyond the range of their own force.
Â« The fine speed of the Oregon enabled her to take a
front position in the chase, and the Cristobal Colon did
not give up until the Oregon had thrown a 13-inch shell
beyond her. This performance adds to the already
brilliant record of this fine battleship, and speaks
highly of the skill and care with which her admirable
efficiency has been maintained during a service unprece-
dented in the history of vessels of her class.
â€œThe Brooklyn's westerly blockading position gave
her an advantage in the chase which she maintained to
the end, and she employed her fine battery with telling
THE SPANISH FLEET. 283
â€œThe Tevas and the New York were gaining on
the chase during the last hour, and, had any accident
befallen the Brooklyn or the Oregon, would have speedily
overhauled the Cristobal Colon.
Â«From the moment the Spanish vessel exhausted her
' first burst of speed, the result was never in doubt.
She fell, in fact, far below what might Reco have
been expected of her.
â€œ Careful measurements of time and distance give her
an average speed, from the time she cleared the harbour
mouth until the time she was run on shore at Rio
Tarquino, of 13.7 knots.
â€œNeither the Vew York nor the Brooklyn stopped to
couple up their forward engines, but ran out of the
chase with one pair, getting steam, of course, as rapidly
as possible on all boilers. To stop to couple up the
forward engines would have meant a delay of fifteen
minutes, or four miles in the chase.
â€œ14. Several of the ships were struck, the Brooklyn
more often than the others, but very light material
injury was done, the greatest being aboard the Jowa.
â€œOur loss was one man killed and one wounded, both
on the Brooklyn. It is difficult to explain the immunity
from loss of life or injury to ships in a combat with
modern vessels of the best type, but Spanish gunnery
is poor at the best, and the superior weight and accuracy
of our fire speedily drove the men from their guns and
silenced their fire. ;
â€œ This is borne out by the statements of prisoners and
284 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
by observation. The Spanish vessels, as they dashed
out of the harbour, were covered with the smoke from
their own guns, but this speedily diminished in volume,
and soon almost disappeared.
â€œThe fire from the rapid-fire batteries of the battle-
ships appears to have been remarkably destructive.
An examination of the stranded vessels shows that the
Almirante Oquendo especially had suffered terribly from
this fire. Her sides are everywhere pierced, and her
decks were strewn with the charred remains of those
who had fallen.
â€œ1s. The reports of Commodore W. S. Schley and
the commanding officers are enclosed.
â€œ16, A board, appointed by me several days ago, has
made a critical examination of the stranded vessels, both
with a view of reporting upon the result of our fire and
the military features involved, and of reporting upon
the chance of saving any of them, and of wrecking the
remainder. The report of the board will be speedily
forwarded. Very respectfully,
Â«W. T. SAMPSON,
â€œ Rear-Admiral U. S. Navy, Commander-in-Chief
U. S. Naval Force, North Atlantic Station.
â€œ The Secretary of the Navy, Navy Department, Wash-
A letter from Captain Chadwick of the flag-ship Mew
York, to his wife, is an entertaining addition to the story
of this most marvellous sea fight :
THE SPANISH FLEET. 285
Â«â€œPracsnip New York, July 4, 1898.
Â« Yesterday was a wonderful day, as you will know in
a few hours after my writing this.
Â«We were in a rather disgruntled frame of mind on
account of a little note from Shafter. He wanted to
' know why the navy could not go under a destructive
fire as well as the army. It was decided to go and
have a consultation with him, explain the situation,
and lay our plans before him, which were to counter-
mine the harbour, going in at the same time, and
also trying to carry the Morro by assault with one
thousand marines landed in Estrella cove.
â€œJt was arranged we were to go to Siboney about
9.30, so Sampson, Staunton, and I put on our leggings,
got some sandwiches, filled a flask, and the ship started
to go the seven miles to Siboney, where we were to
find horses and a cavalry escort.
. â€œWe were within a mile or so of the place when a
message came to me that a ship was coming out, and
by the time I was on deck I found the Mew Vork
turned around, and headed back, and there they were,
coming out one after the other, and putting west as
hard as they could go.
Â« The situation was one which rather left us out of it.
We were too far off to shoot, but could see the rest
banging away. The last to come were the two torpedo-
boat destroyers, so we headed in to cut off any attempt
on their part to return to port, and we saw Wainwright
in the Gloucester firing at them for all he was worth,
286 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
and soon one evidently had a hole through her boiler,
as there was a great white cloud of steam which shot
into the air. We fired two or three 4-inch shots at the
other, which was moving back toward the entrance, and
then left him to Wainwrightâ€™s mercy, as it was a clear
case, and stood on; in a few moments we came, first to
one and then the other, but a little way apart, the
L[ifanta Maria Teresa and the Oguendo afire and
Â«As we were going past the torpedo-boats, I ought
to have mentioned two men in the water, stripped, to
whom we threw life-buoys, with which they expressed
themselves satisfied. It is impossible in such a case,
with two of the enemyâ€™s ships going ahead of us, to
Â«We had not passed the two ships I mentioned far,
until we saw the Vzzcaya head in, and soon she was on
the beach and aflame, at Ascerraderos, right under the
old Cuban camp.
Â«There was still the Cvzstobal Colon, a good way
ahead, the newest and fastest and much more power-
ful. We had passed the /ozwa (which we left with the
burning Vizcaya) and the /vdiana, which we ordered to
return off the harbour, and tailed on to the procession
after the Crzstobal Colon, which consisted of the Oregon,
the Brooklyn, and Texas, and the Vixen. We got each
of our extra boilers into operation until we were going a
good fifteen knots, and we were overhauling the advance
THE. SPANISH FLEET. 2 87
Â«The Oregon and BLrooklyn kept well up, and soon
the Oregon began to fire, and we could see the Crzstobal
Colon gradually edge inshore, so that we knew the game
was up and the victory complete; soon she headed in,
and went under one of the points which come down
from the mountains, which here (some sixty miles west
of Santiago) are close at the waterâ€™s edge, and are the
highest (seventy-eight hundred feet) in Cuba. We hur-
ried forward and soon saw she had hauled her flag
down, and was ashore.
â€œThe Brooklyn had sent a boat, and Cook, who had
gone in it, came alongside on his return, and stated he
had received their surrender, stating he was not empow-
ered to make any condition as to personal effects, etc.,
as to which they seemed anxious.
â€œTIT then went on board and arranged things, the
admiral allowing them, of course, to take with them all
their personal belongings, so while we were dividing
them up among the ships (525 men) along came the
Resolute, reporting having been chased by a Spanish
armoured ship, so we put all the prisoners in her. This
was a long job.
â€œThe thing was to save the Cristobal Colon, as she
is one of the finest modern ships of her class. We
hurried a prize-crew aboard from the Ovegon, closed all
water-tight doors, as she was evidently leaking some-
where, but for all we could do she settled down on the
beach after floating with the rising tide. It was a great
pity, but the rascally engineersâ€™ force had opened all
288 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
the valves connecting with the sea, and we could not
get at them.
Â« We finally, after eight hours of hard work, left her
in charge of the Texas and Oregon, and are now steam-
ing back to our post off Santiago. The failure to save
the Colon was too bad. It is possible to do so, of
course, with the assistance of a wrecking company, but
she was practically in an undamaged condition. She
had one man killed and twenty-five wounded.
â€œT am only too thankful we did not get ashore this
morning. Poor Higginson, who was down at Guanta-
namo coaling, will be full of grief, as also Watson, in
â€œJT had forgotten to mention that day before yester-
day we bombarded the forts very heavily, knocking off
a good deal of the poor old Morro, and bringing down
the flagstaff and the flag which was so proudly flaunted
in our eyes for more than a month.
Â«We did this at the request of the army, as a dem-
onstration while they attacked. They did not, however,
make the attack, as it turned out.
Â«â€œ These bombardments are very unsatisfactory ; one
reads lurid accounts of them in the papers, but nothing
really is gained unless we strike the guns themselves,
and this we have not done.
Â« As we steamed by to-day in close range, our friends
of the western battery, who paid a great deal of atten-
tion to us yesterday, banged away at-us in fine style,
and a number of shells burst around us. Finally, when
THE SPANISH FLEET. 289
I had them entirely off my mind and was paying atten-
tion only to the torpedo-boat destroyers, came a tre-
mendous screech, and everybody on the forecastle
dodged. It was their last; it fell about two hundred
yards to our right. We did not reply as we came
along. I thought it a waste of material, and thought
they might have their amusement so long as they did
Â« There â€”the engines have stopped and we are
back at Santiago; it is 4.30, and I shall turn in again
for a final nap. The captain of the Colom is occupying
my room; very nice fellow, about fifty-six, indeed, as
are most Spanish naval officers, who, as a Cuban officer
said to me, are the flower of the Spanish blood.
Â«We also have a general and his aid-de-camp, whom
we took in the Colon, a nice old boy and very chirpy.
The captain, of course, takes the loss of his ship to
heart very much, but the general and his aid seem as
cheerful as possible. I suppose they think â€˜itâ€™s none
of their funeral.â€™
â€œTI stored the general in Stauntonâ€™s room, Staunton
going to Santiago in a torpedo-boat to send the news.
Â«â€œ We have got off our Spanish friends, and are now
_loafing. It is a great relief to feel that there is nothing
to look after to-night.
_ Â© This goes in the Sz. Lows, so I hope you will have
it before many days, and I hope, too, it won't be long
before I get to see you. I think this terrific defeat
must go far toward ending things.â€
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO,
ITH the victory at El Caney and San Juan Hill
fresh in their minds, the American people be-
lieved that the war was well-nigh at an end. Informa-
tion that Spain had sued for peace was hourly expected.
There was much to be done, however, before the
enemy was willing to admit himself beaten. The city
of Santiago yet remained in the hands of the Span-
iards, Manila was still defiant; and until those two
strongholds had been reduced, the boys of â€™98 must
continue to struggle in the trenches and on the field.
The end was not far away, however.
July 5. General Shafter telegraphed to the War
Department on the fifth of July to the effect that the
people of Santiago were not only panic-stricken through
fear of bombardment, but were suffering from lack of
actual necessaries of life. There was no food save
rice, and the supply of that was exceedingly limited.
The belief of the war officials, however, was that the
Spaniards would fight to the last, and capitulate only
when it should become absolutely necessary.
Meanwhile the soldiers were waiting eagerly for the
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO. 291
close of the truce, and, as the hour set by â€˜General
Shafter drew near, every nerve was strained to its
utmost tension once more. Then a white flag was
carried down the line, and all knew the truce had been
General Kent, whose division was facing the hospital
-and barracks of Santiago, was notified by the enemy
that Assistant Naval Constructor Hobson and his com-
panions were confined in the extreme northern build-
ing, over which two white flags were flying.
The citizens of Santiago, learning that General Toral
refused to consider the question of surrender, began to
leave the city, â€”a mournful procession.
General Shafter cabled to the government at Wash-
ington under date of July 5th:
Â«T am just in receipt of a letter from General Toral,
agreeing to exchange Hobson and men here; to make
exchange in the morning. Yesterday he refused my
proposition of exchange.â€
July 7. General Miles and staff left Washington en
route for Santiago.
Lieutenant Hobson and the other AZerrzmac heroes
were brought into the American lines on the morning
- of the seventh. The exchange of prisoners had been
arranged to take place under a tree midway between
the entrenchments occupied by the Rough Riders and
the first lines of the Spanish position. Col. John
Jacob Astor represented the American commander,
and took with him to the rendezvous three Spanish
292 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
lieutenants and fourteen other prisoners. Major Irles,
a Spanish staff officer, acted for the enemy. The
transfer was quickly effected, and once more the
brave fellows who had set their lives as a sacrifice
on the altar of their country were free.
July ro. The truce continued, with the exception of
a brief time on the tenth, when the bombardment was
resumed by the fleet, until the thirteenth, when Gen-
erals Miles, Shafter, Wheeler, and Gilmour had an
interview with General Toral and his staff at a point
about halfway between the lines.
July 13. During this interview the situation was
placed frankly before General Toral, and he was offered
the alternative of being sent home with his garrison, or
leaving Santiago province, the only condition imposed
being that he should not destroy the existing fortifica-
tions, and should leave his arms behind.
July 15. Not until two days later were the details
arranged, and then the Spanish commander sent the
Â« SANTIAGO DE Cups, July 15, 1898.
Â«â€œ EXCELLENCY COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF
OF THE AMERICAN FORCES.
â€œÂ« Excellent Sir: â€”I am now authorised by my gov-
ernment to capitulate. I have the honour to so advise
you, requesting you to designate hour and place where
my representatives should appear to compare with those
of your excellency, to effect that article of capitulation
GENERAL JOSEPH WH
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO. 293
on the basis of what has been agreed upon to this
Â«In due time I wish to manifest to your excellency
that I desire to know the resolution of the United
States government respecting the return of arms, so as
to note on the capitulation, also the great courtesy and
gentlemanly deportment of your great graceâ€™s represen-
tatives, and return for their generous and noble impulse
for the Spanish soldiers, will allow them to return
to the peninsula with the arms that the American
army do them the honour to acknowledge as dutifully
(Signed) â€œ JOSE ToraL,
Â« Commander-in-Chief Fourth Army Corps.â€
July 16, Commissioners on behalf of the United
States and of Spain were appointed, and after but little
discussion an agreement between them was arrived at.
The agreement consists of nine articles.
The first declared that all hostilities cease pending
the agreement of final capitulation.
Second: That the capitulation includes all the Span-
ish forces and the surrender of all war material within
.the prescribed limits. ,
Third: The transportation of the troops to Spain at
the earliest possible moment, each force to be embarked
at the nearest port.
Fourth: That the Spanish officers shall retain their
side-arms and the enlisted men their personal property.
204 THE BOYS OF 798.
fifth: That after the final capitulation, the Spanish
forces shall assist in the removal of all obstructions to
navigation in Santiago Harbour.
Sixth: That after the final Staion the com-
manding officers shall furnish a complete inventory of
all arms and munitions of war, and a roster of all the
soldiers in the district.
Seventh: That the Spanish general shall be permitted
to take the military archives and records with him.
Eighth: That all guerrillas and Spanish regulars
shall be permitted to remain in Cuba if they so elect,
giving a parole that they will not again take up arms
against the United States unless properly paroled.
Ninth: That the Spanish forces shall be permitted
to march out with all the honours of war, depositing
their arms to be disposed of by the United States in
the future. The American commissioners to recom-
mend to their government that the arms of the soldiers
be returned to those â€œwho so bravely defended them.â€
General Shafter cabled at once to Washington the
cheering news :
â€œCAMP NEAR SANTIAGO, July 16.
Â«The surrender has been definitely settled and the
arms will be turned over to-morrow morning, and
the troops will be marched out as prisoners of war.
â€œThe Spanish colours will be hauled down at nine
oâ€™clock, and the American flag hoisted. -
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO. 295
July 17. The ceremony of surrendering the city was
impressive, and, as can well be imagined, thrilling for
those boys of â€™98 who had been standing face to face
with death in the trenches.
At six oâ€™clock in the morning Lieutenant Cook, of
General Shafterâ€™s staff, entered the city, and all the
arms in the arsenal were turned over to him. The
work of removing the mines which obstructed naviga-
tion at the entrance of the harbour had been progress-
ing all night. At about seven o'clock General Toral,
the Spanish commander, sent his sword to General
Shafter, as evidence of his submission, and at 8.45 A.M.
all the general officers and their staffs assembled at
General Shafterâ€™s headquarters. Each regiment was
drawn up along the crest of the heights.
Shortly after nine oâ€™clock the Ninth Infantry entered
the city. This position of honour was given them as a
reward for their heroic assault on San Juan Hill.
The details of the surrender are thus described by a
correspondent of the Associated Press, who accom-
panied General Shafterâ€™s staff:
Â«General Shafter and his generals, with mounted
escort of one hundred picked men of the Second Cav-
alry, then rode over our trenches to the open ground at
the foot of the hill on the main road to Santiago, mid-
way to the then deserted Spanish works. There they
were met by General Toral and his staff, all in full uni-
form and mounted, and a select detachment of Spanish
296 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œWhat followed took place in full view of our troops.
Â«The scene was picturesque and dramatic. General
Shafter, with his generals and their staffs grouped
immediately in their rear, and with the troops of dash-
ing cavalrymen with drawn sabres on the left, advanced
to meet the vanquished foe.
â€œAfter a few words of courteous greeting, General
Shafterâ€™s first act was to return General Toralâ€™s sword.
The Spanish general appeared to be touched by the
complimentary words with which General Shafter ac-
companied this action, and he thanked the American
â€œ Then followed a short conversation as to the place
selected for the Spanish forces to deposit their arms,
and a Spanish infantry detachment marched forward to
a position facing our cavalry, where the Spaniards were
halted. The latter were without their colours.
â€œEight Spanish trumpeters then saluted, and were
saluted, in turn, by our trumpeters, both giving flour-
ishes for lieutenant and major-generals.
â€œGeneral Toral then personally ordered the Spanish
company, which in miniature represented the forces
under his command, to ground arms. Next, by his
direction, the company wheeled and marched across
our lines to the rear, and thence to the place selected
for camping them. The Spaniards moved rapidly, to
the quick notes of the Spanish march, played by the
companies ; but it impressed one like the Â« Dead Marchâ€™
from Saul. ,
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO. 297
â€œ Although no attempt was made to humiliate them,
the Spanish soldiers seemed to feel their disgrace
keenly, and scarcely glanced at their conquerors as
they passed by. But this apparent depth of feeling
was not displayed by the other regiments. Without
being sullen, the Spaniards appeared to be utterly indif-
ferent to the reverses suffered by the Spanish arms,
and some of them, when not under the eyes of their
officers, seemed to secretly rejoice at the prospect of
food and an immediate return to Spain.
â€œGeneral Toral, throughout the ceremony, was sorely
dejected. When General Shafter introduced him by
name to each member of his staff, the Spanish general
appeared to be a very broken man. He seems to be
about sixty years of age, and of frail constitution,
although stern resolution shone in every feature. The
lines are strongly marked, and his face is deep drawn,
as if with physical pain.
â€œGeneral Toral replied with an air of abstraction
to the words addressed to him, and when he accom-
panied General Shafter at the head of the escort into
the city, to take formal possession of Santiago, he
spoke but few words. The appealing faces of the
starving refugees streaming back into the city did not
move him, nor did the groups of Spanish soldiers
lining the road and gazing curiously at the fair-skinned,
stalwart-framed conquerors. Only once did a faint
shadow of a smile lurk about the corners of his mouth.
â€œThis was when the cavalcade passed through a
298 THE BOYS OF â€˜98.
barbed-wire entanglement. No body of infantry could
ever have got through this defence alive, and General
Shafterâ€™s remark about its resisting power found the
first gratifying echo in the defeated general's heart.
â€œFarther along the desperate character of the
Spanish resistance, as planned, amazed our officers.
Although primitive, it was well done. Each approach
to the city was thrice barricaded and wired, and the
barricades were high enough and sufficiently strong to
withstand shrapnel. The slaughter among our troops
would have been frightful had it ever become necessary
to storm the city.
Â« Around the hospitals and public buildings and
along the west side of the line there were additional
works and emplacements for guns, though no guns
were mounted in them.
Â«The streets of Santiago are crooked, with narrow
lines of one-storied houses, most of which are very
dilapidated, but every veranda of every house was
thronged by its curious inhabitants, â€” disarmed sol-
diers. These were mostly of the lower classes.
Â«Few expressions of any kind were heard along the
route. Here and there was a shout for free Cuba from
some Cuban sympathiser, but as a rule there were
only low mutterings. The better class of Spaniards
remained indoors, or satisfied their curiosity from
behind drawn blinds.
Â«Several Spanish ladies in tumble-down â€˜carriages
averted their faces as we passed. The squalor in the
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO, 299
streets was frightful. The bones of dead horses and
other animals were bleaching in the streets, and buz-
zards, as tame as sparrows, hopped aside to let us pass.
â€œThe windows of the hospitals, in which there are
over fifteen hundred sick men, were crowded with
invalids, who dragged themselves there to witness our
â€œThe palace was reached soon after ten oâ€™clock.
There General Toral introduced General Shafter and
the other American generals to the alcalde, Sefior
Feror, and to the chief of police, Sefior Guiltillerrez,
as well as to the other municipal authorities.
â€œLuncheon was then served at the palace. The
meal consisted mainly of rum, wine, coffee, rice, and
toasted cake. This scant fare occasioned many apolo-
gies on the part of the Spaniards, but it spoke eloquently
of their heroic resistance. The fruit supply of the city
was absolutely exhausted, and the Spaniards had nothing
to live on except rice, on which the soldiers in the
trenches of Santiago have subsisted for the last twelve
Ten thousand people witnessed the ceremony of
-hoisting the stars and stripes over the governorâ€™s palace
_ A finer stage setting for a dramatic episode it would
be difficult to imagine. The palace, a picturesque old
dwelling in the Moorish style of architecture, faces
the Plaza de la Reina, the principal public square.
300 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Opposite rises the imposing Catholic cathedral. On
one side is a quaint, brilliantly painted building with
broad verandas, the club of San Carlos; on the other
a building of much the same description, the CafÃ© de
Across the plaza was drawn up the Ninth Infantry,
headed by the Sixth Cavalry band. In the street
facing the palace stood a picked troop of the Second
Cavalry, with drawn sabres, under command of Cap-
tain Brett. Massed on the stone flagging between
the band and the line of horsemen were the brigade
commanders of General Shafterâ€™s division, with. their
staffs. On the red-tiled roof of the palace stood
Captain McKittrick, Lieutenant Miles, and Lieutenant
Wheeler. Immediately above them, above the flag-
staff, was the illuminated Spanish arms, and the legend,
â€œVive Alphonso XIII.â€
All about, pressing against the veranda rails, crowd-
ing to windows and doors, and lining the roofs, were
the people of the town, principally women and non-
As the chimes of the old cathedral rang out the hour
of twelve, the infantry and cavalry presented arms.
Every American uncovered, and Captain McKittrick
hoisted the stars and stripes. As the brilliant folds
unfurled in the gentle breeze against the fleckless sky,
the cavalry band broke into the strains of â€œThe Star
Spangled Banner,â€ making the American pulse leap and
the American heart thrill with joy.
KING ALPHONSO XIII. OF SPAIN.
THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO. 301
At the same instant the sound of the distant booming
of Captain Capronâ€™s battery, firing a salute of twenty-
one guns, drifted in.
When the music ceased, from all directions around
our lines came flying across the plaza the strains of the
regimental bands and the muffled, hoarse cheers of our
The infantry came to â€œorder armsâ€ a moment later,
after the flag was up, and the band played â€œ Rally
Round the Flag, Boys.â€
Instantly General McKibben called for three cheers
for General Shafter, which were given with great
enthusiasm, the band playing â€œThe Stars and Stripes
The ceremony over, General Shafter and his staff
returned to the American lines, leaving the city in the
possession of the municipal authorities subject to the
control of General McKibben, who had been appointed
temporary military governor.
UNE 24. The details of the bloodless capture of
7 the principal of the Ladrone Islands are thus told
by a private letter from the naval officer who figured
in the leading rÃ©le of the exploit, Lieutenant Wil-
liam Braunerzruther, executive officer of the cruiser
Â«U. S. S. CuHarieston, at SEA AND ONE
Â«â€œTHousAND Mites From MANILA,
â€œJune 24, 1898.
â€œWe have just carried out our orders to capture
the Spanish authorities at the capital of the Ladrone
Islands, Agana. I was selected by the captain to
undertake this job, and given 160 men to land as a
Â«â€œT went ashore to have a talk with the governor
about affairs, and the results were that I did not lose
even a single man. The matter was all settled in one
day, and we are carrying with us fifty-four soldiers
(Spanish) and six officers, besides a lot of Mauser rifles
and nearly ten thousand pounds of ammunition.
Â«Thad the whole to handle, and did it quickly. The
MINOR EVENTS. 303,
captainâ€™s instructions were to wait a half hour for his
answer to our ultimatum, then use my troops. I waited,
and in just twenty-nine minutes the governor handed
me his sealed reply addressed to the captain of our ship
out in the harbour about four or five miles off.
â€œT knew this was sealed with the sole object of gain-
ing time, and hence I broke the seal, read the contents,
the governor protesting and saying that was a letter for
my captain. I replied: â€˜I represent him here. You
are now my prisoners, and will have to come on board
ship with me.â€™
â€œÂ« They protested and pleaded, and finally the governor
â€œ* You came on shore to talk over matters, and you
make us prisoners instead.â€™ I replied: Â«I came on
shore to hand you a letter and to get your reply;
in this reply, now in my hand, you agree to surrender
all under your jurisdiction. If this means anything at
all, it means that you will accede to any demands I may
deem proper to make. You will at once write an order
to your military man at Agana (the capital; this place
was five miles distant), directing him to deliver at this
place at four p.m. (it was 10.30 A. M., June 21st) all am-
munition and flags in the island, each soldier to bring
his own rifle and ammunition, and all soldiers, native
and Spanish, with their officers, must witness this.â€™
â€œThey protested and demurred, saying there was not
time enough to do it, but I said: â€˜Sefiors, it must be
304 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Â« The letter was written, read by me, and sent. I
took all the officers with me in a boat, and at four P.M.
went ashore again and rounded in the whole outfit. I
was three miles away from my troops, and I had only
four men with me. At four Pp. M., when I disarmed 108
men and two officers, I had forty-six men and three
officers with me.
Â«â€œ The key-note to the whole business was my break-
ing the seal of that letter and acting at once. They
had no'time to delay or prepare any treacherous tricks,
and I got the â€˜dropâ€™ on the whole outfit, as they say
Â«â€œ The native troops I released and allowed to return
to their homes unrestricted ; they had manifested great
joy in being relieved from Spanish rule. While it is
harsh, it is war, and in connection with the Spanish
treachery it was all that could be done.
Â«Twenty-four hours would haveâ€”yes, I believe
even four hours with a leader such as the governor was,
a lieutenant-colonel in the Spanish army â€” given them
a chance to hide along the road to Agana, and at inter-
vals in the dense tropical foliage they could have almost
annihilated any force that could land.
â€œThe approaches to the landing over shallow coral
reefs would have made a landing without a terrible loss
of life almost an impossibility.
â€œWe have increased by conquest the population of
the United States by nearly twelve thousand people.
The capital has a population of six thousand people.
MINOR EVENTS. 305
This harbour in which we were is beautiful, easy of ac-
cess, plenty of deep water, admitting of the presence of
a large number of vessels at the same time, and is an
ideal place for a coaling station, _
â€œTf our government decided to hold the Philippines
it would then come in so well; San Francisco to Hono-
lulu twenty-one hundred miles, Honolulu to island of
Guam thirty-three hundred, and thence to Manila six-
teen hundred miles. With a chain of supply stations
like this, we could send troops thÃ© whole year round if
necessary, and any vessel with a steaming capacity of
thirty-five hundred miles could reach a base of supplies.
Â«The details I have scarcely touched upon, but had
the officers and soldiers dreamed for one moment that
they were to be torn from their homes, there would, I
feel sure, have been another story to tell, and I am
firmly convinced this letter would never have been
Â«The captain, in extending to me his congratulations,
remarked : â€˜ Braunerzruther, you'll never, as long as
you live, have another experience such as this. I con-
gratulate you on your work.â€™
Â« All this whole affair was transacted in Spanish. I
had an interpreter with me, but forgot all about using
him. I did not want them to get a chance to think,
even, before it was too late.â€
June 25, The Florida and the Fanita left Key West
Saturday, June 25th, under convoy of the Peoria, com-
manded by Lieut. C. W. Rice. On board the steamers
306 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
were 650 Cubans under Gen. Emilio Nunez, fifty
troopers of the Tenth U. S. Cavalry under Lieu-
tenants Johnson and Ahearn, and twenty-five Rough
Riders under Winthrop Chanler, brother of Col.
William Astor Chanler.
The cargoes were enormous. There were the horses
of the cavalry and 167 sacks of oats and 216 bales of
hay to feed them. Topping the list of arms were two
dynamite guns, with 50-pound projectiles to fit them, and
two full batteries of light field-pieces, ten 3-inch rifles of
regular ordnance pattern, with harnesses â€˜that go with
them, and 1,500 cartridges. In the matter of infantry
rifles: there were 4,000 Springfields, with 954,000
cartridges, and 200 Mausers, with 2,000 shells.
Fifty of the Cubans aboard were armed with Mausers,
and the others had Springfields. For the insurgent offi-
cers were provided 200 army Colts and 2,700 cartridges.
Two hundred books of United States cavalry and in-
fantry tactics, translated into Spanish, were taken along.
In the expedition were also 1,475 saddles, 950 saddle-
cloths, and 450 bridles. For the Cuban soldiers there
were taken 7,663 uniforms, 5,080 pairs of shoes, 1,275
blankets, 400 shirts, 450 hats and 250 hammocks.
There were these commissary stores carried, calcu-
lated by pounds: Bacon, 67,275; corn-meal, 31,250;
roasted coffee, 10,200; raw coffee, 3,250; sugar, 2,425 ;
mess pork and beef, 9,600; corned beef, 24,000 ; beans
18,900 ; hardtack, 1,250; cans of corn, 1250.
June 29. The expectation was that the landing
MINOR EVENTS. 307
would be effected at San Juan Point, on the south
coast of Cuba, midway between Cienfuegos and Trini-
dad. This place was reached Wednesday evening,
and sculled toward shore, but had made only half the
distance when there came a lively fire from what had
been taken to be an abandoned blockhouse near the
point. The men were called back and the three ships
moved to the eastward. About four oâ€™clock the next
afternoon they arrived at Las Tunas, forty miles away.
Four miles west of the town, at the mouth of the
Tallabacoa River, stood a large fort built of railroad
iron and surrounded by earthworks. The Peorza ran
boldly in and fired several shots from her 3-pounders,
but brought no response and no signs of life. Here
was thought to be the desired opportunity, and another
scouting party was organised. This was made up of
fifteen volunteers under Winthrop Chanler, and as
many Cubans under Captain Nunez.
The Peoria took a position within short range of the
fort to protect a landing or cover a retreat, and the
small boats headed for the shore. They reached it five
hundred yards east of the fort ; the boats were beached,
- and their occupants cautiously scrambled toward the
brush. But at almost the very moment they set foot
on the sand, the fort and the entrenchments around it
burst into flame, and shot and shell screamed about the
little band of invaders. Captain Nunez was stepping
from his boat when a shot struck him between the eyes
308 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
and he went down dead. Chanler fell with a broken
arm. The others safely gained a thicket and replied
with a sharp fire directed at the entrenchments.
Meanwhile the Peorza set all her guns at work, and
rained shells upon the fort until the enemyâ€™s fire
ceased. The moment the gunboat slackened fire, how-
ever, the Spanish fire was renewed with fury, and it
became evident that their forces were too large to allow
a landing there. A retreat was ordered, and the party
on shore rushed to the boats, but volley after volley
came from the shore, and they were compelled to throw
themselves into the water, and paddle alongside the
boats with only their heads exposed, until the ships
were reached. The Spaniards had the range, however,
and five Cubans were wounded, though none seriously.
Returning to the Peoria, the men reported that a
vicious fire had come from a grove of cocoanut palms
to the eastward of the fort. The Peoria opened her
guns on the place indicated, and must have killed many
Spaniards, for her shells dropped into the smoke and
flash of the adversaryâ€™s fire, silenced it at once, and
forced them to send up rockets for help.
A number of volleys were sent at the Peoria with a
view to disabling her gunners, but they were badly
directed, and fell against her side and into the water.
When the small boats reached the ship it was dark.
Then the discovery was made that, besides Captain
Nunez, whose body was left on the beach, there were
missing, Chanler, Doctors Lund and Abbott, Lieutenant
MINOR EVENTS. 309
Agramonte, and .two Cubans. It was reported that
Chanler had been mortally wounded, and was kept hid-
den in the bushes along the shore by the two doctors.
Rescue parties were immediately organized, composed
of volunteers, and no less than four were sent ashore
during the night. Toward morning Lieutenant Ahearn,
in charge of one of â€˜these, found Chanler and his .
Chanlerâ€™s wound proved to be in the right elbow.
After sunrise Agramonte and his Cubans were discov-
ered and brought off.
July r. The next day the gunboat Helena, under
Captain Swynburn, arrived, and she and the Peoria
steamed in toward Las Tunas, which the Spaniards
had been vigorously fortifying.
Tunas is connected by rail with Sancti Spiritus, a
town of considerable size, and reinforcements and artil-
lery had been rapidly coming in. Range buoys had
been placed in the bay, but avoiding these, the ships
drew in to close range, and opened fire, the Peoria at
twelve hundred and the Ae/ena at fourteen hundred
yards. The Spaniards had several Krupp field-pieces
of three or four inches, mounted on earthworks along
_ the water-front, and they began a vigorous, but ill-
â€˜directed reply with shell and shrapnel. The fire of the
American ships was most accurate and terribly destruc-
tive. The Spanish gunners had not fired more than
fifteen or twenty shots before their guns were flying
in the air, their earthworks a mass of blood-stained
310 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
dust, and their gunners running for their lives. Both
the Peoria and the Helena were struck several times,
chiefly by shrapnel, but no one on either ship was
injured. As they withdrew, several buildings on shore
were in flames.
That afternoon both ships again turned their atten-
tion to the fort and the entrenchments at the mouth of
the Tallabacoa River, and for half an hour poured a -
wicked fire upon them. The Spaniards had been
largely reinforced during the day, and some field-pieces
had been mounted near the fort. These replied to the
American fire, but without effect, and the shells of the
two ships speedily silenced them. The iron blockhouse
was struck repeatedly, and the earthworks were par-
tially destroyed. No damage was done to the ships,
and they again withdrew.
That night the Spaniards burned a Tae wharf and
the adjacent buildings, evidently expecting a landing in
force the next day.
It was learned from various sources that reinforce-
ments were pouring into Las Tunas from all directions ;
a newspaper from Sancti Spiritus stated that two thou-
sand men had been despatched from the nearest trocha.
It was determined to proceed during the night to Palo
Alto, fifty miles to the eastward, the Helena remainingâ€™
at Las Tunas to confirm the Spaniards in the belief
that an attempt was to be made to land there.
July 2. At ten oâ€™clock Saturday night, while the
Helena lay offshore, making lively play with her search-
212 THE BOYS OF â€™98,
The two opened fire upon the Spanish vessel and
fort. A well-directed 4-inch shell from the Castine
blew the steamer up.
Most of the latterâ€™s crew and passengers by this time
had, however, escaped by rowing or swimming ashore.
Just at sunrise, while the CastÃ©ne and Hawk were
reconnoitring in the vicinity of the wreck, a big
Spanish gunboat hove in sight, training all her bat-
teries on the two American boats. It was an exciting
The Castineâ€™s 4-inchers opened promptly, and the
Spaniard returned at full speed to cover, under Morro
The Spanish fleet, commanded by Admiral Camara,
arrived at Suez, and was notified by the officials of the
Egyptian government that it must leave the port within
The government also notified Admiral Camara that
he would not be allowed to coal.
While the U. S. gunboat Eag/e was on the blockad-
ing route in the vicinity of the Isle of Pines, on the
south Cuban coast, about five miles from the shore,
she sighted the schooner Gad/ito, provision laden. She
immediately gave chase, and the schooner ran in until
about a quarter of a mile from the shore, when she
dropped her anchor, and those aboard slipped over her
side and swam ashore.
Ensign J. H. Roys and a crew of eight men from
the Lagle were sent in a small boat to board the
MINOR EVENTS. 313
schooner. They found her deserted, and while examin-
ing her were fired upon by her crew from the beach.
Several rifle-shots went through the schoonerâ€™s sails,
but no one was injured. The Zagde drew closer in, and
sent half a dozen shots toward the beach from her
6-pounders, whereupon the Spaniards disappeared. The
Galhto was taken into Key West.
July 7, Congress having passed resolutions to the
effect that Hawaii be annexed to the United States,
the President added his signature, and a new territory
was thus added to the American nation.
Secretary Long gave orders for the departure of the
Philadelphia from Mare Island for Hawaii. She was
to carry the flag of the United States to those islands
and include them within the Union. Admiral Miller,
commanding the Pacific station, was charged with the
function of hoisting the flag.
July 8. Admiral Camara, commander of the Spanish
fleet, which was bound for the Philippines, informed the
Egyptian government that he had been ordered to
return home, and would, therefore, reÃ©nter the Suez
July 12. Vhe auxiliary gunboat Eagle sighted the
Spanish steamer Sanzto Domingo, fifty-five hundred
â€˜tons, aground near the Cuban coast, off Cape Francis,
and opened fire with her 6-pounders, sending seventy
shots at her, nearly all of which took effect.
While this was going on, another steamer came out
of the bay and took off the officers and crew of the
BA THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Santo Domingo. When the men from the Eagle
boarded the latter they found that she carried two
s-inch and two 12-inch guns, the latter being loaded
and her magazines open. The steamer had been draw-
ing twenty-four feet of water and had gone aground
in twenty feet. â€”
The men from the Zag/e decided that the steamer
could not be floated, and she was set on fire after
fifty head of cattle, which were on board, had been
The Santo Domingo carried a large cargo of grain,
corn, etc. While the steamer was burning, the vessel
which had previously taken off the crew emerged from
the bay, and tried to get off some of the cargo, but
failed. The Spanish steamer burned for three days, and
was totally destroyed.
July 17. The cruiser Mew Orleans captured the
French steamer Olinde Rodriguez off San Juan de
Porto Rico, as she was trying to enter the port with
passengers and a cargo of coffee and tobacco.
The U.S. S. Mayflower captured the British steamer
Newfoundland off Cienfuegos while the latter was try-
ing to run the Cuban blockade.
The Spanish sloop Domingo Aurello was captured by
the U. S. S. Maple as the former was leaving the port
of Sagua de Tanamo, province of Santiago, with a
cargo of tobacco.
July 22. The following cablegram was received at
the Navy Department :
U. S. S. NEW ORLEANS.
MINOR EVENTS. 315
Â«Praya, July 22.
Â«Expedition to Nipe has been entirely successful,
although the mines have not been removed for want of
â€œThe Spanish cruiser /orge Juan, defending the
place, was destroyed, without loss on our part.
â€œThe Annapolis and Wasp afterward proceeded
from Nipe to assist in the landing of the commanding
general of the army on arrival at Porto Rico.
(Signed) Â«Â¢ SAMPSON.â€ -
July 30. Another â€œjackieâ€ achieved the reputation
ofa hero. He is boatswainâ€™s mate Nevis of the gun-
boat Bancroft, and the tale of his valour is not unmixed
_ The Bancroft, accompanied by the converted yacht
' Eagle, which had been covering the blockading sta-
tion around the Isle of Pines, sighted a small Spanish
schooner in Sigunea Bay.
The Bancroftâ€™s steam launch, in charge of Nevis and
one seaman, each armed with a rifle, were sent in to
take the schooner. This was only a task of minutÃ©s,
and the launch returned with the prize, which proved to
_be the schooner /Vzzo, little more than a smack, and
with no cargo.
Commander Clover sent Nevis in with her to anchor
~ near the wreck of the Spanish transatlantic liner Santo
Domingo, sank by the Eagle a few weeks ago. Then
the Bancroft and Eagle cruised off to Mangle Point,
316 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
where they happened to be put in communication with
the insurgent camp.
Two hours later they returned. For a time nothing
could be seen of the launch or the prize. Suddenly
Commander Clover, who was scanning the waters with
his glass, shouted to Captain Sutherland of the Eagle. .
Â«By heavens, they have recaptured my prize.â€ The
little schooner lay near the wrecked steamer, but
the Spanish flag was flying from her mast, and,
instead of only Nevis and his companion, she was
apparently filled with men.
Meanwhile the gunboat JZaple had drawn up, and
Commander Clover ordered her into the work of rescue.
With guns ready she steamed toward the schooner, but
the sight that greeted her was not what was expected.
Nevis and his companion sat at one end of the boat
attempting to navigate her out of the harbour. Each
had his rifle across his knee and was keeping a wary
eye on a party of half a dozen cowering Spaniards
huddled in the other end of the boat.
The Maple asked for information, and offered Nevis
a tow, but he replied with a joke and declined the
proffered assistance. Then it developed that, in going
in to anchor, he had observed two other small Spanish
boats near the wreck of the Santo Domingo, and
had resolved to capture them, too. He knew it was
hazardous work, but â€œ bluffâ€â€™ carried him through.
He took the Spanish colours of the schooner, ran
them up, and boldly sailed in. There were six men on
MINOR EVENTS. 317
the two other boats, and they watched the approach of
their supposed compatriots with calmness that speedily
changed to consternation when Nevis and the other
â€œjackieâ€ suddenly whipped their rifles to their shoul-
ders, and demanded an immediate surrender.
The scared Spanish seamen lost no time in comply-
ing, and had the unique experience of surrendering
to their own flag. Then, scorning all aid, Nevis took
them out to his ship, and in the most matter-of-fact
manner reported the adventure to his. astonished com-
The capture was no mean one, for these six men
gave important information to the American ships.
August rz. The Norwegian steamer franklin, of
about five hundred tons, bound from Vera Cruz with
a cargo of food supplies, was captured by the converted
yacht Szrenx off Francis Key, near Caibarien.
August 6. The Norwegian steamer Aladdin, sugar-
laden, was captured by the auxiliary gunboat Hawk off
Cadiz Light, Isle of Pines.
August 7. The auxiliary gunboat Viking captured
the Norwegian steamer Bergen off Francis Key.
August 8. General Shafter and the Spanish General
-Toral held a consultation at the palace in Santiago,
with regard to the embarkation of the Spanish prison-
ers of war. - As a result of the conference, one thou-
sand of the Spanish sick and wounded were taken on
board the A/cante next morning, to be sent to Spain as
soon as the vessel was properly loaded. .
318 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
August ro. The President to-day promoted Samp-
son and Schley to be rear-admirals, ranking in the
A department of the army, to be known as the
Department of Santiago, was created, and Maj.-Gen.
Henry W. Lawton assigned to its command.
The Norwegian steamers Aladdin and Bergen were
released, by orders from Washington.
August r2. The flag-ship San Francisco, the monitor
Miantonomah, and the auxiliary yacht Sy/vza were fired
upon by the Havana batteries. One 10 or 12-inch
shell struck the Sax Francisco's stern as she turned
to get out of range, and tore a hole about a foot in
diameter, completely wrecking Commodore Howellâ€™s
quarters, and smashing his book-case to fragments.
Nobody was injured, and, being under orders not to
attack the batteries, the ships retreated as fast as their
engines could carry them.
August 13. General Shafter, at Santiago, learned
that Manzanillo had been bombarded for twenty hours.
General Shafter at once cabled to the Spanish com-
mander at Manzanillo that peace had been declared,* and
requesting him to advise the American commander of
the fact under a flag of truce, which he did, and the
shelling of the town ceased.
August 16. The following message was the first
received in this country from the territory so lately
annexed : ro ,
* See Chapter XVII.
U. S. S. SAN FRANCISCO.
MINOR EVENTS. 319
â€œ HONOLULU, August 16.
â€œ Day, State Department: â€” Flag raised Friday, the
twelfth, at noon. Ceremonies of transfer produced
(Sisned) Sr wan
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN.
ULY 20. With bands playing and thirty thousand
people cheering, the first expedition to Porto Rico
left Charleston, S. C., at seven oâ€™clock in the evening,
under command of Maj.-Gen. J. H. Wilson. The Sec-
ond and Third Wisconsin and Sixteenth Pennsylvania
regiments, and two companies of the Sixth Illinois,
made up the list of troops.
July 21. General Miles accompanied the expedition
bound for Porto Rico, which left Guantanamo Bay,
made up of eight transports convoyed by the Wew
Orleans, Annapolis, Cincinnati, Leyden, and Wasp.
July 22. An expedition under command of Brig.-
Gen. Theo. Schwan left Tampa on five transports,
bound for Porto Rico.
July 25. The expedition under the command of
Major-General Miles landed at Guanica de Porto
Rico, the Gloucester, in charge of Lieutenant-Com-
mander Wainwright, steaming into the harbour in
order to reconnoitre the place. With the fleet wait-
ing outside, the gallant little fighting yacht Gloucester
braved the mines which were supposed to be in this
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 321
harbour, and, upon sounding, found that there were
five fathoms of water close inshore.
The Spaniards were completely taken by surprise.
Almost the first they knew of the approach of the
army of invasion was the firing of a gun from the
Gloucester, saucily demanding that the Spaniards haul
down the flag of Spain, which was floating from the
flag-staff in front of a blockhouse standing to the east
of the village.
The first 3-pounders were aimed at the hills right
and left of the bay and in order to scare the enemy,
the fighting yacht purposely avoiding firing into the
The Gloucester then hove to within about six hundred
yards of the shore, and lowered a launch, having on
board a colt rapid-fire gun and thirty men, under the
command of Lieutenant Huse. She was sent ashore
without encountering any opposition. _
Quartermaster Beck thereupon told Yeoman Lacey
to haul down the Spanish flag, which was done, and
then they raised the first United States flag to float over
Porto Rican soil.
Suddenly about thirty Spaniards opened fire with
_Mauser rifles upon the American party. Lieutenant
Huse and his men responded with great gallantry, the
Colt gun doing effective work.
Norman, who received Admiral Cerveraâ€™s surrender,
and Wood, a volunteer lieutenant, shared the honours
with Lieutenant Huse,
BOD THE BOYS OF â€™098.
Almost immediately after the Spaniards fired on the
Americans, the Gloucester opened fire on the enemy
with all her 3 and 6-pounders which could be brought
to bear, shelling the town and also dropping shells into
the hills to the west of Guanica, where a number of
Spanish cavalry were to be seen hastening toward the
spot where the Americans had landed.
Lieutenant Huse then threw up a little fort, which he
named Fort Wainwright, and laid barbed wire in the
street in front of it in order to repel the expected
cavalry attack. The lieutenant also mounted the Colt
gun and signalled for reinforcements, which were sent
from the Gloucester.
Presently a few of the Spanish cavalry joined those
who were fighting in the streets of Guanica, but the
Colt barked to a purpose, killing four of them.
Soon afterward white-coated galloping cavalrymen
were seen climbing the hills to the westward, and the
_ foot-soldiers were scurrying along the fences from the
By 9.45, with the exception of a few guerrilla shots,
the town was won, and the enemy driven out of the
The troops from the transports were landed before
July 26. Near Yauco, while the Americans were
pushing toward the mountains, the Spaniards ambushed
eight companies of the Sixth Massachusetts and Sixth
Illinois regiments, but the enemy was repulsed and
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 323
driven back a mile to a ridge, where the Spanish cavalry
charged and were routed by our infantry.
General Garretson led. the fight with the men from
Illinois and Massachusetts, and the enemy retreated to
Yauco, leaving three dead on the field and thirteen
wounded. None of our men were killed, and only three
were slightly wounded.
June 27. The port of Ponce, Porto Rico, surren-
dered to Commander C..H. Davis of the auxiliary
gunboat Dzxrte. There was no resistance, and the
Americans were welcomed with enthusiasm. General
Miles issued the following proclamation :
â€œIn the prosecution of the war against the kingdom of
Spain by the people of the United States, in the cause
of liberty, justice, and humanity, its military forces have
come to occupy the island of Porto Rico. They come
bearing the banners of freedom, inspired by a noble
purpose, to seek the enemies of our government and of
yours, and to destroy or capture all in armed resistance.
â€œThey bring you the fostering arms of a free people,
whose greatest power is justice and humanity to all
living within their fold. Hence they release you from
your former political relations, and it is hoped your
- cheerful acceptance of the government of the United
States will follow.
â€œThe chief object of the military forces will be to
overthrow the armed authority of Spain, and give the
people of your beautiful island the largest measure of
liberty consistent with this military occupation,
324 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
â€œ They have not come to make war on the people of
the country, who for centuries have been oppressed,
but, on the contrary, they bring protection not only to
yourselves, but to your property, will promote your
prosperity and bestow upon you the immunities and
blessings of our enlightened and liberal institutions
â€œTt is not their purpose to interfere with the existing
laws and customs which are wholesome and beneficial
to the people, so long as they conform to the rules of
the military administration, order, and justice. This is
not a war of devastation and desolation, but one to give
all within the control of the military and naval forces the
advantages and blessings of enlightened civilisation.â€
July 28. The expedition destined for Porto Rico,
under command of Major-General Brooke, left Newport
News. Four transports and the auxiliary cruisers SÂ¢.
Louis and St. Paul comprises the fleet.
The Navy Department made public the following tele-
Â«U. S. S. Massacuusetts, Ponce, Porto
Â«Rico, July 28.
Â«Commander Davis with Dixie, Annapolis, Wee and
Gloucester left Guanica July 27th to blockade Ponce
and capture lighters for United States army. City of
Ponce and Playa surrendered to Commander Davis
upon demand at 12.30 a.m, July 28th. American
flag hoisted 6 a. M., 28th. ,
Â« Spanish garrison evacuated.
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 325
â€œ Provisional articles of surrender until occupation by
army: first, garrison to be allowed to retire ; second,
civil government to remain in force; third, police and
fire brigade to be maintained without arms; fourth,
captain of port not to be made prisoner.
â€œ Arrived at Ponce from Guanica with Massachusetts
and Cincinnatt, General Miles and General Wilson and
transport, at 6.40 A.M., 28th; commenced landing army
in captured sugar lighters.
â€œNo resistance. Troops welcomed by inhabitants ;
â€œCaptured sixty lighters, twenty sailing vessels, and
120 tons of coal.
July 29. The advance guard of General Henryâ€™s
division, which landed at Guanica on Tuesday, arrived
at Ponce, taking en route the cities of Yauco, Tallaboa,
Sabana, Grande, and Penuelas.
Attempts by the Spaniards to blow up bridges and
otherwise destroy the railroad between Yauco.and Ponce
failed, only a few flat cars being burned. At Yauco
the Americans were welcomed in an address made by
the alcalde, and a public proclamation was issued, dated
â€œYauco, Porto Rico, United States of America, July
. July 31. In General Milesâ€™s despatches to the War
Department, the following statements are made regard-
ing the condition of affairs on the island :
326 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
Â«Volunteers are surrendering themselves with arms
and ammunition. Four-fifths of the people are over-
joyed at the arrival of the army. Two thousand from
one place have volunteered to serve with it. They
are bringing in transportation, beef, and other needed
â€œThe custom-house has already yielded fourteen
thousand dollars. As soon as all the troops are dis-
embarked they will be in readiness to move.â€
Colonel Hulings, with ten companies of the Sixteenth
Pennsylvania, occupied Juan Diaz, about eight miles
northeast of Ponce, on the road to San Juan. The
American flag was raised, and greeted with great en-
thusiasm by the populace.
August I. The American scouts were within six
miles of Coamo, and the Spanish rear guard was retir-
ing fast. The Spanish had fled toward Aibonito, thirty
miles from Ponce, and the place was being fortified.
There the road winds around among the mountains, and
the artillery commanding it rendered the position im-
pregnable.. DÃ©tours were to be made by the Americans
from Coamo through Arroyo and Guayamo, thus avoid-
ing the main road, which had been mined for three
miles. Captain Confields of the engineers went ahead
to kill these mines. The Fifth Signal Corps men in ad-
vance of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania sent word to General
Stone that it had reconnoitred the road to Adjuntas. A
signal-station was established, and the stars and stripes
run up at Santa Isabel amid great enthusiasm. Yabri-
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 327
coa, Patillas, Arroyo, Guayanillo, Penuelas, Adjuntas,
Guayamo, and Salinas had all surrendered.
The Spaniards hurried from these towns towards San
Juan before an attack was made. The second fleet of
transports arrived safely at Fort Ponce, the Rouwma-
nian bringing the cavalry detachment, and the Judiana
and Mzssouri the batteries. Generals Brooke, Schwan,
and Haines, with their staffs, were on board. The
troops carried included the Thirteenth Illinois, Seventh
Ohio, Fourth Pennsylvania, Nineteenth Regulars, and
Troops A and C of the New York volunteer cavalry.
There were also one thousand animals, thirty daysâ€™
rations for thirty thousand men, a signal corps detach-
ment, and an ambulance corps. The whole force, as
well as the ammunition and quartermasterâ€™s stores, was
landed, and the men were camping on the outskirts of
August 2. San Juan blockaded by the Mew Orleans,
Puritan, Prairie, Dixie, and Gloucester, which kept out
of range of the masked batteries ashore.
The railroad-from Ponce to Yauco in possession of
U. S. troops. Spanish volunteers continued to come
into the American lines and give themselves up.
, August 4. A portion of General Grantâ€™s brigade, on
the transport Hudson, sailed from Newport News.
A correspondent for theâ€™ Associated Press, with the
invading army, thus wrote under date of August 4th:
â€œThe Americans have taken peaceful possession of
the eastern portion of the island.
328 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Â« Small parties of marines have been landed, who
have lighted the lamps in the lighthouse at Cape
San Juan, and in other lighthouses along the coast.
They met with no resistance. â€˜
â€œIndeed, at Cape San Juan, deputations of citizens
came out to meet them.
Â« The war-ships now in this vicinity are the Montgom-
ery, the Annapolis, the Puritan, and the Amphitrite.
The two former are looking for the transports with
troops which left the United States and have scattered
all about the island.
â€œThe Annapolis rounded up the Whitney, the Florida,
and the Raleigh, yesterday, and they are now at Cape
San Juan. There seems to have been a serious mis-
take as to the rendezvous, for no two ships go to the
same place, and it will take several days to overtake
them and get them to Ponce, where General Miles is
â€œOff San Juan the cruiser Mew Orleans alone
maintains the blockade. The city is grim and silent,
but back of her yellow walls there will be plenty of
determination to fight when the Americans fire.
â€œCaptain-General Macias has issued a proclamation,
in the course of which he says:
Â« Â«Spain has not sued for peace, and I can drive off
the American boats now as I did Sampsonâ€™s attempt
â€œThe daughter of the captain-general is helping to
drill the gunners in the fort. Altogether there are
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 329
ninety-five hundred Spanish regulars in the city. The
troops of the enemy, who are retreating from Ponce
and the other towns on the south coast occupied by
the Americans, have not yet arrived.â€
August 5. General Haines, with the Fourth Ohio
and the Third Illinois, left Arroyo for the Spanish
stronghold of Guayama. The Fourth Ohio was placed
in the lead, and when only three miles from Arroyo
its skirmish-lines were attacked by the Spaniards from.
ambush. There was a hot running fight from this
time on until the American troops reached and cap-
tured Guayama, which is about six miles from Arroyo.
The Americans lost three wounded, and the enemy,
one killed and two wounded.
August 6. The foreign consuls at San Juan de
Porto Rico advised the Spanish authorities to surrender
the island to the American troops. The Spaniards,
however, in reply, announced that they had resolved
to fight; thereupon the consuls notified the Spanish
commander, Captain-General Macias, that they would
establish a neutral zone between Bayamon and Rio
Piedrass, in which to gather the foreign residents and
their portable properties in order to ensure their safety
in the event of a bombardment of the place by the
American forces. The consul sent a similar notification
to General Miles.
August 7. A general advance of the American
forces. The custom-house in the village of Farjardo
330 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
August 8. The town of Coamo was taken by the
Sixteenth Pennsylvania and the Second and Third
Wisconsin. Artillery was used on an outlying block-
house, and under cover of this fire the advance was
Two hundred Spaniards were captured and twenty
killed, including the commander, Rafael Igleseas, and
three other officers.
Five Americans were wounded.
August 9. Gen. Fred Grant, his staff, and six
companies of the First Kentucky regiment sailed
for Porto Rico from Newport News on the transport
Â« Ponce, August 9.
â€œ Secretary of War, Washington: â€”The following
received from General Wilson :
Â«Â«Â¢General Ernstâ€™s brigade captured Coamo 8.30 this
morning. Sixteenth Pennsylvania, Colonel Hulings
commanding, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Biddle, of my
staff, having made a turning movement through the
mountains, striking the Aibonito road half a mile be-
yond town, captured the entire garrison of Coamo,
about I50 men.
Â«Â«Â« Spanish commander, Igleseas, and Captain Lopez
killed. Our loss reported six wounded, only one
severely. Men and officers behaving excellently.â€™
â€œColonel Hulings and Colonel Biddle are espec-
ially to be commended. This is a very important
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 331
capture, and well executed. Names of wounded as
soon as received â€˜here.
(Signed) â€œ MILES.â€
Troop C, of New York, pursued a party of fleeing
Spanish engineers, after the capture of Coamo, a dis-
tance of four miles along the road to Aibonito.
The Americans were checked at the Cuyon River,
where the Spaniards had blown up the bridge, and
were shelled from a Spanish battery on the crest of:
Asoniante Mountain. The dismounted cavalry returned
the fire, receiving no damage, and holding the position.
A battalion of the Third Wisconsin Volunteers went to
â€œ Poncg, viA BERMUDA, August ITI.
â€œ Secretary of War, Washington: â€”The following
message received from Schwan:
â€œÂ«CAMmP, NEAR HoRMIGUEROS, August 10.
Â«Â« Advance guard, including cavalry of this com-
mand, while reconnoitring northwest of Rosario River,
near Hormigueros, developed strong Spanish force,
which lay concealed in hills north of Mayaguez.
Â«Â«In general engagement that followed, Lieutenant
Byron, Eighth Cavalry, my aid-de-camp, was wounded
in foot, and Private Fermberger, Company D, Eleventh
Infantry, and one other private were killed, and fourteen
enlisted men were wounded.
322 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Spanish garrison of Mayaguez and surrounding coun-
try, consisting of one thousand regulars and two
hundred volunteers, took part in the engagement.
We drove enemy from his position, and it is believed
inflicted heavy loss.
Â«Â« A wounded Spanish lieutenant was found in the
field and brought into our line. Conduct of officers
and men was beyond all praise. I propose to continue
my march on Mayaguez at early hour to-morrow.
(Signed) co MiMenS.e
August r2. General Wilson moved one Lancaster
battery out to the front for the purpose of shelling the
Spanish position on the crest of the mountain at
the head of the pass through which the road winds.
The enemy occupied a position of great natural
strength, protected by seven lines of entrenchments,
and a battery of two howitzers.
The Spaniards were eager for the fray, and early in
the day had fired upon Colonel Biddle of the engineer
corps, who, with a platoon of Troop C, of New York,
was reconnoitring on their right flank.
As the American battery rounded a curve in the
road, two thousand yards away, the enemy opened an
artillery and infantry fire. Four companies of the
Third Wisconsin, which were posted on the bluff to
the right of the road, were not permitted to respond.
The guns advanced at a gallop in the face of a
GENERAL BROOKE RECEIVING THE NEWS OF THE PROTOCOL,
THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN. 333
terrific fire, were unlimbered, and were soon hurling
common shell and shrapnel at the enemy at a lively
rate, striking the emplacements, batteries, and entrench-
ments with the rhythmic regularity of a triphammer.
The enemy soon abandoned one gun, but continued
to serve the other at intervals for over an hour. They
had the range, and their shrapnel burst repeatedly over
In about two hours the enemy abandoned the other
gun, and the men began to flee from the entrenchments
toward a banana growth near the gorge. Then the
guns shelled them as they ran. One gun was ordered
to advance a position a quarter of a mile farther
on. It had just reached the new position when
Spanish infantry reinforcements filed into the trenches
and began a deadly fire upon the Americans, com-
pelling the battery to retire at â€˜a gallop. Then
both the enemyâ€™s howitzers reopened, the shrapnel
screamed, and Mausers sang. Another gun galloped
from the rear, but the American ammunition was
Colonel Bliss of General Wilsonâ€™s staff went forward
to the enemyâ€™s lines with a flag of truce, and explained
that peace negotiations were almost concluded, that
their position was untenable, and demanded their sur-
-render. The Spanish had had no communication with
the outside world, and the commander asked until the
next morning in order that he might communicate with
General Macias at San Juan,
334 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
August 13. Twelve hours later the Spanish com-
mander gave the following command to one of his
â€œTell the American general, if he desires to avoid
further shedding of blood, to remain where he is.â€
General Miles telegraphed the War Department that
he was in receipt of Secretary Algerâ€™s order to suspend
hostilities in Porto Rico. The soldiers of the American
army generally received the news of peace with delight,
although some were disappointed that there was to be
no further fighting, and many officers expressed regrets
at the suspension of hostilities in the midst of the
August rg. General Schwanâ€™s column was attacked
between Mayaguez and Lares. As the Eleventh In-
fantry under Colonel Burke was descending the valley
of the Rio Grande they were fired upon from a hillside
by a force of fifteen hundred Spaniards, who were
retreating toward the north. The fire was returned,
and the Spaniards were repulsed with, it was believed,
Colonel Soto, the commander of the Mayaguez
district, was wounded and afterward capturedâ€™ in a
wayside cottage. He was attended by two sergeants,
who surrendered. The Americans suffered no loss.
The artillery and cavalry were not engaged.
General Schwan had not received news of the sign-
ing of the protocol when the action â€˜occurred, but
obtained it later in the day,
GENERAL RUSSELL A. ALGER, SECRETARY OF WAR.
THE FALL OF MANILA.
ITH the opening of the month of July, affairs at
Manila, so far as concerned the American forces,
were at a standstill.
June 30. Admiral Dewey awaited the coming of the
army, the first transports of the fleet having arrived
at Cavite, June 3oth, before beginning offensive
The situation on and around the island of Luzon was
much the same as it had been nearly all the month of
June, except that the gunboat ZLezte, which ran up a
river on May Ist, the day of the battle, came out and
surrendered, having on board fifty-two army and navy
officers and ninety-four men. The LezÂ¢e has a battery
of one 3 I-2-inch hontoria guns, and several 2.7-inch
July xr. Aguinaldo proclaimed himself President of
the Revolutionary Republic on the first of July. The
progress of the insurgents can be readily understood
_ by the following extract from a letter written by Mr.
E. W. Harden :
Â«There are persistent rumours that it is the desire of
Governor-General Augusti to surrender Manila to the
336 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Americans, but the command of the Spanish troops is
practically held by the senior colonel of artillery, who
â€œThe rebels have captured the water-works beyond
Santa Mesa, which supplied Manila, and the Spanish
fear that their water will be cut off.
Â«The rebels have also captured the strongly fortified
positions of San Juan and Delmonte, where the Span-
iards were to make their last stand if Manila capitu-
lated. The city is still surrounded by insurgents.
July 2. â€œThere was fierce fighting Saturday before
Malate. The Spaniards had modern guns to command
the rebel trenches, and maintained a steady fire through-
out the afternoon, but found it impossible to drive the
natives out. Forty rebels were killed. The Spaniards
finally were driven back.â€
July 4. Brigadier-General Green, in command Gf the
second army detachment, on the way from San Fran-
cisco to Manila, rediscovered and took formal posses-
sion of the long lost Wake Island, in north latitude
19Â° 15â€™ and east longitude 166Â° 33â€™,
July 5. To the Spanish consul at Singapore, Cap-
tain-General Augusti telegraphed :
â€œThe situation is unchanged. My family has suc-
ceeded in miraculously escaping from Macabora in a
boat, and, having passed through the American vessels,
all arrived safely at Manila. General Monetâ€™s column
is besieged and attacked at Macabora.â€â€™
July r5. The steamers City of Puebla and Peru
THE FALL OF MANILA. B07,
sailed from San Francisco with the fourth Manila
expedition, under command of Major-General Otis.
July 16. The steamer China, of the second Manila
expedition, arrived at Cavite, and was followed on the
next day by the steamers Zealandia, Colon, and Senator.
July 19. The work of surrounding Manila by Ameri-
can forces was begun by advancing the First California
regiment to Jaubo, only two miles from the Spanish
lines. The Colorado and Utah batteries were landed at
Paranaque, directly from the transports. Over fifteen
hundred men encamped between Manila and Cavite.
The Tenth Pennsylvania, with the rest of the artillery,
landed at Malabon, north of the besieged city.
July 23. The transport steamer Rio Janeiro, bearing
two battalions of South Dakota volunteers, recruits for
the Utah Light Artillery, and a detachment of the
signal corps, sailed from San Francisco for Manila.
July 25. Major-General Merritt arrived at Cavite.
Secretary Long forwarded to Admiral Dewey the
joint resolution of Congress, extending the thanks of
Congress for the victory achieved at Cavite. The reso-
lution was beautifully engrossed, and prefaced by a
formal attestation of its authenticity by Secretary of
_State Day, the whole being enclosed in richly
â€˜ ornamented Russia covers.
_ Secretary Long, in his letter of transmittal, makes
reference to a letter from the Secretary of State com-
plimenting Admiral Dewey upon his direction of affairs
since the great naval victory, a formal evidence that
38 THE BOYS OF â€™08.
the State Department is thoroughly well satisfied
with the diplomatic qualities the admiral has exhibited.
The letter of Secretary Long is as follows :
â€œ WASHINGTON, July 25, 1898.
â€œ Sty: â€” The Department has received from the
Secretary of State an engrossed and certified: copy of
a joint resolution of Congress, tendering the thanks
of Congress to you, and the officers and men of the
squadron under your command, for transmission to
you, and herewith encloses the same.
Â« Accompanying the copy of the joint resolutions, the
Department received a letter from the Secretary of
State requesting that there be conveyed to you his
high appreciation of your character as a naval officer,
and of the good judgment and prudence you have
shown in directing affairs since the date of your
great achievement in destroying the Spanish fleet.
â€œThis I take great pleasure in doing, and join most
heartily on behalf of the Navy Department, as well as
personally, in the commendation of the Secretary of
State, Very respectfully,
â€œJoun D. Lone, Secretary.
â€œ Rear-Admiral George Dewey, U. S. N., Commander-
in-Chief U. S. Naval Force, Asiatic Station.â€
July 29. The transport steamer Sz. Paul, bearing
the first battalion of North Dakota volunteers, the
THE FALL OF MANILA, 339
Minnesota and Colorado recruits, sailed from San
Francisco for Manila.
July 3x. The transports Judiana, Ohio, Valencia,
Para, and Morgan City arrived at Cavite with American
At 11.30, on the last night of July, the Spanish forces
in Manila attacked the American lines. A typhoon had
set in, rain was falling in torrents, and the blackness
of the night was almost palpable. Three thousand
Spaniards made a descent upon an entrenched line of
not more than nine hundred Americans.
The Tenth Pennsylvania bore the brunt of the attack,
and checked the Spanish advance until the Utah bat-
tery, the First California Volunteers, and two companies
of the Third Artillery, fighting as infantry, could get up
to strengthen the right of the line.
The Spaniards had, by a rush, gone 150 yards
through and beyond the American right flank, when
the regulars of the Third Artillery, armed as infantry-
men, pushed them back in confusion, the Pennsylvanians
and Utah battery aiding gallantly in the work.
August 7. After the attack on the right wing had
been repulsed, the second Spanish attack at two in
the morning was directed against the American left
_After thirty minutes of fighting the enemy was
again beaten off, and the rain seemed to be so heavy as
to make further attack impossible.
But at 3.50 a.m. the battle was resumedâ€™ at longer
340 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
range, Spanish sharpshooters firing from the trees, and
the batteries working constantly, using brass-coated
bullets. The Americans, smoked and powder-stained,
stuck to their guns for fourteen hours without relief,
and shortly after sunrise the Spanish retreated. The
American loss was eight killed, ten seriously and
thirty-eight slightly wounded.
August g. The monitor Monterey and the convoyed
collier Brutus arrived at Cavite.
August 7. Admiral Dewey demanded the surrender
of Manila within forty-eight hours. The Spanish com-
mander replied that, the insurgents being outside the
walls, he had no safe place for the women and children
who were in the city, and asked for twenty-four hours
additional delay. This Admiral Dewey granted.
At the expiration of the specified time Admiral
Dewey and General Merritt consulted and decided to
postpone the attack.
August 13. The American commanders decided to
begin hostilities on the thirteenth of August, and the
navy began the action at 9.30 A. m., the Olympza open-
ing fire, followed by the Raleigh, Petrel, and Callao.
The latter showed great daring, approaching within
eight hundred yards of the Malate forts and trenches,
doing grand work and driving back the Spanish forces.
The firing from the fleet continued for one hour, the
Spanish then retreating from Malate, where the fire was
centred, and the American land forces stormed the
trenches, sweeping all before them. The First Colo-
THE FALL OF MANILA. 341
rado Volunteers drove the Spaniards into the second
line-of defence. Then the troops swept on, driving all
the Spaniards into the inner fortification.
The fighting in the trenches was most fierce. Fif-
teen minutes after the Spaniards were driven to the
second line of defences, they were forced to retreat to
the walled city, where, seeing the uselessness of resist-
ance,. they surrendered, and soon afterward a white
flag was hoisted over Manila.
The total number of killed on'the American side was
forty-five, and wounded about one hundred. The
Spanish losses were two hundred killed and four hun-
Captain-General Augusti took refuge on board the
German ship Kazserin Augusta, and was conveyed to
The following official reports were made by cable:
â€œManiLa, August 13, 1898.
â€œSecretary of Navy, Washington :â€” Manila sur-
rendered to-day to the American land and naval forces,
after a combined attack.
â€œA division of the squadron shelled the forts and
_ entrenchments at Malate, on the south side of the city,
driving back the enemy, our army advancing from that
side at the same time.
â€œ The city surrendered about five oâ€™clock, the Ameri-
can flag being hoisted by Lieutenant Brumby.
â€œAbout seven thousand prisoners were taken.
342 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
Â«The squadron had no casualties, and none of the
vessels were injured. â€˜
Â« August 7th, General Merritt and I formally de-
manded the surrender of the city, which the Spanish
(Signed) â€œ DEWEY.â€
Â«â€œ Honckone, August 20th.
â€œÂ« Adjutant-General, Washington: â€” The following
are the terms of the capitulation:
Â«The undersigned, having been appointed a commis-
sion to determine the details of the capitulation of the city
and defences of Manila and its suburbs and the Spanish
forces stationed therein, in accordance with agreement
entered into the previous day by Maj.-Gen. Wesley
Merritt, U. S. A., American commander-in-chief in the
Philippines, and His Excellency Don Fermin Jaudenes,
acting general-in-chief of the Spanish army in the Philip-
pines, have agreed upon the following :
â€œThe Spanish troops, European and native, capitu-
late with the city and defences, with all honours of war,
depositing their arms in the places designated by the
authorities of the United States, remaining in the
quarters designated and under the orders of their
officers and subject to control of the aforesaid United
States authorities, until the conclusion of a treaty of
peace between the two belligerent nations. All persons
included in the capitulation remain at liberty; the
officers remaining in their respective homes, which
THE FALL OF MANILA. 343
shall be respected as long as they observe the regula-
tions prescribed for their government and the laws
Â«2, Officers shall retain their side-arms, horses,
and private property. All public horses and public
property of all kinds shall be turned over to staff
officers designated by the United States.
Â«<3, Complete returns in duplicate of men by organ-
isation, and full lists of public property and stores shall
be rendered to the United States within ten days from
Â«4. All questions relating to the repatriation of the
officers and men of the Spanish forces and of their
families, and of the expense which said repatriation
may occasion, shall be referred to the government of
the United States at Washington. Spanish families
may leave Manila at any time convenient to them.
The return of the arms surrendered by the Spanish
forces shall take place when they evacuate the city, or
when the Americans evacuate.
Â«sc, Officers and men included in the capitulation
shall be supplied by the United States according to
rank, with rations and necessary aid, as though they
were prisoners of war, until the conclusion of a treaty
of peace between the United States and Spain. All
the funds in the Spanish treasury and all other public
â€˜funds shall be turned over to the authorities of the
Â«6, This city, its inhabitants, its churches and reli-
344 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
gious worship, its educational establishments, and its
private property of all description, are placed under
the special safeguard of the faith and honour of the
_â€œF, V. GREENE,
â€œ Brigadier-General of Volunteers, U. S. A.
â€œÂ«B. P. LAMBERTON,
â€œCaptain U. S. Navy.
â€œCHARLES A. WHITTIER,
â€œ Lieutenant-Colonel and Inspector-General.
Â«FE, H. Crowber,
â€œ Lieutenant-Colonel and Judge-Advocate.
â€œNICHOLAS DE LA PENA,
â€œ Auaditor-Generalâ€™s excts.
â€œColonel de Ingenieros.
Â«Jose Maria OLQuEn,
â€œfelia de Estado Majors.
(Signed) â€œ MERRITT.â€
â€œ Honckonec, August 20th.
â€œÂ« Adjutant-General, Washington: â€”Cablegram of the
twelfth directing operations to be suspended received
afternoon of sixteenth. Spanish commander notified.
Acknowledged receipt of cablegram same date, contain-
ing proclamation of President.
N the twenty-sixth day of July, shortly after three
oâ€™clock in the afternoon, the French ambassador,
M. Cambon, accompanied by his first secretary, called at
the White House, the interview having been previously
arranged and an intimation of its purpose having been
given. With the President at the time was Secretary
of State Day.
M. Cambon stated to the President that, representing
the diplomatic interests of the kingdom of Spain, â€œ with
whom at the present time the United States is unhap-
pily engaged in hostilities,â€™ he had been directed by
the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs to ask on
what terms the United States would agree to a sus-
pension of hostilities.
The French ambassador, continuing, said that Spain,
realising the hopelessness of a conflict, knowing that
she was unable to cope with the great power of her
_ adversary, and appreciating fully that a prolongation of
the struggle would only entail a further sacrifice of life
and result in great misery to her people, on the ground
of humanity appealed to the President to consider a
proposition for peace.
Spain, said the ambassador, had been compelled to
346 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
fight to vindicate her honour, and having vindicated it,
having fought bravely and been conquered by a more
powerful nation, trusted to the magnanimity of the
victor to bring the war to an end.
The Presidentâ€™s reply showed that he was responsive
to the appeal. He was evidently moved by the almost
pathetic position which the once proud nation of Spain
had been forced to take, but he had his feelings weil
under control and behaved with great dignity.
The President frankly admitted that he was desirous
of peace, that he would welcome a cessation of hostil-
ities, but he delicately intimated that if Spain were
really desirous of peace she must be prepared to offer
such terms as could be accepted by the United States.
The President asked the French ambassador if he had
been instructed to formally propose terms, or make any
M. Cambon replied that he had not been so in-
structed, that his instructions were to ask on what
terms it would be possible to make peace.
Mr. McKinley said the matter would be considered
by the Cabinet, and a formal answer returned at the
earliest possible moment. The French ambassador
thanked the President for his courtesy, and, with
expressions of good-will on both sides, the historical
interview was brought to a close.
On the thirtieth day of July the ultimatum of the
United States was delivered to the ambassador of France,
and, in plain words, it was substantially as follows :
The President does not now put forward any claim
for pecuniary indemnity, but requires the relinquish-
ment of all claim of sovereignty over or title to the
island of Cuba, as well as the immediate evacuation by
Spain of the island, the cession to the United States
and immediate evacuation of Porto Rico and other
islands under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies,
and the like cession of an island in the Ladrones.
The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay,
and harbour of Manila, pending the conclusion of a
treaty of peace, which shall determine the control,
disposition, and government of the Philippines.
If these terms are accepted by Spain in their en-
tirety, it is stated that the commissioners will be named
by the United States to meet commissioners on the part
of Spain for the purpose of concluding a treaty of peace
on the basis above indicated. y
August 12, 1898, peace negotiations were formally
begun between the United States and Spain.
A few minutes before four oâ€™clock, in the midst of a
drenching rain, M. Cambon, the French ambassador,
attended by his secretary, entered the White House.
They were immediately ushered to the library, where
the President, Secretary of State Day, and Assistant
Secretaries of. State Moore, Adee, and Cridler were
The President cordially greeted the ambassador, who
returned the salutation with equal warmth, and then
348 THE BOYS OF â€™98.
shook hands with Secretary Day and the Assistant
Secretaries. While the President, Judge Day, and the
French ambassador were discussing the weather, â€” and
Washington has seldom known such a rain-storm as that
which engulfed the city while peace was being signed,
â€”M. Thiebaut and Assistant Secretary Moore were
comparing the two copies of the protocol to see that
they corresponded, and were identical in form.
The protocol is on parchment, in parallel columns in
French and English. In the copy retained by the
American government the English text is in the first
column; in the other copy, which was transmitted to
Madrid, the French text leads the paper.
The two Secretaries having pronounced the protocol â€”
correct, Judge Day and the French ambassador moved
over to the table to affix their signatures. Mr. Cridler
lit a candle to melt the sealing wax to make the impres-
sion on the protocols.
The striking of the match caused the French ambas-
sador to stop, feel in his pocket, and then remember
that he had come away from his embassy without his
seal. Here was a contretemps. It would never do to
seal such an important document with anything else
but the ambassadorâ€™s personal seal.
A note was hastily written, and one of the White
House messengers dashed out into the rain, and went
to the French embassy. Until his return the distin-
guished party in the White House library continued to
discuss the weather, and wonder when the typical Cuban
rain would cease falling. In a few minutes the mes-
senger returned. The ambassador drew from a small
box his seal, and the two plenipotentiaries turned to
the table. The American copy of the protocol was
placed before Judge Day, who signed it, and then
handed the pen to the ambassador, who quickly affixed
his signature and seal.
The second copy was then laid before the ambassador,
who signed, and in turn handed back the pen to Judge
Thus Judge Day signed the two documents, first and
last, and with the last stroke of his pen hostilities
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas, by a protocol concluded and signed August
12, 1898, by Wm. R. Day, Secretary of State of the
United States, and His Excellency Jules Cambon,
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the
Republic of France, at Washington, respectively repre-
senting for this purpose the government of the United
States and the government of Spain, the governments
of the United States and Spain have formally agreed
upon the terms on which negotiations for the establish-
ment of peace between the two countries shall be
undertaken ; and,
Whereas, it is in said protocol agreed that upon its
conclusion and signature hostilities between the two
countries shall be suspended, and that notice to that
effect shall be given as soon as possible by each govern-
ment to the commanders of its military and naval
Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of
the United States, do, in accordance with the stipula-
tions of the protocol, declare and proclaim on the part
of the United States a suspension of hostilities, and do
hereby command that orders be immediately given
through the proper channels to the commanders of the
military and naval forces of the United States to
abstain from all acts inconsistent with this proclama-
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this twelfth day of
August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and ninety-eight, and of the Independence of
the United States the one hundred and twenty-third.
By the President,
Wittiam R. Day,
Secretary of State.
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
HE number of islands in the Philippine group are
believed to be upwards of fourteen hundred, with an
aggregate land area (estimated on Domannâ€™s map) of not less
than 114,356 miles, situate in the southeast of Asia, extend-
ing from 40Â° 40â€™ to 20Â° north latitude, and from 116Â° 40â€™
to 126Â° 30â€™ east longitude.
The archipelago was discovered by Magellan on March
12, 1521, and named by him the St. Lazarus Islands. The
discoverer was a Portuguese, who had sought service under
Charles V. of Spain because he was ignored by the court of
his own country.
By the bull of Pope Alexander VI., of May 4, 1493,
which was then universally recognised as law, the earth was
divided into two hemispheres. All lands thereafter dis-
covered in the Eastern Hemisphere were decreed to belong
to Portugal ; all the Western to Spain.
The St. Lazarus Islands were well within Portugalâ€™s
rights, but as the use of the log and the variation of the
compass were unknown, an error of fifty-two degrees in
longitude was made, and to Spain the islands were given
on the basis of that error.
356 APPENDIX A.
By whom the name of Philippines was given to the
archipelago it is impossible to say. In 1567 it appears to
have been used for the first time.
The manufactures of the islands consist of silk, cotton,
and pifia fibres cloth, hats, mats, baskets, ropes, coarse
pottery, and musical instruments.
The northern islands of the archipelago lie in the region
of the typhoon, and have three seasons, â€” the cold, the hot,
and the wet. The first extends from November to February
or March, when the atmosphere is bracing rather than cold.
The hot season lasts from March to June, and the heat
becomes very oppressive before the beginning of the south-
erly monsoon. Thunder-storms of terrific violence occur
during May and June. The wet season begins with heavy
rains, known by the natives as â€œcollas,â€ and until the end of
October the downpour is excessive.
â€œ Earthquakes are sufficiently frequent and violent in the
Philippines to affect the style adopted in the erection of
buildings; in 1874, for instance, they were very numerous
throughout the archipelago, and in Manila and the adjacent
provinces shocks were felt daily for several weeks. The
most violent earthquakes on record in the Philippines oc-
curred in July, 1880, when the destruction of property was
immense, both in the capital and in other important towns
of central Luzon.â€
Though situated in the equatorial region, the elevations
of the mountains give a range of climate that allows the
production of a great variety of valuable crops. Tobacco,
sugar, hemp, and rice are the chief staples produced. The
swamps and rivers are infested with crocodiles, and the
dense woods with monkeys and serpents of many species.
Rich deposits of gold are known to exist, but have been
To quote from the Revue des Deux Mondes of Parise ;
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 357
In the same district are found Indians, Negritos, Man-
thras, Malays, Bicols, half-breed Indians and Spaniards,
Tagalas, Visayas, Sulus, and other tribes. The Negritos
(little negroes) are real negroes, blacker than a great many
of their African conquerors, with woolly hair growing in
isolated tufts. They are very diminutive, rarely attaining
four feet nine inches in height, and with small, retreating
skulls. This race forms a branch equal in importance to
the Papuan. It is believed to be the first race inhabiting
the Philippines, but, as wellâ€™ as everywhere else, except
in the Andaman Islands, it has been more or less absorbed
by the stronger races, and the result in the archipelago has
been the formation of several tribes of half-breeds number-
ing considerably more than half a million. Side by side
with them, and equally poor and wretched, are the Manthras,
a cross between the Negritos and Malays and the degener-
ate descendants of the Saletes, a warlike tribe conquered by
the Malayan Rajah Permicuri in 14rz. Then come the
Malay Sulus, all Mohammedans and still governed by their
Sultan and their da/os, feudal lords who, under the suzerainty
of the Spaniards, have possessed considerable power.
The soil is fully sufficient â€” indeed, more than sufficient
â€”to support this population, whose wants are of the most
limited character. The land is exceedingly fertile and bears
in abundance all tropical products, particularly rice, sugar,
and the abaca, a variety of the banana-tree. The fibres of
the abaca are employed in making the finest and most
- delicate fabrics, of which from three to four million dollarsâ€™
worth are exported annually. The exports of sugar amount
to about four millions and a half, of gold to two millions
and a half, and of coffee and tobacco close on to a million
and a quarter each. The rice is consumed at home. It
forms the staple food of the people, and nearly three million
dollarsâ€™ worth is imported yearly. The husbandman cannot
358 APPENDIX A.
complain that his toil is inadequately rewarded. A rice
plantation will yield a return of at least fifteen per cent.; if
he plant his farm with sugar-cane he will realise thirty per
cent., if not more. On the other hand, the price of labour
is very low. An adult who gains a real fuerte (about thirteen
cents) a day, thinks he is doing well.
In this archipelago of the Philippines, where races, man-
ners, and traditions are so often in collision, the religious
fanaticism of the Spaniards has, more than once, come into
conflict with a fanaticism fully-as fierce as that of the Mussul-
man. At a distance of six thousand leagues from Toledo
and Granada, the same ancient hatreds have brought Euro-
pean Spaniards and Asiatic Saracens into the same relentless
antagonism that swayed them in the days of the Cid and
Ferdinand the Catholic. The island of Sulu, on account of
its position between Mindanao and Borneo, was the com-
mercial, political, and religious centre of the followers of the
Prophet, the Mecca of the extreme Orient. From this cen-
tre they spread over the neighbouring archipelago. Dreaded
as merciless pirates and unflinching fanatics, they scattered
everywhere terror, ruin, and death, sailing in their light
proas up the narrow channels and animated with implacable
hatred for those conquering invaders, to whom they never
gave quarter and from whom they never expected it; con-
stantly beaten in pitched battle, they as constantly took
again to the sea, eluding pursuit of the heavy Spanish
vessels, taking refuge in bays and creeks where no one
could follow them, pillaging isolated ships, surprising
the villages, massacring the old men, leading away the
women and the adults into slavery, pushing the audacious
prows of their skiffs even up to within three hundred miles
of Manila, and seizing every year nearly four thousand
Between the Malay creese and the Castilian carronade
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 359
the struggle was unequal, but it did not last the less long on
that account, nor, obscure though it was, was it the less
bloody. On both sides there was the same bravery, the
same cruelty. It required all the tenacity of Spain to purge
these seas of the pirates who infested them, and it was not
until after a conflict of several years, in 1876, that the Span-
ish squadron was able to bring its broadside to bear on
Tianggi, that nest of the Suluan pirates, land a division of
troops, invest all the outlets, and burn up the town and its
inhabitants as well as its harbour and all the craft within it.
The soldiers planted their flag and the engineers built a
new city on the smoking ruins. This city is protected
by a strong garrison. For a time, at least, it was all over
with piracy, but not with Moslem fanaticism, which was
exasperated rather than crushed by its defeat. To the
rovers of the seas succeeded the organisation known as
One of the characteristic qualities of the Malays is their
contempt of death. They have transmitted it with their
blood to the Polynesians, who see in it only one of the
multiple phenomena and not the supreme act of existence,
and witness it or submit to it with profound indifference.
Travellers have often seen a Canaque stretch his body on a
mat, while in perfect health, and without any symptom of
disease whatever, and there wait patiently for the end, con-
vinced that it is near, and refuse all nourishment and die
without any apparent suffering. His relatives say of him,
â€œHe feels he is going to die,â€ and the imaginary patient
dies, his mind possessed by some illusion, some superstitious
idea, some invisible wound through which life escapes.
When to this absolute indifference to death is united
Mussulman fanaticism, which gives to the believer a glimpse
of the gates of a paradise where the abnormally excited
senses revel in endless and numberless enjoyments, a long-
360 . APPENDIX A.
ing for extinction takes hold of him and throws him like a
wild beast on his enemies; he stabs them and gladly invites
their daggers in return. The jwramentado kills for the sake
of killing, and being killed, and so winning, in exchange for
a life of privation and suffering, the voluptuous existence
promised by Mahomet to his followers.
The laws of Sulu make the bankrupt debtor the slave of
his creditor, and not only the man himself, but his family
also are enslaved. To free them there is only one means
left to the husband, â€” the sacrifice of his life. Reduced to
this extremity he does not hesitate, â€” he takes the formidable
oath. From that time forward he is enrolled in the ranks
of the ywramentados, and has nothing to do but await the
hour when the will of his superior shall let him loose upon
the Christians. Meanwhile the panditas, or priests, subject
him to a system of enthusiastic excitement that will turn
him into a wild beast of the most formidable kind. They
madden his already disordered brain, they make still more
supple his oily limbs, until they have the strength of steel
and the nervous force of the tiger or panther. They sing
to him their rhythmic impassioned chants, which show to
his entranced vision the radiant smiles of intoxicating
houris. In the shadow of the lofty forests, broken by the
gleam of the moonlight, they evoke the burning and sen-
sual energies of the eternally young and beautiful com-
panions who are calling him, opening their arms to receive
him. Thus prepared, the juramentado is ready for every-
thing. Nothing can stop him, nothing can make him recoil.
He will accomplish prodigies of valour. Though stricken ten
times he will remain on his feet, will strike back, borne
along by a buoyancy that is irrÃ©sistible, until the moment
when death seizes him. He will creep with his companions
into the city that has been assigned to him; he knows that
he will never leave it, but he knows also that he will not die
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 361
alone, and he has but one aim,â€”to butcher as many
Christians as he can.
An eminent scientist, Doctor Montano, sent on a mission
to the Philippines by the French government, describes the
entry of eleven juramentados into Tianggi. Divided into
three or four bands, they managed to get through the gates
of the town bending under loads of fodder for cattle which
they pretended to have for sale, and in which they had
hidden their creeses. Quick as lightning they stabbed
the guards, then, in their frenzied course, they struck all
whom they met.
Hearing the cry of â€œLos juramentados!/â€ the soldiers
seized their arms. The juramentados rushed on them fear-
lessly, their creeses clutched in their hands. The bullets
fell like hail among them. They bent, crept, glided, and
struck. One of them, whose breast was pierced through
and through by a bullet, rose and flung himself on the
troops. He was again transfixed by a bayonet; he re-
mained erect, vainly trying to reach his enemy, who held
him impaled on the weapon. Another soldier had to run up
and blow the manâ€™s brains out before he let go his prey.
When the last of the yuramentados had fallen, and the corpses
were picked up from the street which consternation had
rendered empty, it was found that these eleven men had,
with their creeses, hacked fifteen soldiers to pieces, not to
reckon the wounded.
â€œAnd what wounds!â€ exclaims Doctor Montano; â€œthe
-head of one corpse is cut off as clean as if it had been done
with the sharpest razor; another soldier is almost cut in
two! The first of the wounded to come under my hands
was a soldier of the Third Regiment, who was mounting
guard at the gate through which some of the assassins
entered. His left arm was fractured in three places; his
shoulder and breast were literally cut up like mince-meat;
362 APPENDIX A.
amputation appeared to be the only chance for him; but in
that lacerated flesh there was no longer a spot from which
could be cut a shred.â€
It is easily seen how precarious and nominal has been
Spanish rule on most of the islands of this vast archipelago.
In the interior of the great island of Mindanao there is no
system of control, no pretence even of maintaining order.
It is a land of terror, the realm of anarchy and cruelty.
There murder is a regular institution. A bagani, or man of
might, is a gallant warrior who has cut off sixty heads. The
number is carefully verified by the tribal authorities, and
the dagani alone possesses the right to wear a scarlet turban.
All the davos, or chiefs, are daganis. It is carnage organised,
honoured, and consecrated; and so the depopulation is
frightful, the wretchedness unspeakable.
The Mandayas are forced to seek a refuge from would-be
baganis by perching on the tops of trees like birds, but their
aerial abodes do not always shelter them from their enemies.
They build a hut on a trunk from forty to fifty feet in height,
and huddle together in it to pass the night, and to be in
sufficient numbers to repulse their assailants. The baganis
generally try to take their victims by surprise, and begin
their attack with burning arrows, with which they endeavour
to set on fire the bamboo roof. Sometimes the besiegers
form a â€œstudo, like the ancient Romans, with their locked
shields, and advance under cover up to the posts, which
they attack with their axes, while the besieged hurl down
showers of stones upon their heads. But, once their ammu-
nition is exhausted, the hapless Mandayas have nothing to
do but witness, as impotent spectators, the work of destruc-
tion, until the moment comes when their habitation topples
over and falls. Then the captives are divided among the
assailants. The heads of the old men and of the wounded are
cut off, and the women and children are led away as slaves.
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 363
The genius of destructiveness seems incarnate in this
Malay race. The missionaries alone venture to travel
among these ferocious tribes. They, too, have made the
sacrifice of their lives, and, holding life worth nothing, they
have succeeded in winning the respect of these savages in
evangelising and converting them. They work for God
and for their country, and the poorest and most wretched
among the natives are not unwilling to accept the faith and
to submit to Spain; but the missionaries insist on their
leaving their homes and going to another district, to which,
for many reasons, the neophytes gladly consent. After
several daysâ€™ journey a pueblo is founded. These villages
have multiplied for many years past, forming oases of com-
parative peace and civilisation amid the barbarism by which
they are surrounded, and are open to all who choose to seek
a shelter in them. The more neophytes the pueblo holds,
the less exposed it is to hostile incursions. Doctor Montano
gives a very striking account of one of these daring mis-
sionaries, Father Saturnino Urios, of the Society of Jesus,
who, in a single year, converted and baptised fifty-two hundred
There are thirty-one islands of considerable size in the
Philippine group. Their area exceeds that of Great Britain.
Pine and fir-trees are abundant. Large areas are suitable
for wheat. There are eight ports open to commerce. The
principal exports are hemp, sugar, rice, tobacco, cigars,
coffee, and cocoa. Previous to the rebellionâ€™ the annual
value of the sugar output was $30,000,000. Now it is
The population of the islands is about eight million, of
which more than three million are in Luzon, the insurgent
â€œUnder the administration of Spain the Philippines were
subject to a governor-general with supreme powers, assisted
364 APPENDIX A,
by a â€˜junta of authoritiesâ€™ instituted in 1850, and consisting
of the archbishop, the commander of the forces, the admiral,
the president of the supreme court, etc.; a central junta of
agriculture, industry, and commerce (dating from 1866), and
a council of administration. In the provinces and districts
the chief power is in the hands of alcades mayores and civ-
ico-military governors. The chief magistrate of a commune
is known as the gobernadorcillo, or captain; the native who
is responsible for the collection of the tribute of a certain
group of families is the cabeca de barangay. Every Indian
between the ages of sixteen and sixty, subject to Spain, was
forced to pay tribute to the amount of $1.17, descendants of
the first Christians of Cebu, new converts, gobernadorcillos,
etc., being exempted. Chinese were subject to special taxes,
and by a law of 1883 Europeans and Spanish half.castes
were required to pay a poll-tax of $2.50.â€
The largest island in the archipelago is Luzon, with an
area of 40,885 square miles, and on which is situated the
city of Manila.
The population of Manila, as given in the consular reports
for 1880, is in the walled town 12,000, and in the suburbs
from 250,000 to 300,000.
The city was founded in 1571, and is situated on the
eastern shore of a circular bay 120 nautical miles in circum-
ference. It looks like a fragment of Spain transplanted to
the archipelago of Asia. On its churches and convents, even
on its ruined walls, overturned in the earthquake of 1863,
time has laid the brown, sombre, dull gold colouring of the
mother country. The ancient city, silent and melancholy,
stretches interminably along its gloomy streets, bordered
with convents whose flat facades are only broken here and
there by a few narrow windows. But there is also a new
city within the ramparts of Manila; it is sometimes called
the Escolta, from the name of its central quarter, and this
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 365
city is alive with its dashing teams, its noisy crowd of Tagala
women, shod in high-heeled shoes, and every nerve in their
bodies quivering with excitement. They are almost all
employed in the innumerable cigar factories whose output
inundates all Asia.
Here all sorts of nationalities elbow one another, â€” Euro-
peans, Chinese, Malays, Tagalas, Negritos, in all some
260,000 people of every known race and of every known
colour. In the afternoon, in the plain of Lunetto, carriages
and equipages of every kind drive past, and pedestrians
swarm in crowds around the military band stand in the mar-
vellously picturesque square, lit up by the slanting rays of
the setting sun, which purples the lofty peaks of the Sierra
de Marivels in the distance, unfolds its long, luminous train
on the ocean, and. tinges with a dark reddish shade the
sombre verdure of the cityâ€™s sloping banks. This is the
hour when all the inhabitants hold high festival, able at
length to breathe freely after the heat of the noontide.
The primary cause of the Philippine rebellion was exces-
sive taxation by Spain to raise money to carry on the war in
Cuba. The islands were already overburdened with assess-
ments to enrich Spanish coffers and to support the native
poor. The additional money required for Cuba was the last
Extreme cruelties began when General Aguirre arrived
from Spain with reinforcements. He did not undertake to
penetrate the mountains, but massacred the native popula-
tion in the towns. When he took Santa Clara del Laguna
he spared neither man, woman, nor child. The people in
the mountains heard of this. They were almost wild with
fury, but they were helpless.
It is stated, on what seems to be good authority, that ten
thousand dead prisoners had been taken from prison in a
366 APPENDIX A.
Three years ago it cost the government a little more than
half a cent to collect every dollar of taxation. In Luzon, it
now costs ninety-five cents. The only taxes that can be
profitably collected are those in Manila. The rich islands of
Leyte and Mindanao contribute practically nothing.
The first islands to revolt were Luzon, Mindanao, and
Leyte. About one year and a half ago, agents of the insur-
rectionists appealed to the government at Washington to
interfere in their behalf. The petition was received and
In the hot season, during the greater part of the day, the
heat is so intense that Europeans frequently fall with heat
apoplexy. Even the Spaniards do their business in the early
hours, whiling away the heat of the day in sleep. Late in
the afternoon Manila begins to awaken.
The Escolta, or principal street, is crowded with loungers
of all ranks and colours, each with a segarito stuck pen-like
behind his ear. Caromattas, a species of two-wheeled
hooded cabriolets peculiar to the natives, crowd the road-
way, together with the buggies and open carriages of the
At sunset the various tobacco stores close, and their thou-
sand of employees turn out into the streets, They form a
motley yet effective feature among the wayfarers. The Malay
girls are usually very pretty, with languishing eyes, shaded
by long lashes, and supple figures, whose graceful lines are
revealed by their thin clothing. In fine weather their bare
feet are thrust into light, gold-embroidered slippers. In wet
weather they raise themselves on high clogs, which neces-
sitates a very becoming swinging of the hips.
There is not a bonnet to be seen. Women of the better
classes affect lace and flowers, those of the lower wear their
own hair flowing down their backs, in a long, blue-black
wave. Jewelry is profusely worn. Every woman sparkles
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. Â° 367
with bracelets, earrings, and chains. Many of the males
are similarly attired. Everybody smokes. Cigarettes at fif-
teen for a cent are in chief favour with the natives. Cigars
at $1.50 a hundred are in favour with the foreigners. The
handful of Englishmen resident in Manila are mostly bach-
elors, eager to make their pile and return to pleasanter
surroundings. These take up their quarters in a large
house at Sampalog, which is club and boarding-house com-
bined, or in â€œ chummeries,â€ established in adjacent build-
The Spaniards classify all the Philippine islanders under
three religious groups, â€” the infidels, who have held to their
ancient heathen rights, the Moors, who retain the Mahom-
etan religion of their first conquerors, and the infinitely
larger class of Catholics.
An important, though numerically small, element in the
population of the larger cities are the mestizos, or half-
breeds, the result of admixture either between the Chinese
or the Spanish and the natives. These mestizos occupy
about the same social position as the mulattos of the United
States. But they are the richest and most enterprising
among the native population.
The most important personage is the cura, or parish
priest. He is in most instances a Spaniard by birth, and
enrolled in one or other of the three great religious orders,
Augustinian, Franciscan, or Dominican, established by the
conquerors. At heart, however, he is usually as much, if
not more, of a native than the natives themselves. He is
bound for life to the land of his adoption. He has no social
or domestic tie, no anticipated home return, to bind him to
any other place.
Next to the church, the greatest Sunday and holiday
resort in a Philippine village is the cock-pit, usually a
large building wattled like a coarse basket and surrounded
368 APPENDIX A.
by a high paling of the same description, which forms a sort
of courtyard, where cocks are kept waiting their turn to
come upon the stage, when their owners have succeeded in
arranging a satisfactory match. It is claimed that many a
respectable Malay father has been seen escaping from amid
the ruins of his burning home bearing away in his arms his
favourite bird, while wife and children were left to shift for
The diet of the Philippines has something to do, undoubt-
edly, with their gentle and non-aggressive qualities. They
eschew opium and spirituous liquors. Their chief suste-
nance, morning, noon, and eve, is rice. The rice crop seldom
fails, not merely to support the population, but to leave a
large margin for export. Famine, that hideous shadow
which broods over so many a rice-subsisting population, is
unknown here. Even scarcity is of rare occurrence. In the
worst of years hardly a sack of grain has to be imported.
It is this very abundance which stands in the way of what
the world calls progress. The Malay, like other children of
the tropics, limits his labour by the measure of his require-
ments, and that measure is narrow indeed. Hence it is often
difficult to obtain his services in the development of the to-
bacco, coffee, hemp, and sugar industries, which might make
the archipelago one of the wealthiest and most prosperous
portions of the earthâ€™s face.
Manila has been once before captured from Spain. The
English were its captors, although they held it only a few
months. It was in 1762, a few weeks after the English
capture of Havana. Spain had been rash enough to side
with France in the war usually known in this country as the
French and Indian war. She was speedily punished for it.
The expedition against Manila was the plan of Colonel
William Draper; he was made a brigadier-general for the
expedition and put in command, with Admiral Cornish as
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 369
his naval ally. There were nine ships of the line and frigates,
several troop-ships, and a land force of twenty-three hundred
including one English regiment, with Sepoys and marines.
On September 24, 1762, these forces were disembarked
just south of Manila. The Archbishop of Manila, who was
also governor-general of the island, collected and armed
some ten thousand natives, as a reinforcement to the
Spanish garrison of eight hundred. During the progress of
the siege some daring attempts were made by the British to
prevent the further construction of defences, but the assail-
ants were repulsed with great slaughter.
A desperate sally was made by a strong body of natives,
who â€œran furiously on the ranks of the besiegers and fought
with almost incredible ferocity, and many of them died, like
wild beasts, gnawing with their teeth the bayonets by
which they were transfixed.â€
On October 6th a breach was effected in the Spanish works,
the English carried the city by storm, and gave it up for
several hours to the ravages of a merciless soldiery. â€˜The
Archbishop and his officers had retired to the citadel, but
this could not be defended, and a capitulation was agreed
upon, by which the city and port of Manila, with several
ships and the military stores, were surrendered, while for
their private property the Spanish agreed to pay as a ransom
$2,000,000 in coin, and the same in bills on the treasury
at Madrid. This last obligation was never paid.
WARSHIPS AND SIGNALS.
HERE are ten principal classes of vessels in the
United States navy, distinguished one from another
by the differences in their uses and by their strength and
speed. The general principle underlying their construction is
that a vessel which is not strong enough to fight one of her
own size must be fast enough to run away. Any vessel
which is inferior in armament, and has no compensating
superiority in speed, is outclassed. The same is true of any
vessel which is equal in armament, but inferior in speed to
The size of a vessel is measured by its displacement.
This displacement is the number of tons of water she will
push aside to make room for herself. A vessel of ten thou-
sand tons will take engines of a certain weight and power to
drive her at a given speed, and the larger the engine the
larger the boilers and the greater the supply of coal required.
Now, if it is necessary to give this vessel heavy protective
armour and big guns, the additional weight of this equip-
ment must be saved somewhere else, and usually in the
engine-room, reducing the speed of the vessel. Following
out this principle, it will be found that the fastest ships
carry the lightest armament, and that those which carry the
biggest guns in their batteries and the thickest armour on
their sides are comparatively slow, the extreme variation
among vessels of the same displacement being about eight
or nine miles an hour.
WARSHIPS AND SIGNALS. 371
In the matter of attack and defence, vessels are distin-
guished by the number and weight of the guns they carry,
and by the distribution and thickness of their armour.
Protective armour is of two kinds, that which surrounds the
guns, so as to protect them from the enemyâ€™s fire, and that
which protects the motive-power of the ship, so as to prevent
the engines from being rendered useless.
The maximum of guns and armour and the minimum of
speed are to be found in the first-class battle-ship, which is
simply a floating fortress, so constructed that she need
never run away, but can stand up and fight as long as her
gun turrets revolve. The general plan of construction in a
battleship is to surround the engines, boilers, and maga-
zines with a wall of Harveyized steel armour eighteen
inches or so thick, and seven or eight feet high, which
extends about four feet below the water-line and three feet
above it. This armour belt is not only on the sides of the
ship, but is carried across it fore and aft, immediately in
front of and behind the space occupied by the engines and
magazines, and the whole affair is covered with a solid steel
roof three or four inches thick. Outside this central for-
tress, and extending from it clear to the bow and stern at
each end, is a protective deck of steel, three inches thick,
which is placed several feet below the water-line. Every-
thing above this deck and outside this fortress might be
shot away, and the vessel would still float and fight.
On the roof of the fortress are placed the turrets contain-
ing the big guns. The largest of these guns, 13-inch calibre,
weigh about sixty tons each, and will carry a shell weighing
eleven hundred pounds about twelve miles. The turrets
are circular, as a rule, large enough to hold two guns, and
are made of face-hardened steel from fifteen to eighteen
inches thick. They revolve within a barbette or ring of
steel eighteen inches thick, which protects the machinery by
Bye APPENDIX B.
which the guns are trained. Farther back on the roof of
the fortress are other and lighter turrets made of 8-inch
steel and carrying 8-inch guns, and at. other places are
stationed rapid-fire guns of lighter calibre, protected by
thinner armour than that of the main belt.
If all this secondary battery is stripped off, leaving
nothing but the turrets with the big guns, and these are
brought down close to the water, and the armour belt is
reduced to seven or eight inches in thickness, the type of
vessel known as the monitor is reached. It is simply a
battle-ship on a reduced scale. Such vessels are very slow
and cannot stand rough weather, on account of their low
freeboard. The speed of the monitors is seldom more than
twelve or fourteen miles an hour, and they are intended to
act in coast defence, usually in connection with shore-bat-
teries. The best types in the navy are the Zerror and the
The speed of a battle-ship is about eighteen miles an
hour. The best specimen in the navy is the Judiana, de-
clared by its admirers to be the most powerful battle-ship
afloat. Second-class battle-ships, like the ZÃ©xas, are smaller
vessels, usually about seven thousand tons, and they have
a much lighter armour belt, about twelve inches, and do not
carry so heavy an armament as ships of the first class. The
Maine was a second-class battleship. Her largest guns
were of ro-inch calibre; her armour was twelve inches thick,
and her turrets were eight inches thick only.
The first step in reducing the armament from that of the
battleship proper, at the same time increasing the speed,
produces the armoured cruiser. This type of vessel may
carry no guns of more than 8-inch calibre, and the armour
belt is reduced to three or four inches in thickness. Instead
of the roof over the armour belt, the protective deck is car-
ried all over the ship, but it is not flat, nor is it of equal
WARSHIPS AND SIGNALS, 372
thickness, as in a battle-ship. On the top and in the middle
it is three inches thick, but the sides are six inches and they
slope abruptly to below the water-line. Between these
sloping sides and the thin armour belt coal is stored, so
that a shell would have to penetrate the outer belt, six or
eight feet of coal, and a sloping belt of steel six inches
thick, the total resistance of which is calculated to be equal
to a solid horizontal armour plate fifteen inches thick.
A cruiser is not supposed to fight with a battle-ship,
because it could not accomplish anything with its 8-inch
guns against the 18-inch armour of its heavier rival, while
one well-directed shot from the 12-inch guns of a battle-ship
or monitor would probably sink any armoured cruiser afloat.
For this reason the cruiser must be faster than the battle-
ship, so that she can run away, and the weight that is saved
in the armour belt and big guns is therefore put into the
engine-room. The average speed of an armoured cruiser is
about twenty-four miles an hour, and the best types of this
class in the navy are probably the Brooklyn and New York.
Some vessels, like the Spaniard Vizcaya, are about half
way between a battle-ship and a cruiser, having the heavy
guns of the former and the speed of the latter. The Vizcaya,
although a cruiser, carried 11-inch guns with a 12-inch
armour belt, and had a speed of twenty-three miles an hour.
The next step in.reducing armament and _ increasing
speed, produced the protected cruiser, which carries no
armour belt, but retains the protective deck, upon the
sloping sides of which is stored the coal. The turrets
disappear altogether, and there is usually only one 8-inch
gun, the battery being principally made up of 4-inch rapid-
fire guns and 6, 4, and 1-pounders. As this class of vessel
is not able,to cope with the armoured cruiser, it must be
faster, for the general principle holds good that the weaker
the vessel becomes in point of offensive weapons or defensive
374 : APPENDIX B.
armour, the greater the necessity that she should be able to
run away. The best types of the protected cruiser in the
navy may be found in the Columbia and Minneapolis, which
have a speed of about twenty-seven miles an hour.
The weakest class of all is composed of the unprotected
cruisers, which have neither armour-belt nor protective deck,
and carry only light batteries of rapid-fire guns. When these
vessels are slow, like theâ€™ Desroit, they are intended for long
voyages and for duty in foreign countries, and are of little
use in a sea fight. The very fast unprotected cruiser, like
the American line steamers, S4 Pau? and Sz Louis, attach
little importance to their armament, and rely for protection
upon stowing the coal behind the place occupied by the
armour belt in other vessels. All the beautiful wood-work,
which was so much admired in these vessels, was ripped
out to make room for these coal-bunkers, which are suffi-
cient to protect them from anything but the heaviest guns.
On account of their extreme weakness as fighters, these
cruisers are necessarily the fastest of all the large vessels,
and can run away from anything. For this reason no
concern was felt for the Paris by those who knew the
principles which govern the safety of modern vessels,
The various types of cruisers are not expected to fight
with any but vessels of their own class, which they may
encounter in the discharge of similar duties, such as scour-
ing the seas as the advance guard of the slower line of
battleships, preying upon or escorting merchant vessels,
blockading ports, and acting as convoys for troop-ships,
Gunboats are simply light-draught cruisers, and are intended
- for use in shallow waters and rivers.
Torpedo-boats, as their name implies, depend entirely
upon the torpedo as the weapon of attack, and they y carry
no guns except a very few light-calibre rapid-fires to keep
off small boats. Their success depends on their ability
WARSHIPS AND SIGNALS. 375
to approach a vessel very rapidly, launch their torpedo, and
retreat before they are detected and sunk. Speed is their
great requisite, and a torpedo-boat like the /orter can speed
thirty-two miles an hour. Naval experts consider their bark
worse than their bite, because, with the modern system of
lookouts and search-lights, and the accuracy and rapidity
of the secondary batteries, it is impossible for a torpedo-
boat to get within range without exposing itself to instant
destruction, and after a torpedo-fleet has once met with a
serious repulse, it is believed that it would be almost
impossible to get the crews to go into action again.
The torpedo-boat destroyer, contrary to general belief,
does not carry any heavy guns, but depends on its great
speed and its ability to cripple a torpedo-boat with its
6-pounders while keeping out of range of the enemyâ€™s tubes.
All torpedo-boat destroyers carry torpedo tubes themselves,
so that they can be used against the enemyâ€™s battle-ships or
cruisers if the occasion offers. The fastest boat in the
United States navy is the destroyer Bazey, which can steam
thirty-four miles an hour.
In a naval battle the success or failure of a fleet may
depend on keeping open communication between the differ-
ent vessels of the squadron engaged. Owing to the fact
that the surface of the sea would often be obscured by the
_smoke of battle, the difficulty of this is apparent, and naval
experts have been kept busy devising some method by which
the flag-ship can communicate with the other vessels of the
squadron at all times and under all conditions. So far
nothing has been put in general service which meets this
demand, but lately there have been experiments with the
telephone, which, it is said, can be used without wires, by
which signals can be projected by a vibrator on one vessel
against a receiver on another. The Navy Department is
376 APPENDIX B,
keeping the details of this new system carefully to itself, as
it desires to have the invention for the exclusive use of our
own ships of battle.
The present method of communication is by the use of
flags representing numerals which are displayed in the rig-
ging; by the use of the Ardois system of lights for night
work; by the Myer code of wigwag signals, and by the use
of the heliograph. As it is of the utmost importance that
the enemy should not read the message, the signal books on
board a vessel are protected with the greatest care, and are
destroyed along with the cipher code whenever it is seen that
capture is inevitable. The semaphore system in use in the
British navy was tried for a time aboard some of our vessels,
but it never became popular, and has been abandoned.
In signalling by the navy code, the sentence to be sent is
looked up in the code-book and its corresponding number is
obtained. This number is never more than four figures, on
account of the necessity of setting. the signal with the least
delay. The number having been obtained, the quarter-
master in charge of the signal-chest proceeds to bend the
flags representing the numerals to the signal halliards, so as
to read from the top down. These flags represent the nu-
merals from one to nine and cipher, and there is a triangular
pennant termed a repeater, which is used in a combination
where one or more numerals recur. The numbers refer to
those found in the general signal-book, in which are printed
all the words, phrases, and sentences necessary to frame an
order, make an inquiry, indicate a geographical position, or
signal a compass course. Answering, interrogatory, prepara-
tory, and geographical pennants form part of this code; also
telegraph, danger, despatch, and quarantine flags.
The signal, having been prepared, is hoisted and left
flying until the vessel to which the message has been sent
signifies that it is understood by hoisting what is called the
WARSHIPS AND SIGNALS. 377
answering pennant. If the number hoisted by the flag-ship
is a preparatory order for a fleet movement, it is left flying
until all the vessels of the fleet have answered, and then is
pulled down, the act of pulling the signal down being under-
stood as the command for the execution of the movement
It is often necessary for a man-of-war to communicate
with a merchant vessel, or with some other war-ship belong-
ing to a foreign country. For this purpose the international
code is also carried in the signal-chest. These signals are
those in general use by all the merchant navies of the
world for communication by day at sea. There are eight-
een flags and a code pennant, corresponding to the conso-
nants of the alphabet, omitting x and z. The code pennant
is also used with these signals.
If a message is to be sent at night, the Ardois system of
night signals, with which all our vessels carrying an electric
plant are fitted, is employed. These signals consist essen- â€”
tially of five groups of double lamps, the two lamps in each
group containing incandescent electric lamps, and showing
white and red respectively. By the combination of these
lights letters can be formed, and so, letter by letter, a word,
and hence an order, can be spelled out for the guidance of
the ships of the squadron. These lamps are suspended on
a stay in the rigging, and are worked by a keyboard from the
On the smaller ships of the service, those which are not
fitted with electric lighting, Veryâ€™s night signals are used.
This set includes the implements for firing and recharging
the signals. a
The latter show green and red stars on being projected
from pistols made for them. The combination in various
ways is used to express the numbers from one to nine and
cipher, so that the numbers, to four digits, contained in the
378 APPENDIX B.
signal-book, may be displayed. The Myer wigwag system is
employed either by day or by night. Flags and torches are
employed. The official flag is a red field with a small white
square in the centre; the unofficial flag is the same with the
colours reversed. . The operator, having attracted the atten-
tion of the ship which is to be signalled by waving the flag
or torch from right to left, transmits his message by motions
right, left, and front, each motion the element of a letter of
the alphabet, the letter being made up of from one to four
When circumstances permit, the heliograph is sometimes
used. The rays of the sun are thrown by a system of
mirrors to the point with which it is desired to communicate,
and then interrupted by means of a shutter, making dots
and dashes as used in the Morse telegraph code. This sys-
tem is used only when operations ashore are going on, as the
rolling of the ship would prevent the concentration of the
The present systems of flag signalling are products of Â©
experience in the past, and are the natural growth of the
cruder flag system in use during the War of 1812, and in
the Civil War. There have been some changes in the con-
struction of flags, and the scope of communication has been
enlarged, but otherwise our forefathers talked at sea in much
the same way as we do now. Of course the Ardois light
signal is something very modern. In old times they com-
municated at night either with coloured lights or by torches,
and, as there was no alphabetical code in those days, the
process was by means of flashes (representing numbers in
the signal book), and it was long and tedious,
SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
ANTIAGO is the most easterly city on the southern
coast of Cuba, second only to Havana in its strategic
and political importance, and is the capital of the eastern
department, as well as its most flourishing seaport.
The harbour, now become famous as a theatre of action
where American heroism was displayed, is thus described by
Mr. Samuel Hazard, in his entertaining work on Cuba:
â€œSome one now remarks that we are near to Cuba; but,
looking landward, nothing is seen but the same continuous
mountains which we have had for the last twelve hours, except
where, low down on the shore, there seems to be a slight
opening in the rocky coast, above which stands, apparently,
some dwelling-house. However, time tells, and in a half
hour more we discover the small opening to be the entrance
to a valley, and the dwelling-house to be the fort of the
~ Cabanas. Still, no town and no harbour; and yet ahead
we see, high upon a rocky cliff, a queer-looking old castle,
with guns frowning from its embrasures, and its variegated
walls looking as if they were ready to fall into the waves
dashing at their base. That is the Morro Castle, which,
with the battery of Aguadores, the battery. of the Estrella,
and the above named Cabanas, commands the approaches
to the harbour and town of Cuba.
â€œThe rocky shore above and belowethe castle has scat-
tered along it the remains. of several vessels, whose captains,
380 APPENDIX C.
in trying to escape from the dangers of the storm, have
vainly sought to enter the difficult harbour, and the bleach-
ing timbers are sad warnings to the mariner not to enter
there except in the proper kind of weather. And now we
are up to the castle, and a sharp turn to the left takes us
into a narrow channel and past the Morro and the battery
adjoining, whose sentry, with a trumpet as big as himself,
hails our vessel as she goes by; and soon we find ourselves
in a gradually enlarging bay, around which the mountains
are seen in every direction. As yet we have seen no town,
and no place where there will likely be one; but now a turn
to the right, and there, rising from the waterâ€™s side almost to
the top of the mountains, is seen Santiago de Cuba, with its
red roofs, tall cathedral towers, and the green trees of
its pretty Paseo, lighted up by the evening sun, forming a
brilliant foreground to the hazy blue mountains that lie
behind the city. ...
â€œRising gradually from the bay, upon the mountainside,
to the high plain called the Campo del Marte, the city of
Santiago reaches in its highest point 160 feet above the
level of the sea, and commands from almost any portion
superb views of the bay at its feet and of the majestic
ranges of mountains that surround it. With a population
of about fifty thousand inhabitants, it has regularly laid out
streets and well-built houses of stone in most portions of
the city; though being built as it is on the side of a hill,
many of the streets are very steep in their ascent, and from
the constant washing of the rains, and the absence of side-
walks, are anything but an agreeable promenade.
â€œThe town was founded in 1515, by Diego Velasquez, con-
sidered the conqueror of the island, who landed here in that
year on his first voyage; and it was from here that Juan de
Grijalva, in 1518, started on his expedition for the conquest
of Yucatan, being followed by Hernando Cortes, who, how-
SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 381
ever, was compelled to stop at Havana (as it was called
then), now Batabano. In 1522 the distinctions of â€˜Cityâ€™
and â€˜Bishopricâ€™ were bestowed upon the town, having
been taken from the older town of Baracoa, where they had
been bestowed in honour of that place being the first European
settlement ; and in 1527 Fr. Miguel Ramirez de Salamanca,
first bishop of the island, arrived and established here his
â€œIn 1528 Panfilo de Narvaez set sail from here on his
expedition for the conquest of Florida, where he met his
fate and found a tomb.
â€œIn 1528 Hernando de Soto arrived here with nearly
one thousand men, having been authorised, in addition to
the command of his Florida expedition, to assume that of
the whole island of Cuba.
â€œTn 1553 the city was captured by four hundred French
arquebusiers, who took possession of it until a ransom of
$80,000 was paid, the invaders remaining nearly a month in
the city, and as late as 1592, so frequent were the attacks
of pirates on this town, that it is related the place was almost
depopulated by the inhabitants taking refuge at Bayamo,
some distance in the interior.
â€œIn 1608, the cathedral having been ruined by an earth-
quake, the Bishop Lalcedo removed his residence to Havana,
_and almost all the diocesans, as well as the ecclesiastical
chapter, did the same, which action created great excitement,
the superior governor and chief of the island opposing it.
made into a cathedral, through the efforts of the prelate,
Armen Dariz, but these were opposed by the captain-gen-
eral, Pereda. The bishop then excommunicated said chief
and all in his vicinity, all the clergy even going in procession
to curse and stone his house.
â€œIn 1662 there was a serious attack made upon the place
382 APPENDIX C.
by a squadron of fifteen vessels under Lord Winsor, whose
people landed at the place now known as the â€˜ Aguadores,â€™
and to the number of eight hundred men marched without
opposition on the city, of which they took possession, after
repulsing a small force sent out to meet them. The in-
vaders, it appears, partook freely of the church-bells, carried
off the guns from the forts, took charge of the slaves, and
not finding the valuables they anticipated, which had been
carried off by the retreating inhabitants, they, in their dis-
appointment, blew up the Morro Castle, and destroyed the
cathedral, remaining nearly a month in possession of the
â€œTt was not until 1663, therefore, that the castle now
known as the Morro was rebuilt, by order of Philip I., and
at the same time the fortresses of Santa Catalina, La Punta,
and La Estrella.
â€œIn July and August, 1766, a large portion of the city
was ruined by earthquakes, more than one hundred persons
â€œThe town has the honour of having for its first mayor,
or â€˜alcalde,â€™ Hernando Cortes; and it is said that the
remains of Diego Velasquez, the first explorer and con-
queror, were buried there in the old cathedral. It is related
in corroboration of this fact, that on the 26th of November,
1810, on digging in the cemetery of the new cathedral, the
broken slab of his tomb was found, seven and a half feet
under ground, the inscription upon which is illegible, with
the exception of a few Latin words giving name and date.â€
ORTO RICO was discovered by Columbus in Novem-
ber, 1493. In 1510 Ponce de Leon founded the town
of Caparra, soon after abandoned, and now known as Pureto
Viejo, and in 1511, with more success, the city of San Juan
Bautista, or better known simply as San Juan. The native
inhabitants were soon subdued and swept away. In 1595
the capital was sacked by Drake, and in 1598 by the Earl
of Cumberland. In 161s Baldwin Heinrich, a Dutchman,
lost his life in an attack on the Castello del Mono, The
attempt of the English, in 1678, was equally unsuccessful,
and Abercrombie, in 1797, had to retire after a three
daysâ€™ strife. In 1820 a movement was made toward the
declaration of independence on the part of the Porto
Ricans, but Spanish supremacy was completely reÃ©stab-
lished by 1823. The last traces of slavery were abolished
San Juan is the ideal city and spot of the whole island,
saving that it is well fortified, for it is the coolest, the
healthiest port, with thirty-eight feet of water in the harbour,
and twenty-eight feet of water alongside the coal wharves.
It is the only port on the island with fortifications. There
are barracks in a few of the larger towns, but outside of the
eight thousand or ten thousand troops there are very few
fighting men on the island.
The volunteers are not looked upon as a great factor
384 â€ APPENDIX D.
in fighting by those who know them, and are almost all
Spaniards. The Guardia Civil is made up of the best of
the Spanish army, and commands great respect. The Porto
Rican civilians do not have to enter the army service unless
they please, and very few of them please.
The defences of San Juan are good. San Felippe del
Morro fortress is at the entrance of the harbour. It is
the principal defence from the sea, and has three rows of
batteries. It is separated by a strong wall from the city,
which lies at the back of it, but communication between the
city and fort is had by a tunnel.
The roads of Porto Rico are, for the most part, bad.
There are some notable exceptions. There is a splendid
road built by the Spanish government from Ponce to San
Juan. It is about eighty-five miles long, and a young Porto
Rican told the writer that he frequently went over it on his
bicycle, and it was splendid all the way. Another road
from Guayama, meeting the Ponce road at Cayey, has been
recently finished. The scenery is the most beautiful in the
West Indies, for tropical wild flowers are all over the
island, and large tree ferns and magnificent plants every-
where abound. There are no venomous snakes nor wild
animals of any kind in Porto Rico. Oranges and other
tropical fruits thrive in Porto Rico, but they are not specially
Some years ago a railway around the island was projected,
but only three sections have been built. There is one to
the north from San Juan to Camuy, one on the west from
Aguadilla to Mayaguez, and one on the south from Yauco
to Ponce. Any one wishing to travel around the coast from
San Juan to Ponce would be obliged to continue their
journey by stage-coaches, one from Camuy to Aguadilla,
and one from Mayaguez to Yauco.
San Juan has about forty thousand inhabitants, and Ponce
PORTO RICO, 385
has almost thirty thousand. There are many towns of
between twelve thousand and thirty thousand people. The
buildings are low and are of wood. There are a few three-
story buildings in Ponce, and these are the latest examples
of modern construction.
THE BAY OF GUANTANAMO.
N the extreme southeastern coast of Cuba, some dis-
tance east of Santiago, is Guantanamo, or Cumberland
Bay. It is an exceedingly beautiful sheet of water, with a
narrow entrance, guarded by high hills. It extends twelve
miles inland, with a level coast-line to the westward, and
high hills on the north and east.
Five miles from the entrance is the little town of
Caimanera, from which runs a railroad to the town of
Guantanamo, twelve miles distant, with its terminus at the
town of Jamaica. There are two and one-half square miles
of anchorage, with a depth of forty feet, so far inside as to
be fully protected from the wind. For vessels drawing
â€˜twenty-four feet or less there are about two more square
miles of harbourage.
xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008697600001datestamp 2008-10-21setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title The boys of '98dc:creator Otis, James, 1848-1912Davis, J. Steeple ( Illustrator )Merrill, Frank T. ( Illustrator )C.H. Simonds and Co. ( Electrotyper ; Printer )Dana Estes & Company. ( Contributor )dc:subject Maine (Battleship) -- Juvenile literature.Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Juvenile literature.Soldiers -- Juvenile literature.Sailors -- Juvenile literature.Youth -- Juvenile literature. -- DeathWar -- Juvenile literature.Juvenile literature. -- CubaJuvenile literature. -- History -- United States -- 20th centuryBldn -- 1898.dc:publisher Dana Estes and Companydc:date 1898.dc:type Bookdc:format ix, 386 p., 62 leaves of plates : ill, port. ; 21 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00086976&v=00001002394790 (ALEPH)228695034 (OCLC)ALZ9697 (NOTIS)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English