Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Thrilling stories by sea and...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Thrilling stories by sea and land : embracing marvels of natural history, monsters of the ancient world, wild animals of the forest and plain, beautiful birds and insects, queer wanderers in the vasty deep, sublime natural scenery, fishes, trees, plants, flowers, etc., etc. : including thrilling scenes in the polar world and the tropics, captivating incidents of travel, adventure and discovery, hunting expeditions, remarkable traits of strange peoples, great events of history, etc. : the whole b
Title: Thrilling stories by sea and land
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086966/00001
 Material Information
Title: Thrilling stories by sea and land embracing marvels of natural history, monsters of the ancient world, wild animals of the forest and plain, beautiful birds and insects, queer wanderers in the vasty deep, sublime natural scenery, fishes, trees, plants, flowers, etc., etc. : including thrilling scenes in the polar world and the tropics, captivating incidents of travel, adventure and discovery, hunting expeditions, remarkable traits of strange peoples, great events of history, etc. : the whole being splendidly embellished with many fine engravings
Physical Description: 288 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Richter, Albert ( Illustrator )
Hampe, T ( Illustrator )
Specht, Friedrich, 1839-1909 ( Illustrator )
Begg, S ( Illustrator )
Woodville, Richard Caton, 1856-1927 ( Illustrator )
Platz, Ernst ( Illustrator )
Illner, R ( Illustrator )
Kretschmer, Robert ( Illustrator )
Berkeley, Stanley ( Illustrator )
Mutzel, Gustav, 1839-1893
W. W. M ( Illustrator )
E. R ( Illustrator )
H. G ( Illustrator )
Hildibrand, Henri Théophile ( Illustrator )
Cooper, J ( Illustrator )
Snyder, W. R ( Illustrator )
Wood, Stanley L ( Illustrator )
Greenaway, Kate, 1846-1901 ( Illustrator )
Whymper, Josiah Wood, 1813-1903
Pearson ( Engraver )
Berveiller, E ( Engraver )
Laplante, Charles, d. 1903 ( Engraver )
Schell & Hogan ( Engraver )
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: U.S.?
Publication Date: c190-?
Subject: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1900   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1900
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Some illustrations signed Albert Richter, T. Hampe, Specht, S. Begg, R. Caton Woodville, Ernst Platz, R. Illner, Robert Kretschmer, Stanley Berkeley, W.W.M., E.R., H.G., Hildibrand, J. Cooper, W.R. Snyder, Schell & Hogan, Stanley L. Wood, G. Mutzel or K. Greenaway; some engraved by Whymper, Pearson, E. Berveiller, or Laplante.
General Note: Last digit of copyright date unreadable.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086966
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001621701
oclc - 24046650
notis - AHP6277

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Thrilling stories by sea and land
        Page 10a
        Page 11
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        Page 12
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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To afford entertainment and instruction to the young is always a pleasure.
Their eyes and ears are open; they are eager for new thoughts and new scenes, thei:
minds are on the wing, ready to visit every clime; and none appreciate as they do the
marvels of the world. While this work has been prepared especially for young people,
older persons will find much in its pages to interest them. It is so difficult to say
where youth leaves off and age begins, that a book prepared for young persons might
as well be considered as suited also to the old.
The work begins with the wonders of natural history, and shows the remarkable
phases of life in the animal kingdom. Monkeys chatter; wild deer flee from their
pursuers; the ponderous elephant fondles her little one; the pretty chamois leaps
among the Alpine crags; wild buffaloes and horses flee before the prairie fire. More
astonishing than any other part of the animal kingdom, are those pre-historic mon-
sters, whose remains have been discovered. They are the marvels of creation, more
gigantic, more frightful, more fierce and savage than any animals now in existence.
Here, too, are beautiful birds with plumage, whose dazzling colors rival the rain-
bow; here is the imperial eagle soaring toward the sky; the ungainly heron bringing
dinner to his young; the strange African shoe-bill, the queenly lyre-bird; the golden
pheasant, the far-famed bird of Paradise, and many other captivating specimens of the
feathered tribes.
Not only does the reader view the winged creatures of the air, but standing on
-the shores of old ocean, he is made acquainted with the vast treasures and marvellous
products of the great deep. Curious fishes frolic in their native element; leviathan
monsters roll like mountainous waves; coral islands rise to the surface of the sea;
beautiful creatures dart through the water, or leap from it and fly as if they .were
birds. The insect world is also represented. Here are weavers constructing singular
fabrics; carpenters that bore in hard wood; architects that build dwellings; work-
men that saw and cut and piece and fit together. The reader will find these pages a
fascinating panorama of the marvels of natural history. Here are the rarest plants
and flowers of the vegetable kingdom; the gigantic cactus stretching out its prickly
arms, the famous cow tree giving nourishing milk, and plants that catch and devour
Thrilling scenes in the Polar World are also depicted. The story of those
heroic adventures which have attended Polar exploration is onie of the most
wonderful ever written. Sublime courage, endurance and self-sacrifice have plowed
the northern seas, nestled under towering icebergs, crossed frozen deserts, and, alas,
Special ( iii


have not always returned to the homes whence they started for their heroic exploits.
The stories of these Polar heroes are related in these pages, and the narrative of
that marvellous voyage of six months on an iceberg, the most wonderful of which
we have any account, is given in full.
Many are the countries and scenes which have a charm to the youthful mind.
Alps are piled on Alps; the bold tourists climb the giddy peaks. The crystal
seekers crawl along dizzy precipices, and fool-hardy adventurers are hurled thous-
ands of feet into the abyss below. Vivid scenes in the north of Europe find a place
in this work, and the beautiful customs of the Scandinavian race are fully described.
The reader sees the exciting race on snow-shoes, the hanging of the sheaf for
Christmas birds, and is introduced to the fur-clad natives of Lapland and Green-
A vast collection of tropical wonders are here brought together. The wild beasts
of A Frice.; the savage customs of the Dark Continent; the strange and gorgeous
scenes witnessed in India; the remarkable manners and customs of old China and
Japan, are all depicted, and while the reader turns these pages strange empires and
nations 7 ss before his eyes.
To g.ve variety to this work, is one object which has been constantly in view.
Many domestic scenes and incidents of our every-day life, which are pleasant and
attractive, have been welcomed into these pages, and these will meet with a cordial
reception. Home life presents its varied attractions. The practical object of afford-
ing instruction and entertainment is plainly to be seen in all descriptions of adven.
tures, travels, inventions and discoveries.


Welcome to the Young People,
Bonnet Monkeys, .
The Chamois, .
The Wild Cat,
Stampede on the Prairie, .
Elk Attacked by Wolves,
A Marvellous Animal,
A Marauder, .
Albatross and Gulls, .
A Day's Fishing in South Africa,
An Unequal Contest, .
Shark-fishing on the Coast of Florida,
Ostrich-riding on the Somali,
The Horsemanship of the Kurds,
Monsters of the Ancient World,
The Ferocious Crocodile,
Prairie Dog Town,
The Pretty Dormouse and its Nest,
The Harvest-mouse, .
Androcles and the Lion,
The Shipwrecked Boys,
Adventure in a Jungle, .
Our Little German Band, .
Remarkable Dogs, .
An Animal of Great Height and Beauty,
The Gigantic Hippopotamus,
The Donkey,
The Fishing Otter,
The Long-tongued Chameleon,.
The Cats and the Ape,
A Morning Call,.
The Puma, .
Trained Walrus,

S 18
S 34
S 36
S. 48
S. 58
S 64
S 95
S 97
S. 102


Hunting the Deer, .
Adventure with an African Buffalo, 112
Great Polar Bear, 114
A Formidable Foe, 122
Story of Sir John Franklin, 124
Perils of Arctic Voyages, 13
The Enchanted Coast, 133
A Strange People, .. 136
Ships Seen in the Air, 142
The Most Wonderful Voyage on Record, 144
Dangers of Alpine Climbing, 150
On the Top of the Wetterhorn, 154
Alpine Climbers Seeking Crystals, 156
Exciting Adventures in the Alps, . 158
rhe Far-Famed Mount Rigi, .162
Beauties of India, 164
Magnificent Oriental Procession, 166
citiess of India, 168
.'east of Ganesa, 170
fhe Sacred River of India, 172
Indian Caves and Temples, .. .. 175
An Indian Fable, .. 178
Strange Hindoo Gods, 182
Ready for the Chase, 183
Strange Sights in Pekin, 185
Japanese Ferry-Boat, 88
A Ramble in Tokio, Japan, 190
Grand Opening of the Suez Canal, 192
People and Costumes of the Soudan, 196
Discovering a Witch, 199
A Crafty Old African Chief, 20
How a Traveller Saved His Life, 203
Travelling in Africa, 205
Barbarous Punishments, 207
Adventure with a Canoe, .. 209
A Famous Tribe of Savages, 211
A Giant Tree, .213
Strange Customs in Patagonia, 215
Patagonian Funeral Procession, 217
Mountains of Fire, 219


Snow Blockade on the Pacific Railroad, 252
The Famous Cow-boys, 258
In Clover, .. 262
Hydraulic Mining in California, 26J
How to Live Under Water, 261
The Poor Boys of London, 265
The Poor Boys of London, 264
French Children and Schools, 271
Nanny-goats, 273
The Famous Gypsies, 275
Up in the Air, 277
Balloon Adventures, 279
The Squirrel, 283
The Mountain and the Squirrel, 285
A Ducking,. 285
The Gleaners,. 287

Bonnet Monkeys, 19
The Dead Chamois, 21
The Wild Cat, 23
A Stampede on the Prairie, 25
Desperate Battle between an Elk and Wolves, 27
A Narrow Escape, 29
Elephant and Young, 31
A Marauder and his Captive, 33
The Great Albatross,. 35
The Long-clawed Iguana, 37
Curious Horse-fish, 39
The Shooting-fish Bringing Down a Fly, 41
An Unequal Contest,. 43
Shark-fishing on the Coast of Florida,. 45
Animals, Reptiles and Fish of the Tropics, 47
Ostrich Riders of Africa, 49
South American Ostrich and Young, 51
Marvellous Feats of Horsemanship among the Kurds, 53
The Great Sea-lizard and Flying-reptile, 55
Battle between Antediluvian Monsters, 57
Immense Crocodiles of the Ancient Seas, 59
Famous Egyptian Crocodile, 61
A Prairie Dog Town, 63
Dormouse and Nest, 65
Pranks of the Harvest Mouse, 67
Androcles and the Lion, 69
Heifer Seized by an Immense Lion, .. 71
Hunting Shell-fish and Sea-birds' Eggs, 73
Deadly Fight in a Jungle, 75
Elephants Transporting Cannon, 77
Elephants Laying Timbers, 79
Our Little German Band, 81
Performing Elephants, 83


Celebrated Dog of MarPthon, .. .85
Giving Doggie a Drink, .87
Beautiful Girafte or Camelopard, 89
Hunters Chasing a Herd of Girafis, 91
Terrible Encounter with Hippopot rai, 93
Old and Young Hippopotami, 94
"Would You Like a Ride, Miss?" 96
Otter Catching Fish, 98
The Chameleon, .
Iooking-out for Number One, o3
A Morning Call, ... Io
The Puma Watching for Prey, 107
The Trained Walrus, 109
A Race for Life,. .. .. III
Exciting Chase of African Buffaloes, 113
Polar Bears Capturing a Seal, 117
Polar Bear Killed while Defending her Young, 19
Animal Life in the North Sea, 2:
Encounter with Walruses, 123
Desperate Combat between Dogs and a Polar Bear, 125
Arctic Ship among Mountains of Ice 127
Relics of Franklin's Polar Voyage. 28
The Jeannette Crushed by Mountains of Icebergs, 129
Lieutenant DeLong's Perilous Journey over the-Ice, 131
Ships and Icebergs Arched by the Beautiful Aurora, 134
Ships Among Overhanging Icebergs, 135
Esquimau Village of Snow-houses, 137
Rapid Travelling on a Dog-sledge, 139
Esquimau in his Water-proof Canoe, 141
Ships seen in the Air in the Arctic Regions, 143
Thrilling Voyage of Six Months on an Iceberg,. 145
Start of a Sledge Expedition, 14
The Walrus of the Arctic Seas, .148
Cutting Docks in the lce 149
Fierce Attack upon a Chamois, 51
Swiss Mountains and Cottages, 153
On the Top of the Wetterhorn, 55
Alpine Climbers Seeking Crystals, .1 57
Dangerous Plunge from a Snow Cliff, 159
On the Brink of a Terrible Chasm, .. .. 161
Railway up the Rigi, 163
Fording the River Parbutti, India, 65
Gorgeous Procession in the Great Sowari, India. 67
Kashmirian Boatmen of India, 169
Celebrating the Feast of Ganesa, India, *t

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ELCOME to the see the great polar bear, the ugly-looking ,
young people of walrus, the soft-haired seal, the Green
America! You are lander in his snow-hut, the traveller bray.
cordially i n v i ted ing the intense cold and struggling for his
into our VOLUME life.
OF WONDERS. Here You journey through Eastern lands,
Share choice engrav- and fascinating scenes meet you at every
ings, object lessons step. The Arab and his swift steed; the
for the eye. Here huge elephant floundering in the jungle
'is food for the mind, or led in royal processions; the mammoth
and pleasant entertainment with rare and river-horse and little river-horses sporting
valuable lessons of instruction, in the warm waters; the playful monkeys
It is a pleasure to show you those that run through tree branches, and fling
-strange monsters of the ancient wotld, cocoanuts at their pursuers; men on
some of which are more wonderful than bounding horses, men in boats, men rush.
any animals now living; other curious ing to the chase-come, and take a look
specimens of the animal kingdom as they at them all, read about them, spend happy
exist at the present time; birds with hours with them. They are all on exhibi.
many-colored plumage, cleaving the air or tion for you.
nestling among the forests and meadows; And then would you not like to be a
insects that build houses, bofe like car- mountaineer, and climb the Alps ? Take
penters, hum like a little buzz-saw, and your lunch and pointed stick; tie a rope
shine brighter, than new coins from the around you, and fasten it to your guide.
mint; fishes that fly, shoot their prey, and trudge away to the summits capped
roam through the waters of the great sea. with everlasting snow.
The world is beautiful and curious, and! Are you fond of heroic deeds and tales
you are invited to look, admire and learn, of adventure? Do you love beautiful
Step into the MUSEUM and get well stories in song, and lofty sentiments that
acquainted with the pleasing sights! Here touch the heart, awaken noble resolves,
are strange people and their strange ways. urge you to splendid achievements? Every
The natives of the tropical countries and young person ought to.be not only captfi
the polar regions welcome you. You will vated by the thrilling scenes and glowing
travel with explorers seeking the North thoughts contained in, these pages, culled
Pole; get shut up between mountains of from the best sources, but moved to
ice and pass safely through many dangers; higher deeds and a worthier life.
2 17


The editorof this choice' work has and trusts that you will be interested,
tried to place before you a great variety that you will learn much, and enjoy the.
of. things curious, instructive and enter- learning of it. Many happy hours may
training. He sends you his best wishes, you spend in the MUSEUM !


HOEVER invented the term
"chattering ape must have
had in his "mind's eye" the
attitude and appearance of
a displeased Bonnet Monkey. The one
chief mode this ape possesses of express-
ing its displeasure is to chatter; and even
when engaged- in some such diversion as
that of scratching its owner's hand, the
Bonnet will chatter still, and make gri-
maces, which, together with the widely-
opened eyes and the frowning brows,
give it a singular look. The extremely
human appearance of this monkey is due
not merely to the peculiar disposition of
its hair, but to the freedom of the face
from a hairy covering, and the naked ears
it possesses. The hair itself is of a light
brown color, that of the head inclining to
a dark brown, or well-nigh to a black tint.
In" a playful mood, no ape can be more
entertaining than the Bonnet Monkey.
Says a writer on the monkey .tribes: The
antics played by Jenny," the smaller of
the two Bonnet Monkeys in my posses-
sion, are well-nigh of endless character.
Furnished with a cloth or duster, this
monkey imitates exactly the antics of a
child in covering its head with the cloth,
and in peeping out from beneath the edges
to ascertain if she is being watched. Then
once more concealing herself beneath its
folds, she will scamper off until she trips
herself and falls, only to disentangle her-
self and resume her antics once again.
One of the most surprising and inter-
esting traits in the Bonnet Monkey of
which I write is that of apparent rage

when anyone for whom she entertains an
affection is teased or threatened. Mon-
keys will defend their master when
attacked by anyone, as well as dogs to
whom they are attached from the attacks
of other dogs. Jenny, possessing a fond-
ness for myself, will scream with rage,
will chatter and shake the bars of the
cage, and exhibit the utmost concern
if anyone-and even a person to whom
she is attached-feigns the act of strik-
ing me.
Another eminently human quality, that
of "wonder" and "curiosity," animates
the Bonnet Monkey in a high degree.
When Jenny is shown any object to which
she is unaccustomed, she will occasionally
fly from it as if afraid; but, growing
bolder will approach and examine it with
great care, turning it over ard over, if
possible, as if to determine its nature,
Any bright article of jewelry to which
she is unaccustomed on the persons of
those whom she daily sees, is at once
noticed, and, if possible, handled and
examined. Should a monkey, which has
been let loose from my cage, be pursued
through the apartment by way of being
caught,the denizens of the cage will exhibit
the greatest rage and indignation,at what
may be even the gentlest treatment of
the runaway.
Monkeys in general have an intense
dislike to seeing a neighbor chased or
beaten. I have seen Jenny lie down on
her belly on the floor of her cage, as a
man might fling himself to-the ground in
a fit of rage, on my chastising a Capuchin

---------- u~~w i
--fl .n



monkey for some act of indiscretion or
mischief. I witnessed on one occasion
unmistakable proof of what one can only
call loving affection in a young Hama-
dryas, or Sacred Baboon. A pair of these
animals was confined in a small cage,
from which the male was removed on
account of illness. That the patient
might have rest during the night, I placed
him in a basket in front of the fire. The
removal of her partner gave great offence
to Mrs. Hamadryas, who shook the bars

of 'er cage, and expressed her grief at
the separation in a very audible manner.
In the morning, the partner of her joys
and sorrows had sufficiently recovered
himself, and he was accordingly trans.
ferred to the cage once again. The
moment he entered his abode, Mrs. Hama-
dryas seized him round the neck in an
embrace, and continued to stroke his face
with her hands in a manner suggestive
of nothing else but affection and joy at
his return.


HE Chamois is goat-
like in form. This
is nowhere better
seen than when
the Chamois is
regarded from the
front, when the
resemblance to a goat is
especially striking. The
horns are black in color,
and form effective means
of defence when the eagle
swoops down on the
mother Chamois and her
family, meditating an
attack that has for its
object the carrying away
of the young. Then the
fiercest instincts of the Chamois race
are aroused, as, indeed, the most patient
of animals will become fierce and warlike
when danger threatens their young. 'The
great bird of prey may be received, as
with the bayonet-point, by the enraged
antelope, and may retire defeated, and
even wounded, repulsed by the successful
defence of the Chamois mother.
The color of the Chamois varies with
the seasons. The winter coat is perhaps
the most characteristic. It is of ai4ark

brown hue, and the coat consists of long,
shaggy, coarse hair. In summer the
tints lighten. Then the hair becomes of
a light-brown color, a dark line marking
the back along the region of the spine.
The head is of a lighter tint, and assumes
a pale yellow color. The average length
of the horns is about seven inches. The
male Chamois will attain a height of over
two feet at the shoulder, whilst the female
is shorter and of lower stature.
The natural abode of the Chamois in
summer is above the snow-line, and
amongst the upper cliffs and valleys of
the Pyrenees, Apennines, Alps, and Cau-
casus. But in winter the Chamois de-
scends into less elevated situations, com-
pelled to this step by the inlfemency of
the season, that renders food scarce in
higher levels and altitudes. T'he voice
of the Chamois is by no meaii of a
musical kind. At the best it is merely
a goat-like bleat, which increases and
intensifies to a shrill whistle under fear.
When the herd of Chamois is feeding
placidly on the mountain slopes, gne
member of the group, at least, appears to
be told off for the duty of a sentinel. It
is highly instructive to discover that tuis
practice, imitated by man, of guarding


-.- 47




the interests of many by the watchfulness'
of one or more, is represented in the life
of not a few quadrupeds.
"The most common mutual service in
the higher animals," says Mr. Darwin, "is
to warn one another of danger by means
of the united senses of all.. Every sports-
man knows how difficult it is to approach
animals in a herd or troop. Wild horses
and cattle do not, I believe, make any
danger signal; but the attitude of any
one of them who first discovers an enemy
warns the others. Rabbits stamp loudly
on the ground with their hind feet as a
signal; sheep and chamois do the same
with their fore feet, uttering likewise a
whistle. Many birds and some mammals
post sentinels, which, in the case of seals,
are said generally to be the females. The
leader of a troop of monkeys acts as the
sentinel, and utters cries expressive both

perform many little services for each
other; horses nibble, and cows lick each
other, on any spot which itches; monkeys
search each other for external parasites;
and Brehm states that after a troop of
green monkeys has rushed through a
thorny brake, each monkey stretches
itself on a branch, and another monkey
sitting by 'conscientiously' examines
its fur, and extracts every thorn or
The hinder limbs of the Chamois are
longer than its fore legs. Hence we may
readily understand the great facility with
which a Chamois will bound up the steep-
est crags. But the advantage thus con-
ferred upon the Chamois in leaping up-
wards becomes a disadvantage in the
downward progress of the animal. The
descent is, however, facilitated by rudimen-
tary toes, which serve as a kind of brake

)f danger and of safety. Social animals to the animal in its downward leaps.

' -.,: .' .
', LTHOUGH the In the winter season, when the Wild
S Wild Cat may be Cat ventures further abroad in search of
-.. i .....' said to avoid rather prey than in summer, the hunter sets out
than to seek man, in pursuit of his game. The tracks in the
S ... and although shy snow guide him, and within the woods he
of man's presence, most frequently comes face to face with
'yet, when brought the fierce marauder. Lithe and wary, the
to bay, this animal infuriated Cat may spring on the hunter
inma prove itself to be any- when wounded, and may inflict injuries
thiii^ but a contemptible of a very severe nature.
S foe, easy to capture. 'An account of such an encounter will
S..1 Hnting the Wild Cat is bear quoting in part. I have occasion
b.. nio means either a safe ally, though rarely, says an author, fal
.:,r easy matter. It is a len in with these animals in the forests
"'~i p:' sp'.'t which, firstly, may and mountains of Scotland. Once, when
lead its pursuer into well- grouse shooting, I came suddenly, in a
nigh inaccessible and dangerous situa- rough and rocky part of the ground, upon
tions, and the fury of the quarry when it. a family of two old ones and three halt-
discovers itself hotly pursued, in turn, con- grown ones. In the hanging birch woods
stitutes a source of danger to the hunter, that border some of the Highland streams


'.^ ^*-^ j?
-^ y '.' ^ ^ .':;


and rocks the Wild Cat is still notuncom-
mon; and I have heard their wild and
unearthly cry echo far in the quiet night,
as they answer and call to each other. I
do not know a more harsh and unpleasant
cry than that of the Wild Cat, or one
more likely to be the origin of supersti-
tious fears in the mind of an ignorant
These animals have great skill in
finding their prey, and the damage they
do to the game must be very great, owing
to the quantity of food which they re-
quire. When caught in a trap they fly
without hesitation at any person who
approaches them, not waiting to be as-
sailed. I have heard many stories of
their attacking and severely wounding a
man when their escape has been cut off.
Indeed, a Wild Cat once flew at me in the
most determined manner. I was fishing
at a river in Sutherlandshire, and in pas-
sing from one pool to anotherhad to climb
over some rock and broken kind of ground.
In doing so, I sank through some rotten
heather and most up to my knees, almost
upon a Wild Cat who was concealed
under it, and was not expecting me.

I was quite as much startled as the
animal herself could be when I saw the
wild-looking beast so unexpectedly rush
out from between my feet, with every hair
on her body standing on end, making her
look twice as large as she really was. I
had three small Skye terriers with me,
who immediately gave chase, and pursued
her till she took refuge in a corner of the
rocks, where, perched in a kind of recess
out of reach of her enemies, she stood,
with her hair bristled out, and spitting
and growling like a common cat. Hav.
ing no weapon with me, I laid down my
rod, cut a good-sized stick, and proceeded
to dislodge her. As soon as I was within
six or seven feet of the place, she sprang
straight at my face over the dogs' heads.
Had I not struck her in mid-air as she
leaped at me, I should probably have got
some severe wound. As it was, she fell
with her back half-broken, amongst, the
dogs, who, with my assistance, despatched
I never saw an animal fight so des-
perately, or one which was so difficult to
kill. If a tame Cat has nine lives, a Wild
Cat must have a dozen.


forms a great shall

Bison, we see that
Huge develop-
ment of the head,
shoulders and
front extremities,
which gives it a
Most majestic
appearance. The
hair of head, neck
and shoulders
grows thick and
abundant, and
~gy mane, that in its

way Aivals in appearance the similar
adornment in the lion himself. Along
the back the hair of the head and
shoulders is continued in a shaggy line
which forms a prominent back ridge.
The comparatively short tail ends in a
distinct tuft. The great size of the
shoulders and first part of the body is
increased by the fact that the shoulders
are humped.
The male Bison is muzh larger than
the female, and when a male of average
size is measured from the shoulders
downwards, the height may be found to

g1 ;


be about six feet. The horns are not
developed to any great size, although
when threatened attack by such a foe as
the grizzly bear, the Bison may charge
his antagonist, and may, by aid of the
horns, inflict wounds of very severe or
even fatal character. Even the wolves of
the prairie, which hungrily pursue the
Bison in winter, may find the bull more
than a match for their ferocity and cun-
ning combined.
In their native haunts the Bisons pass
a peaceful existence. A favorite habit is
that of swallowing in the mud of pools
and ponds, until the whole body becomes
coated with mud, which has the effect of
protecting the animal from the attack of
the insects which annoy and bite them.
It was long believed that the bulls of a
herd formed a kind of protective guard,
both in front and to the rear. But this
notion is largely dispelled by more accu-
rate observation. The cows and their
young are more watchful than the males,
and are usually found in the van.

One writer speaks of the Bison 9s
walking "unconsciously into a quicksand
or quagmire already choked with strug-
gling, dying victims. Having made up
his mind to go a certain way, it is almost
impossible to swerve him from his pur-
pose." The hunters of the Bison take
advantage of this stupid and dogged
tenacity of purpose, in the capture of the
animal. If a herd of Bisons is discovered
in near proximity to a precipice, the hun-
ters drive the animals nearer and ne,.rer
to its brink. Forming a cordon round
them, the pursuers with shouts and cries
force a retreat in the direction of the cliffs.
The herd, taking alarm, rushes forward,
only when too late to discover their mis-
take. The foremost members of the
retreating and terrified cavalcade per-
ceiving their danger as they come upon
the edge of the cliff, attempt to withdraw,
only, however, to be hauled onwards by
the advancing rank, which, in their turn,
will be compelled to take a headlong and
fatal leap into the abyss below.


HEN attacked by ais
I natural enemies, the
%/wolves, the Elk,
f which is the largest
Snember of the deer
race now living, can
use its horns with
deadly effect. As the
elephant uses its
tusks to repel the
onslaught of the tiger, so
the Elk has been known to
strike a wolf dead with a
single blow of his antlers;
and whilst he will trample
on his fallen foe, he may
at bay by aid of the horns.

The weight of the antlers of the. Elk
may be fifty, or even sixty pounds; the
antlers of the extinct Irish Elk have been
found in some cases to measure ten feet
in expanse from tip to tip, and to weigh
from sixty to seventy pounds.
Stags, in escaping from beasts of prey,
are loaded with an additional weight for
the race, and are greatly retarded in pass.
ing through a woody country. The
Moose, for instance, with horns extending
five and a half feet from tip to tip,
*although so skilful in their use that he
will not touch or break a twig when walk.
ing quietly, cannot act so dexterously
whilst rushing away from a pack of
.wolves. During his progress he holds

keep a 'host

F *_ ---.

y.1 '






his nose up, so as to lay the horns hori- or thirty feet off over the snow. Another
zontally back; and in this attitude can- rush of the yelping pack, and this time
not see the ground distinctly. As the the result is the same. It is hoof against
Elk moves quickly, his gait is seen to be fang; but the second wolf lies prostrate
a kind of irregular trot, the awkwardness from the well-directed blow of the hoof,
of his movements being increased by the and the life is crushed out of the fierce
length of his strides. But, despite the dog" by the massive weight of his foe.
weight of his antlers, he contrives to pass Soon the hungry pack grow tired of the
over the ground in a quick fashion, that delay, and as one after another is maimed
speedily distances an enemy of ordinary and bruised, the others retire and leave
running powers, the field to the single combatant.
* The color of the Elk's hair is a dark The Contest Ended.
brown, and the hair is very coarse. In Or, perchance, the fight may end in a
winter the coat tends to become of lighter different fashion. Overwhelmed by num-
hue, but the difference between the sum- bers, the brave moose gallantly with.
mner and winter hue does not appear to be stands for a while the charges of the foe.
so strongly marked as in other deers. But, weak and bleeding, he at length
Desperate Struggle. shows signs of weariness. The snarling
The life of this great deer is unquestion- pack of wolves quickly see the failure of
ably largely one of adventure. Pursued their adversary's strength, and redouble-
by man, and hunted by its natural ene- their efforts to encompass his destruction.
mies, the wolves, the Elk may be said to Soon one bolder than the rest, during a
spend a somewhat precarious existence, favorable moment, contrives to maim the
even under the most favorable circum- great deer behind. He bites through the
stances of his race. In the pine forests tendons or sinews of the thigh muscles,
he may suddenly be alarmed by the deep and thus effectually lames his adversary.
bay of his enemies, who may have ruth- Exhausted by the loss of blood, the Elk
lessly pursued his track in the snow for at length stumbles. In a moment the
miles. The deer quickens his footsteps, wolves surround him. Some fly at the
but as his feet sink in the hardened snow, throat and head, others tear his limbs;
his progress is but labored and slow. His and in the depths of the forest a life soon
pursuers gain upon him, and in the forest disappears, and the moon rises on a scene
depths he is at last brought to bay. which shows but the blood-stained snow
Snarling and defiant, the wolves gather as the evidence of the grim fight which
round their quarry, who seems to nerve by the laws of Nature is waged in the
himself for the struggle, which he feels territory of animal life.
with all the mute instinct of his race will In a different way, however, the Elk
be one to the death. A wolf bolder may show his dexterity in escaping from
than the rest makes a rush at the hind his foes. Pursued by them the deer may
legs of the deer to hamstring the prey; fly from the forest glades to the open, and
but in a moment, as if divining the intent scouring across the snowy wastes, may
of the dog-fiend, the Elk wheels about; make for the lake, whose frozen waters
the great antlers are lowered in an instant, can hardly bear the weight of the great
and as they are raised the snarling wolf body. With a yell, the pursuers gain
is hurled, maimed and bleeding, twenty upon their prey, but the deer flies swiftly


enough over the snow. Soon the lake is land as best they may without their prey.
reached, and the elk crashes upon the ice. The Elk struggles on amidst the broken
In a moment, and ere the deer is many fragments of ice,which impede his progress
feet from the shore, the ice gives way, as he swims. But he is at home in the

and the pursued is immersed in the cold water. The lake knows him well in the
waters of the lake. The nearest wolves summer days, for both the young and old
*ave likewise fallen into the water, and, deer swim fearlessly and well. He knows,
discomfited and cold, struggle back to moreover, that he is safe from his pur.


suers, unless, indeed, the thirst for prey
should lead them to circumvent his swim,
and to await his arrival on the other side
of the lake. But the defeated pack scent
other game in the wind. They retire dis-
comfited and chilled, as the Elk, strug-
gling onwards, at last secures a foothold
on the ice, and with a defiant toss of the
great antlers disappears in the gray twi-
light that fast shades everything-lake,elk,
wolves and landscape-in its kindly gloom.
Commercially, the Elk is valued for
three items--his horns, flesh and skin.
The latter is extremely tough and dense;
and the flesh, in a smoked condition, is
regarded as a luxury by more civilized
tastes than those of the Indian hunter.
The Elk may be domesticated to a great

beast of burden, but in this respect it is,
of course, inferior to the domesticated
reindeer, to which the Elk bears a genera'
An Indian, at the Factory at Hudson's
Bay, had, in the year 1777, two Elks, so
tame that, when he was on his passage to
Prince of Wales Fort, in a canoe, they
always followed him along the bank of
the river, and at night, or on any other occa-
sion when he landed, they generally came
and fondled him in the same manner as
the most domestic animal would have
done, and never attempted to stray from
the tents. He did not, however, possess
these animals long; for he one day crossed
a deep bay in one of the lakes, in order to
save a very circuitous route along its

extent if tamed when young. But it does bank, and expected the creatures would,
not appear that it ever loses completely its as usual, follow him round; but, unfor-
somewhat surly disposition. It is liable to tunately, at night they did not arrive;
sudden attacks of revengeful ferocity, and and, as the howling of wolves was heard
requires, in consequence, to be carefully in the quarter where they were, it is sup.
watched. The Elk has been used as a posed they had been devoured.


gacity of the Ele-
phant, and regarding
its intelligence and
Wisdom, countless
stories have been re-
S' lated. The Elephant
is very faithful to his
? driver or keeper, and probably
Considers him as the leader of
the herd. Dr. Hoooker says that
an elephant which he was riding
in India became so deeply
bogged that he remained stuck
fast till next day, when he was
extricated by men with ropes.
Under such circumstances, ele-
will seize with their trunks any

object, dead or alive, to place under then
knees to prevent them sinking deeper in
the mud; and the driver was much con-
cerned lest the animal should have seized
Dr. Hooker and crushed him to death. But
the driver himself ran no risk.
One of the most interesting cases of the
sagacity of an elephant is that related of
the female elephant belonging to a
menagerie, which in April, 1874, was
attended for an illness at Tenbury, in
England, by- Mr. Turley, a local chemist.
When Mr. Turley happened,in May, 1i79,
to be standing at his shop door as the
menagerie passed through the town on a
return visit, he was astonished to find that
the elephant insisted on saluting him by
placing her trunk in his hand, and by



"- ,.:L: '.^ '



emitting a peculiar grunting noise. This the dismay of her keeper, who asserted
was her recognition of Mr. Turley's atten- that had it been anyone but a friend she
tions and kindness of five years before, had so laid hold of she would have crushed
that gentleman not- having seen the ani- his limbs to atoms instead of quietly
mal once during the interval. As a fur- pressing him."
their proof of the animal's accurate mem- On visiting the menagerie in the even:
-ory of all the circumstances of her former ing, the elephant, again recognizing her
visit, it may be added that in May, 1881, medical friend, lifted him off his feet with
the elephant again visited Tenbury. The her trunk, and "trumpted" in a very
following is the newspaper account- significant manner. At the same time
verified in a letter to me from Mr. Turley she called his attention to her fore-leg,
-of what took place: with which Mr. Turley's previous treat-
"REMARKABLE SAGACITY OF AN ELE- ment had had no concern. The keeper
FHANT.-On Wednesday, Bostock's and told Mr. Turley that, some months pre.
Wombell's Menagerie visited Tenbury. viously, the leg in question had been hurt.
This company came to this town some and that a veterinary surgeon had used
two years ago, when the elephant, jour- a lancet to give the animal relief. This
neying down Teme Street, recognized Mr. surgical treatment exasperated the ele.
Turley, chemist, who had cured her of phant so much that she struck at the vet-
a most dangerous attack of colic, brought erinary surgeon with her trunk when he
on by drinking cold water. Strange to subsequently approached her. Her desire
say, immediately the elephant caught to draw Mr. Turley's attention to the
sight of Mr. Turley, she began at once to fore-leg was evidently an indication of
evince her pleasure at seeing her pre- her preference for, and her greater faith
server, and warmly' embraced him by in, the treatment to which he had sub-
folding her trunk round his legs, rather to ejected his elephant-patient.


the Ptarmigans
form an interest-
ing group, be-
longing to the
Grouse family.
The Common
Ptarmigan pr e-
sents us with a
singular change of plumage adapted to
the alteration of the seasons. The male
in winter becomes perfectly white, with
the exception of a black patch behind the
eye; certain of the feathers of the wings
and tail being black likewise. Both sum-
mer and winter plumage serve the bird

for protection. If the white plumage in
winter serves to conceal it amid the snow,
the grayish-mottled hue of the summer
feathers serves admirably to hide the bird
as it sits motionless amid the stones and
broken ground that surround. it. The
Ptarmigan moults twice or even thrice in
the year. But even the kindly protection
of Nature serves not to secure a complete
immunity from attack. The eagles and
falcons will swoop down on the flock of
Ptarmigan in summer and winter alike,
and will bear off its members to the
mountain nest, leaving a terrified flock oi
birds behind to bewail the unkindly fate
of their neighbor and friend.



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It is a curious fact that these birds
appear to know the safety which lies in
their white plumage, inasmuch as they
have been known to dash boldly into the
snow on the approach of a hawk, and to
thus conceal themselves until the danger
was past.
The Ptarmigans, Quails, and their
neighbors, do not display much ingenu-
ity in the construction of a nest-that
special theme of admiration in the history
of bird habits. Thus the "scratching
birds," as a rule, deposit their eggs on
the ground, a mere apology for a nest
existing in the shape of a depression in
the earth, lined with grass or leaves.
Very varied are even the materials which
)irds use in nest-building. The wren
ses moss as its chief material, whilst the
ingfisher uses the bones of its finny prey
;herewith to make its nest. A swift in
he Eastern Archipelago makes a nest of
its own solidified saliva. The swallow
uses clay; and the crow lines its nest
with fur and wool.
Mr. Wallace, speaking of birds' nests,

remarks that the delicacy and perfection
of the nest will bear a direct relation to
the size of the bird, its structure and
habits. That of the wren or the hum-
ming-bird is, perhaps, not finer nor more
beautiful in proportion than that of the
blackbird, the magpie or the crow. The
wren, having a slender beak, long legs,
and great activity, is able with great ease
to form a well-woven nest of the finest
material, and places it in thickets and
hedgerows which it frequents in its
search for food. The titmouse, haunting
fruit-trees and walls, and searching in
cracks and crannies for insects, is nat
urally led to build in holes where it has
shelter and security; while its great
activity and the perfection of its tools (bili
and feet) enable it readily to form a beau
tiful receptacle for its eggs and young.
Pigeons, having heavy bodies and weak
feet and bills (imperfect tools for forming
a delicate structure), build rude, flat nests
of sticks, laid across strong branches
which will bear their weight and that of
their bulky young. They can do no better


SHE great world of wa- sweep of wing, the Albatross may appeal
Sters,like the broad tracts to hover or to sail lazily along for hours,
of land, possess their together, almost without once moving its
characteristic represen- wings. Found in the southern seas, it
S tatives of bird life which may follow ships for weeks, and its cap-
appear adapted no less ture affords to weary voyagers a means of
perfectly for the storm breaking the monotony of the slowly pass-
and hurricane than for ing days and hours of life at sea.
the summer calm of the azure sea. Only one egg is laid, and the young
If the eagle be monarch of the air in Albatross is covered with a beautiful
one sense, and the lion king of the land in white down. The great wings of the fullW
another, the tropic birds, frigate birds and grown bird may measure fifteen feet in
albatrosses, may be regarded as collect- their sweep, and, urged onwards by its
ively the monarchs of the waves. Distin- great pinions, the Albatross defies the fury
guished by its great heavy-hooked upper of the storm in the air, or rides placidly
bfiW, 4n4 by its immense stren-th and on the billow .



Well-nigh as interesting in every respect
are the elegant Gulls. The seaside visitor,
or, better still, the voyager by sea, knows
the Gulls well as familiar denizens of the
coast, or as vaunting their strength above
the trackless deep. Following ships for
days and weeks, the Gulls pounce upon
the morsels of food that a' kindly hand
may throw to them.
The adaptation of the Bird to an aquatic
life is well-nigh as interesting as that
through which it becomes a denizen of the
air. Thus, whilst the Albatross, Gulls
and their neighbors present us with per-
fect types of swimmers and flyers com-
bined, there are swimming birds which are
utterly powerless as regards their powers
of flight. Thus the Great Penguin pos-
sesses wings which are useless for flight,
but which aid the bird in diving, and also

" carries off the palm from all competitors.
Never have I seen anything to equal the
ease and grace of this bird as he sweeps
past, often within a few yards, every part
of his body perfectly motionless, except
the head and eye, which turn slowly, and
seem to take notice of everything. I have
sometimes watched narrowly one of these
birds sailing and wheeling about for more
than an hour, without seeing the slightest
movement of the wings."
The Albatross, king of the wave, as it
may in truth be named, is, however, often
captured by devices of well-nigh ignoble
kind. Its voracity leads it to pounce
unsuspectingly upon the refuse food
which is thrown overboard from ships.
By aid of a concealed hook and line the
bird is often caught like a fish, although
its great strength of wing as often as not

in swimming under water. In all the enables it to break away from its captors.
swimmers, the legs are placed far back on The cannibal instinct appears to be largely
the body, a position which renders their developed in the Albatross, for a wounded
gait awkward on land. bird has been seen to be literally torn to
One observer, speaking of the flight of pieces and devoured by its rapacious com-
these birds, says that the Sooty Albatross panions.


HEN stationed at one of
the little stone forts
in South Africa,
near the Great Fish
River (it is Captain
Lucas, then in com-
0 mand of a troop of
Cape Mounted Rifle-
' men, who is speaking), I was
strolling along its banks one
morning when to my great
delight I saw a fish rise. I was
an old fisherman, and had caught
fish in many different parts of
the world, but fishing in South
would indeed be a novel -expe-

rience. "I will have some of you,"
thought I.
The spot where the fish rose was under
a krantz, or rocky cliff, at the foot of
which great boulders of rock formed a
kind of platform, offering shelter from
both sun and wind. The Great Fish
River is always muddy; so thick, indeed,,
is it at all times that we were obliged to
throw a small lump of alum into the
bucket in which water was drawn when
used for drinking purposes. This had
the effect of precipitating something like
two inches of solid mud to the bottom.
Filters were of very little use, for they
soon got choked up. When the mud was


4 45~ \... ~,

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thus precipitated, the water was sweet
enough and wholesome. The river had
looked always, therefore, so unpromising
that I had never thought of it as con-
nected with fishing.
Well, the next morning found myself
and Patrick Kean, my Irish soldier ser-
vant, on our way to the river. We were
armed with a couple of long bamboo
canes, which the settlers here use for
wagon whips, some eighteen feet long.
A hole drilled in a wine cork, and with a
short porcupine's quill passed through it,
the cork being neatly pared down, made
a capital float. Porcupines' quills were
numerous about here. We found them
lying in perfect little heaps here and
there on the ground, amongst the low
bushes, where that curious animal had
shed them. A couple of lengths of silk-
worm gut, of which I fortunately had a
supply in an old fishing-book, and to
which two small hooks were whipped,
completed the tackle. Worms were the
great difficulty. The African soil is
everywhere so dry that we had to
give up the search in despair. On in-
quiry, however, an old soldier advised
me to try raw meat. This we did suc-
Behold us, then, armed for the fray.
Carefully plumbing the depth, we launched
our apparatus into the stream, which ran
strong and deep, but here made a capital
eddy or back-water; just the spot, indeed,
where a sensible fish would be waiting
for any food that the stream might bring
down to him. Sure enough, after a few
seconds' immersion, off went the floats,
bobbing about in a style that gave us the
most lively anticipations; and we each
pulled up a fish: They were nice silvery
little fellows, about three ounces in weight,
evidently a species of freshwater mullet,
tnd afterwards proved very good eating.

Capital sport we had, pulling them ottt
often two at a time.
"Hallo! Here's a good un now! I
don't know if it's a fish or a grand plan
ner!" ejaculated Pat Kean, heaving away
at his line as if he were pulling up an
anchor, as a black, ominous-looking snout
made itself visible above the water.
"Sure, it's a crokerdile!" said he, letting
go the rod with a shot.
"If it's not a crockerdile, as you call it,
Paddy," said I, "it's the next thing to it;
it's an iguana."
"A guaner, sorr! Sure that's what they
put on the ground to make the what
grow in the would countryy" said Pat,
rising once more to his feet, and securing
the rod just as it was slipping back into
the water.
"Not guano, Paddy-'iguana.' Don't
you see there's an 'i' in it?"
"Sure, then, sorr, there's two eyes in it
for that matter, but never a sign of
teeth," said Paddy, looking cautiously
into the brute's mouth.
It was a large, unsightly-looking beast,
some four feet long, and, as Paddy ob.
served, had no visible teeth. Its body
was a dingy black, speckled with white;
its belly a dirty yellow; and its shapeless
feet were provided with long, sharp claws,
"Sure, sorr, this is quare fishing' any.
how. I never see the likes of it in the
would countryy"
Well, the iguana was soon knocked on
the head, and afterwards carried home in
triumph; but instead of stuffing it like
the mullet,'we stuffed it and put it in a
After this we pulled out no end of
mullet, and the haversack which we had
brought to put them in was getting full,
when another exclamation from my corn
panion made me look round.
"Safety on us!" said he, with a look of



intense disgust; "why, here's a tremen-
dous big toad coming' up now, sorr. Bad
luck to the river, but it's chock-full of
bastes! I'd like to know what 'ull come
up next?"
"Why, you get all the sport, Paddy,"
said I. "You've got a terrapin now."
"Sure, now, is it a sarafin, sorr? Well,
I niver! I thought a sarafin had wings,
and couldn't sit down, sorr, having noth-
ing to sit down upon but only wings."
"Nonsense, Pat; but you weren't so far
off when you said it was a toad. The
terrapin is a water tortoise, and the Hot-
tentots call it "schellpaad," or shelled toad.
The queer little fellow is something be-
tween a turtle and a tortoise, and would
no doubt make very good soup; but you
had better throw him in again."
And so Paddy, giving him a touch with
his foot, sent the fellow back again into
his native element, where he soon scuttled
away out of sight. Presently a fine eel
took the bait, and was triumphantly
landed. This, with some three dozen
mullet, was not a bad day's sport, I
thought, as we put up our tackle and pre-
pared to make tracks homeward to the
fort. Just as I was in the act of taking
my haversack up from the ground to put
it on my shoulders, to my astonishment I
saw what I took for.a mouse crawling out
of it. I was putting my hand down
quietly to get hold of it, when I was
pulled suddenly backward by Patrick
"Halloa! mind what you're doin'," said
he. "It's not a mouse at all, sorr. It's a
"A what?" said I.
"Sure it's a big hairy spider they calls
a tryantelope, and its wenemous as a sar-
And sure enough, when I regarded it
more closely, it was neither more nor less

than one of the great trap spiders, errone.
ously'called tarantulas; as large and big
as a small mouse, which it was not at all
unlike at a little distance, its bloated
body and legs being thickly covered with -
long brown hairs; a most hideous-looking
creature it was. I raised my foot to
stamp upon it. Before, however, I could
kill it, it made a quick dart into its hole,
into which it disappeared so suddenly
that I had scarcely time to see what had
become of it. This was easily accounted
for when I came to examine its hiding-
place. Its retreat was a shaft sunk to a
considerable depth in the soil perpendicu-
larly; its sides beautifully smooth and
cylindrical. The mouth or entrance of
the shaft was covered with a round cover
or flap, precisely like a gun wad, which
exactly fitted the orifice, to which it was
attached by a flexible hinge. This lid
could be closed when it retreated, and so
precisely did the flap fit that it was a
most difficult matter to discover where it
entered, even when standing close to it.
A more perfectly contrived retreat it is
impossible to imagine. Our admiration
at its ingenuity, however, did not prevent
us from digging, as Paddy would insist
upon calling it, the tryantelope out of its
earth, and destroying this unsightly
venomous creature.
On our way back to the fort an old
trapper, who lived in a mud hut just out-
side the gates, begged hard for the body
of the iguana, which I gave him, on con
edition that he saved me the trouble of
skinning it. As I passed his hut in the
evening I found that he had already
cooked the tail of the iguana. As the
meat on it looked very white and delicate,
I was induced by him to taste it. I found
it, as he said, very sweet, and something
like chicken, but more insipid.
Thus ended my first day's fishing in


South Africa.
ever without
a supply of
fresh fish.
there were
heavy tropical
rains, which
caused the
Great Fish
River to rise
from two to
three feet in
depth to up-
wards of thirty
feet in the
course of
hours. When
this was the
case, two or
three of ip-
bank lines
taught for us
plenty of fine
eels, so that
when my mili-
tary comrades
rode out from
some fourteen
miles distant,
to pay me ,
visit, they car-
ried back such
a charming re-
port of the ex-
cellence of my
cuisine that
they soon came
again, quite as
much to par-
take of the un-
usual luxury of
tried mullet, as t

From that dime I

it migi 0 be) of my societ

-.. A '
ifit .



a dish of collared eels orI There are curious specimens of fish it
o enjoy the pleasure (fas- the tropics. My young readers will 1*


interested in one that closely resembles a I intently watches the stitrotinding ob5ebid

horse. This fish is one of the most
common, and is often kept by the fisher-
men in a dried state to sell as a curiosity
to seaside visitors. This species, says
Couch, may be seen slowly moving about,
in a singular manner, horizontally or
perpendicularly, with the head down-
wards or upwards, and in every attitude
of contortion, in search of food, which
seems to be chiefly water insects. The
tail is ready to grasp whatever it meets in
theater, quickly entwines in any direction
round the weeds, and when fixed the animal

and darts at its prey with great d-xterity,
When two approach each other, they
often twist their tails together, and
struggle to separate or attach themselves
to the weeds; this is done by the hinder
part of their cheeks, or chin, which is
also used for raising the body when a
new spot is wanted for the tail to entwine,
Another curious creature is the Shoot-
ing-fish, which fires a drop of water at
any insect it wishes to bring down. This
fish is a sharp-shooter, and seldom fails
to hit its mark.


o N its general aspect, the
Polecat closely resembles
the weasel. The head is
Broad, and the snout blunt,
whilst the tail is by no
means long, though exceed-
ing that of the weasel in
length. The average length
of body is about eighteen
inches, whilst the neck is
by no means so long and
slender as in the weasel
itself. The fur, like that of
most other weasels-the family contain-
ing a large number of fur-producing
animals-is soft and glossy. Generally,
it exhibits a rich glossy brown color.
approaching in its hue to black. The
under surface is light yellow, inclining to
Adding to the detestation in which the
Polecat is usually held, its ravenous and
bloodthirsty character may be regarded
as a notable feature of the animal. By
night, the Polecat will ascend trees, being
a powerful and agile climber, and will
venture into the nests of birds, from

mother-raven or crow can dislodge it in
its ferocity. Occasionally, in its rambles,
the bloodthirsty creature will venture to
attack the peaceful owl, which, as de-
picted in our illustration, roused from its
monotony by the fangs, flies into the
night, bearing with it, like some vampire-
form, its assailant-greedy, even to its
own destruction, of the life-blood of its
victim.. Soon the unequal contest ends.
The Polecat loses not its hold, though the
bird of prey swoops hither and thither,
uttering its distressed plaints loudly to
the night air. The great wings begin to
flap, rather than to describe their char-
acteristic swooping curves and circles.
SFeebler and feebler grows the exhausted
bird, whose life-stream trickles down its
plumage from the wound to which the
Polecat holds on firmly.
Presently the bird, exhausted, careers
headlong to the earth. Faster and faster
its almost lifeless body descends, until,
falling with a dull thud on the rocks that
fringe the river-valley below, the night.
bird lies dead and bleeding, and the Pole.
cat, bruised, shaken and severely hurt in

which not even the powerful beak of tbe its turn, leaves the body of its victim, and


creeps slowly away into the shelter and Polecat has a great desire. A highly
shadows of the night. interesting fact concerning Polecat intel-
The Polecat is extremely fond of fishes, ligence is recorded in the circumstance
and appears to bean adept in the capture thatwhen the animal has collected a store
of frogs, it bites
-and slightly in-
jures the brain
of each frog so
as to prevent
them from hop-
_ping from the
nest. In this
way, the Polecat
keeps its food
__ fresh.
-_ Bird-life suf-
-- -fers terribly
_-from the rav-
S-i ages of the Pole-
cat and its
friends. Wheth-
--- er in venturing
:- into the hearths
--; 2- and homes of
the feathered
-~- .~race and seizing
young and old
alike, or in cap-
turing the birds
as they move a-
broad in search
of food, the
crafty Polecat
shows an agility
worthy a less
cause The
ground- dwel-
ling birds are,
of course, the
AN UNEQUAL CONTEST. chief sufferers.
of even the "slippery eel." On more than The partridges and pheasants in particu-
one occasion, a large number of eels have lar, fall victims to its rapacity, and in a
been found in the nest of one of these poultry-yard this animal has the inhabi-
animals. For frogs, toads and newts, the tants literally at its mercy. The instincts


which give to the ferret its special value leaves behind it, after a successful foray,
in the hunting-field serve its wild ancestor a large number of victims; the bodies ol
in an equally serviceable manner when, some of these will scarcely have been
on its own account, it tracks the rabbit or touched, whilst the only treatment to
hare to its burrow. which even the most mangled of the
A very few Polecats in any given neigh- prey have been subjected will be found
borhood will thus act as a serious and to consist in the destruction of the
heavy drain upon the animal life of the brain, which seems to be a titbit in
locality; each Polecat kills a greater Polecat estimation, affording a choice
number of victims than it can devour. It dessert.


near the begin,
ning of April,
the season of
along the coast
Sof Florida, which is gen-
S ,'" erally practised by the
negroes, who use strong
lines, to which are at-
tached chains and large
t3 and very strong hooks,
and fasten to the hook a large sea bass as
bait. When the Shark has swallowed the
bait and hook, and the latter has im-
bedded itself in the flesh or gills, an ani-
mated combat for superiority commences
between the fishermen and the furiously
snapping and jumping sea-monster. The
line is slackened and pulled in, until the
Shark, entirely exhausted, can be pulled
on shore and killed. The big fish is then
hung up on a scaffolding, and the liver is
taken out and boiled, by which process
an oil is extracted which is as valuable as
that of the whale. It is quite a common
occurrence, for from twenty to thirty
Sharks to be caught in this way by one
crew in a single day.
The animals that compose the rapacious
tibe of Sharks are entirely marine and

are more frequent in hot than in tern.
operate climates. They are in general
solitary, and often wander to vast dis-
tances, devouring almost everything that
cbmes in their way, which they are able
to swallow. Some of them will follow
vessels several hundred leagues, for the
carcasses and filth that are thrown over-
board. The size to which they grow is
enormous, as they often weigh from one
to four thousand pounds each. Some
few species go in schools, and live on
shell-fish and marine worms.
Their flesh is altogether so tough,
coarse, and of such a disagreeable smell,
that even the young ones are scarcely
eatable. Their bodies emit a phosphoric
light in the dark. The skin is rough, and
is in general use for polishing ivory, wood,
and other substances; thongs and car.
riage traces are also occasionally made of
it. The liver is generally found to yield
a considerable quantity-of oil. There are
upwards of thirty species.
The White Shark.
This dreadful species of Shark has six
rows of teeth, hard, sharply pointed, and
of a wedge-like figure. These he has the
power of erecting and depressing at
pleasure. W hen the animal is at rest,
they are quite flia. i his mouth: but.

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when prey is to be seized, they are in-
stantly erected by a set of muscles that
join them to the jaw. Thus, with open
aouth, goggling eyes, and large and
bristly fins, his whole aspect is an em-
phatic picture of the fiercest, deepest
and most savage malignity.
It is a fortunate circumstance, for those
who avoid its attacks, that its mouth is so
situated, under the head, that it has to
throw itself on one side in order to seize
its prey; for its velocity in the water is
so great, that nothing of which it was
once in pursuit would otherwise be able
to escape its voracity.
These creatures are the dread of sailors
in all the hot climates; for they constantly
attend ships, in expectation of what may
be thrown overboard; and if, while a
Shark is present, any of the men enter
the water, they inevitably perish.
Mangled by a Monster.
Persons, while swimming, have often
been seized and devoured by Sharks. The
late Sir Brooke Watson was, some years
ago, swimming at a little distance from a
ship, when he saw a Shark making
towards him. Struck with terror at its
approach, he cried out for assistance. A
rope was instantly thrown; and even
while the men were drawing him up the
ship's side, the monster darted after him,
and, at a single snap, tore off his leg.
In the pearl-fisheries of South America,
every negro, in order to defend himself
against these animals, carries with him
into the water a sharp knife, which, if
the fish offers to assault him, he en-
deavors to strike into its belly; on which
it generally swims off. The officers who
are in the vessels keep a watchful eye
on these voracious creatures; and, when
they observe them approach, shake the
ropes fastened to the negroes, in order
to put them on their guard. Many, when

the divers have been in danger, have
thrown themselves into the water, with
knives in their hands, and have hastened
to their defence; but too often all their
dexterity and precaution have been of no
Fearless Swimmers.
The South Sea islanders are not in the
least afraid of the Sharks, but will swir-
among them without exhibiting the leas,
signs of fear. "I have seen," says Cap-
tain Portlock, "five or six large Sharks
swimming about the ship, when there
have been upwards of a hundred Indians
in the water, both men and women: they
seemed quite indifferent respecting them,
and the Sharks never offered to make an
attack on any of these people, and yet at
the same time would greedily seize our
baits; whence it is manifest that these peo
ple derive their confidence of safety from
their experience, that they can repel the-
attacks of those devouring monsters."
A sailor, on the coast of California, oi
plunging into the sea, was seized by A
Shark; but, by a most extraordinary feat
of activity, he cleared himself, aid,
though much wounded, threw blood aid
water at the animal, to show his bravery
and contempt. But the voracious mon-
ster seized him with horrid violence a
second time, and in a moment dragged
him to the bottom. His companions,
though not far from him, and much
affected by the sight, w6re not able to
render him any assistance.
We are told that notwithstanding the
voracity of these creatures, they will not
devour any feathered animal that is
thrown overboard; but that they wil
readily take a bait of a piece of flesh
fastened on an iron crook. They are
so tenacious of life, as to move about
long after their head is cut off.
Their flesh is sometimes eaten by sailors

' -4--

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''*- =S- _== ~c-". Ss rs '-'-

^. ^ ^S ^ -s-- -^ -
^ -_^-^ =^ : _-; ^-

*^ ^ rf ^ l-' ..^ as S


Q a 7=-


on long voyages; and, though exceedingly
coarse and rank, its generally considered
better than that of any others of the tribe.
The skin is rough, hard and prickly; and,
when properly manufactured, is used in
covering instrument cases.
The Hammer-headed Shark inhabits

the same latitudes. This curiously con,
structed fish closely resembles the White
Shark in all respects but the head, which
is widened out at each side, exactly like
a double-headed hammer or mallet. The
eyes, being placed at each extremity of
the head, can see a long distance.


_ the reports of Stan-
ley, Emin Pasha and
Wissmann, has be-
: come quite well
known and cele-
-' brated throughout
the civilized world. The
S Somali inhabit the east-
ernmost part of Africa.
cl'. Most of the rivers of
Sthe country have only
\\ater during the rainy
e'. ason, but in spite of all
"' thi, the animals are numer-
ous. The waterbuck, different
species of antelopes and ga-
zelles are seen in large herds; ostriches,
zebras and wild donkeys, as well as gi-
raffes, elephants, the hippopotamus and
the rhinoceros, are found in great num-
bers, and the lion and leopard, the latter,
growing to an astonishingly large size,
cause great loss to the native herdsmen.
The wearing apparel of the Somali
consists of a large cloth, a belt and san-
dals, but sometimes jackets, trousers and
the fez can be seen. Their weapons are
the lance, the javelin, the dagger, bow
and arrows and the round shield made of
the skin of the giraffe or the rhinoceros.
The Somali leads a nomad life; he de-
spises hand-work and considers robbery
and warfare as the sole dignified occu-
pations. All work is performed by the

women. He is courageous, brave and
independent, but quarrelsome and deceit-
ful, and opposed to all kinds of rule or
A French traveller says the only culti-
vated land in Somali. is the burying-
ground. Another explorer says the
Somali boy when but seven years of
age is given a small javelin, he begs,
borrows and steals until he becomes of
age, and then -he continues begging,
borrowing and stealing until he dies.
In the City of Berlin, Germany, the
Zoological Garden has an annex for
ethnological study; tribes of different
unknown nations are there with their
tents, weapons, household utensils and
domestic animals. A group of Somali
was recently brought there and invited
general attention. There are, in one cor
ner of an enclosure, several huts of mat-
ting, the women and children of the tribe
being near by. Opposite were sitting, by
a small fire, two sturdy blacksmiths busily
at work. They are artificers, and as such
despised by the ofher Somali and are not
permitted to participate in any of the
tribe's war-like exercises. In another cor-
ner saddles for camels and horses were
piled, while warriors were standing and
sitting by the heap, wrapped in their long
white sheets, conversing in their mother
tongne. In the centre of the space noble
horses, swift-riding camels, small sheep
with hanging ears, and hornless goats

.1 1


----I--...~ -~-~----~
-- ~--




'I L.;


pranced around. Latge-eyed ostriches,
not in the least shy, stood near-by.
At once a shrill whistle is heard, and
camels, ostriches, sheep and goats scamper
pell-mell to a corner of the enclosure,
and in the next moment the horses are
saddled, the men mount, and with only
the large toe in the stirrup gallop wildly
around. A second whistle: the camels
are saddled and mounted; free and with-
out any support the Somali race over the
ground, and prove that their long-legged
animals are extraordinarily swift.
Throwing the Dagger and Javelin.
Then, begin their military exercises.
they throw their javelins at a target,
nine out of ten of the spears hitting the
bull's-eye. The men then divide into two
parties to combat with dagger, javelin
and shield. They show a most wonderful
and extraordinary skill in this practice.
Graceful dances, accompanied by songs,
are shown. They have many poets and
innumerable songs. The rhyme is monoto-
nous, ending generally with an "a," the
alliteration being clearly perceptible.
During the intermissions the men,
women and children approach the spec-
tators and beg, the Somali being so great
in this respect that his land is designated
by the Arabs belad wa issi," land, give
me something." A three-year-old child
came to one of the spectators, put
a finger to the man's pocket and in
elegant German asked for something.
The man gave him an apple, the child
hardly grasped the fruit when the father
stepped up, snatched it away and began
to eat it. While he still munched the
fruit, he asked the man its name; being
told "apple," the whole tribe stretched
out their hands, crying, "Apple, apple!"
In two seconds the whole supply was ex-
hausted; prunes were then handed the
savages, but the Somali craving apples

threw them away, which wfth ig htn~
speed the ostriches devoured.
A Somali'woman approached an officer
of the army and demanded a cigar; the
gentleman offered her his case, which she
took, emptied and then returned to the-
owner. The next moment six Somali
enjoyed the officer's fine Havanas; other
spectators supplied the increased demand,
and in a few minutes the whole of Somali
land was enveloped in dense clouds of
smoke. The baby returned and, holding
out a hand, exclaimed, Money, money!"
She was given a penny, but throwing it
away, she cried out, Too little, o'o little!"
She was given a dime, and then the other
hand was extended, and the child cried,
" Good, good, more!" The next moment
the whole group rushed forward to the
spectators, and cried, "Money, money!"
Riding the big Birds.
At last the manager gives the signal
for the closing and crowning feature of
the performance, the riding of ostriches.
The birds are acquainted with this signal
and run hither and thither, until they are
finally driven to a corner and surrounded.
Several escape while the others are
mounted. The mounting is done in the
following manner: One man takes hold of
an ostrich's beak and pulls the head down;
another man throws his arms about the
bird's breast, and a third jumps on the
bird's back, takes hold of its wings, and
the next moment the bird is away with
its rider. It is obvious that the funniest
positions occur, but seldom do the riders
part company with their steeds, only dis-
mounting when the birds have become'
entirely docile. Our illustration is an ex,
cellent representation of this sport..
SEverywhere' the Ostrich is regarded
with peculiar interest. Ostrich feathers
have long been "an article of trade, and
everyone must admit their peculiar lovIe

0 kleH-kIDING,~~I~


Iness ior the use to which 'they are put.
While somewhat expensive, those who
can afford them are generally fond of ob-
taining them for adornment.
Attempts have been made in some
parts of this country to domesticate and
raise the Ostrich, especially in California.
There you may find Ostrich farms, and

My young readers will understand that
although some tribes ride the Ostrich,
this bird is not likely to become a beast
of burden. It would seem very strange
to us, who now see equestrians galloping
away on their horses, to look at a party
of pleasure seekers mounted upon
ostriches, out for a ten-miles ride.


for the most part these have been suc-
cessful. A wonderful bird is the Ostrich;
so large and tll, so strong, so foolish in
its flight, when it attempts to escape from
its pursuers, for then it sometimes thrusts
its head into the sand, and as it cannot
see its followers, it imagines it has left
them behind, and is now perfectly safe.

The bird is strong enough to carry
full-grown man; probably, however, when
the attempt was made to tame the bird
and render it fit for ordinary use, it would
still be found to be an Ostrich, ready to
spread its wings, ready to run, ready to
get away from its master.
The account of the Somali riding the


Ostrich, simply shows what can be done small wings; it has a way of partly sitting
with this bicd. The South American down, resting the weight of the body upon
Ostrich (ar engraving of which is an- the joints of the legs; in other respects,
aexed) yrn will see is different from the it is different from its relative, and is well
Ostrich of Africa. This one has very worth studying.


S AVING travelled through all
parts to Palestine, a celebrated
I explorer relates, and intending
to visit Bagdad and Hillah
and the ruins of Babylon, I
conceived the desire of paying a. visit to
the northern neighbors of the Arabs in
Mesopotamia, the Kurds or Koords, who
inhabit the mountain-ranges dividing
Asiatic Turkey, Russia and Persia. But
there were many difficulties to overcome;
first, and above all, I was not in possession
of a single letter of recommendation that
could smooth my way. Robbery and
assassination run riot in that part of the
I then remembered having visited a
school at Paris in company with the son
of a wealthy merchant of Damascus,
and that this intelligent young man had
often entreated me to visit the Orient and
his own home. I now made use of this
invitation, and, after a sojourn of a few
days at the paradise-like Damascus, under
the hospitable roof of my friend Omar, I
started ir his company, with many Arabs
and servants, for Mosul. We travelled
along the picturesque slopes of thi' Leb-
anon range, through plains partly in an
excellent state of cultivation, partly
waste and barren, until we reached the
fortified town of Ossa. Here it was I
first had occasion to study this intelli-
gent, nomadic nation, and to see, among
other things, the horsemanship of the
Kurds, which excels everything to be
seen in other parts of the globe.

On the second day of our sojourn at
Ossa, a chase was arranged in our honor,
and then, at a distance from the city, we
reached a Kurd village of more than one
hundred tents. It happened that, just at
that time, the chief of a friendly tribe
had paid a visit to this village, and to
this visit we were indebted for a sight
which but seldom is enjoyed by Euro-
peans-a fantasia, at which the most
prominent members of the tribe show
their wonderful skill in ho dling their
weapons and their horses.
After dinner, we passed through the
village and reached a barren plain, where
a most extraordinary and surprising view
offered itself to our eyes. We saw a cav-
alcade of nearly one hundred horsemen,
in their.picturesque uniforms, armed to
the teeth, exercising their horses on a
gently rising and undulating plain. Their
uniforms consisted of jackets of red, blue,
yellow or white cloth, or velvet, with wide
open sleeves, richly embroidered with
gold and silver, and trimmed with silk
cord and tassels; also of wide, richly-
desorated trousers, high, red boots, and a
large, gorgeous turban. Nearly every
rider was armed with a long lance or
javelin, which he handled with great dex-
terity and apparent ease, and a large,
curved sword and large pistols, which he
carried in his sash or bel.
While I was still looking at these
strange warriors, a sudden commotion
was noticed; the next moment the men
ran full tilt to the spot where we stood:



; --.-Ic


suddenly wheeling to the right and left, leading horseman stood on his head in
they formed small troops, and then exe- the saddle during the whole time of these
cuted some admirable evolutions, with a exciting manceuvres; others threw their
precision which proved their supreme javelins ahead and caught them again on
horsemanship. Apparently without a sig- the fly; again, others were riding stand-
nal, the horsemen suddenly wheeled, and ing on the saddle or lying on the backs of
in a few seconds were formed in line as their horses, until the last man, who was
before. standing on his head, had passed us. It
After a short rest, the right section was a relief to me when I saw, after the
again came forward at a dead run, fol- men had again formed in line, that not a
lowed by the others, and then they showed single accident had occurred, while I had
feats of horsemanship which my pen is feared that dozens would tave been
unable to fully and justly describe. The killed in the pandemonium.


and habits of the anil
belonged baffled all inc
cover of more perfect
a race of water reptil
the name of Ichthy
lizard. This strange
from twenty to more
length, of which ten s
rated, had the snout
head of a lizard, teeth
vertebra of a fish, and
whale; thus presenting
nation of mechanical c
are now found distrib

U R I N G the distinct classes of the animal kingdom.
year 1814, Sir The teeth of the Lizard-fish, in some in.
Everard Home stances amounting to two hundred and
published an ten, and the length of the jaws to more
a c c o u n t of than six feet, qualified it for preying upon
some largeand weaker creations; and the half-digested
very remark- remains of fishes and reptiles, found
ab e bones within the skeletons, indicate the precise
found in a nature of its food. A single paddle of the
rock, thirty or four with which the animal was furnished
feet above the sea sometimes contains more than a hundred
on the English bones, giving it great elasticity and power,
.The remains and enabling it to proceed at a rapid rate
ined were incom- through the water. The eye was enor.
and the nature mously large, its cavity, in one species,
nal to which they being fourteen inches in its longest direc.
uiry, until the dis- tion. The eye also had a peculiar con,
skeletons unfolded struction, to make it operate both like a
es, which received telescope and a microscope, so that the
)saurus, or Fish- animal could descry its prey by night as
creature, ranging well as day, and at great depths in the
than thirty feet in water. This fish-like lizard in some degree
species are enume- answers to the words of Milton:
of a porpoise, the With head uplift above the Naves, and eyes
of a crocodile, the That sparkling blazed, his other parts besides,
L the paddles of a Prone on the flood, extended long and large.
Sin itself a combi- Lay floating many a rood.
ontrivances which The Lizard-fish was an air-breathing
uted among three cold-blooded and carnivoro n inhabhi-4it


~~uuuur mLlL


tb ihe Ocean, probably haunting prin- keeping the multiplicaion of the specie,
cipally its creeks and bays, fitted by its of oth',r animals within proper limits
Though essentially
marine, and admirably
adapted by its organic
nation to cut the
Saves, certain peculi
,;- -- arities of structure
S\ have induced the opin
S- ion that the forward
paddles might be sub
-E servient to locomotion,
not only in the watez
but on land. Profes-
sor Owen thinks that
the Ichthyosauri, like
the existing croco.
diles, may have come
ashore to sleep, or re.
sorted thither to de,
posit their eggs. The
remains of these ani.
mals occur in greal
abundance on the
P 'English coast, where
the cliffs appear to be
inexhaustible quarries
of them.
In ',he same strata
--_ in wi ich the remains
of t.ae Ichthyosaurus
are found, another
S... marine reptile ap.
pea rs, which received
its name of Plesiosau.
rui t, signifying akin to
Stie lizard, from its
more closely resem.
),i' ', II'i~ bling anin) als of this
.I.,ll'u" ''I., genus than fishes,
especially in the char-
formidable jaws and teeth, its rapid mo- A similar remarkable combination of
Cion and power of vision, to be the scourge forms appears in this animal to that
gnd( tyrant of the existin.a seas of its era, which distingtaishes "ts preceding relk


tive-the head of a i :ard, the teeth of a
crocodile, a. neck resembling the body ff a
serpent, the trunk and tail of an ordinary
quadruped, the ribs of a chameleon, and
dhe paddles of a wha'e. Such are the
strange combinations c form and struc-
ture in the Plesiosaurus, a genus the
remains of which, after interment for
thousands of years amidst the wreck of
millions of extinct inhabitants of the
ancient earth, are at length recalled to
light by the researches of the geologist,
and submitted to our examination in
nearly as perfect a state as the bones of
species now existing upon the earth.
A Singular Animal.
Its most striking feature is the great
length of the neck, which has from thirty
to forty vertebrae, or bone joints, a larger
number than in any known animal, those
of living reptiles varying from three to
six, and those of birds from nine to
twenty-three. It has been, therefore, cor-
rectly compared to a serpent, threaded

within its reach? It may, perhaps, haw
Jerked in shoal wa.er along the coast
concealed among the sea-weed, and raise
ing .ts nostrils to the surface from a con.
siderable depth, may have found a secure
retreat from the assaults of dangerous
enemies; while the length and flexibility
of its neck may have compensated for the
want of strength in its jaws, and its in.
capacity for swift motion through the
water, by the suddenness and agility of
the attack which they enabled it to make.
Reptile with Wings.
Contemporaneously with these strange
animals, marine, fresh-water and terres-
trial tortoises flourished, with crocodiles
of extinct species, and. the Pterodactyl, or
Wing-fingered Reptile, perhaps the most
singular and monstrous creature of the
ancient world, the type of which appears
in no living genus. This flying reptile
had such a remarkable construction that
it puzzled scientific men. Naturalists
pored over its remains, but were unable

through the body of a turtle. That it was to assign them to their true place in the
aquatic, is evident from the form of its animal kingdom, some pronouncing it a
paddles; that it was marine is almost bird, others a reptile, and others a bat,
equally so, from the remains with which till Cuvier took its skeleton in hand.
it is universally associated; that it may Behold, he observes, an animal, which,
have occasionally visited the shore, the in its bone formation, from its teeth to
resemblance of its extremities to those of the end of its claws, is like a reptile; nor
the turtle may lead us to conjecture; its can we doubt that those characteristics
motion, however, must have been very existed in the muscles and soft parts, in
awkward on land; its long neck must its scales, its circulation and other organs.
have impeded its progress through the But it was, at the same time, an animal.
water, presenting a striking contrast to provided.with the means of fligl t, which,
the organization of the Lizard-fish, which when stationary, could not have made
so admirably fitted it for that purpose. much use of its anterior extremities, even
May itnot, therefore, be concluded (sia e if it did not keep them always folded as
in addition to these circumstances its birds keep their wings; which, neverthe.
respiration must have required frequent less, might use its small anterior fingers
access to air) that it swam upon or near to suspend itself from the branches of
the surface, arching back its long neck trees, but when at rest must have been
like the swan, and occasionally darting it ordinarily on its hind feet, like the birds,
down at the fish which happened to float again; and also, like them, must have


canried its neck sub-erect and curved world as we have here described. There
backwards, so that its enormous head can be no doubt about it, however, for
should not interrupt its equilibrium. when we take their skeletons and recon-
Pterodactyls had -
the head and -
neck of a bird,
the mouth and
teeth of a reptile,
the wings of a
bat, the body and
tail of one of the -
lower orders bof --
animals. Their
eyes were enor-
mously large, so
that they could
seek their prey in -
the night. They
could not only fly,
but, like the exist-
ing vampire bat,
they had the
powel of swim-
ming. Thus, like
'Milton's fiend,
qualified for all
services and all
elements, the
Pterodactyl was
a fit companion
for the kindred
reptiles that
swarmed in the
seas, or crawled
on the shores of a
turbulent planet.
There is noth-
ing on the earth -_
to-day which has .
such a hideous _
ance as this strange creature. It -was a struct the animal, and clothe it with flesh,
marvel of ugliness. in our imagination, we find it an exact rep-
It is difficult tobelieve that such strange resentative of the description here given.
Cuormous monsters lived in the ancient Very strange creatures lived in those


old days, fae history of which is exceed- ence now, although we have their. des
ingly interesting. They made the ocean cendants with us-monsters of the Tropics
a world of wonders; they made the land and of the Northern Seas, most wonderful
a vast menagerie. They are not in exist- in their forms and habits.


ONES of a race of im-
mense Crocodiles have
been found,which existed
before the time of man-
those bone-plated reptiles
which the German geol-
ogist Cotta describes as
the great barons of the
kingdom of Neptune, armed to
the teeth and clothed in im-
penetrable armor; the true fili-
busters of the primitive seas.
The Teleosaurus has an anatom-
ical resemblance to some of the present
reptiles of India. They inhabited the
banks of rivers, perhaps the sea itself;
they were longer, more slender and more
active than the living species; they were
about thirty feet in length, of which the
head was from three to four feet, with
their enormous jaws well defended be.
yond the ears, sometimes with an opening
of six feet, through which they could
engulf, in the depths of their enormous
throat, animals of the size of an ox.
In the river Ganges, in India, there is a
huge reptile called the gavial, distin-
guished from the Egyptian Crocodile by
the extraordinary shape of head and jaws;
there is no other living species of Croco-
aile like it; but Britain once possessed a
Drocodile resembling that of the Ganges,
and of even larger dimensions. The
Teleosaurus was a reptile of that remote
period that preceded the age of the great
elephants and tigers. Its teeth were
more numerous and set closer together
tau those of the Egyptian Crocodile; and

it was covered with plates on its under
side as well as on its back. Though it
was longer and more slender than the
Crocodile of the Ganges, and the vertebrae
of its back-bone were united by flat plates
instead of a ball and socket, it resembled
it more than any other animal.
The Crocodile has no lips; so that even
when walking or swimming with the
utmost tranquillity, the teeth are bare,
and the aspect seems animated by rage.
Another circumstance that contributes
to increase the terrific appearance of its
countenance is the fiery glare of its eyes;
and these, being situated near each other,
have also a malignant aspect.
The armor with which the Crocodile is
clad may be accounted among the most
elaborate pieces of natural mechanism.
In the full-grown animal it is so strong
as easily to repel a musket-ball. On the
lower parts it is much thinner and more
pliable than on the upper. The whole
animal appears as if covered with the most
regular and curious carved work. The
color of the full-grown Crocodile is black.
ish-brown above, and yellowish-white
beneath. The upper parts of the legs
and sides are varied with deep yellow,
somewhat tinged with green. The mouth
is of vast width and I'rnished with
numerous sharp-point-a teeth, thirty or
more on each side of the jaws; and these
are so disposed as, when the mouth is
closed, to fit alternately above and below.
The Crocodile and Alligator have the
largest mouths of almost any land animals,
It has been asserted by various write


,hat both their jaws are movable. A much more embarrassed, and he is conse
single glance, however, at the skeleton quently there a le,- dangerous enemy
will afford sufficient proof that the upper than in the water.
iaw is fixed, and __ -_-..
chat the motion is
altogether confined _
to the under one.
these animals are
also generally be- P.--
lieved to have no
tongue. This, again,
is an error, for the
tongue in both spe-
cies is larger than -
that of the ox; biyv,
it is so connectf.l
with the sides off
the lower jaw an to
be incapable of be- _
ing stretched far
forward, as in other
animals. It is
compelled to keep
its tongue to itself.
In the water the
Crocodile seems to
enjoy his whole
strength with much
greater advantage
than on land. Not-
withstanding h i s
5ize and his appar-
ent unwieldiness,he
moves about in the
water with consid-
erable agility, often
emitting a kind of
silent, half-sup-
pressed murmuring
noise. Although
his body prevents him from turning sud- Except when pressed by hunger or
denly round, he swims forward with urged by the necessity of depositing its
astonishing velocity when about to seize eggs, this enormous creature seldom
his prey. On land his motions are leaves the water. Its usual method is to


float along upon the surface, like a large
piece of timber, and seize whatever ani-
mals come within its reach; but, when
this method fails, it then goes closer to
the bank.
All the rivers of Guinea are pestered
with vast shoals of Crocodiles. On hot
days, great numbers of these animals lie
basking on the banks of rivers, and as
soon as they observe any one approach
they plunge into the water. M. Adanson
says that in the river Senegal, on the
western coast of Africa, he has some-
times seen more than two hundred of
them swimming together, with their
heads just above water, resembling a
great number of trunks of trees floating
down the river.
Baby Crocodiles.
The young of the Crocodile are pro-
duced from eggs deposited in the sand,
and hatched by the sun, near the bank of
some river or lake. The female is said to
be extremely cautious in depositing them
unobserved. The general number of eggs
is from eighty to a hundred. They are
not larger than those of. a goose, and are
covered with a tough white skin. She
carefully fills up the hole before she
leaves them. In each of the two suc-
ceeding days she lays as many more,
which she hides in a similar manner.
The eggs are hatched generally in about
thirty days.
On emerging into the air, the animals
immediately run into the water, where
multitudes of them are devoured by vari-
ous kinds of fish, and even by the larger
animals of their own species. It is, how-
ever, in the destruction of their eggs that
the most important service to mankind
is effected. The ichneumon and the vul-
tures (the latter of which, in hot climates,
collect in immense numbers) seem pecu-
liarly appointed by Providence to abridge

the enormous, fecundity of tbh&roedilCte
and in this capacity they destroy awlo
devour millions of their eggs.
The Crocodile, from its immense size
and voracious habits, is an object of fear,
and offerings are, in some countries, made
to it as to a deity. The inhabitants of
Java, when attacked by disease, some,
times build a kind of coop, and fill it
with such eatables as they think most
agreeable to the Crocodiles. They place
the coop upon the bank of a river o0
canal, in perfect confidence that, by such
offerings, they shall be freed from their
maladies, and in a full persuasion that,
if any person could be so wicked as to
take away those viands, such person would
draw upon himself the malady for the
cure of which the offering. was made.
The worship of Crocodiles was indeed a
folly among men of ancient date: Herodo-
tus says that among some of the Egyp.
tian tribes the Crocodiles are held sacred,
but that among others they are regarded
as enemies. The inhabitants in the
environs of Thebes and the Lake Mceris
are firmly persuaded of their sanctity;
and both these tribes bring up and tame
a Crocodile, adorning his ears with rings
of precious stones and gold, and putting
ornamental chains about his fore feet.
They also regularly give him victuals,.
offer victims to him and treat him in the
most respectful manner while living, and,
when dead, embalm and bury him in a
consecrated coffin.
Mr. Stanley once came near losing his
life by one of these monsters. While
encamped near the Gambe, its calm
waters, on which lotus-leaves rested
placidly, all around looking picturesque
and peaceful, invited him to take a bath.
He discovered a shady spot under a wide.
spreading mimosa, where the ground
sloped down to the still water. and hav.

AI*.j" --13

4K- I,.

km -I I.VI

ATj J ~

.J 7
C 11~; 11~'l d
5_~": __5~ \I ~li~ ir 3n



ing undressed, was about to take a glori-
ous dive, when his attention was attracted
by an enormously long body which shot
into view, occupying the spot beneath the
surface which he was about to explore
Dy a header. It was a crocodile! He

sprang back instinctively. This proved
his salvation, for the monster turned
away with a disappointed look, and he
registered a vow never to be tempted
again by the treacherous calm of an
African river.


pretty and rather curious
animal, measuring about
sixteen inches in total
length. Its general shape
is round and flattish, and the
head is peculiarly flat, giving to
the animal a very remarkable
aspect. The fur is grayish-red,
wita a grizzled effect, produced
by the alternate chestnut and
gray color of each hair. The disposition
of the Prairie Dog is pleasant and sociable,
and the little creature is very susceptible
of domestication. It utters a short yelp-
ing sound, which bears some resemblance
to the bark of a young puppy. Even in
captivity it utters this short, impatient
yelp, which may generally be extorted
from the little animal by placing the hand
near the cage. Though so gentle and
affectionate to its keeper, it dislikes
strangers; and if their fingers approach
the bars of its house too closely, it barks
at the intruders like an angry squirrel,
and scratches smartly at their hands with
its sharp and powerful claws.
In spite of the formidable foes by which
it is attacked, and which take up their

depth, as one of them has been known to
absorb five barrels of water without being
filled. It is not impossible, however, that
there might have been a communication
with some other burrow, or that the soil
might have been loose and porous, and
suffered the water to soak through its
substance. They are dug in a sloping
direction, forming an angle of about
forty-five degrees with the horizon, and
after descending for five or six feet they
take a sudden turn, and rise gradually
upward. Thousands upon thousands of
these burrows are dug close to each other,
and honeycomb the ground to such an
extent that it is rendered quite unsafe for
The scene presented by one of these
" dog towns or "villages," as the assem-
blages of-burrows are called, is most curi.
ous, and well repays the trouble of ap-
proaching without alarming the cautious
little animals. Fortunately for the trav-
eller, the Prairie Dog is as inquisitive as
it is wary, and the indulgence of its
curiosity often costs the little creature its
life. Perched on the hillocks, which
mark its town, the Prairie Dog is able to
survey a wide extent of horizon, and as

residence in the very centre of its habi- soon as it sees an intruder, it gives a
stations, the Prairie Dog is an exceedingly sharp yelp of alarm, and dives into its
prolific animal, multiplying rapidly, and burrow, its little feet knocking together
extending its excavations to vast dis- with a ludicrous flourish as it disappears.
tances. In all directions a similar scene is enacted.
The burrows are of considerable dimen- Warned by the well-known cry, all the
sions, and evidently run to no small Prairie Dogs within reach repeat the call,



and leap into their burrows. Their
curiosity, however, is irrepressible, and
scarcely have their feet vanished from
sight when their heads are seen cau-
tiously protruded from the burrow, and
their inquisitive brown eyes sparkle as
they examine the cause of the disturbance.
A good marksman will take advantage
of this peculiarity, and, by aiming at the
eye, will make sure of killing the animal
on the spot. It is marvellously- tenacious
of life, and unless its head be almost
knocked to pieces, is sure to escape into

its home. A pea-rifle is almost useless in
shooting Prairie Dogs, a large bullet being
needed to produce instantaneous death.
The Prairie Dog has not the privilege
of possessing a home exclusively devoted
to its own use, for the burrowing owl and
the terrible rattlesnake take forcible pos-
session of the burrows, and devour the
inmates, thus procuring board and lodg-
ing at very easy rates. The rattlesnake
at all events does so, the bodies of young
Prairie Dogs having been found in its


:,-- -';HE pretty little

-: brown-coated, white-
S j,: bellied Dormouse is
'.'lit' l familiar to all who
have been fond of
'. keeping pets. There
-- s no difficulty in pre-
-I iL- '.ging the animal in health,
S : an. therefore it is a favorite
aim.:.Ii those who like to
'.- k l. animalss and do not like
1l trouble of looking after
1 tl.thL. It is, however, rather
-I!, j i an uninteresting animal
l-,v.~ kept in a cage, as it
1 -l.s during the greater
-'-'p--- part If the day, and thesight
of a round ball of brown fur
is not pa ticularly amusing.
When kept in confinement, it is obliged
to make for itself a very inartificial nest,
because it is deprived of proper materials
and a suitable locality. It does its best
with the soft hay and cotton wool which
are usually provided for it, but it cannot
do much with such materials. But when
in a state of liberty, and able to work in
its own manner, it is an admirable nest-
maker. As it passes the day in sleep, it

must needs have some retired domicile in
which it can be hidden from the many ene-
mies which might attack a sleeping animal.
One of these nests is depicted in the
illustration, and the specimen from which
it is drawn is similar to all other nests.
It was situated in a hedge about four feet
from the ground, and, as may be seen by
reference to the illustration, is placed in
the forking of a hazel branch, the smaller
twigs of which form a kind of palisade
round it. The substances of which it is
composed are of two kinds, namely, grass-
blades and leaves of trees, the former being
the chief material.
The entrance to the nest is so ingeni-
ously concealed that to find it is not a
very easy matter, even when its precise
position is known; and in order to show
the manner in which it is constructed
one of the Dormice is represented in the
act of drawing aside the grass-blades that
conceal it. The pendent pieces of grass
that are being held aside by the little
paw are so fixed that when released from
pressure they spring back over the aperture
and conceal it in a very effectual manner.
Although the Dormouse uses this aerial
house as a residence, it does not make use



of it as a treasury. Like many other the pangs of hunger. As the food of the
hibernating animals, it collects a store of Dormouse consists chiefly of seeds and
winter food, which generally consists of fruits, it could not find enough nourish.
nuts,grain and similarsubstances. These ment to support the body, and would,
treasures are carefullvhidden away in the therefore, perish of hunger but for the
vicinity of the nest, and in the illustration stores which instinct had taught it to
the animal is shown as eating a nut gather in the preceding autumn.
which it has taken from one of its store- In the illustration, the stag-beetle and
houses beneath the thick branch, the golden-crested wren have been intro.
Now, while the animal hibernates or duced to show the comparative size of the
dozes through the winter, the tissues of animals. The old Dormouse does not
the body undergo scarcely any change, fear the beetle, and tranquilly pursues his
even though no nutriment be taken. But meal, but the young one is rather dis-
as soon as the creature resumes its ordi- turbed at the intrusion of the big black in-
nary life, waste goes on, and it soon feels sect, and meditates a retreat into the nest.


HIS elegant little
creature is so tiny
that, when full-
grown, it weighs
scarcely more than
the sixth of an
ounce, whereas the
ordinary mouse
weighs almost an entire
ounce. Its color is a very
warm brown above, almost
amounting to chestnut, and
below it is pure white, the
line of demarcation being
strongly defined.
Mice always make very
comfortable nests for their
young, gathering together
great quantities of wool, rags, paper, hair,
moss, feathers, and similar substances,
and rolling them into a ball-like mass, in
the middle oi which the young are placed.
The Harvest-mouse, however, surpasses
all its neighbors in the beauty and ele-
gance of its home, which is not only con-
structed with remarkable neatness, but is
aspended above the ground in such a

manner as to entitle it to the name of a
true hanging nest. Generally, it is hung
to several stout grass-stems; sometimes
it is fastened to wheat-straws; and in one
case mentioned it was suspended from
the head of a thistle.
It is a very beautiful struct kre, being
made of very narrow grasses, at d woven
so carefully as to form a hollow globe,
rather larger than a base-ball, and very
nearly as round. How the little creature
contrives to form a hollow sphere with
thin walls is still a problem. It is an-
other problem how the young are placed
in it, and another how they are fed. The
walls are so thin that an object inside the
nest can be easily seen from any part of
the exterior; there is no opening what-
ever, and when the young are in the nest
they are packed so tightly that their
bodies press against the wall in every
direction. As there is no defined opening,
and as the walls are so loosely woven, it
is probable that the mother is able to push
her way between the meshes, and so to
arrange or feed her young.
The position of the nest, which is


67 "



always at some little height, presupposes As the food of the Harvest-mouse cmo
a climbing power in the architect. All sists greatly of insects-flies being esps
mice and rats are good climbers, being cial favorites-it is evident that great
able to scramble up perpendicular walls, agility is needed. In order to show the
provided that their surfaces be rough, and active character of the quadruped, one oi
even to lower themselves head downward the Harvest-mice is represented in the act
by clinging with the curved claws of their of climbing toward a fly, on which it is
hind feet. The Harvest-mouse is even about to pounce. Under such circum-
better constructed for climbing than the stances its leap is remarkably swift, and
ordinary mouse, inasmuch as its long and its aim is as accurate as that of the swal-
flexible toes can grasp the grass-stem as low. Even in captivity, it has been known
firmly as a monkey's paw holds a bough, to take flies from the hand of its owner,
and the long, slender tail is also partially and to leap along the wires of its cage as
prehensile, aiding the animal greatly in smartly as if it were trying to capture an
sustaining itself as it reaches forward. insect that could escape.


,. HE story of An- him. Androcles gave himself up for lost;
.. l drocles and the but the lion, instead of treating him as
''' lion is told by he expected, laid his right paw on his lap,
0 '. Dion Cassius, and with a low moan of pain licked his
'V a Roman his- hand. Androcles, after having recovered
_i torian of himself a little from his fright, plucked
undoubted up courage enough to look at the paw
t i veracity. An- which was laid on his lap, and observed
drocles was a large thorn in it. He immediately
the slave of a pulled it out, and by squeezing it very
noble Roman, gently made a great deal of poisonous
who was pro- blood and matter run out, which probably
a consul of Af- freed the lion from the great pain he was
ric, or Africa. He had been found in. The lion again licked his hand, and
guilty of a fault for which his, master with a brighter look in his eyes left him,
was going to put him to death, but soon returning, however, with a fawn he
he found an opportunity to escape, and had just killed. This he laid down at the
fled into the deserts of Numidia. As feet of his benefactor, and went off again
he was wandering among the barren in pursuit of more prey, not limping now
sands, and almost dead with heat and as he did when Androcles first saw him,
thirst, he saw a cave in a rock. Finding but bounding along as if his paw had
just at the entrance a stone to sit upon, never had anything the matter with it.
which was shaded from the fierce heat of Androcles, after having subsisted upon
the sun, he rested for some time. the fawn and other food which the lion
At length, to his great surprise, a huge brought him for several days, at length
overgrown lion stood before him, and got tired of this frightful solitude and
seeing him, immediately walked towards savage companionship, expecting that at

I-6-a :



any moment the lion might forget his act having been once kindly created, ha
of kindness and devour him. So he re- saved his benefactor's life.
solved to deliver himself into his master's The Lion is named the king of beasts,
hand and suffer the worst effects of his His strength is so prodigious that a
displeasure. single stroke of his paw is sufficient to
Now, his master, as was customary for break the back of a horse; and one sweep
the pro-consul of Africa, was at that time with his tail will throw a strong man to

collecting together a present of all the
largest Lions that could be found in the
country in order to send them to Rome,
that they might furnish a show for the
Roman people, and upon Androcles his
slave surrendering himself, he ordered
him to be carried to Rome as soon as the
Lions were sent there, and that for his
crime he should be exposed to fight one
of the Lions in the amphitheatre, for the

pleasure of the people.
Thrown to the Wild Beast.
This was all carried into effect.


drocles, after having been all alone in the
wilderness, with the probability of being
torn to pieces by Lions, was now before a
multitude of people, in the arena, looking
forward to the same dreadful death.
At length a huge Lion bounded out from
the place where he had been kept hungry
for the show. He was in great rage, and
in one or two great leaps he advanced
towards Androcles, who was in the centre
of the arena, with a short sword in his
hand. But suddenly the Lion stopped,
regarded him with a wistful look, and
letting his tail droop, crept quietly towards
him, and licked and caressed his feet.
Androcles, after a short pause of great
surprise, discovered that it was his old
Numidian friend, and immediately re-
hewed his acquaintance with him.
Their friendship was very surprising to
the excited beholders, who, upon hearing
an account of the whole affair from An-
drocles, prayed the Emperor to pardon
him. The Emperor did so, and gave into
his possession the Lion, who. through

the ground. A Lion at the Cape of Good
Hope was once seen to take a heifer in
his mouth; and though that animal's legs
dragged on the ground, yet he seemed to
carry her off with as much ease as a cat
does a rat; he likewise without difficulty
leaped over a broad ditch with her. Two
yeomen of the Cape of Good Hope being
on a hunting-party with several Hotten.
tots, they perceived a Lion dragging a
buffalo from the plain to a wood upon a
neighboring hill. They, however, soon
forced him to quit his prey, in order to
make a prize of it themselves; and found
that he had had the sagacity to take dut
the buffalo's large and unwieldy entrails,
in order to be able the more easily to
escape with the fleshy part of the carcass.
And as soon as he saw, from the skirts of
the wood, that the Hottentots had begun
to carry off the flesh to the wagons, he
frequently peeped out upon them, and
probably with no little mortification.
How he takes his Prey.
The Lion, unless provoked or extremely
hungry, does not attack any animal openly'
but, when roused by famine, he is said
to fear no danger, and to be repelled by
no resistance. The method in which he
takes his prey is, almost always, to spring
or throw himself upon it, with one vast
bound, from the place of his conceal.
ment: yet, if he chances to miss his leap,
he will not follow his prey any further;
but, as though he were ashamed, turning
round towards the place where he lay in
ambush, he slowly, and step by step,
measures the exact length between the

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