Front Cover
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 The cubhood of Wahb
 The days of his strength
 The waning
 Back Cover

Group Title: The biography of a grizzly : and 75 drawings
Title: The biography of a grizzly
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086965/00001
 Material Information
Title: The biography of a grizzly and 75 drawings
Physical Description: 167 p. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Seton, Ernest Thompson, 1860-1946
Century Company ( Publisher )
De Vinne Press ( Printer )
Publisher: Century Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: De Vinne Press
Publication Date: 1900
Subject: Grizzly bear -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1900
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Summary: The fortunes and misfortunes of a lone grizzly bear who learns early that his enemy is man and that he must fight for peace.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ernest Seton-Thompson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086965
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002551008
oclc - 01909585
notis - AMR7212
lccn - 00002158

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The cubhood of Wahb
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The days of his strength
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    The waning
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin Library
mmmmq3 F

75s Drawngs

aflnmy of Animals
mTels of Manitoba
Birds ofManit9ob.

Published by The Century Co.NewYork-AO-.19oor


Copyright, 1899, 1900, by
The Century Co.
Copyright, 1900, by
Ernest Seton-Thompson.




This Book is dedicated to the
memory of the days spent at
the Palette Ranch on the Gray-
bull, where from hunter, miner,
personal experience, and the
host himself, I gathered many
chapters of the History ofWahb.


In this Book the designs for title-
page, cover, and general make-
up, were done by Mrs. Grace
Gallatin Seton-Thompson.

List of
Full-Page Drawings

They all Rushed Under it like a Lot
of Little Pigs . .. 14
Like Children Playing 'Hands'. 18
He Stayed in the Tree till near Morn-
ing . . 32
A Savage Bobcat .Warned Him to
go Back ......... 44
Wahb Yelled and Jerked Back 50
He Struck one Fearful, Crushing Blow 74
Ain't He an Awful Size, Though? 90
Wahb Smashed His Skull ... 102
Causing the Pool to Overflow 113
He Deliberately Stood up on the Pine
Root . . 142
The Roachback Fled into the Woods. 150
He Paused a Moment at the Gate 165




i .. .





E was born over a
score of years ago,
away up in the wild-
est part of the wild
West, on the head of
the Little Piney, above where the
Palette Ranch is now.
His Motherwas just an ordinary
Silvertip, living the quiet life that
all Bears prefer, minding her own
business and doing her duty by her
family, asking no favors of any one
excepting to let her alone.

It was July before she took her I
remarkable family down the Little
Piney to the Graybull, and showed
them what strawberries were, and
where to find them.
Notwithstanding their Mother's
deep conviction, the cubs were not
remarkably big or bright; yet they
were a remarkable family, for there
were four of them, and it is not
often a Grizzly Mother can boast
of more than two.
The woolly-coated little crea-
tures were having a fine time, and
reveled in the lovely mountain sum-
mer and the abundance of good
things. Their Mother turned over
each log and flat stone they came
to, and the moment it was lifted
they all rushed under it like a lot


rk l fl-

I V.


P. NS44.


of little pigs to lick up the ants and
grubs there hidden.
It never once occurred to them
that Mammy's strength might fail
sometime, and let the great rock
drop just as they got under it; nor
would any one have thought so
that might have chanced to see
that huge arm and that shoulder
sliding about under the great yel-
low robe she wore. No, no; that
arm could never fail. The little
ones were quite right. So they
hustled and tumbled one another
at each fresh log in their haste to
be first, and squealed little squeals,
and growled little growls, as if each
was a pig, a pup, and a kitten all
rolled into one.
They were well acquainted with

the common little brown ants that
harbor under logs in the uplands,
but now they came for the first time
on one of the hills of the great, fat,
luscious Wood-ant, and they all
crowded around to lick up those
that ran out. But they soon found
that they were licking up more cac-
tus-prickles and sand than ants, till
their Mother said in Grizzly, "Let
me show you how."
She knocked off the top of the
hill, then laid her great paw flat on
it for a few moments, and as. the
angry ants swarmed on to it she
licked them up with one lick, and
got a good rich mouthful to crunch,
without a grain of sand or a cactus-
stinger in it. The cubs soon learned.
Each put up both his little brown
paws, so that there was a ring of
paws all around the ant-hill, and

7 --
jr i.


.- ^ *^ ; ^'


o. .. .1 -n

.. i'o ,^ \
, .: '. .) l'. '
; I L .. ^ I



there they sat, like children playing
'hands,' and each licked first the
right and then the left paw, or one
cuffed his brother's ears for licking
a paw that was not his own, till the
ant-hill was cleared out and they
were ready for a change.
Ants are sour food and made the
Bears thirsty, so the old one led
down to the river. After they had
drunk as much as they wanted, and
dabbled their feet, they walked
down the bank to a pool, where the
old one's keen eye caught sight of
a number of Buffalo-fish basking --
on the bottom. The waterwas very I
low, mere pebbly rapids between
these deep holes, so Mammy said
to the little ones:
"Now you all sit there on the
bank and learn something new."
First she went to the lower end

of the pool and stirred up a cloud .
of mud which hung in the still
water, and sent a long tail floating
like a curtain over the rapids just
below. Then she went quietly
round by land, and sprang into the
upper end of the pool with all the
noise she could. The fish had
crowded to that end, but this sud-
den attack sent them off in a panic,
and they dashed blindly into the
mud-cloud. Out of fifty fish there
is always a good chance of some
being fools, and half a dozen of
these dashed through the darkened
water into the current, and before
they knew it they were struggling
over the shingly shallow. The old
Grizzly jerked them out to the
bank, and the little ones rushed

noisily on these funny, short snakes
that could not get away, and gob-
bled and gorged till their little
bellies looked like balloons.
They had eaten so much now,
and the sun was so hot, that all
were quite sleepy. So the Mother-
bear led them to a quiet little nook,
and as soon as she lay down, though
they were puffing with heat, they
all snuggled around her and went
to sleep, with their little brown paws
curled in, and their little black noses
tucked into their wool as though it
were a very cold day.
After an hour or two they began
to yawn and stretch themselves,
except little Fuzz, the smallest;
she poked out her sharp nose for a
moment, then snuggled back be-

41, ;*

Y A; ""~


tween her Mother's great arms,
for she was a gentle, petted little
thing. The largest, the one after-
ward known as Wahb, sprawled
over on his back and began to
worry a root that stuck up, grum-
bling to himself as he chewed it,
or slapped it with his paw for not
staying where he wanted it. Pres-
ently Mooney, the mischief, began
tugging at Frizzle's ears, and got
his own well boxed. They clenched
for a tussle; then, locked in a
tight, little grizzly yellow ball, they
sprawled over and over on the grass,
and, before they knew it, down a
bank, and away out of sight toward
the river.
Almost immediately there was
an outcry of yells for help from the

: p,

little wrestlers. There could be no
S mistaking the real terror in their
voices. Some dreadful danger was
Up jumped the gentle Mother,
changed into a perfect demon, and
over the bank in time to see a huge
Range-bull make a deadly charge
at what he doubtless took for a yel-
low dog. In a moment all would
have been over with Frizzle, for he
had missed his footing on the bank;
but there was a thumping of heavy
feet, a roar that startled even the
great Bull, and, like a huge bound-
ing ball of yellow fur, Mother Griz-
zly was upon him. Him! the mon-
arch of the herd, the master of all
these plains, what had he to fear?
He bellowed his deep war-cry, and

charged to pin the old one to the j
bank; but as he bent to tear her
with his shining horns, she dealt
him a stunning blow, and before he
could recover she was on his shoul-
ders, raking the flesh from his ribs
with sweep after sweep of her ter-
rific claws.
The Bull roared with rage, and
plunged and reared, dragging Mo-
ther Grizzly with him; then, as he
hurled heavily off the slope, she let
go to save herself, and the Bull
rolled down into the river.
This was a lucky thing for him,
for the Grizzly did not want to fol-
low him there; so he waded out on
the other side, and bellowing with
fury and pain, slunk off to join the
herd to which he belonged.

/__~ ~ _~
_______ __
______ -=
- --- -- ---- --- ----------i--;
-------- --
\ ---- --
-- ~---
----------~ ___ --


_______ -- ---- ,
'------ -7~=


LD Colonel Pickett,
the cattle king, was

out riding the range.

The night before, he
had seen the new

moon descending over the white

cone of Pickett's Peak.
"I saw the last moon over Frank's

Peak," said he," and the luck was

against me for a month; now I

reckon it's my turn."

Next morning his luck began.

A letter came from Washington



;--- ---e


--- -


S granting his request that a post-
1 office be established at his ranch,
and contained the polite inquiry,
" "What name do you suggest for
S the new post-office?"
The Colonel took down his new
rifle, a 45-90 repeater. "May as
well," he said; "this is my month ";
and he rode up the Graybull to see
how the cattle were doing.
As he passed under the Rimrock
Mountain he heard a far-away roar-
ing as of Bulls fighting, but thought
nothing of it till he rounded the
point and saw on the flat below a
lot of his cattle pawingthe dust and
bellowing as they always do when
they smell the blood of one of their
number. He soon saw that the
great Bull,'the boss of the bunch,'

1 was covered with blood. His back
and sides were torn as by a Moun-
tain-lion, and his head was battered
as by another Bull.
Grizzly," growled the Colonel,
for he knew the mountains. He
quickly noted the general direction
of the Bull's back trail, then rode
toward a high bank that offered a
view. This was across the gravelly
ford of the Graybull, near the
mouth of the Piney. His horse
splashed through the cold water
and began jerkily to climb the other
As soon as the rider's head rose
above the bank his hand grabbed
the rifle, for there in full sight were
five Grizzly Bears, an old one and
four cubs.

Run for the woods," growled
the Mother Grizzly, for she knew
that men carried guns. Not that
she feared for herself; but the idea
of such things among her darlings
was too horrible to think of. She
set off to guide them to the timber-
tangle on the Lower Piney. But
an awful, murderous fusillade be-
.. gan.
ang! and Mother Grizzly felt
"-. a deadly pang.
'Bang! and poor little Fuzz rolled
over with a scream of pain and lay
With a roar of hate and fury
Mother Grizzly turned to attack
the enemy.
'Bang! and she fell paralyzed
and dying with a high shoulder



shot. And the three little cubs, not
knowing what to do, ran back to
their Mother.
'Bang! bang! and Mooney and
Frizzle sank in dying agonies be-
side her, and Wahb, terrified and
stupefied, ran in a circle about
them. Then, hardly knowing why,
he turned and dashed into the tim-
ber-tangle, and disappeared as a
last bang left him with a stinging
pain and a useless, broken hind

THAT is why the post-office was
called Four-Bears. The Colonel
seemed pleased with what he had
done; indeed, he told of it himself.
But away up in the woods of
Anderson's Peak that night a little

lame Grizzly might have been see-n
wandering, limping along, leaving
a bloody spot each time he tried to
set down his hind paw; whining
and whimpering, "Mother! Mo-
ther! Oh,Mother,where are you?"
for he was cold and hungry, and
had such a pain in his foot.. But
there was no Mother to come to
'-. him, and he dared not go back
where he had left her, so he wan-
dered aimlessly about among the
Then he smelled some strange
animal smell and heard heavy foot-
steps; and not knowing what else
to do, he climbed a tree. Presently
a band of great, long-necked, slim-
legged animals, taller than his Mo-
Sther, came by under the tree. He

'. w h e h. h

L :, ~ I ~



'r 1 < .

' ; .1

had seen such once before and had
not been afraid of them then, be-
causehe had been with his Mother.' -
But now he kept very quiet in the i
tree, and the big creatures stopped
picking the grass when they were
near him, and blowing their noses, /
ran out of sight.
He stayed in the tree till near
morning, and then he was so stiff \
with cold that he could scarcely V
get down. But the warm sun came
up, and he felt better as he sought
about for berries and ants, for he
was very hungry. Then he went
back to the Piney and put his
wounded foot in the ice-cold water.
He wanted to get back to the
mountains again, but still he felt he
must go to where he had left his

Mother and brothers. When the .
afternoon grew warm, he went
limping down the stream through
the timber, and down on the banks
of the Graybull till he came to the
place where yesterday they had
had the fish-feast; and he eagerly
crunched the heads and remains
that he found. But there was an
odd and horrid smell on the wind.
It frightened him, and as he went
down to where he last had seen his
Mother the smell grew worse. He
peeped out cautiously at the place,
and saw there a lot of Coyotes, tear-
ing at something. What it was he
did not know; but he saw no Mo-
ther, and the smell that sickened
and terrified him was worse than
ever, so he quietly turned back

Toward the timber-tangle of the
Lower Piney, and nevermore came
back to look for his lost family.
He wanted his Mother as much
as ever, but something told him it
was no use.
As cold night came down, he
missed her more and more again,
and he whimpered as he limped
along, a miserable, lonely, little,
motherless Bear-not lost in the
mountains, for he had no home to
seek, but so sick and lonely, and
with such a pain in his foot, and in
his stomach a craving for the drink
thatwould nevermore be his. That
night he found a hollow log, and
crawling in, he tried to dream that
his Mother's great, furry arms were
around him, and he snuffled him-
self to sleep.

it ,,i)



AHB had always
been a gloomy little
Bear; andthe string
of misfortunes that
came on him just as
his mind was forming made him
more than ever sullen and morose.
It seemed as though every one
were against him. Hetriedto keep
out of sight in the upper woods of
the Piney, seeking his food by day
and resting at night in the hollow
log. But one evening he found it
occupied by a Porcupine as big as

himself and as bad as a cactus-bush.
Wahb could do nothing with him.
He had to give up the log and seek
another nest.
One day he went down on the
Graybull flat to dig some roots that
his Mother had taught him were
good. But before he had well be-
gun, a grayish-looking animal came
out of a hole in the ground and
rushed at him, hissing and growl-
ing. Wabb did not know it was a
Badger, but he saw it was a fierce
animal as big as himself. He was
sick, and lame too,. so he limped
away and never stopped till he was
on a ridge in the next cation. Here
a Coyote saw him, and came bound-
ing after him, calling at the same
time to another to come and join
the fun. Wahb was near a tree, so


he scrambled up to the branches.
The Coyotes came bounding and
yelping below, but their noses told
them that this was a young Grizzly
they had chased, and they soon de-
cided that a young Grizzly in a tree
means a Mother Grizzly not far
away, and they had better let him
SAfter they had sneaked off Wahb
came down and returned to the
Piney. There was better feeding
on the Graybull, but every one
seemed against him there now that
his loving guardian.was gone, while
on the Piney he had peace at least
sometimes, and there were plenty
of trees that he could climb when
an enemy came.
His broken foot was a long time
in healing; indeed, it never got quite


well. The wound healed and the
soreness wore off, but it left a stiff-
ness that gave him a slight limp,
and the sole-balls grew together
quite unlike those of the other foot.
It particularly annoyed him when
he had to climb a tree or run fast
from his enemies; and of them he
found no end, though never once
did a friend cross his path. When
he lost his Mother he lost his best
and only friend. She would have
taught him much that he had to
learn by bitter experience, and
would have saved him from most
of the ills that befell him in his
cubhood-ills so many and so dire
that but for his native sturdiness
he never could have passed through
The pifions bore plentifully that

b A :-A- -44. -4L -L .

year, and the winds began to show-
er down the ripe, rich nuts. Life
was becoming a little easier for
Wahb. He was gaining in health
and strength, and the creatures he
daily met now let him alone. But
as he feasted on the pifions one
morning after a gale, a great Black-
bear came marching down the hill.
No one meets a friend in the
woods,' was a byword that Wahb
had learned already. He swung up
thenearesttree. Atfirst the Black-
bear was scared, for he smelled the
smell of Grizzly; but when he saw
it was only a cub, he took courage
and came growling at Wahb. He
could climb as well as the little
Grizzly, or better, and high as
Wahb went, the Blackbear fol-

lowed, and when Wahb got out on
the smallest and highest twig that
^-"' would carry him, the Blackbear
cruelly shook him off, so that he
was thrown to the ground, bruised
and shaken and half-stunned. He
limped away moaning, and the only
thing that kept the Blackbear from
following him up and perhaps kill-
ing him was the fear that the old
Grizzly might be about. So Wahb
was driven away down the creek
from all the good pinion woods.
There was not much food on the
Graybull now. The berries were
nearly all gone; there were no fish
or ants to get, and Wahb, hurt,
lonely, and miserable, wandered
on and on, till he was away down
toward the Meteetsee.

A Coyote came bounding and -
barking through the sage-brush
after him. Wahb tried to run, but
it was no use; the Coyote was soon
up with him. Then with a sudden
rush of desperate courage Wahb
turned and charged his foe. The
astonished Coyote gave a scared
yowl or two, and fled with his tail
between his legs. Thus Wahb
learned that war is the price of
But the forage was poor here;
there were too many cattle; and
Wahb was making for a far-away
pinion woods in the Meteetsee
Cafion when he saw a man, just
like the one he had seen on that
day of sorrow. At the same mo-
ment he heard a bang, and some

'... --**. k
a je .


P *,;



sage-brush rattled and fell just
over his back. All the dreadful
smells and dangers of that day
came back to his memory, and
Wahb ran as he never had run be-
He soon got into a gully and fol-
lowed it into the cation. An open-
ing between two cliffs seemed to
offer shelter, but as he ran toward
it a Range-cow came trotting be-
tween, shaking her head at him and
snorting threats against his life.
He leaped aside upon a long log
that led up a bank, but at once a
savage Bobcat appeared on the
other end and warned him to go
back. It was no time to quarrel.
Bitterly Wahb felt that the world
was full of enemies. But he turned

A', /

and scrambled up a rocky bank IB
into the pifion woods that border
the benches of the Meteetsee.
The Pine Squirrels seemed to
resent his coming, and barked furi-
ously. They were thinking about
their pifion-nuts. They knew that
this Bear was coming to steal their
provisions, and they followed him
overhead to scold and abuse him,
with such an outcry that an enemy
might have followed him by their
noise, which was exactly what they
There was no one following, but
it made Wahb uneasy and nervous.
So he kept on till he reached the
timber line, where both food and
foes were scarce, and here on the
edge of the Mountain-sheep land
at last he got a chance to rest.



AHB never was
sweet-tempered like
his baby sister, and
the persecutions by
his numerous foes
were making him more and more
sour. Why could not they let him
alone in his misery? Why was
every one against him? If only
he had his Mother back! If he
could only have killed that Black-
bear that had driven him from his
woods! It did not occur to him
that some day he himself would be

big. And that spiteful Bobcat, that
took advantage of him; and the
man that had tried to kill him. He
did not forget any of them, and
he hated them all.
Wahb found his new range fairly
good, because it was a good nut
year. He learned just what the
Squirrels feared he would, for his
nose directed him to the little gran-
aries where they had stored up
great quantities of nuts for winter's
use. It was hard on the Squirrels,
but it was good luck for Wahb, for
the nuts were delicious food. And
when the days shortened and the
nights began to be frosty, he had
grown fat and well-favored.
He traveled over all parts of the
caiion now, living mostly in the

? .-^: 4 **-;:i?;:*.

*. *. .-,;-* W

.-b ^ as


~~; r~ r?:.. v
; Li.

.,- ~ .. .;.
; ~~d~Qt;~C
- ..

higher woods, but coming down at
times to forage almost as far as the
river. One night as he wandered
by the deep water a peculiar smell
reached his nose. It was quite
pleasant, so he followed it up to the
water's edge. .It seemed to come
from a sunken log. As he reached
over toward this, there was a sud-
den clank, and one of his paws was
caught in a strong, steel Beaver-
Wahb yelled and jerked back
with all his strength, and tore up
the stake that held the trap. He
tried to shake it off, then ran away
through the bushes trailing it. He
tore at it with his teeth; but there
it hung, quiet, cold, strong, and im-
movable. Every little while he

tore at it with his teeth and claws,
or beat it against the ground. He
buried it in the earth,then climbed
a low tree, hoping to leave it be-
hind; but still it clung, biting into
his flesh. He made for his own
woods, and sat down to try to
puzzle it out. He did not know
what it was, but his little green-
brown eyes glared with a mixture
of pain, fright, and fury as he tried
to understand his new enemy.
He lay down under the bushes,
and, intent on deliberately crushing
the thing, he held it down with one
paw while he tightened his teeth
on the other end, and bearing down
as it slid away, the trap jaws opened
and the foot was free. It was mere
chance, of course, that led him to

L squeeze both springs at once. He
!- did not understand it, but he did
not forget it, and he got these not
very clear ideas: There is a dread-
ful little enemy that hides by the
water and waits for one. It has an
odd smell. It bites one's paws and
is too hard for one to bite. But it
can be got off by hard squeezing.'
For a week or more the little
Grizzly had another sore paw, but
it was not very bad if he did not do
any climbing.
It was now the season when the
Elk were bugling on the mountains.
Wahb heard them all night, and
once or twice had to climb to get
away from one of the big-antlered
Bulls. Itwas also the season when
the trappers were coming into the

mountains, and the Wild Geese
were honking overhead. There
were several quite new smells in
the woods, too. Wahb followed
one of these up, and it led to a
place where were some small logs
piled together; then, mixed with
the smell that had drawn him, was
one that he hated-he remem-
bered it from the time when he had
lost his Mother. He sniffed about
carefully, for it was not very strong,
and learned that this hateful smell
was on a log in front, and the
sweet smell that made his mouth
water was under some brush be-
hind. So he went around, pulled
away the brush till he got the prize,
a piece of meat, and as he grabbed
it, the log in front went down with
a heavy chock.

5 It made Wahb jump; but he got
away all right with the meat and
some new ideas, and with one old
idea made stronger, and that was,
When that hateful smell is around
it always means trouble.'
As the weather grew colder,
Wahb became very sleepy; he
slept all daywhen itwas frosty. He
had not any fixed place to sleep in;
he knew a number of dry ledges
for sunny weather, and one or two
sheltered nooks for stormy days.
He had a very comfortable nest un-
der a root, and one day, as it began
to blow and snow, he crawled into
this and curled up to sleep. The
storm howled without. The snow
fell deeper and deeper. It draped
the pine-trees till they bowed, then
shook themselves clearto be draped



anew. It drifted over the moun-
tains and poured down the funnel-
like ravines, blowing off the peaks
and ridges, and filling up the hol-
lows level with their rims. It piled
up over Wahb's den, shutting out
the cold of the winter, shutting out
itself: and Wahb slept and slept.

s -
,i"J1' ;'' -
. "' /^ fZ 4



E slept all winter with-
out waking, for such
is the way of Bears,
and yet when spring
came and aroused
him, he knew that he had been
asleep a long time. He was not
much changed-he had grown in
height, and yet was but little thin-
ner. He was now very hungry, and
forcing his way through the deep
drift that still lay over his den, he
set out to look for food.

There were no pifion-nuts to get, I
and no berries or ants; but Wahb's
nose led him away up the cation to
the body of a winter-killed Elk,
where he had a fine feast, and then
Buried the rest for future use.
Day after day he came back till
he had finished it. Food was very
scarce for a couple of months, and
after the Elk was eaten, Wahb lost
all the fat he had when he awoke.
One day he climbed over the Di-
vide into the Warhouse Valley. It
was warm and sunny there, vege-
tation was well advanced, and he
S found good forage. He wandered
down toward the thick timber, and
soon smelled the smell of another
Grizzly. This grew stronger and
S led him to a single tree by a Bear-
trail. Wahb reared up on his hind


-ptf". t

[, feet to smell this tree. It was strong
59 of Bear, and was plastered with
mud and Grizzly hair far higher
than he could reach; and Wahb
knew that it must have been a very
large Bear that had rubbed him-
self there. He felt uneasy. He
used to long to meet one of his own
kind, yet now that there was a
chance of it he was filled with
No one had shown him anything
but hatred in his lonely, unprotected
life, and he could not tell what this
older Bear might do. As he stood
in doubt, he caught sight of the old
Grizzly himself slouching along a
hillside, stopping from time to time
to dig up the quamash-roots and
wild turnips.
He was a monster. Wahbinstinc-

tively distrusted him, and sneaked
away through the woods and up a
rocky bluff where he could watch.
Then the big fellow came on
Wahb's track and rumbled a deep
growl of anger; he followed the
trail to the tree, and rearing up, he
tore the bark with his claws, far
above where Wahb had reached.
Then he strode rapidly along
Wahb's trail. But the cubhad seen
enough. He fled back over the Di-
vide into the Meteetsee Cafion, and
realized in his dim, bearish way
that he was at peace there because
the Bear-forage was so poor.
As the summer came on, his
coat was shed. His skin got very
itchy, and he found pleasure in
rolling in the mud and scraping his

_ back against some convenient tree.
He never climbed now: his claws
were too long, and his arms,though
growing big and strong, were losing
that suppleness of wrist that makes
cub Grizzlies and all Blackbears
great climbers. He now dropped
naturally into the Bear habit of
seeing how high he could reach
with his nose on the rubbing-post,
whenever he was near one.
He may not have noticed it, yet
each time he came to a post, after
a week or two away, he could reach -
higher, for Wahb was growing fast
and coming into his strength.
Sometimes he was at one end of '' '.?:-
the country that he felt was his,
and sometimes at another, but he
had frequent use for the rubbing-

tree, and thus it was that his range 6
was mapped out by posts with his
own mark on them.
One day late in summer he
sighted a stranger on his land, a
glossy Blackbear, and he felt furi-
ous against the interloper. As the
Blackbear came nearer Wahb no-
ticed the tan-red face, the white
spot on his breast, and then the bit
out of his ear, and last of all the
wind brought a whiff. There could
be no further doubt; itwas thevery
smell: this was the black coward
that had chased him down the
Piney long ago. But how he had
shrunken! Before, he had looked
like a giant; now Wahb felt he
could crush him with one paw. Re-
venge is sweet, Wahb felt, though

he did not exactly say it, and he
went for that red-nosed Bear. But
the Black one went up a small tree
like a Squirrel. Wahb tried to fol-
low as the other once followed
him, but somehow he could not.
He did not seem to know how to
take hold now, and after a while he
gave it up and went away, although
the Blackbear brought him back
more than once by coughing in de-
rision. Later on that day, when
the Grizzly passed again, the red-
nosed one had gone.
As the summer waned, the up-
per forage-grounds began to give
out, and Wahb ventured down to
the Lower Meteetsee one night to
explore. There was a pleasant
odor on the breeze, and following




it up, Wahb came to the carcass
of a Steer. A good distance away
from it were some tiny Coyotes,
mere dwarfs compared with those
he remembered. Right by the car-
cass was another that jumped
about in the moonlight in a fool-
ish way. For some strange reason
it seemed unable to get away.
Wahb's old hatred broke out. He
rushed up. In a flash the Coyote
bit him several times before, with
one blow of that great paw, Wahb
smashed him into a limp, furry rag;
then broke in all his ribs with a
crunch or two of his jaws. Oh,
but it was good to feel the hot,
bloody juices oozing between his
The Coyote was caught in a


'C' ., !


trap. Wahb hated the smell of the ;,.
iron, so he went to the other side -. .
of the carcass, where it was not so. .
strong, and had eaten but little be-
fore clank, and his foot was caught '".
in a Wolf-trap that he had not seen.
But he remembered that he had
once before been caught and had
escaped by squeezing the trap.
He set a hind foot on each spring
and pressed till the trap opened
and released his paw. About the
carcass was the smell that he knew
stood for man, so he left it and wan-
dered down-stream; but more and
more often he got whiffs of that hor-
rible odor, so he turned and went
back to his quiet piiion benches.

**-.-'i i









AHB'S third sum-
mer had brought
him the stature of
a large-sized Bear,
though not nearly
the bulk and power that in time
were his. He was very light-col-
ored now, and this was why Spah-
wat, a Shoshone Indian who more
than once hunted him, called him
the Whitebear, or Wahb.
Spahwat was a good hunter, and
as soon as he saw the rubbing-tree

on the Upper Meteetsee he knew
that he was on the range of a big
Grizzly. He bushwhacked the
whole valley, and spent many days
before he found a chance to shoot;
then Wahb got a stinging flesh-
wound in the shoulder. He growled
horribly, but it had seemed to take
the fight out of him; he scrambled
up the valley and over the lower
hills till he reached a quiet haunt,
where he lay down.
His knowledge of healing was
wholly instinctive. He licked the
wound and all around it, and sought
to be quiet. The licking removed
the dirt, and by massage reduced
the inflammation, and it plastered
the hair down as a sort of dressing
over the wound to keep out the

j air, dirt, and microbes. There
S could be no better treatment.
But the Indian was on his trail.
Before long the smell warned Wahb
that a foe was coming, so he quiet-
ly climbed farther up the moun-
tain to another resting-place. But
again he sensed the Indian's ap-
proach, and made off. Several
times this happened, and at length
there was a second shot and an-
other galling wound. Wahb was
furious now. There was nothing
that really frightened him but that
horrible odor of man, iron,and guns,
that he remembered from the day
when he lost his Mother; but now
all fear of these left him. He
heaved painfully up the mountain
again, and along under a six-foot

ledge, then up and back to the top I.B
of the bank, where he lay flat. On
came the Indian, armed with knife
and gun; deftly, swiftly keeping on
the trail; gloating joyfully over each
bloody print that meant such an-
guish to the hunted Bear. Straight
up the slide of broken rock he
came, where Wahb, ferocious with
pain, was waiting on the ledge. On
sneaked the dogged hunter; his
eye still scanned the bloody slots
or swept the woods ahead, but
never was raised to glance above
the ledge. And Wahb, as he saw
this shape of Death relentless on
his track, and smelled the hated
smell, poised his bulk at heavy
cost upon his quivering, mangled
arm, there held until the proper

I. 1

T '' :**'*


instant came, then to his sound
arm's matchless native force he
added all the weight of desperate
hate as down he struck one fearful,
crushing blow. The Indian sank
without a cry, and then dropped
out of sight. Wahb rose, and
sought again a quiet nook where
he might nurse his wounds. Thus
he learned that one must fight for
peace; for he never saw that In-
dian again, and he had time to rest
and recover.




before, except that
each winter Wahb
slept less soundly,
and each spring he
came out earlier and was a bigger
Grizzly, with fewer enemies that
dared to face him. When his sixth
year came he was a very big, strong,
sullen Bear, with neither friend-
ship nor love in his life since that
evil day on the Lower Piney.
No one ever heard of Wahb's

mate. No one believes that he ever
had one. Thelove-seasonof Bears
came and went year after year, but
left him alone in his prime as he
had been in his youth. It is not
good for a Bear to be alone; it is
bad for him in every way. His ha-
bitual moroseness grew with his
strength, and any one chancing to
meet him now would have called
him a dangerous Grizzly.
He had lived in the Meteetsee
Valley since first he betook him-
self there, and his character had
been shaped by many little adven-
tures with traps and his wild rivals
of the mountains. But there was
none of the latter that henow feared,
and he knew enough to avoid the
first, for that penetrating odor of

man and iron was a never-failing
warning, especially after an experi-
ence which befell him in his sixth
His ever-reliable nose told him
that there was a dead Elk down
among the timber.
He went up the wind, and there,
sure enough, was the great de-
licious carcass, already torn open
at the very best place. True, there
was that terrible man-and-iron
taint, but it was so slight and the
feast so tempting that after circling
around and inspecting the carcass ..
from his eight feet of stature, as he
stood erect, he went cautiously for-
ward, and at once was caught by
his left paw in an enormous Bear-
trap. He roared with pain and

f ^ % ^

slashed about in a fury. But this
was no Beaver-trap; it was a big
forty-pound Bear-catcher, and he
was surely caught.
Wahb fairly foamed with rage,
and madly grit his teeth upon the
trap. Then he remembered his
former experiences. He placedthe
trap between his hind legs, with a
hind paw on each spring, and
pressed down with all his weight.
Butitwasnot enough. Hedragged
off the trap and its clog, and went
clanking up the mountain. Again
and again he tried to free his foot,
but in vain, till he came where a
great trunk crossed the trail a few
feet from the ground. By chance,
or happy thought, he reared again
under this and made anewattempt.

A C{2

With a hind foot on each spring
and his mighty shoulders under-
neath the tree, he bore down
with his titanic strength: the great
steel springs gave way, the jaws
Relaxed, and he tore out his foot.
So Wahb was free again, though
he left behind a great toe which
,'- had been nearly severed by the
f. irst snap of the steel.
AgainWahb had a painful wound
to nurse, and as he was a left-
' handed Bear,-that is, when he
wished to turn a rock over he stood
Son the right paw and turned with
the left,-one result of this dis-
Sablement was to rob him for a time
of all those dainty foods that are
found under rocks or logs. The
wound healed at last, but he never

forgot that experience, and thence-
forth the pungent smell of man and
iron, even without the gun smell,
never failed to enrage him.
Many experiences had taught
him that it is better to run if he
only smelled the hunter or heard
him far away, but to fight despe-
ratelyif the man was close at hand.
And the cow-boys soon came to
know that the Upper Meteetsee
was the range of a Bear that was
better let alone.



NE day after a long
absence Wahb came
into the lower part
of his range, and saw
to his surprise one
of the wooden dens that men make
forthemselves. Ashecamearound
to get the wind, he sensed the taint
that never failed to infuriate him
now, and a moment later he heard
a loud bangand felt a stinging shock
in his left hind leg, the old stiff leg.
He wheeled about, in time to see a
man running toward the new-made

shanty. Had the shot been in his
shoulder Wahb would have been
helpless, but it was not.
MIGHTY arms that could toss pine
logs like broomsticks, paws that
with onetap could crush thebiggest
Bull upon the range, claws that
could tear huge slabs of rock from
the mountain-side- what was even
the deadly rifle to them!
WHEN the man's partner came
home that night he found him on
the reddened shanty floor. The
bloody trail from outside and a
shaky, scribbled note on the back
of a paper novel told the tale.
It was Wahb done it. I seen him by the
spring and wounded him. I tried to git on
the shanty, but he ketched me. My God,
how I sufferI JACK.

-J_- r

n a

It was all fair. The man had
invaded the Bear's country, had
tried to take the Bear's life, and
had lost his own. But Jack's part-
Sner swore he would kill that Bear.
Hetook up the trail and followed
it up the cation, and there bush-
whacked and hunted day after day.
"' He put out baits and traps, and at
length one day he heard a crash,
clatter, thump, and a huge rock
bounded down a bank into a wood,
scaring out a couple of deer that
floated away like thistle-down.
Miller thought at first that it was a
land-slide; but he soon knew that
it was Wahb that had rolled the
boulder over merely for the sake
of two or three ants beneath it.
f The wind had not betrayed him,

,- 7



JL so on peering through the bush
S Miller saw the great Bear as he
fed, favoring his left hind leg and
growling sullenly to himself at a
fresh twinge of pain. Miller stea-
died himself, and thought, "Here
goes a finisher or a dead miss."
He gave a sharp whistle, the Bear
stopped every move, and, as he
stood with ears acock, the man
fired at his head.
But at that moment the great
shaggy head moved, only an infuri-
ating scratch was given, the smoke
betrayed the man's place, and the
Grizzly made savage, three-legged
haste to catch his foe.
Miller dropped his gun and
swung lightly into a tree, the only
large one near. Wahb raged in

vain against the trunk. He tore B
off the bark with his teeth and
claws; but Miller was safe beyond
his reach. For fullyfour hours the
Grizzly watched, then gave it up,
and slowly went off into the bushes
till lost to view. Miller watched
him from the tree, and afterward
waited nearly an hour to be sure
that the Bear was gone. He then
slipped to the ground, got his gun,
and set out for camp. But Wahb
was cunning; he had only seemed
to go away, and then had sneaked
back quietly to watch. As soon as
the man was away from the tree,
too far to return, Wahb dashed
after him. In spite of his wounds
the Bear could move the faster.
Within a quarter of a mile-well,

Wahb did just what the man had
sworn to do to him.
Long afterward his friends found
the gun and enough to tell the tale.
The claim-shanty on the Me-
teetsee fell to pieces. It never
again was used, for no man cared
to enter a country that had but few
allurements to offset its evident
curse of ill luck, and where such a
terrible Grizzly was always on the

*<*<(. ~ f "

HEN they found
good gold on the
f Upper Meteetsee.
o Miners came in
pairs and wandered
through the peaks, rooting up
the ground and spoiling the little
streams-grizzly old men mostly,
that had lived their lives in the
mountain and were themselves
slowly turning into Grizzly Bears;
digging and grubbing everywhere,
not for good, wholesome roots, but








a ~:; i-~i



for that shiny yellow sand that they
could not eat; living the lives of
Grizzlies, asking nothing but to be
let alone to dig.
They seemed to understand
GrizzlyWahb. Thefirsttime they
met, Wahb reared up on his hind
legs, and the wicked green light-
nings began to twinkle in his small
eyes. The elder man said to his
"Let him alone, and he won't
bother you."
"Ain'the an awful size, though?"
replied the other, nervously.
Wahb was about to charge, but
something held him back-a some-
thing that had no reference to his
senses, that was felt only when
they were still; a something that

"1 in Bear and Man is wiser than his J
/ wisdom, and that points the way
f at every doubtful fork in the dim
and winding trail.
Of course Wahb did not under-
Sstand what the men said, but he
7did feel that there was something
different here. The smell of man
and iron was there, but not of that
maddening kind, and he missed
the pungent odor that even yet
brought back the dark days of his
The men did not move, so Wahb
rumbled a subterranean growl,
/ dropped down on his four feet, and
went on.
Late the same year Wahb ran
across the red-nosed Blackbear.
How that Bear did keep on shrink-

0 ing! Wahb could have hurled him
Q3I across the Graybull with one tap
But the Blackbear did not mean
to let him try. He hustled his fat,
podgy body up a tree at a rate that
made him puff. Wahb reached up
nine feet from the ground, and with
one rake of his huge claws tore
off the bark clear to the shining
white wood and down nearly to
the ground; and the Blackbear
shivered and whimpered with ter-
ror as the scraping of those awful
claws ran up the trunk and up his
spine in a way that was horribly
What was it that the sight of
that Blackbear stirred in Wahb?
Was it memories of the Upper



Piney, long forgotten; thoughts of
a woodland rich in food?
Wahb left him trembling up there
as high as he could get, and with-
out any very clear purpose swung
along the upper benches of the
Meteetsee down to the Graybull,
around the foot of the Rimrock
Mountain; on, till hours later he
found himself in the timber-tangle
S of the Lower Piney, and among
the berries and ants of the old
He had forgotten what a fine
land the Piney was: plenty of food,
no miners to spoil the streams, no
hunters to keep an eye on, and no
mosquitos or flies, but plenty of
open, sunny glades and sheltering
woods, backed up by high, straight
cliffs to turn the colder winds.



1 There were, moreover, no resi-
dent Grizzlies, no signs even of
passing travelers, and the Black-
bears that were in possession did
not count.
Wahb was well pleased. He
rolled his vast bulk in an old Buf-
falo-wallow, and rearing up against
a treewhere the Piney Cafion quits
the Graybull Cafion, he left on it
his mark fully eight feet from the
In the days that followed he
wandered farther and farther up
among the rugged spurs of the
Shoshones, and took possession
as he went. He found the sign-
boards of several Blackbears, and
if they were small dead trees he
sent them crashing to earth with a
drive of his giant paw. If they


were green, he put his own mark s
over the other mark, and made it
clearer by slashing the bark with
the great pickaxes that grew on
his toes,
The Upper Piney had so long
been a Blackbear range that the
Squirrels had ceased storing their
harvest in hollow trees, and were
now using the spaces under flat
rocks, where the Blackbears could
not get at them; so Wahb found
this a land of plenty: every fourth
or fifth rock in the pine woods was
,the roof of a Squirrel or Chip-
munk granary, and when he turned
it over, if the little owner were
there, Wahb did not scruple to
flatten him with his paw and de-
vour him as an agreeable relish to
his own provisions.

B And wherever Wahb went he
put up his sign-board:
Trespassers beware!
It was written on the trees as
high up as he could reach, and
every one that came by understood
that the scent of it and the hair in
it were those of the great Grizzly
If his Mother had lived to train
him, Wahb would have known that
a good range in spring may be a
bad one in summer. Wahb found
out by years of experience that a
total change with the seasons is
best. In the early spring the Cat-
tle and Elk ranges, with their win-
ter-killed carcasses, offer a boun-
tiful feast. In early summer the
best forage is on the warm hill-

'~t-W'-sT""- t3" -" wP -Sf'
*- \ \j;

sides where the quamash and the B
Indian turnip grow. In late sum- Q
mer the berry-bushes along the
river-flat are laden with fruit, and
in autumn the pine woods gave
good chances to fatten for the win-
ter. So he added to his range each
year. He not only cleared out the
Blackbears from the Piney and the
Meteetsee, but he went over the
Divide and killed that old fellow
that had once chased him out of
the Warhouse Valley. And, more
than that, he held what he had
won, for he broke up a camp of
tenderfeet that were looking for a
ranch location on the Middle Me-
teetsee; he stampeded their horses,
and made general smash of the
camp. And so all the animals, in-

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs