Title Page
 Description and operating...
 First ventures
 Handwritten notes

Title: Green Hills enterprises concept paper
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086901/00001
 Material Information
Title: Green Hills enterprises concept paper
Physical Description: Archival
Creator: Chaney, Elsa M.
Lewis, Martha W.
Publisher: Green Hills Enterprises
Central Region Ministry of Agricultura, Jamaica
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica -- Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086901
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Description and operating principles
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    First ventures
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Handwritten notes
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text






Prepared for the Central Region
Ministry of Agriculture
Dr. Elsa M. Chaney, in collaboration
with Mrs. Martha W. Lewis
Consultants in Agro-Craft


c ~'"


Name: Green Hills Enterprises

Sponsor: Central Region-MOA and /II Integrated Rural
SDevelopment Project

S Purpose: A Women in Development/project) to provide training, tech-
nical asistance, credit and marketing advice to a series
Sof small enterprises related to cottage industries, crafts and
tourism promotion in central Jamaica. The effort builds upon and
extends several initiatives undertaken during 1979-82 by the
Women's Component of the II IRDP.

SParticipants/ Farm women of the central region; rural young men
Beneficiaries: and women, especially recent school leavers; rural

children; women living in small towns and villages.

Rationale: The Government of Jamaica currently is sponsoring efforts
to upgrade rural villages; to improve the quality of life
of small farms in the surrounding areas, and to simulate private ini-
tiatives that create employment and income-earning opportunities in
Rural areas.- (omen in Jamaica's central region, many of whom are
L\ .'Teconomically responsible for their families] eed special assistance
Sand encouragement in devising ways to supplement their farm income]
or, in the case of the landless, to earn their livelihood. \Green
Hills Enterprises)would assist rural women to beonmp entrepreneurs in
small business enterprises that would provide training, income and
employment for themselves and others; improve the quality of life
Sin the towns and villages of central Jamaica, and attract a tourist
clientele who want to see more of Jamaica than the tourist hotels
and beaches of the North Coast.

Background: People in the central region, as indeed in all of Jamaica,
lack sufficient opportunity to earn income, either in
farming or in off-farm employment. In a base line data survey carried
out before the II IRDP began (Ministry of Agriculture, 7), er


Green Hills Enterprises Page 2

capital income of the potential participants was estimated to be, at
that time, less than J$ 200 per year. A later survey (Ministry of
Agriculture, 1979) confirms that income earned from farming is very
low: only 30 percent of farmers in the IRDP grossed more than J$ 1500
per year, and about one-quarter of all farmers earned less than
J$ 300 per year in gross value of product.

The same 1979 survey also reports something about women who
farm in the IRDP region. In the project area, 19 percent of the farms
are operated by women. Their holdings are, however, significantly
smaller than those of male farmers. About 25 percent of the women
Q farmers work less than 1 acre of land, and only 20 percent of the
2' women farm operators have more than 5 acres. In contrast, only 5
.7 >(. percent of male farmers have less than 1-acre farms, while 40 per-
cent farm 5 acres or more. Naturally, with less land, women as a
t group earn significantly less than men from farming.

Women in central Jamaica thus need and want to earn money.
Outside of farming, however, employment opportunity in the IRDP area
(and there is no reason to suppose that the situation is any different
in the rest of the central region) is extremely restricted. According
to the 1979 project survey, only 13 percent of the reporting farmers
earned money_off their own farms -- 5 percent worked on other farms as
labourers, and only 8 percent had work that was non-agricultural.
Unfortunately, the survey does not give any breakdown of off-farm
employment by household members, and thus we do not know whether it
was the men, women or children who earned off-farm income. In any
event, earnings are minimal; of the small number who found employment
off their own farms, only 30 percent earned more than J$ 400 per year
from such work.

Jamaican rural women are.not alone in their need to earn
income. A near-universal in the emerging consensus among Third World
women is their desire for projects that can equip them to earn cash.
If there is one over-riding theme among women when they are asked to
define their own needs, it is that women's traditional resources bases
are eroding, while their responsibilities continue to increase. In

Green Hills Enterprises Page 3

many world areas, including Jamaica, men are forced to seek off-farm/
employment in the urban areas, and often in other countries. They
leave women and children behind, to cultivate both food and cash
crops, as well as to carry on their usual domestic tasks. If remit-
tances are slow in coming, or cease, the adult woman becomes economi-
cally responsible for young and old; she must find the means to provide
food, clothing, school fees and supplies, medical expenses, and all AiJ
the other things her family needs. Thus, ways to earn cash income
become a high priority.

Description and Green Hills Enterprises would operate on a
Operating Principles: philosophy that might best be termed authenti-
city. Jamaica has a rich, many-layered cultural
heritage; for central Jamaica, this heritage is not better embodied
than in Jamaican poet Claude McKay's~reminiscenses of his boyhood in ,,
a small hillside village near Frankfield: My Green Hills of Jamaica.
In this small town at the turn of the century, the children may have
been barefoot, but the village schoolmasters promoted literature and
classical music, and aspirations of rural youth were high. The pic-
ture McKay paints of a noble and hardworking rural folk, creating a
rich culture from the abundance of the earth, is one that Green Hills
Enterprises would seek to foster and to share with visitors to

Green Hills Enterprises would, therefore, seek to recapture
rural values and outlook, as well as to revive and reenforce rural
skills. The craft enterprises, for example, would emphasize re-
learning from the fast-disappearing rural craftsmen and women the tech-
niques necessary to produce such articles of daily use as the(donkey
hamper; the large, sturdy market basket in which farmers transport
their produce, and the gourd water jar that has all but disappeared
from daily use. To the extent possible, craft endeavourss would
manufacture socially-necessary products for daily use from local raw
materials, in accord with the notion that beautiful, sturdily-made
items, where the form has been perfected for generations and follows
from function, would not only fill local needs, but also be attractive
*At present, most farmers use sacks to carry their produce,
and much of it is bruised and spoiled before it reaches the market.


Green Hills Enterprises Page 4

to tourists.

The cottage industries would be built around learning again
to produce the old-time Jamaican delicacies such as ginger-coconut-
drops, grater cake, as well as dried fruits and fruit leathers --
using agricultural products that currently often go to waste. All
agro-craft enterprises would emphasize the use of agricultural and
raw materials that grow locally: cultivated produce, as well as the
grasses, reeds, barks and leaves that grow in the wild. Sales efforts
of all crafts would be directed, first of all, to the local market.

In addition to local crafts, rural male youth would train as
"village artisans" to produce the appropriate technology that could
ease the burdens and increase the efficiency of the farm household,
and especially of the farm wife, and free her for income-earning ac-
tivity. Efficient stoves, catchment schemes for capturing rainwater
from roofs, sink tables and food storage facilities would be among
the artifacts they would learn to build, and from which they could
earn a supplemental income to farming, or become full-time artisans.
In particular, they would extend the use of solar-drying technology
already introduced by the Women's Component of II IRDP, by building
economical and efficient solar dryers.

The tourist ventures would feature family-to-family encoun-
ters, where visitors are received into the homes of rural Jamaicans
and have a chance to participate in farm and community activities, as
well as to experience the striking natural beauty of the region's
green mountains and fruitful valleys. We believe that, in keeping
with a world-wide trend, there is a small but growing number of
tourists who want to see more of Jamaica than the tourist hotels and
beaches. It is to this group, who would like to experience the "real
Jamaica," that the family vacations would be directed. Where such
exist, natural phenomena like the Gourly caves near Coleyville would
be prepared for accommodating visitors. An important adjunct of the
tourist enterprise would be seminars on the history, culture and agri-

)No large tourist "invasions" are contemplated, but the foster-
ing of one-to-one interactions among individuals and families, in
which the visitors) always have Jamaican counterparts. The rural
areas simply are not set up, at present, to accommodate large groups,
nor would it be realistic to expect such an influx, even if it were


Green Hills Enterprises Page 5

culture, flora and fauna, bird life, and other aspects of Jamaica's
rich culture and natural heritage.

The "spin-off" effect could, eventually, stimulate the econo-
my of the central region by bringing financial return to initia-
tives not directly related to Green Hills Enterprises, i.e., reception
of visitors in the interior of Jamaica would mean increased sales in
stores, restaurants, pharmacies and other businesses; service stations
and auto repair shops, and car rental and transport companies. There
also would be the possibility of programming visitors to include not
only Green Hills Enterprises in their itineraries, but other tourist
attractions in central Jamaica such as Friendship Farm at Walkers
Wood, the Milk River Baths, and the plantation ruins near Kellits.
An equally-important side effect would be the stimulation of an ex-
change with visitors, and a restored image of the rural areas as places
where the farmers' hard work makes an important contribution to the

While Green Hills Enterprises is envisioned as a women's pro-
ject, in that women would take the lead in planning, training, manage-
ment and entrepreneurial activities, the effort is by no means inten-
ded to be confined to women. The venture will directly create employ-
ment for other family members and, in particular, for rural youth.
Many of the endeavours involve the family -- for example, in receiv-
ing visitors into Jamaican rural homes and incorporating them into
the farming activities. Jamaican women always have carried on "side
line" activities to earn money for their families, and.for their
community and church organizations. Many women are heads-of-household,
and must earn income to support their families. Green Hills Enter-
prises thus builds on the tradition of feminine economic initiative to
improve the level of living of central Jamaican women and their

Nor is there any notion that only wohen would be directly
employed in the core management group, or that only women's ventures
would qualify for assistance under the Green Hills "umbrella." The
requirement would be that any venture would have at least 70 percent
women in its management and activities. The Advisory Board also

Green Hills Enterprises Page 6

would include men sympathetic to the aims of Green Hills Enterprises,
and able to assist in the success of the income-earning efforts.

Structure: The structure of Green Hills Enterprises would consist
of a Core Management Team; a series of Associated Indus-
tries directly sponsored by Green Hills Enterprises; an array of
Auxiliary Services vital to the fostering of small business ventures;
an Advisory Board, and a looser affiliation of those businesses that,
while not directly linked, would collaborate with the Green Hills

S1. The Core Management Team would be the central mechanism or
"umbrella" of Green Hills Enterprises.
The team would consist of a full-time paid Manager and her
assistants, who would be, above all, competent and experienced
organizers and managers. They would work with Green Hills Ex-
tension Officers who would be concerned with giving direct
advice and assistance to rural groups (and individuals), either
in upgrading already-existing initiatives, or in assisting with
the birth of new enterprises. The Extension Officers would not
necessarily be versed in all the technical aspects of every ven-
ture, but would be able to link the entrepreneurs with technical
assistance from the Auxiliary Services Team (see No. 3 below),
or with other counsel and advice available in-country or abroad.

2. The Associated Industries (and individuals) would be those
directly affiliated with Green Hills
Enterprises. The object would be to take on only a few promi-
sing ventures at any one time (those already underway, or new
initiatives). Depending upon the nature of the venture, a
contract would be negotiated between Green Hills Enterprises
Management Team and the Associated Industry, spelling out the
technical advice and, in some cases, the loans to be extended,
and setting forth a plan of work and timetable for its
accomplishment. The aim would be to give intensive advice,
help and assistance to ventures, then "graduate" them as
quickly as possible as autonomous enterprises.


Green Hills Enterprises Page 7

3. The Auxiliary Services would be a permanent part of Green Hills
Enterprises, and initially would con-
sist of:
Green Hills Revolving Loan Fund. Often, after training,
people are frustrated because they do not have proper equip-
ment, and they lack access to, or small amounts of capital
to buy raw materials. Through Green Hills Enterprises,
women and other producers would be able to obtain credit
in the form of equipment or raw materials, or loans for
other purposes directly related to the initiation of an
enterprise, for example, a daycare centre (see below).

SGreen Hills Daycare Centres: Experience shows that often
women cannot participate in training or income-earning ac-
tivities unless they have a safe place to leave their
preschool children. Daycare centres, in themselves, can
provide income for the women who run them, and they are
a valuable service to the community. What is envisioned
is not a large, centralized enterprise, but small, mini-
centres on a neighborhood basis, in homes. This is a new
trend in daycare; since it has been discovered that children
do better in smaller groups; moreover, the small neighborhood
ceatres are much more practical and accessible to mothers
who often lack time, busfare and transport to take their
children to a central facility, then proceed to their own
training or job.

SGreen Hills Technical Assistance Team: Members of the T.A.
Team would be short-term, changing according to the needs
of the enterprises being advised and helped, but the Team
itself would be a permanent feature of the project. The
first year, there would be a full-time advisor to the
Manager; in the second year, the counterpart would serve
6 months, and in the third year, 3 months. Efforts would
be made, where possible, to include the talents of Third
World women experts, and particularly, experts from the

4. The Advisory Board would set policy and give general guidance


Green Hills Enterprises Page 8

to Green Hills Enterprises. The Manager would sit on the
board, as well as representatives of the Associated Industries
and Auxiliary Services. Membership in the board would include
men and women, and representatives of both the public and pri-
vate sector. The chair, ex officio, would be the Regional
Director, Central Region, Manchester Land Authority.

First Ventures: At the beginning, and in order to build on several
initiatives already underway in the IRDP, the Asso-
ciated Industries might consist of the following:

1. Green Hills Crafts: beginning with a few of the articles of
local use, training would be centered in the present Girls
Handycraft (stet) Worshop -- renamed -- which would function
with a new administration. In addition to the training super-
visor, a co-equal administrator would take on the inventory,
accounting and marketing functions. After training, the most
promising artisans would be employed as producers in the
Green Hills Workshop, a new facility to be opened to accommo-
date those trained, and to provide them with workspace and

2. Green Hills Vacations: beginning with a few collaborating
village and farm women, who would begin to open their homes
to tourists.

3. Green Hills Seminars: offered in conjunction with Green Hills
vacations (for example, on the first day a group arrived in
the area), and also independently if there were requests from
farm, business, women's and other groups coming to Jamaica
for conferences and conventions. A core group of "faculty"
would be identified, interviewed and be ready to conduct
sessions on their psecialties, which would vary according to
the groups to be served.

4. Green Hills Cottage Industries: to be built around the women's
groups currently being served by the Home Extension/Women in
Development Unit of IRDP. These women's groups (and others in
the area) would produce Jamaican confections, dried fruits,


SGreen Hills Enterprises Page 9 Chaney

spices, herbal teas, etc., for local domestic and local tourist
sales. At some time in the future, when there are products
of a sufficiently high standard in sufficient quantities,
export may be contemplated.

5. Green Hills Artisans: Young men, especially school dropouts
and recent school-leavers, would be trained in appropriate
technology and agree to exercise their profession in the
central area for a stated period. They would have a workshop
in the same building as the Green Hills Enterprises Workshop.

6. Green Hills Transport & Tours: Several vans would be pur-
chased, and would run as one of the Associated Industries in
order to bring tourists to the central area, and in time, to
take crafts and products to the tourist areas. It is envi-
sioned that each van would provide employment for about six
women: one manager/accountant; two drivers, two tour guides
and one mechanic.

Timing: This is at' least a five-year project:) three years for a
phased implementation of the major components (one Auxiliary
Service and two Associated Industries, for example, each
year), and two additional years for the project to function
with all its components in place.

The goal would be to institutionalize the facility, if
successful, as a regular community centre to extend technical
assistance and modest funding to small business enterprises. JL
If the venture proved successful, there would also be the
possibility of replication in other parts of Jamaica and
the Caribbean.

Next Steps: To seek several funding agencies with interest in
the ideas expressed in this concept paper and, according
to each one's special requirements, to write a project paper.
that would include, in addition to a much-more detailed
plan, a budget and an implementation schedule.


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