Citation
The boy's own book of natural history

Material Information

Title:
The boy's own book of natural history
Spine title:
Boy's book of natural history
Creator:
Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Richard Clay and Sons ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
George Routledge & Sons
Manufacturer:
Richard Clay and Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 378 p., [2] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Zoology -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Bungay
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by the J.G. Wood ; with three hundred and thirty illustrations

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
027024379 ( ALEPH )
ALJ0476 ( NOTIS )
252756955 ( OCLC )

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ter ge WV Capp
Frans ve 1G







THE

BOY'S OWN BOOK

OF

NATURAL HISTORY

BY THE

REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A, F.LS.

AUTHOR OF THE “ILLUSTRATED NATURAL HISTOKY”



WITH THREE HUNDRED AND THIRTY ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED

BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
1898



Ricuarp CLay & Sons, Limrrep,
Lonpon & Bunaay,



PREFACH

AxtHoucH the number of works on Natural History
might deter any new writer from venturing on so ex-
tensively handled a subject, there is at present no work
of a really popular character in which accuracy of inform-
ation and systematic arrangement are united with brevity
and simplicity of treatment.

All the best-known popular works on Natural History
are liable to many objections, among which may be named
a want of correct classification, the absence of explanations
of the meanings and derivations of scientific words, the
strange inaccuracy of many of the accompanying illustra-
tions, and of the accounts of many animals. Nor do the
conventional anecdotes chronicled in their pages evince
that personal experience of the animal race which alone
can repress romance and prevent inaccuracy. These de-
ficiencies, it is hoped, are at all events partly supplied in
the present work.

The present volume, although exceeding the limits
originally contemplated, is but a brief digest of a large
mass of materials, derived either from personal experience,
from the most recent zoological writers, or from the kind-
ness of many friends, who are familiar with almost every
portion of the world, and to whom my best thanks are due.
My original intention was to carry the work as far as the
Zoophytes, but it grew so rapidly, especially in the first



iv PREFACE

two classes, the Mammals and Birds, that it was found
necessary to conclude at the Insects, and even then to give
but an exceedingly short and meagre account of them.
This was much regretted by me, as my experience had lain
so much in the practical entomological part of Natural
History, that during the earliest stages of the work I
looked forward with some pleasure to giving a very much
fuller account of the British Insects than will be found in
the last few pages of this volume.

In arrangement, the order of the Catalogue of the
British Museum has been followed, with the view of
rendering it a useful companion to that most valuable
collection, especially for young visitors. In accordance
with that catalogue, the volume commences with a short
sketch of mankind and of the theories respecting the
different races of humanity; and at the same time a few of
the distinctions are mentioned which so widely separate
man from any other inhabitant of the earth.

As for the illustrations, they will best speak for them-
selves. It will, however, be well to observe that they have
all been designed expressly for the present work, and that
the combined abilities of Messrs. Harvey and Dalziel, as
artist and engravers, are a guarantee for their accuracy and
perfect execution. For the anatomical and microscopical
vignettes, I am myself answerable, as well as for several
of the later drawings, together with parts of a few others,
all of which were drawn from actual specimens.

It has been an object with me in the accounts of each
animal, to give as far as possible new anecdotes. In many
cases, the anecdotes related have never been published
before, and in many more, they have been extracted from
works which, either from their scarcity, their cost, or their
nature, would be very unlikely to be placed in the hands of
general readers.

I dismiss these pages with almost a feeling of regret,
that a task which has to me been a labour of love, has
come to an end. Indeed, the only drawback experienced
during its progress was its necessary brevity, which
constrained me to omit many creatures, not only beautiful



PREFACE Vv

and wonderful in form, but interesting in habits. I was
also compelled to describe many others so briefly, as to
render the account little more than a formal announcement
of their name, country, and food,

If, however, the perusal of the following pages should
induce any one to look upon the great plan of Creation
more as a whole than merely as an aggregation of separate
parts, or to notice how wonderfully each creature is
adapted for its peculiar station by Him who has appointed
to each its proper position, and assigned to each its own
duties, which could not be performed so well by any other
creature, or even by the same animal in another place, my
end will be attained.

Perhaps, also, this volume may cause some who have
- hitherto been troubled with a causeless abhorrence of
certain creatures against which they have nourished early
prejudices, to examine them with a more indulgent—I
should perhaps say, a more reverent—eye. I say reverent,
because it has long given me deep pain when I have heard
others stigmatizing as ugly, horrid, or frightful, those
beings whom their Maker saw at the beginning of the
world, and declared very good. A naturalist will see as
much beauty in a snake, spider, or toad, as in any of those
animals which we are accustomed to consider models of
beauty; and so will those who have before feared or
despised them, if they can only persuade themselves to
examine them with an unprejudiced eye.

In those three creatures mentioned a few lines above,
there is great beauty even on a superficial examination.
The movements of the snake are most graceful, and the
changing colours of its varied scales leave the imitations of
art far behind. The spiders too are beautiful, even in
colour; some are bright crimson, some pale pink, some
entirely yellow, some banded with broad streaks of alter-
nately velvety black and silvery white; while the eye of
the toad is a living gem of beauty. But when we come to
look closer,—to watch their habits—to note their instincts
—or, by the use of the microscope, to lay open to our view
some of the details of their organization,—then indeed are





vi PREFACE

we lost in wonder and amaze at the vastness of creation,
which, even in one little, apparently insignificant animal,
presents to our eyes innumerable marvels—marvels which
increase in number and beauty as our power for perceiving
them increases,

The present edition may rather be termed a condensation
than an abridgment of the larger work. JI have en-
deavoured to make no omissions that would destroy one
link of the marvellous living chain that binds all animate
existences of earth into one harmonious whole; and in
compressing the subject into a smaller compass, I have con-
centrated the language without excluding any necessary
information,





NATURAL HISTORY

Genus. ... .. Homo.



BOSJESMAN AND LION.

Spectes I. Sapiens (Lat. wise), Man.

Man holds the foremost place in the order of creation.
The perfection of his bodily form is as far superior to that
of other beings as his intellect surpasses their instinct,
beautiful and marvellous though it be. Between man
and brutes there is an impassable barrier, over which man



2 ; INSTINCT AND REASON

can never fall, or beasts hope to climb. It is the human
spirit indwelling in Man that gives consistency and force
to his reason, and therefore, even when fallen from his
high estate, and deprived of the right use of his intellect, he
still holds his supremacy over the lower animals, and owns
no subjection even to the most perfect and powerful
brutes.

There is but one genus of mankind, Hono, and but one
species, Sapiens ; that is, the rational human being. In-
tellect, or reason, differs from instinct in its power of
accommodation to circumstances; whereas instinct ever
remains unchanged. The beaver, when confined in a cage,
still builds dams in order to confine the stream that never
visits it; the captive squirrel, although it is regularly
supplied with its daily meals, still conceals the remnants
of its food for a future repast; the magpie approaches a ,
dead wasp with the same caution as if it were living ; and
the dog flies from a recently flayed tiger skin with no less
fear than if the living tiger stood before him. In those
cases where animals alter their habits to suit the changed
circumstances in which they find themselves, their reason,
not their wstinct, acts. On the contrary, the power of
man’s reason enables him to alter his habits and actions
according to the change of external circumstances. The
same man can inhabit the burning sands of the tropics, or
the everlasting snows of the north pole; and can defend
himself from the scorching heat of the one, or set at
defiance the piercing cold of the other.

Man, although he is temporarily clothed with material
particles during his short stay upon the material earth, is
essentially an immortal: and ever progressing spirit, and
is, in virtue of this spiritual life, as entirely removed from
the highest of brute animals as they from the vegetables,
which possess vitality but not animation. Some theorists
have asserted that Man was gradually developed from the
lower animals, and that the negro is but an improved
monkey.

We will briefly examine this theory respecting the hu-
manity of the negro. That monkey, or rather ape, whose



MAN AND APE = 8

form most resembles that of man, is the Chimpansee. Let
us compare the skull of this animal with that of the Negro
—its thick bony ridges, its irregular promi-
nences, its small capacity of brain, with —
the noble sweep of cranium, and the small
globular surface of the human skull. The
comparative dimensions of the head and
jaws are widely different in the ape and
the Negro, for the face of the ape is an
instrument for procuring food, and a
weapon for attack and defence, while — sxvzn or man.
that of man is an ever-changing index

of the workings of the mind within. We therefore find
that the jaws of the ape are enormously developed,
armed with formidable fangs, and marked with strong
bony ridges, to which the powerful muscles which move
the jaws are attached. On the other hand, as man is
enabled to procure food and to manufacture weapons by
means of his hands, his jaws and teeth are reduced to the
smallest size compatible with the preservation of life.

The habitually erect posture is another characteristic of
mankind. Other animals are not fitted for it; since, when
they attempt to assume that position, their head is thrust
so far forward that its weight destroys their balance, and
the bones of the leg and the pelvis are so formed as to give
them a tottering gait. When the ape attempts to stand
erect, it is forced to balance itself by its immensely long
arms, and cannot walk without assisting itself along by
the knuckles pressed on the ground. The fingers of
the feet, or more properly the hinder hands, prevent the
ape from planting more than the heel upon the ground.
It therefore hobbles along with its body bent, and at best
can only contrive to manage an uncertain and vacillating -
shuffle; nor does it ever walk so well or so gracefully in
the erect posture as many of the performers at Astley’s do
on their hands, which are apparently less fitted for walking
than those of the ape.

The power of the thumb is much greater in man than
in the apes; it is by means of this instrument that man





4 WEAPONS AND FIRE

is able to handle large or small objects, to wield a sword
or a pen, to cast a spear or thread a needle, There are
also many anatomical differences which need not be
described. :

The intellectual power in man shows its supremacy over
the instinct of the ape in many ways. We will take as
our example of mankind one of the smallest and the most
abject of the human race, the Bosjesman, as represented at
the commencement of this chapter. Surely that slain lion
was not destroyed by an ape. No ape or monkey was
ever able to manufacture weapons for itself. It may,
indeed, take up a stick or a stone, and defend itself vigor-
ously, although even this statement is generally discredited
by naturalists; but it could never form a bow and arrow,
much less reflect that the juices of certain plants rubbed
on the points of its weapons would cause inevitable death
to any person wounded by them. Yet the diminutive
Bosjesman, who is far lower in intellect, and much less
civilized than the calumniated Negro, boldly attacks, with
perfect certainty of success, an animal before which the most
intelligent ape that ever lived would fly in helpless terror.

Neither can an ape procure fire, nor even renew it. It
will sit delighted by a flame which a chance traveller has
left, and spread its hands over the genial blaze; but when
the glowing ashes fade, it has not sufficient understanding
to supply fresh fuel, but sits and moans over the expiring
embers.

The Bosjesman makes a bow and arrow; he tips the
arrow with a hard substance to make it penetrate; he
imbues the point with substances which he has learned
are fatal when mingled with the blood, and then sallies
forth in search of some animal whose skin may serve as
a dress, and whose flesh may furnish him a meal. When
by his unerring weapons he has succeeded in destroying
the terrible and ferocious lion, the swift antelope, or the
wary ostrich, he constructs for himself a hut by the side
of his prey, strikes fire, fetches fuel, and dresses his meat.
These are actions which no beast ever performed, and no
ape could ever imitate.



LANGUAGE ‘ 5

€

One point of difference between man and brutes has yet
to be mentioned—naneuace. This one word includes
almost every distinction mentioned, as it is by the use of
language that we are enabled to communicate our ideas to
each other, to give the thoughts hidden in our minds an
almost visible shape, to record our experience for the
benefit of others; in a word, it is by language that we are
civilized. The ape has no language, although there is no
apparent anatomical reasoning why apes should not speak,
and therefore, the Orang-outan in the gardens of the Zoo-
logical Society is no more refined, nor does it make a
nearer approach to civilization, than its ancestors in the
time of Adam.

There is but one species of man, although there are
several permanent varieties, which are ordinarily termed
“races”? by the authors who have written on this abstruse
but fascinating subject. Some writers describe the human
family as divided into five varieties or races: the Cauca-
sian, the Mongolian, the Ethiopian, the Malayan, and the
American ; each of these being subdivided into families, as
for instance, the Caucasian race subdivided into the Cau-
casian, the Celtic, the Germanic, the Arabian, the Libyan,
the Nilotic, and the Indostanic families. The division
generally received is that of Pickering, who enumerates
eleven distinct races of men, all of whom he has seen: the
Arabian, Abyssinian, Mongolian, Hottentot, Malay, Papuan, ~
Negrillo, Telingan, Ethiopian, Australian, and Negro. He
differs from Prichard in several points, but especially in
referring the population of America to the Mongolian race, .
whereas Prichard considers it as entirely separate.

The characteristics and distribution of each race are
briefly these. The Arabian race extends over the whole
of Europe, excepting Lapland, about half of Asia, including
the greater part of India, and most of the northern third ~
of Africa. The complexion is light, the lips are thin, the
nose is prominent, and the beard thick. Number, about
350,000,000.

The Abyssinian race occupies a small tract towards the
east of Africa, including part of Abyssinia and part of



6 RACES OF MANKIND

Nubia. The features are like those of Europeans, the
complexion is light, the hair is crisp, and the beard
moderate. Number about 3,000,000.

The Mongolian race is remarkable for a feminine aspect
in both sexes, so that a stranger is often perplexed to dis-
tinguish a man from a woman at a short distance; the hair
is straight, and the beard is wanting. It extends over the
eastern half of Asia, except Corea, over Lapland, and the
whole of America, except the western coast by California,
and the upper part of South America. Number 300,000,000.

The Hottentot race occupies the southern extremity of
Africa. The complexion is not so dark as that of the
Negro, the hair is woolly, and frequently grows in irregular
patches, leaving a bald spot in the centre of each patch.
This race includes the Bechuanas and the Bosjesmans.
The complexion of the Bosjesmans, or Bushmen, is very
light, and strongly resembles that of an European, with a
few sooty patches irregularly placed. Number about
500,000.

The dMalay race is almost amphibious, and is never
found far inland. It is widely spread, and inhabits the
centre of Madagascar, the whole of the islands in the
Pacific Ocean, except the Fiji, New Hebrides, Solomon’s
Isles, Papua, and parts of the Philippines. The parts of
America not populated by the Mongolians are also inhabited
by this race. The complexion is a dark copper, the hair
straight, when cut it stands erect, and the beard is thin.
Number 120,000,000.

The Papuan race inhabits about two-thirds of Papua,
and the Fiji islands, where Pickering saw the only indi-
viduals of this race who came under his notice. The com-
plexion is dark, the hair bushy, the beard copious. The
most remarkable point in this race is the skin, which is
astonishingly rough and harsh. Number 3,000,000.

The Negrillo race is like the Papuan in colour, but the
hair is more woolly, the stature is small, and the beard
absent. The Negrillos inhabit part of Papua, Solomon’s
Isles, the northern extremities of Luzon and Sumatra, and
the New Hebrides. Number 3,000,000,



DISTRIBUTION OF RACES 7

The Zelinyan, or Indian race, inhabits the eastern parts
of India, especially about Calcutta, several isolated spots
in other parts of India, and the east coast of Madagascar.
The complexion is dark (best imitated by a mixture of
red and black), the skin is soft, the features are like
those of Europeans, hair straight and fine, and the beard
copious. Number 60,000,000.

The Lthiopian race is darker than the Telingan, the
hair is. crisp and fine, skin soft, and the features are more
like European features than those of the Negro. This
race inhabits the north-eastern portion of Africa, including
Southern Egypt, part of Nubia, and part of Abyssinia; a
few detached spots toward the north-west, and a large
tract of country by Senegambia. Number 5,000,000.

The Australian race inhabits Australia alone. The
complexion is like that of the Negro, but the hair is not
woolly like that of the Negro. Number 500,000.

The Wegro race inhabits the central parts of Africa,
from the north of Ashanti to a little southward of Zan-
zibar. The complexion is black, the lips are immensely
thick, the nose is flat, and the hair is close and curly,
strongly resembling wool. Number 55,000,000. The
numbers given in this distribution are of course in many
cases only conjectural.

In the distribution of races, it is most interesting
to observe the influence of climate and vegetation on the
character of man. The vast tract of desert extending
from the north-west of Africa, through Arabia, part of
India and Tartary, as far as Mongolia, is inhabited by
nomadic, or wandering tribes, who depend principally on
the milk of their domesticated animals for subsistence.

The interminable and trackless woods of North America
develop tribes whose faculties are moulded to the exi- _
gencies of their position. To their practised senses the
tangled forests are as clear as the highway; the moss on
the trees, the sun by day, the stars by night, the rushing
of the wind, or the sounds of animal life, are as broad
roads and legible signs to them, although we could dis-
cover no means to escape from the wilderness of trees.



8 CUSTOMS AND CLIMATE

Dependent in a great measure on hunting for their sub-
sistence, their keen eye marks the slightest trace of the
expected prey ; a drooping leaf, a twisted blade of grass,
a bent twig, a ripple in the stream, are all noticed and all
understood. Ever eagerly bent on the destruction of
inimical tribes, and deeming the number of “scalps”
attached to their dress, each designating a slain enemy,
as the best mark of nobility, they learn to track an enemy
by his footsteps with unexampled patience and untiring
assiduity. No bloodhound ever followed his prey with
more certainty than the American Indian when on his
“war-path” tracks his untiring enemies, and when near
them his approach is silent as the gliding of the serpent,
his blow as deadly as its fangs.

The Malay race, whose lot is thrown amid islands and
coasts, are as crafty and fierce on the waters as the
American Indians in their woods. Accustomed to the
water from their earliest infancy, able to swim before
they can walk, using as their toys waves that would dash
an ordinary swimmer to pieces against the rocks, their
existence is almost entirely passed on the water. As the
American Indians are slayers and robbers by land, so are
the Malays murderers and pirates by sea. They have
been known to capture a ship in the midst of a storm by
swimming to it and climbing up the cable, and many
instances of their crafty exploits in ship-taking are on
record. Fora full account of their ferocity, cunning, and
endurance, the reader is referred to Sir James Brooke's
reports on the Borneo pirates.

The Esquimaux, situated among ice and snow, where
mercury freezes in the open air and water becomes ice
within a yard of a blazing fire, pass a comparatively in-
active life. They actually form the ice and snow into
warm and comfortable houses; wrapped up in enormous
fur garments that almost disguise the human form, they
defy the intensity of the frost, and place their highest
happiness in the chance possession of a whale, which will
furnish them with food, clothing, and light through their
long winter.



THE CHIMPANSEE 9

All these races, although they differ in habits and ex-
ternal appearance, are not different genera, or even different
species, but only varieties of one species. There is not so
marked a distinction between the European and Negro, as
between the light and active racer and the heavy brewers’
horse; yet no one attempts to deny that these two
animals belong to one species. The varieties in man are
permanent; that is, the child of Negro parents will be
a Negro, and the child of Malay parents will be a Malay,
but that is no proof of a distinct species, as precisely the
game argument may be used with regard to the horse.
The spirit, not the body, is the important element in
man.

2

THE section QuUADRUMANA includes the apes, baboons,
and monkeys. The name of Quadrumana is given to
these animals because, in addition to two hands like
those of man, their feet are also formed like hands, and
are capable of grasping the branches among which most
monkeys pass their lives.

Apes are placed at the head of the Quadrumana because
their instinct is mostly superior to that of the baboons
and monkeys, of whom the former are usually sullen and
ferocious, when arrived at their full growth, and the latter
volatile and mischievous.

The Chimpansee is a native of Western Africa, and is
tolerably common on the banks of the Gambia and in

Congo.

' Large bands of these formidable apes congregate to-
gether and unite in repelling an in-
vader, which they do with such fury
and courage that even the dreaded
elephant and lion are driven from
their haunts by their united efforts. oe
They live principally on the ground, gxuxz or cumpansen,
and, as their name imports, spend

much of their time in caves and under rocks, Their





,
10 THE CHIMPANSEE

height is from four to five feet, but they are said not to
reach this growth until nine or ten years of age.

TROGLODYTES.—(Gr. tpdéyAn, a hole; dd, to creep.)



LGELEED

= LM ye yf eB!
â„¢ Di EI

Niger (Lat. black), the Chimpansee.

Several young chimpansees have been recently imported
into this country, and have shown themselves very docile
and gentle; but, had they lived, they would probably in
a few years have become fierce and obstinate, as apes
almost invariably are when they reach their full growth.

The Oranc-ouran inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. In
Borneo there are certainly two species of orang, called by
the natives the Mias-kassar and the Mias-pappan. Some
naturalists suppose that the Sumatran orang is also a
distinct species. :

This is the largest of all the apes, as it is said that



THE ORANG-OUTAN 11

orangs have been obtained from Borneo considerably above
tive feet in height. The strength of this animal is tre-
mendous; a female snapped a strong
spear asunder after having received many
severe wounds. Its arms are of extra-
ordinary length, the hands reaching the
ground when it stands erect. This
length of arm is admirably adapted fo
climbing trees, on which it principally “=
resides. Mr. Brooke, the Rajah of Sara- Aone
wak; gives the following account of the ; a
orangs of Borneo. There appears also to be a third
species, the Mias-rombi :—

“On the habits of the orangs, as far as I have been
able to observe them, I may remark that they are as dull
and as slothful as can well be conceived, and on no occa-
sion, when pursuing them, did they move so fast as to
preclude my keeping pace with them easily through a
moderately clear forest ; and even when obstructions below
(such as wading up to the neck) allowed them to get away
some distance, they were sure to stop and allow us to
come up. I never observed the slightest attempt at
defence; and the wood, which sometimes rattled about
our ears, was broken by their weight, and not thrown, as
some persons represent. If pushed to extremity, how-
ever, the pappan could not be otherwise than formidable ;
and one unfortunate man, who with a party was trying
to catch one alive, lost two of his fingers, besides being
severely bitten on the face, whilst the animal finally beat
off his pursuers and escaped. When they wish to catch
an adult, they cut down a circle of trees round the one on
which he is seated, and then fell that also, and close before
he can recover himself, and endeavour to bind him.

“The rude hut which they are stated to build in the
trees would be more properly called a seat, or nest, for it
_ bas no roof or cover of any sort. The facility with which
they form this seat is curious; and I had an opportunity
of seeing a wounded female weave the branches together,
and seat herself in a minute. She afterwards received our

B





12 THE ORANG-OUTAN

fire without moving, and expired in her lofty abode,
whence it cost us much trouble to dislodge her.

“The pappan is justly named Satyrus, from the ugly
face and disgusting callosities. The adult male I killed
was seated lazily on a tree; and when approached only
took the trouble to interpose the trunk between us, peeping
at me and dodging as I dodged. I hit him on the wrist,
and he was afterwards despatched. I send you his pro-
portions, enormous relative to his height; and until I
came to actual measurement my impression was that he
was nearly six feet in stature. °

Smiia.—(Lat. an Ape.)



SatYrus (Gr. Sdrupos, a satyr), the Orang-outan.

“The great difference between the kassar and the pappan
in size would prove at once the distinction of the two
species; the kassar being a small slight animal, by no
means formidable in his appearance, with hands and feet



THE AGILE GIBBON : 13

proportioned to the body, and they do not approach the
gigantic extremities of the pappan either in size or power ;
and, in short, a moderately strong man would readily over-
power one, when he would not stand a shadow of a chance
with the pappan.” :

I saw a young Orang-outan not long since. It was rather
spidery in its development, having a very small and very
rotund body, to which were affixed very long and slender
limbs. Its face was like that of a very misanthropical old
miser, thoroughly wearied of life, and contemplating sur-
rounding objects with a calm but derisive pity.

It possessed in a high degree the expressive mobile cha-
racter of the lips, which appeared to express its feelings
much in the same manner as do the ears of a horse. When
it was alarmed or astonished at any object it was accus-
tomed to shoot out both its lips, and to form its mouth
into a trumpet kind of shape. A snail was very effectual
in producing this contortion of countenance.

The creature was very tame, and delighted in walking
about the garden leaning on the arm of its keeper, and if
any lady would venture to be its guide, it appeared as
happy as any such misanthropical being could be.

When young the Orang-outan is very docile, and has
been taught to make its own bed, and to handle a cup
and saucer, or a spoon, with tolerable propriety. For the
former occupation it proved itself particularly apt, as it
not only laid its own bed-clothes smooth and comfortable,
but exhibited much ingenuity in stealing blankets from
other beds, which it added to its own. The young Orang
. in the collection of the Zoological Society evinced extreme
horror at the sight of a small- tortoise, and, when the
reptile was introduced into its den, stood aghast in a most
ludicrously terrified attitude, with its eyes intently fixed
on the frightful object.

Tue Acite GriBBon is a native of Sumatra. It derives
its name of Agile from the wonderful activity it displays
in launching itself through the air from branch to branch.
One of these creatures, that was exhibited in London



14 THE KAHAU

some time since, sprang with the greatest ease through
distances of twelve and eighteen feet; and when apples
Hyoparrs.—(Gr. #an, a wood ; Balvw, to er nate were pore

traverse.) : 7 to her while in the
air, she would catch
them without discon-
tinuing her course. She
kept up a succession
of springs, hardly
touching the branches
in her progress, con-
tinually uttering a
musical but almost
deafening cry. She
was very tame and
gentle, and would per-
mit herself to be
touched or caressed.
The height of the
Gibbon is about three
feet, and the reach of
the extended arms
about six feet. The
young Gibbon is
usually of a paler
colour than its parent. There are several species of
Gibbon, amongst which some naturalists include the
Siamang, a monkey chiefly celebrated for the .pains it
takes to wash the faces of its young, a duty which it con-
scientiously performs in spite of the struggles and screams
of its aggrieved offspring.



Agilis (Lat. active), the Agile Gibbon, or
Oungka.

The Kanau isa native of Borneo. It derives its name
from the ery it utters, which is a repetition of the word
“Kahau.” It is remarkable for the extraordinary size and
shape of its nose, and the natives relate that while leaping
it holds that organ with its paws, apparently to guard it
against the branches. As may be seen from the engraving,
it is not an animal of very captivating appearance; but



THE MANDRILL 15

when it has been macerated in spirits of wine for a few
months, its ugliness is quite preternatural.

The length of the ani- Presny G ; a
mal from the head to the P®#S8¥7™s.—( aoe er os
tip of the tail is about
four feet four inches; and
its general colour is asandy
red, relieved by yellow
cheeks and a yellow stripe
over the shoulders.

We now arrive at the
Baxsoons. This tribe is
principally distinguished
from the apes by their
short and insignificant-
looking tails.

The Mandrill, which is

the most conspicuous of
the baboon tribe, is a Larvatus (Lat. masked) Kahau, ci

native of Guinea and Proboscis Monkey.



CynocEPHALuS.—(Gr. kiwv, a dog ; xeparn, a head.)



Mormon (Gr. Mopydy, a bogie), the Mandritl.





16 AMERICAN MONKEYS

Western Africa, and is chiefly remarkable for the vivid
colours with which it is adorned. Its cheeks are of a
brilliant blue, its muzzle of a bright scarlet, and a stripe of
crimson runs along the centre of its nose. These colours
are agreeably contrasted by the purple hues of the hinder
quarters. It lives principally in forests filled with brush-
wood, from which it makes incursions into the nearest
villages, plundering them with impunity. On this account
it is much dreaded by the natives, who feel themselves
incapable of resisting its attacks. It is excessively fero-
cious, and easily excited to anger ; and when enraged, so
boundless is its rage, that Cuvier relates that he has seen
several of these animals actually expire from the violence
of their fury. ,

The greenish-brown colour of the hair of this and other
monkeys is caused by alternate bands of yellow and black,
which exist on each hair. The brilliant colours referred
to above belong to the skin, and fade away entirely after
death, becoming paler when the animal is not in perfect
health.

The AmeEricAN Monkeys, or Cebide, are found exclu-
sively in South America, and are never seen north of
Panama. Their tails are invariably long, and, in some
genera, prehensile.

The Coaita is one of the Spider Monkeys, so called from
their long slender limbs, and their method of progressing
among the branches. The tail seems to answer the purpose
of a fifth hand, as it is capable of being used for every
purpose to which the hand could be applied; indeed, the
Spider Monkeys are said to use this member for hooking
out objects where a hand could not be inserted. The tail
is also of considerable use in climbing among the branches
of trees; they coil it round the boughs to lower or raise
themselves, and often will suspend themselves entirely by
it, and then by a more powerful impetus swing off to
some distant branch. The habits of all the Spider Monkeys
are very similar. They are extremely sensitive to cold,



THE COAITA SPIDER MONKEY 17

and when chilly are in the habit of wrapping their tail
about them, so that this useful organ answers the purpose
of a boa as well asa
hand. They will also,
when shot, fasten their
tail so firmly on the
branches, that they re-
main suspended after
death. The great
length of their tail
enables them to walk
in the erect attitude
better than most mon-
keys. In walking, .
they cast their tails
upwards as high as
the shoulders, and ~
then bend it over so
as to form a counter-
balance against the
weight of the body,
which is thrown very :

much forward in that Paniscus (Gr. Mavicxos, dim. of wav, a little
and most-other mon- Pan), the Coaita Spider Monkey.
keys. The genus is called Ateles, or imperfect, because
in most of the species the thumb is wanting. The Coaita
inhabits Surinam and Guinea.

Atiies.—(Gr. &reatjs, imperfect.)



The Howiine Monkeys are larger and not so agile as
the Spider Monkeys, and are chiefly remarkable for the
peculiarity from which they derive their name. These
animals possess an enlargement in the throat, composed of
several valvular pouches, which apparatus renders their
ery exceedingly loud and mournful. An arrangement
somewhat similar may be seen in the throat of several
loud-voiced birds.

They howl in concert, principally at the rising and setting
of the sun; one monkey begins the cry, which is gradually
taken up by the rest, precisely as may be observed in a



18 THE HOWLER MONKEY

colony of rooks. They are in great request among the
natives as articles of food, their slow habits rendering

them an easy prey.
Mycirrs.—(Gr. puxnrhs, a howler.)



Ursinus (Lat. Ursa, a bear—Bearlike), the Ursine Howler.

The Ursine Howler, or Araguato, is common in Brazil,
where forty or fifty have been observed on one tree. They
generally travel in files, an old monkey taking the lead,
and the others following in due order. They feed prin-
cipally on leaves and fruit; the tail is prehensile like that
of the Spider Monkeys.

The MarmoseEt is a most interesting little creature. It
is exceedingly sensitive to cold, and when in England is
usually occupied in nestling among the materials for its
bed, which it heaps up in one corner, and out of which it
seldom emerges entirely. It will eat almost any article of
food, but is especially fond of insects, which it dispatches
in a very adroit manner. It will also eat fruits, especially
those of its native country. Its fondness for insects is car-
ried so far, that it has been known to pinch out the figures
of beetles in entomological work, and swallow them.

A beautiful little marmoset in the Zoological Gardens



THE MARMOSET 19

ate a great number of flies which I caught and presented

to it. Its little eyes
sparkled with eager-
ness each time that
it saw my hand mov-
ing towards a fly
settled out of its
reach, and it even
ventured from its
warm woolly nest,
and climbed up the
wires of its cage as
it saw the fly ap-
proaching. It was
also rather expert at
catching for itself the
flies that settled on
the bars of the cage.

considered a great prize.

Jaccuus.—(Gr. “Iaxyos, Bacchus.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Ifarmoset.

A blue-bottle fly was evidently

This pretty little Monkey is also called the Ouistiti,
from its peculiar whistling cry when alarmed or provoked.

LEMUR.





20 THE SLENDER LORIS

The Lemurs derive their name from their nocturnal
habits, and their noiseless movements. The Ruffled
Lemur is a native of Madagascar. It lives in the depths
of the forests, and only moves by night, the entire day
being spent in sleep. Its food consists of fruits, insects
and small birds, which latter it takes while they are
sleeping. This is the largest of the Lemurs, being rather
larger than a cat.

The StenpEr Loris is a native of India, Ceylon, &e. It,
like the Lemur, sel-
dom moves by day,
but prowls about at
night in search of
food. No sooner does
it espy a_ sleeping
bird, than it slowly
advances until within
reach ; then putting
forward its paw with
a motion slow and
imperceptible as the
movement of the
shadow on the dial,
it gradually places its
fingers over the de-
voted bird; then, with a movement swifter than the eye
can follow, it seizes its startled prey.

Loris. (Native name.)

Paces



Gracilis (Lat. slender), the Slender Loris,

We now arrive at the Bats, or Cheiroptéra. This name
is derived from the singular manner in which their fore-
paws, or hands, are developed into wings. If the fingers
of a man were to be drawn out like wire to about four
feet in length, a thin membrane to extend from finger to
finger, and another membrane to fall from the little finger
to the ankles, he would make a very tolerable imitation of
a Bat.



THE VAMPIRE BAT 21

VAmpinus (‘‘said by Adelung to be of Servian origin”).





Spectrum (Lat, a spectre), the Vampire Bat.

The usual food of Bats is insects, which they mostly
capture on the wing, but some, as the Vampires, suck blood
from other animals, and a few, as the Kalong, or Flying
Fox, live upon fruits, and so devastate the mango crops, that
the natives are forced to cover them with bamboo baskets,
to preserve them from the ravages of these animals, who
would soon strip the fruit trees without these precautions.
Even the cocoa nut is not secure from their depredations.

The membrane of the Bat’s wing is plentifully supplied
with nerves, and is extremely sensitive, almost appearing
to supply a sense independent of sight. Many Bats pos-
sess a similar membrane on the nose, which is possibly
used for the same purpose.

The object of the elongation of the finger joints is to
give the animal the power of extending the wing mem-
brane or folding it at pleasure. When the bat wishes to
walk, it half folds the membrane, and assumes an attitude
admirably represented in the cut of the Long-eared Bat.

The thumb-joint has no part of the wing attached to it,
but is left free, and is armed with a hook at the extremity



22 THE VAMPIRE BAT

by means of which it is enabled to drag itself along in that
singular vacillating hobble which constitutes a Bat’s walk.

There are five tribes, or sub-families, of Bats, according
to Gray, each tribe including many genera. The British
Museum alone possesses eighty genera.

The Vampire Bat is a native of South America, where it
is very common, and held in some dread. It lives on the
blood of animals, and sucks usually while its victim sleeps.
The extremities, where the blood flows freely, as the toe
of a man, the ears of a horse, or the combs and wattles of
fowls, are its favourite spots, When it has selected a sub-
ject, on which it intends to feed, it watches until the
animal is fairly asleep. It then carefully fans its victim
with its wings while it bites a little hole in the ear or
shoulder, and through this small aperture, into which a
pin’s head would scarcely pass, it contrives to abstract
sufficient blood to make a very ample meal. The wound
is so small, and the Bat manages so adroitly, that the
victim does not discover that anything has happened until
the morning, when a pool of blood betrays the visit of the
Vampire.

The wound made by the bat’s teeth is no larger than
that made by a needle, and hardly penetrates the skin, so
that the blood must be extracted by suction. There have
been very different accounts of the Vampires from travel-
lers, some denying that they suck blood at all, and others
narrating circumstantially the injuries inflicted upon their
own persons. The cause for these discrepancies is probably
owing to the constitution of the narrators, there being some
persons whom a Vampire will not touch, while others are
constantly victimised.

This Bat is placed among the Phyllostomina, because
the membrane on its nose resembles a leaf. The length
of its body is about six inches.



THE LONG-EARED BAT.

The Lone-rarep Bar is found in most parts of Europe,
and is common in England. It may be seen any warm



THE LONG-EARED BAT 23

evening flying about in search of insects, and uttering its
peculiar shrill ery. It is very common on Hampstead
Heath. The fears are. about an inch
and a half in length, and have a fold in
them reaching almost to the lips, from
which peculiarity the genus is called
Plecotus.

This Bat rs very easily tamed, and EE
will take flies and other insects from
the hand. One that I hadin my own possession used to hang
by the wing-hooks during
the whole of the day, and
could hardly be persuaded
to move, or even to eat;
but when the evening
came on it became very
brisk indeed, and after
carefully combing itself with its hind feet, it would
eagerly seize a fly or beetle and devour it, always rejecting
the head, legs, and
wings. It was then Pxecorus. aad TNs I fold ; ods, an ear.)
very impatient to
be released from the
cage, and would
show its uneasiness
by climbing about
the cage and flut-
tering its wings. It
unfortunately died
before further in-
vestigations could
be made, but dur-
ing the short time
that it survived, it





HAIR OF LONG-EARED BAT.



.
Aisa Auritus (Lat. auris, an ear ;—Eared),
seemed Very, gentle, the Long-cared Bat.

and only bit me

once, although I used frequently to handle it.
When the Long-eared Bat is suspended by its hinder
claws, it assumes a most singular aspect. The beautiful



24 QUADRUPEDS

long ears are tucked under its wings, which envelop great
part of its body. The tragus, or pointed membrane visible
inside the ear, is then exposed, and appears to be the actual
ear itself, giving the creature a totally different cast of
character.



QUADRUPEDS.

Tue former sections have been characterised by the
number and properties of the hands. In the section that
we are about to consider, the hands have been modified
into feet. At the head of the quadrupeds, or four-footed
animals, are placed the carnivora, or flesh-eAters, and at the
head of the carnivora, the Felide, or cat kind, are placed,
as being the most perfect and beautiful in that section.
The Felide all take their prey by creeping as near as they
can without observation, and then springing upon their
unfortunate victim, which seldom succeeds in making its
escape, as the powerful claws and teeth of its enemy usually
dash it insensible to the ground. The jaws and teeth of
the Felide are very different from those of the animals
already described; their jaws are more powerful, and
their teeth longer and sharper. Their claws, too, are
necessarily very long, curved and sharp, and to prevent
them from being injured by coming into contact with the
ground, they are retracted, when not in use, into a sheath,
which effectually guards them and keeps them sharp.
There are five claws on the fore-feet, and four on the
hinder feet. The tongue of the Felidx is very rough, as
may be proved by feeling the tongue of a cat. This
roughness is occasioned by innumerable little hooks which
cover the tongue, point backwards, and are used for the
purpose of licking the flesh off the bones of their prey.
The bristles of the mouth, or whiskers, are each connected
with a large nerve, and are exceeding useful in indicating
an obstacle when the animal prowls by night. Their eyes



THE LION 25

are adapted for nocturnal vision by the dilating power of
the pupil, which expands so as to take in every ray of
light,

THE LION.

The Lion stands at the head of the wild beasts. His
noble and dignified bearing, the terrific power compressed
into his comparatively small frame, and the deep majesty
of his voice, have gained for him the name of “king of
beasts.” The Lion inhabits Africa and certain parts of
Asia, such as portions of Arabia and Persia, and some parts
of India. It varies in external appearance according to
the locality, but there is little doubt that there is but
one species.

The roar of the Lion is one of its chief peculiarities ; the
best description. of it is in Gordon Cumming’s Adven-
tures :—

“One of the most striking things connected with the
Lion is his voice, which is extremely grand and peculiarly
striking, It consists, at times, of a low deep moaning,
repeated five or six times, ending in faintly audible sighs ;
at other times he startles the forest with loud, deep-toned,
solemn roars, repeated five or six times in quick succession,
each increasing in loudness to the third or fourth, when
his voice dies away in five or six low, muffled sounds,
very much resembling distant thunder. At times, and
not unfrequently, a troop may be heard roaring in concert,
one assuming the lead, and two, three, or four more regu-
larly taking up their parts like persons singing a catch.”

“As a general rule lions roar during the night, their
sighing moans commencing as the shades of evening
envelop the forest, and continuing at intervals through-
out the night. In distant and secluded regions, however,

' I have constantly heard them roaring loudly as late as

nine or ten o’clock ona bright, sunny morning. In hazy
and rainy weather they are to be heard at every hour in
the day, but their roar is subdued.”



26 THE LION

The opinion that lions will not touch a dead animal is
erroneous, as they were frequently shot by Mr. Cumming
while devouring gnoos, &c., that had fallen by his rifle.

‘

Lro. — (Lat. a Lion.)



Barbarus (Lat. fierce), the Lion.

Those lions who have once tasted human flesh are gener-
ally the most to be dreaded, as they will even venture to
spring in among a company of men, and seize their victim.
These lions are called Man-eaters.

The Lioness is much smaller than the Lion, and is desti-
tute of the magnificent mane which is so great an ornament
to her mate. As a general rule she is more fierce and
active than the male, especially before she has had cubs, or
while she is suckling them. She has usually from two to
four cubs at a time. They are beautiful, playful little
things, and are slightly striped. They have no mane
until about two years old. While her cubs are small, the



THE LION 27

Lioness knows no fear, and will attack a company of
men, or a herd of oxen, if they come too near
her den.

The cubs are remarkably heavy for their age. Many
years ago I had a pair of young lion cubs in my hands.
They were about the size of very large cats, but weighed
considerably more than their size led me to believe. They
were playful little animals, but struck rather too hard to
be agreeable.

The Lion when young is easily tamed, and shows a
strong attachment to its keeper. Those who have seen
Van Amburgh will know what influence man may obtain
over this powerful creature.

There is one remarkable difference in the characters of
the feline and canine tribes. If a man is overcome by a
wolf or a dog, the animal ceases not to mangle its van-
quished foe until life is quite extinct. A dog killing a
rab is a good instance of this trait of character. But if
a lion or any other feline animal vanquishes a man, it
contents itself with the victory for some time without
making any attempt to injure him, unless he tries to
escape, in which case he is again dashed to the earth, and
probably considerably bitten as a warning. A cat treats
a mouse just as a lion treats a man.

This propensity in the lion has been the cause of saving
several lives, the men having been able either to destroy
their foe by cautiously getting out a weapon, or by lying
still until they were succoured.

At the extremity of the lion’s tail there is a small hook
or claw, which has been represented as the means by
which the animal lashes itself into fury, using it as a spur.
This is impossible, as the claw or prickle is very small,
not fixed to the bone as the claws of the feet are, but
merely attached to the skin, and falls off if roughly
handled. It is not present in all lions, as Mr. Wood only
‘discovered it once out of numerous specimens which he
examined, :



28 THE TIGER

Ticris.—(Lat. @ Tiger.)



Regalis (Lat. royal), the Tiger.

This magnificent animal is found only in Asia, Hin-
dostan being the part most infested by it. In size it is
almost equal to the lion, its height being from three to
four feet, and its length rather more than eightfeet. It
has no mane, but to compensate for this deficiency, it is
decorated with black stripes, upon a ground of reddish
yellow fur, which becomes almost white on the under
parts of the body. The chase of the Tiger is among the
most exciting and favourite sports in India. A number
of hunters assemble, mounted on elephants trained to the
sport, and carry with them a supply of loaded rifles in
their howdahs, or carriages mounted on the elephants’
backs. Thus armed, they proceed to the spot where a
tiger has been seen. The animal is usually found hidden



THE TIGER 29

in the long grass or jungle, which is frequently eight or
more feet in height, and when roused, it endeavours to
creep away under the grass. The movement of the leaves
betrays him, and he is checked by a rifle-ball aimed at
him through the jungle. Finding that he cannot escape
without being seen, he turns round, and springs at the
nearest elephant, endeavouring to clamber up it, and attack
the party in the howdah. This is the most dangerous
part of the proceedings, as many elephants will turn round
and run away, regardless of the efforts of their drivers to
make them face the tiger. Should, however, the elephant
stand firm, a well-directed ball checks the tiger in his
spring, and he then endeavours again to escape, but a
volley of rifle-balls from the backs of the other elephants,
who by this time have come up, lays the savage animal
prostrate, and in a very short time his skin decorates the
successful marksman’s howdah.

Tigers are usually taken by the natives in pitfalls, at
the bottom of which is planted a bamboo stake, the top of
which is sharpened into a point. The animal falls on the
point, and is impaled.

The general notion that tigers cannot be tamed is
erroneous. They can be tamed as easily as the lion;
but great caution must be used with all wild animals,
as in a moment of irritation, their savage nature breaks
out, and the consequences have more than once proved
fatal.

In the British Museum are three cubs bred between a
lion and a tigress. They are not unlike lion cubs, but
the stripes are much darker, and the colour of the fur is
brighter.

The colouring of the tiger is a good instanco of the
manner in which animals are protected by the similarity
of their external appearance to the particular locality in
which they reside. The stripes on the tiger’s skin so
' exactly assimilate with the long jungle grass amongst
which it lives, that it is impossible for unpractised eyes
to discern the animal at all, even when a considerable
portion of its body is exposed.



30 THE LEOPARD

Leorarpus,—(Lat. dco, a lion ; pardus, a panther.)



Varius (Lat. varied), the Leopard, or Panther.

The Leoparp is an inhabitant of Africa, India, and the
Indian Islands. A black variety inhabits Java, and is
not uncommon there. Its height is about two feet. This
and the following Felide are accustomed to live much on
trees, and are on that account called Tree-tigers by the
natives. Nothing can be more beautiful than the ele-
gant and active manner in which the leopards sport
among the branches of the trees: at one time they will
bound from branch to branch with such rapidity, that
the eye can scarcely follow them; then, as if tired, they
will suddenly stretch themselves along a branch, so as to
be hardly distinguishable from the bark, but start up
again on the slightest provocation, and again resume their
graceful antics. It is easily tamed, and expresses great
fondness for its keeper, and will play with him like a
cat. A remarkably beautiful specimen in Wombwell’s
Menagerie was exceedingly fond of playing with the tuft
at the extremity of a lion’s tail, and from the familiar
manner in which he patted and bit it he evidently



THE JAGUAR’ 31

considered it as manufactured for his own particular
entertainment.

This animal is exceedingly fond of some scents, especially
preferring lavender water, by means of which predilection
it has been taught to perform several tricks.

The Leopard and Panther are considered as the same
animal, on the authority of Mr. Gray.

The Jaguar inhabits America. It is larger and more
powerful than the leopard, which it resembles in colour,
but has a_ black
streak across the LEOPARDUS.
chest, and a black
spot in the centre
of the rosettes. It
is fond of climb-
ing trees, and finds
little difficulty in
ascending, even
when the trunk
is smooth and des-
titute of branches.
It chases monkeys
successfully, and
is said to watch
for turtles on the
beach, and to scoop
out their flesh by
turning them on
their backs, and
inserting its paws
between the shells.
Nor does it confine
its attention to the turtles themselves, for it watches them
lay their eggs, and then scoops them out of the sand with
its claws. It often makes fearful havoc among the sheep-
folds, and is said to depart so far from the usual habits of
the Felidae, as to enter the water after fish, and to capture



Onca (Gr. “Oya, a proper name),
the Jaguar.



32 THE PUMA

them in the shallows by striking them out of the water
with a blow of its paw. There have been instances of
the domestic cat acting in the same manner.

When it captures one of the larger animals it destroys
it by leaping upon its back, and twisting the head of its
prey round, until the neck is dislocated.

_ The Puma inhabits the whole of America, where it is
held in much dread by the natives. Its colour is an
uniform grey, fading into white on the under parts of its

LEOPANDUS,



body, and this similarity of colour is the reason that the
name “concolor” has been given to it. It lives much on
trees, and usually lies along the branches, where its uni-
form dusky fur renders it so like the bark that it can
scarcely be distinguished from the branch.

The Americans always speak of this animal as the pan-
ther, or “painter,” as it is more familiarly pronounced ;
and many authors still term it the cougar, a word con-
tracted from the original elongated unpronounceable
Mexican name, ‘“ Gouazouara,”



THE OCELOT—THE CAT 33

The Ocgtor, one of the Tiger-cats, is a native of Mexico
and Peru. Its height is about eighteen inches, and its
length about three
feet. It is a most
beautiful animal,
and is easily tamed.
When ina wild state
it lives principally
on monkeys, which
it takes by strata-
gem.

LEOPARDUS.




Ber
Wt ZS
WINES

iN =



The domestic Cat
was formerly sup-
posed to be the same
animal as the wild
Cat, but it is now
proved to be a dis-
tinct species, and the difference is seen at once by the
form of the tail. That of the domestic Cat is long and
taper, while that of the wild cat is bushy and short.

The cat is familiarly known to us as a persevering
mouse-hunter. So strong, indeed, is the passion for hunt-
ing in the breast of the Cat, that she sometimes disdains
mice “and such small deer,” and: trespasses on warrens or
preserves. A large tabby cat, residing at no great distance
from White Horse Vale, was accustomed to go out poach-
ing in the preserves of a neighbouring nobleman, and so
expert was she at this illegal sport that she constantly re-
turned bearing in her mouth a leveret or a partridge, which
she insisted on presenting to her mistress, who in vain
endeavoured to check her marauding propensities. These
exploits, however, brought their own punishment; for
one day, when in the act of seizing a leveret, she found
herself caught in a vermin trap, which deprived her of one
of her hind legs. This misfortune did not damp her
enthusiasm for hunting, as, although the loss of a leg pre-
vented her from chasing hares, and such-like animals, she
would still bring in an occasional rat.

Pardilis (Gr. mépSadrs, a pard), the Ocelot,



34 THE CAT

This instinctive desire of hunting seems to be implanted
in cats at a very early age. I have seen kittens but just
able to see, bristle up at the touch of a mouse, and growl
in a terrific manner if disturbed.



Domestica (Lat. domestic), the Cat.

The Cat displays a great affection for her kittens, and
her pride when they first ran about is quite amusing.
While I was an undergraduate at college, a cat belonging
to the baker’s department formed a great friendship for
me, and used to come every morning and evening to
obtain her share of breakfast and tea. She continued her
attentions for some time, but one morning she was absent
from her accustomed corner, nor did she return until
nearly a week had passed, when she came again, but
always seemed uneasy unless the door were open. days afterwards she came up as usual, and jumped on my
knee, at the same time putting a little kitten into my
hand. She refused to take it back again, so I restored it
to its brothers and sisters myself. A few hours afterwards,
on going into my bedroom, I found another black kitten
fast asleep on the bed.



THE CANADA LYNX 35

Cats are very fond of aromatic plants and several power-
ful scents. My own cat has just been discovered in the
act of eating the green tops
of a musk plant that was
standing in the window. Vale-
rian appears to be the great
attraction for cats; and any
one who is disposed to place
a plant of valerian in his gar- CATS) TAILS.* :
den must beware of the cats, for they will come in num-
bers, roll over it, and scratch up the plant until there is
not a vestige of it left. Moreover they will fight for the
fragments in various parts of the garden, and cause great
confusion among the seeds.

There are several varieties of the domestic cat, among
which the Angora cats, with their beautiful long fur, and
the Manx cats of the Chartreuse breed, which have no
tails, are the most conspicuous.



The Lywxes are remarkable for the pencil of hairs which
tufts their sharply pointed ears.

The Canapa Lynx
ig a native of North
America, and is re-
markable for its
gait. Its method of
progression is by
bounds from all
four feet at once,
with the back
arched. It feeds
principally on the
American hare, as
ib is not courageous
enough to attack
the larger quadru-

Lyncus.—(Gr. Adyé, a Lynx.)



Canadensis (Lat. of Canada), the
peds. Its length Canada Lyna. :

is about three feet.
The natives sometimes eat its flesh, which is white and
* . Tail of Domestic Cat; 2. Tail of Wild Cat,



36 THE CHETAH

firm, and not unlike that of the American hare itself. Its
skin forms an important article of commerce, and between
seven and nine thousand are imported yearly by the
Hudson’s Bay Company, by whom the grey specimen in
the British Museum was presented.

The CHETAH, or Huntinea LEoPARD, as it is sometimes
called, is one of the most elegant and graceful animals
known, It is a native both of Africa and India, but it is

GUEPARDA.



Jubata (Lat. crested), the Chetah.

only in the latter country that it is used for hunting game,
as the Africans appear not to possess sufficient ingenuity
to train the animal. The method of employing it is
usually as follows :—The Chetah is either led blind-folded
in a chain, or placed upon a hackery, or native cart, and
taken as near as possible to the place where antelopes or
deer are feeding. When close enough, the hunter takes
the band from its eyes, and directs its head towards the
game. Directly the Chetah sees the deer, ib creeps off the
cart, and makes towards them as rapidly and silently as it
can, carefully availing itself of the accidental cover of a



THE STRIPED HYHNA 37

bush, or stone, precisely as a cat does when stealing after
a bird. When it has succeeded in unobservedly approach-
ing the unsuspecting herd, it makes two or three tre-
mendous springs, and fastens on the back of one unfor-
tunate deer, brings it to the ground, and waits until its
keeper comes up, who induces it to leave its prey by a
ladle-full of the blood, which he takes care to have ready.
The Chetah is then hooded and led back to his cart. It is
so easily tameable and so gentle that it is frequently led
about the streets by a string for sale.

It is rather larger than the leopard, and differs from it
in the length of its paws, its inability to climb trees, and
the crispness of its fur. It is therefore placed ina different
genus from the leopard. It derives its name of ‘“ jubata”’
from a thin mane running down the neck.

The Hyentna, or Hyanas, are remarkable for their pre-
datory, ferocious, and withal cowardly habits. There are
several Hyzenas, the ;
striped, the spotted, Hyawa.—(Gr. “Yauva.)
and the villose, but
as the habits of all
are very similar,
only one will be
mentioned. The
Hyenas, although
very repulsive in
appearance, are yet
very useful, as they
prowl in search of
dead animals, espe-
cially of the larger
kinds, and will de-
vour them even Stridta (Lat. striped), the Striped Hyena.
when putrid, so that
they act the same part among beasts that the vultures do
among birds, and are equally uninviting in aspect. They
not unfrequently dig up recently interred corpses, and in
Abyssinia, according to Bruee, they even flock in numbers





38 THE CIVET CAT

into the village streets, where they prey on slaughtered men
who are thrown out unburied. One of these animals attacked
Bruce in his tent, and was only destroyed after a severe
battle. Their jaws and teeth are exceedingly powerful, as
they can crush the thigh-bone of an ox with apparently
little effort ; and so great is the strain upon the bones by
the exertions of these muscles, that the vertebree of the
neck become anchylosed, as it is called, that is, become
united together, and the animal has a perpetual stiff neck
in consequence. Before the anatomy of the hyena was
better known, people thought that it had only one bone in
its neck, The skull too is very strong, and furnished with
heavy ridges for the support of the muscles which move
the jaw.

The hinder parts of the Hyena are very small, and give
it a strange shambling appearance when walking. The
Hyzena is easily tamed, and even domesticated, so that the
tales of its untameable disposition are entirely erroneous.

The striped Hyena is found in many parts of Asia and
Africa, where it is both a benefit and a pest, for when dead
animals fail it, the flocks and herds are ravaged, and even
man does not always escape.

The VIVERRINA, or CIvETS, are active little animals,
averaging about two feet in length. The whole group is
celebrated for the
perfume which is
secreted in a glan-
dular pouch near the
tail, and is of some
importance in com-
merce.

The Civet is only
; found in North

Civetta (Arabic Zibette, scent), the Africa, especially, ae

Civet Cat. Abyssinia, where it

takes up its abode

on uncultivated and barren hills. It feeds upon birds
and the smaller quadrupeds, which it takes by surprise.

Viverra.—(Lat. a Ferret.)





THE ICHNEUMON 39

The Icuneumons, or Mancousts, well deserve their
name of Creepers, for with their long bodies and snouts,
their short limbs and slender tails, they insinuate them-
selves into every crevice in their way in search of their
expected food. Few animals are more useful than the -
Ichneumons. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles’ eggs, or even
young crocodiles themselves, form their principal food,
and their activity is so great that, when these sources fail,
they are able to secure birds, and even seize upon the
swift and wary lizards, which, when alarmed, dart off like
streaks of green light glancing through the bushes.

HERPESTES.—(Gr. Eprnorhs, a creeper.)



Ichneumon (Gr. ixveduor, a tracker), the Egyptian Ichnewmon.

The Egyptian Ichneumon, or Pharaoh’s Rat, as it is
sometimes called, is a native of North Africa, and is often
domesticated for the purpose of destroying the various
snakes, and other reptile annoyances, which are such a
pest in the houses of hot countries. Its length without
the tail is about eighteen inches.

THE DOG.

We now arrive at the Dog Faminy, which includes the
Dogs, Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes. The first of the Dogs
is the Kolsun, or Dhale, which inhabits Bombay and
Nepaul. It hunts in packs, as most of the dogs do even
in a wild state, and has been known to destroy tigers
and chetahs. Let us pass to a more interesting animal,
the Newfoundland Dog. This magnificent creature was
originally brought from Newfoundland. It is often con-

‘



40 THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG

founded with the Labrador Dog, a larger and more power-
ful animal. Both these dogs are trained by their native
masters to draw sledges and little carriages, and on that
account are highly esteemed. The Newfoundland Dog is
well known as a most faithful guardian of its master’s
property. It is remarkably fond of the water, and will

CANIS.



LATIN MS
f TaN
Y ARI wn ~

fi

Familidvis (Lat. familiar), the Newfoundland Dog.

fetch out any article that its master indicates, and lay it
at his feet. Many instances are known of this noble
animal saving the lives of people that have fallen into the
water, and must have perished but for its timely aid.

This is one of the largest of the dogs, as it stands
nearly two feet two inches in height. =‘

Tue BuroopHounp.—There are several varieties of this
animal, inhabiting Cuba, Africa, and England. They all
are endowed with a wonderfully acute sense of smell, and



THE BLOODHOUND—THE FOXHOUND 4]

can trace a man or animal with almost unerring certainty.
The Cuban Bloodhound was formerly employed by the
Spaniards to hunt down the natives while endeavouring
to escape from their invasions, A few years since, one of
these dogs saved the life of its master, an American



THE BLOODHOUND.

hunter, by boldly attacking a puma which had sprung on
him in the darkness, and was lacerating him in a dreadful
manner, The sagacious animal had been tied up at home,
but apparently knowing the dangers of the forests through
which his master was about to pass, he broke his chain,
and arrived barely in time to save the hunter from a
horrible death.

The Foxnounp and Brace are not very dissimilar in
form or habits. They both follow game by the scent, and
are used in hunting. The Foxhound, as its name implies,
is used for hunting the fox, and enters into the sport with
extraordinary eagerness. The height of the foxhound is
about twenty-two inches.

The BEAGLE is used principally for hare hunting. It is
much smaller than the foxhound, and not nearly so swift,



42 ; THE BEAGLE-



THE FOXHOUND.

but its scent is so perfect that it follows every track of the
flying hare, unravels all her windings, and seldom fails to
secure her at last. Sportsmen usually prefer the smallest
beagles obtainable. The most valuable pack of these dogs
known used to be carried to and from the field in a pair
of panniers slung across a horse’s back. Unfortunately,
this pack was so well known, that numerous were the
attempts to gain possession of it. One ill-fated evening,
as the dogs were returning in their panniers after the
day’s sport, the keeper was decoyed away by some strata-
gem, and when he returned, his dismay was great to find
that the dogs, panniers, and horse were all missing. No
traces of them were discovered, and it was conjectured
that they must have been sold on the Continent. It is
a common custom in the military schools, and sometimes
at the universities, to follow the beagle on foot. There
has been for several years a society at Oxford, who thus
hunt cn foot. As too much time would be lost in looking
for a living hare, a dead rabbit is trailed along the ground,
and as its fur has been rubbed with aniseed, the dogs can
follow it easily.



{HE POINTER—THE MASTIFF 43

The Pointer is used by sportsmen to point out the
spot where the game lies. It ranges the fields until it
scents the hare or partridge lying close on the ground.
It then remains still as if carved in stone, every limb



THE POINTER,

fixed, and the tail pointing straight’ behind it. In this .
attitude it remains until the gun is discharged, reloaded,
and the sportsman has reached the place where the bird
sprang.

The group of the Mastirr dogs is: distinguished by the
shortness of the nose and the breadth of the head. This
group includes the mastiff, the bull-dog, and the almost
obsolete absurd little pug-dog. The breadth of their heads
is caused by the large muscles which move the jaw.

The English Mastiff is generally employed as a house-
dog, as its powerful frame and deep voice are well fitted to
scare away marauders, or to repel them if they approach
.too near. It is by far the most sagacious of the whole
group, and exhibits much more attachment to its master
than the others. This animal has been called by several
names, of which “Ban-dog” is the best known. Bewick

D



A4 THE BULL-DOG



THE MASTIFF.

thinks that the ban-dog is a separate species, of a lighter
make than the ordinary English mastiff.

The Butz-poc is proverbial for courage and endurance.
Unfortunately its social qualities are by no means pleasing,
as, although it has
some attachment to
its master, yet it is
not always safe even
for him to disturb
it. This dog was
extensively used in
the cruel sport of
bull-baiting, a re-
creation now extinct.
When opposed to
the bull, the dog
: would fly at its

THE BULL-DOG. nose, and there hang
in spite of all the infuriated animal’s struggles,





THE ENGLISH TERRIER 45

The Terrizrs never grow to any considerable size.
There are several breeds of terriers, among which the
English and Scotch are most conspicuous. These dogs are
principally used for
destroying rats or
other vermin, and
are so courageous
that they do not he-
sitate to unearth the
fox or the badger.
Otters are also hunt-
ed by them, but
prove by no means
an easy prey, as their
snake - like body,
sharp teeth, and
amphibious habits
vender them very
difficult to seize, and their tenacity of life will frequently
enable them to escape when the dog considers them dead.

Terriers are extremely attached to their master, and are
capable of learning many amusing tricks.



THE ENGLISH TERRIER,

LE,

Nea,



THE SHEPHERD'S DOG.



A6 THE SHEPHERD'S DOG—THE GREYHOUND

The SHEPHERD’s Doc is a rough, shaggy animal, with
sharp pointed ears and nose. It is an invaluable assistant
to the shepherd, as it knows all its master’s sheep, never
suffers them to stray, and when two flocks have mixed, it
will separate its own charge with the greatest certainty.
It understands every look and gesture of its beloved
master, and drives the flock to any place which he points
out.



THE GREYHOUND,

The GrevHounp is the swiftest of all dogs, and is
principally used in the pursuit of the hare, which amuse-
ment is termed coursing. It has but little delicacy. of
scent, and hunts almost entirely by sight. The hare en-
deavours to baffle it by making sharp turns, which the dog
cannot do on account of its superior size, and has there-
fore to take a circuit, during which the hare makes off in
another direction. The hare also has the property of
stopping almost instantaneously when at full speed. It
puts this manceuvre into force, when it is nearing its.
favourite hiding-place. It induces the dog to spring upon
it, and then suddenly checks itself. The dog is carried
twenty or thirty yards forward by its own momentum, and
the hare springs off to her place of refuge.



THE FOX 47

The Fox.—This terror of hen-roosts and delight of
sportsmen is found in most parts of England, and many
other countries. It varies very much in colour and size,
according to the country where it lives.

The habits of this animal are mostly nocturnal. It lies
by day concealed in its burrow, if it be fortunate enough
to possess one, or in the depths of some thicket, if it is
not a householder. Towards evening it sallies out in
search of food, and woe to: the unfortunate hare, rabbit,
pheasant, or fowl that comes in its way !

Vutprs.—(Lat. a Fox.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Fox.

Sometimes he steals into the hen-roost, destroys and
carries off most of its inmates, some of which he devours
on the spot, others he carries home, and the remainder he
buries for a future repast.

When irritated, the fox gives out a strong disagreeable
scent, which lies so long on the ground that it may be
perceived for nearly an hour after the fox has passed.
Partly on this account, and partly on account of its speed,
endurance, and cunning, the chase of the fox is one of
the most admired English sports.



48 THE WEASELS—THE PINE MARTEN

The MustEtina, or WEAasELs, are easily distinguished
by their long slender bodies, short muzzle, sharp teeth,
and predatory habits. They inhabit almost every part of
the world, and procure their food by creeping on the
unsuspecting victim, generally a rabbit, rat, or bird, and
then suddenly darting at it and piercing its neck with
their sharp teeth. Almost all the weasels devour the
brain and suck the blood of their prey, but seldom touch
the flesh, unless they are pressed by hunger.

Two kinds of Martens inhabit England, named, from
their favourite haunts, the Pine and the Beech Marten.
Some naturalists as-

sert that these two
Oe martens are not dis-
tinct animals, but
only varieties of the
same species. The
Pine Marten is not
uncommon in Der-
byshire, where it is
much too fond of
chickens and duck-
lings to be a de-
sirable neighbour.

co}
This animal, as well

Manrers,—(Lat. a Marten.)



HANA SS

: ; as the Sable,i :
Abictum (Lat. of the Pine-tree), the Pine 2 bi a ON ante
“‘Murten. sought after on ac-

count of its skin,
which furnishes a beautiful fur, not much inferior to.
that of the Sable.

The Sroat, or Ermine, is also another common English
animal, It is smaller than the polecat, but its habits are
scarcely less predaceous. Hares and rabbits fall easy
victims to their little enemy, who despatches them with a
single bite, penetrating the brain. During the winter,
the stoat becomes partially white, in northern countries
wholly so, except the tip of the tail, which remains black.
In this state it is called the Ermine, and is killed in great



THE WEASEL 49

numbers for the
sake of its beautiful Musria.—(Lat. a Weasel.)
and valuable fur.

The WEAsEL is
the least of this
tribe. It is exces-
sively useful to far-
mers, aS it wages
unrelenting war on 3
rats and mice, and Erminéa.— The Stout.
in an incredibly
short space of time extirpates them from a barn or stack.
It hunts by scent like dogs, and tracks the unfortunate
rat with the most i
deadly certainty. It Se ee
is a most courage-
ous little animal,
and will evenattack
men, who have
found it by no
means a despicable
antagonist, as its
instinct invariably
leads it to dash at
the throat, where a bite from its long sharp teeth would
be very dangerous.





Vulgiris (Lat. common), the Weasel.

The Bapcrr.—This harmless and much injured animal
(which is often subjected to such ill treatment that the
term “badgering’”’ a person is used to express irritating
him in every possible way) is found throughout Europe
and Asia, It is not now very common in England, but is
frequently found in Scotland, where it is termed the
“ Brock.”

The Badger lives at the bottom of deep burrows which
it excavates, and in which it passes all the day, sleeping
on a very comfortable bed of hay and grass. When the
evening approaches it seeks its food, consisting of roots,



50 THE BADGER

fruit, insects, and sometimes young rabbits. It is also
said to attack the wild bee, and boldly to devour the
honey and combs, its thick hair and skin rendering it
utterly regardless of the stings of the enraged bees, who
“might as s well attack a barber's block.”

The cruel sport of
baiting the badger
is still continued,
although not so
openly or frequently
as a few years back.
The poor creature
is placed inside a
kennel, and dogs set
at it, who are not un-
frequently worsted
by the badger, as
its bite is terrific,
andits skin sotough,
and hair so thick,
a that the bites of the

Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Badger. dog do not take full

effect.

The power of the badger’s bite is caused principally
by the manner in which the under jaw is seb on. Not
only are its teeth sharp, and the leverage of its jaw
powerful, but the jaw is so contrived, that when the crea-
ture closes its mouth, the jaw locks together as it were,
and is-held fast without much exertion on the part of the
badger.

Its skin is rather valuable, the hair being extensively
employed in the manufacture of brushes, and its fur being
in some request for holsters. The length of the badger is
about two feet three inches.

Metrs.—(Lat. a Badger.)



SSS

The Orrrr seems to play the same part in the water as
the polecat and the other weasels on the land. Like the
polecat, it is excessively rapacious; like the polecat, it
destroys many more creatures than it can devour; and as



THE OTTER 51

the polecat only eats the brain and sucks the blood, so the
other daintily eats the flakes at the back of the fish’s neck,
and leaves the remainder for less fastidious animals.

It is extremely interesting to watch the actions of this
almost amphibious creature. It slides noiselessly into the
‘water, turns and twists about below the surface with the
same or greater ease
than a fish, then, Lurra.—(Lat. an Otter.)
with a_ graceful
sweep of the body,
it glides to the sur-
face and ascends the
bank with almost
the same motion.
While below the
surface it bears a
greatresemblanceto Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Olter.
the seal, the method
in which it disposes its hind feet greatly assisting the
effect. Its rapid and easy movements in the water are
‘mostly performed by the assistance of its powerful tapering
tail.

The otter is easily tamed, and its predatory habits have
been occasionally turned to account, as it is sometimes
trained to catch fish and bring them to shore, precisely as
the falcon is trained to catch terrestrial game.

The Hindoos have brought the art of otter training to
great perfection, and keep their otters regularly tethered
with ropes and straw collars on the banks of the river.





The Bears and their allies are mostly heavy, and walk
with the whole foot placed flat on the ground, unlike the
cats, dogs, &c., who walk with merely their paws or toes.
All the bears are omnivorous, that is, they can eat either
animal or vegetable food, so that a leg of mutton, a pot of
honey, a potato, or an apple, are equally acceptable.

The Brown Bear inhabits the north of Europe, Switzer-
Jand, and the Pyrenees. It has been extirpated from



52 THE BEAR

England for many centuries, but is recorded to have been
found in Scotland so late as 1057. The inhabitants of
Northern Europe hunt it with much skill, and take it in
traps and pibfalls.

In the time of Queen Elizabeth the bear used to be
baited, that is to say, the bear was tied to a pole, and

URSUS.



Arctos (Gr. “Aprros, a bear), the Bear,

several dogs were set at him, the object being, to see
whether the bear could bite the dogs, or the dogs bite the
bear with the greater force; but this cruel sport is now
happily extinct. s

The Grizzty Brar.— Bernardin de St. Pierre said,—
‘At the sight of man, all animals are struck either with
love or fear.’ He forgot to mention a third impression
made on many animals when they see a man, namely,



THE GRIZZLY BEAR 53
‘hunger, and a great desire to eat him.’” This observa-
tion applies most fully to the Grizzly Bear, a native of
North America. It is the most ferocious and powerful
of its family, and is an animal which must either be
avoided or fought, for there is no medium. If a Grizzly
Bear once sees a man, it will probably chase him, and will
do so with great perseverance. An American traveller
told me lately, that he had been chased nearly thirty

URSUS,



ively Bear.

miles by one of these bears, who would probably have
kept up the chase as many miles more, had not my infor-
-mant crossed a wide river, over which the bear did not
choose to follow him.

The Grizzly Bear is marvellously tenacious of life.
Sometimes, it is said, after a party of hunters have been
combating one of these bears, it is impossible to find four
square inches of sound skin in the animal’s body, a ball



54 THE POLAR BEAR

through the brain, or heart, affording the only means of
safety to the hunter.

It is rather singular that this bear has the power of
moving each claw separately, as we move our fingers.
It is able to overcome and carry off the enormous bison,
and to dig a pit in which to bury it.

THALARCTOS.—(Gr. from @dAagca, the sea, and &pros, a bear.)



Maritimus (Lat. belonging to the sca), the Polar Bear.

The Potar, or Wuitr Berar, called Nennook by the
Esquimaux, lives in the Arctic regions, where it feeds on
seals, fish, and even the Walrus, but it dares not attack
the latter animal openly. It is a formidable antagonist
either by land or water, as it dives with great ease, and is
able to chase the seal amid the waves. Ag the seals
frequently crawl out of the water upon rocks or fragments
of ice, the Polar bear is forced to swim after them; but
lest they should observe him he makes his approaches by
a succession of dives, and contrives that the last dive



THE RACOON 55

brings him directly under the unsuspecting seal, who is
immediately grasped and killed. Richardson states that
these bears are often drifted from Greenland to Iceland on
fields of ice, and that they find the flocks and herds so
very delicious after a long course of seal diet, that the
inhabitants are forced to rise in a body and put an end to
their depredations.

To give this animal, who is constantly running over
fields of ice, a firm footing, the soles of its feet are thickly
covered with long hair.

The Racoon is an animal about the size of a large fox,
and an inhabitant of Canada and other parts of America.
It derives its name, Jotor, from the habit it is said to
possess, of washing its food -before eating it. Its skin is
very valuable, and is much sought after by American
hunters.

The food of the Proc¥ox.—(Gr. Mporbwv, a constellation.)
Racoon is princi- gH
pally small animals VER
and insects. Oysters
are also a very fa-
vourite article of its
diet. It bites off the
hinge of the oyster,
and scrapes out the
animal in fragments
with its paws. Like
a squirrel when eat-
ing a nut, the Ra-
coon usually holds
its food between its Lotor (Lat. a washer), the Racoon.
fore-paws pressed
together, and sits upon its hind quarters while it eats.
Poultry are very favourite objects of its attack, and it
is said to be as destructive in a farm-yard as any fox,
for it only devours the heads of the murdered fowl. Like
the fox, it prowls by night.

When taken young it is easily tamed, but very fre-

A
<<

oS





56 THE MOLE

quently becomes blind soon after its capture. This effect
is supposed to be produced by the sensitive state of its
eyes, which are only intended to be used by night; but as
it is frequently awakened by daylight during its captivity,
it suffers so much from the unwonted glare, that its eyes
gradually lose their sight.

The Morz.—Many ridiculous stories of the Mole and its
habits may-be found in several authors, among whom Ausop
stands very conspicuous. This much maligned animal is
said to be deprived of eyes, to undergo unheard-of tortures
in forcing its way through the earth, and to spend a life of
misery in subterranean damp and darkness. But so far
from being a miserable animal, the mole seems to enjoy its
life quite as much as any other creature. It is beautifully
fitted for the station which it fills, and would be unhappy
if removed from its accustomed damp and darkness into
warmth and light.

The eyes of the mole are very small, in order to prevent
them from being injured by the earth through which

the animal makes its

TALPA, way ; indeed, larger

5 eyes would be use-

less underground.
When, however, the
mole requires to use
its eyes, 1b can bring
them forward from
the mass of fur
which conceals and
Europea (Lat. belonging to Hurope), the Mole. protects them when
‘ not in use. The

acute ears and delicate sense of smell supply the place of
eyes. Its fur is very fine, soft, capable of turning in any
direction, and will not retain a particle of mould. But the
most extraordinary part of the mole is the paw or hand
with which it digs. The two fore paws are composed of
five fingers, armed with sharp, strong nails, in order to
scrape up the earth; and to prevent the accumulated





THE MOLE 57

mould from impeding the mole’s progress, the hands are
turned outwardly, so as to throw the earth out of its way.
_. The mole is a most voracious animal, and is incapable

of sustaining even a slight fast. Its principal food is the
earth-worm, in chase of which it drives its long galleries
underground ; but it also will eat insects, bits of meat, and
is said sometimes to catch birds, which it takes by surprise,
and then rapidly tears to pieces with its powerful claws.
This ravenous appetite causes it to suffer from thirst if a
supply of water is not at hand. For this reason the mole
always makes a tunnel towards a pond or brook, if there is
one near. If no water is near, it digs a number of little
wells, which receive the rain or dew, and enable it to
quench its thirst.

It is a good swimmer, and can pass from bank to bank,
or from the shore to an island, and when the fields are
inundated by floods it can save itself by swimming.

The construction of the mole’s habitation is very singu-
lar and interesting.
Each mole has its
own habitation and
hunting ground, and
will not permit
strangers to trespass
upon its preserves,
which it guards, not
by “man-traps and spring-guns,” but by its own claws
and teeth. ; ae

In order to construct a fortress, the mole selects a secure
place, as the foot of a tree, or the side of a high bank. It
then throws up a heap of earth, which it presses firmly
together, as within this mould its fortress has to be made.
It commences by running a circular gallery near the summit
of the mound, and another larger one near the bottom.
These two galleries it connects by five descending passages.
' In the very centre of the mound, and at the level of the
ground, it now digs a circular hole, which it connects with
the upper gallery by three ascending passages. Lastly, it
makes a number of passages from the lower gallery, and



















MOLE HILL.



58 THE MOLE

connects the circular chamber with the largest of them, or
high road, by a passage that first bends downwards, and
then rises into the high road a little outside the large gallery.
In the circular chamber the mole sleeps, and can escape
into the high road either by the upper gallery or by the
road from the bottom of its dormitory.

I have already stated that each mole has its own hunt-
ing ground, and permits no intruder. If a strange mole
should happen to trespass upon the domains of another,
there would be a furious fight, and the conqueror would.
devour his vanquished foe.

Although each mole has its own hunting ground, yet
there are mostly high roads, which connect the different
hunting grounds with each other, and which are used by
many individuals in common, the only precaution taken
being, that if two males should happen to meet, the weaker
_ immediately retreats into one of the numerous side galleries
which open from the high road, and permits its aristocratical
neighbour to pass.

All the passions of the mole seem to be furious. Even
its passion for work, ¢.¢. search after its food, has some-
thing fierce init. The animal works desperately for several
hours, and then rests for as many hours. The country
people about Oxford say that it works at intervals of three
hours each, .

The mode of_ burrowing by this animal, is by rooting up
the earth with its snout, and then scooping it away with
its fore feet. I have often seen this operation performed.

The depth at which this animal works depends almost
entirely on the time of year. In the summer, the worms
come to the surface, and the mole accordingly follows them,
making quite superficial runs, and sometimes only scooping
trenches on the surface. But in the winter, when the
worms sink deep into the ground, the mole is forced to
follow them there, and as it cannot fast above an hour or
two, it is forced to work at the comparatively hard and
heavy soil, as it did in the light earth nearer the surface.

Moles vary in colour, the usual tint being a-very deep
brown, almost black, but they have been seen of an orange



THE SHREW MOUSE 59

colour, and a white variety is not uncommon. I have a
cream-coloured skin in my possession. There are several
moles known,—the Shrew Mole, the Changeable Mole,
the Cape Mole, and the Star-nosed Mole, are the most
conspicuous.

The Surew Movusz.—This pretty little animal is very
like the common mouse, but is easily distinguished from it
by the length of the nose, which is used for grubbing up
the earth in search of earth-worms and insects.

The reader must not imagine that the Shrew has any
connexion with the true mice. It belongs to an entirely
different class of animals, its teeth being sharp and pointed,
not unlike those of the mole and the hedgehog, whereas
those of the mouse are broad and chisel- -shaped like the
teeth of the rabbit.

A peculiar scent is diffused from these animals, which
is possibly the reason why the cat will not eat them,
although she will readily destroy them.

Many species of shrews are known, inhabiting various
countries. There are, besides the common species, the
Oared and the Water
Shrew, all three in- SORES. ay a Rat.)
habiting England. :
The formation of
their hair, as seen
under a powerful
microscope, is very
beautiful, but quite
distinct from the
hair of the mouse or
rat. In the autumn,
numbers of these little animals may be seen lying dead,
but what causes this destruction is not. known.

This is one of the numerous animals that have suffered
by false reports, and have been treated with great cruelty on
account of those fables. Rustics formerly believed that the
poor little harmless creature paralysed their cattle by run-
ning over them, and that the only way to cure the diseased

E



Aranéus cee a Shr a the Shrew Mouse.



60 Y THE HEDGEHOG

‘animal was to place a bough of shrew-ash on the injured
part. The shrew-ash was made by boring a hole into an
ash-tree, and -then plugging up in the hole a living shrew
mouse. By the same process of reasoning a shrew cut in
half, and placed on a wound supposed to be caused by its
bite, was considered a certain remedy.

The Hxrpcermoe, is remarkable as being our only English
animal that is guarded with spikes. These spikes are
fixed into the skin in a very beautiful and simple manner.

When the hedge-
Enrnackus.—(Lat. a Hedgehog.) hog is annoyed it
rolls itself up, and
the tightness of the
skin causes all its
spines to stand firm
and erect, bidding
defiance to an unpro-
tected hand. While
rolled up, even the
dog and the fox are
bafled by it; but
their ingenuity enables them to overcome the difficulty
by rolling it along until they push it into a puddle or
pool, when the astonished hedgehog immediately unrolls
itself to see what is the matter, and before it can close
itself again is seized by its crafty enemy.

Many more fortunate animals have outlived the asper-
sions cast upon their character by ignorant persons, but
the prejudice against the hedgehog is still in full vigour
in the agricultural districts. Scarcely a farmer or labourer
will be “persuaded that the hedgehog does not suck the
cows. Now this is an impossibility for the hedgehog ; but
I have seen pigs—not hedgepigs, but real bacon pigs—
suck the cows whilst lying down.

_ The food of the hedgehog consists not of cow’s milk,
but insects, snails, frogs, mice, and snakes. Dr. Buckland
placed a snake in the same box with the hedgehog. The
hedgehog gave the snake a severe bite, and then rolled



Europeus (Lat. belonging to Europe), the
Hedgehog.



THE KANGAROO 61

itself up, this process being repeated until the spine of the
snake was broken in several places; it then began at the
tail, and ate the snake gradually, as one would eat a radish.
White has seen it bore down and eat the roots of the
plantain, leaving the leaves and stem untouched.

The flesh of the hedgehog is said to be good eating, and
the gipsies frequently make it a part of their diet, as do the
people in some parts of the continent.

During the winter it lives in a torpid state, in a hole
well lined with grass and moss, and when discovered looks
like a round mass of leaves, as it has rolled itself among
the fallen foliage, which adheres to its spikes. The en-
graving of the spine, or quill, of this animal shows the
method by which it is retained in the skin. The quill is
as it were pinned through the skin, and retained by the
head. The curvature is such, that when the animal con-
tracts itself, the quills are drawn upright, and form a
strong and elastic covering, useful for more purposes than
merely defence from foes. The hedgehog has been known
to throw itself boldly from a considerable
height, trusting to the elasticity of the ¢ =
spring for breaking its fall. It will be
seen that when the spines are upright,
the shock of the fall would not tend to drive the end of
the quill upon the animal, but merely spend its force upon
the elasticity of the curved portion.

SPINE OF HEDGEHOG,

The Kancaroo.—In the mole we saw that the power of
the body was placed chiefly in the fore legs; we now come
to a family which has the principal power placed in the
hinder part of the body. In the Kangaroos the hind legs
are very long and immensely powerful; the fore legs are
very small, and used more as hands than for walking ; the
tail also is very thick and strong, and assists the animal in
its leaps.

The Great Kangaroo inhabits New Holland and Van
Diemen’s Land. Its singular formation, peculiarly adapted

_to the country, calls forth a corresponding degree of inge-
nuity on the part of the natives, who live much on its



62 THE KANGAROO

flesh. Its method of progression is by immense leaps from
its long hind legs.

The natural walking position of this animal is on all
four legs, although it constantly sits up on the hinder legs,
or even stands on a tripod composed of its feet and tail, in
order to look out over the tops of the luxuriant grass
among which it lives. The leaping movements are required
for haste or escape, the length of each leap being about

fifteen feet.
MACROPT.



Major (Lat. larger), the Kangaroo.

Hunting this animal is a very favourite sport with both
colonists and natives. The natives either knock it down
with the boomerang, spear it from behind a bush, or unite
together and hem in a herd, which soon fall victims to the
volleys of clubs, spears, and boomerangs which pour in on
all sides. The colonists either shoot it or hunt it with
dogs, a pack of which is trained for that purpose just as



THE OPOSSUM 63

we train fox-hounds. The “old man,” or “boomer,” as
the colonists call the Great Kangaroo, invariably leads the
dogs a severe chase, always attempting to reach water and
escape by swimming. It is a formidable foe to the dogs
when it stands at bay, as it seizes the dog with its fore-
legs, and either holds him under water until he is drowned,
or tears him open with a well-directed kick of its powerful
hind feet, which are armed with a very sharp claw.

The female Kangaroo carries its young about in a kind
of pouch, from which they emerge when they wish for a
little exercise, and leap back again on the slightest alarm.
All the kangaroos and the opossums have this pouch, from
which they are called “marsupiated” animals, from the
Latin word marsupium, a purse or pouch.

The length of the Great Kangaroo is about five feet
without the tail, the length of which is about three feet.

There are many species of kangaroo, the most extra-
ordinary being the Tree Kangaroo, which can hop about on
trees, and has eurved
claws on its fore-
paws, like those of
the sloth, to enable
it to hold on the
branches.

DipELrHys.—(Gr. Als, double; deAgds, a
pouch. )

The Opossum. —
This animal inhabits
North America, and
is hunted with al-
most as much per-
severance as the ra-
coon, not, however,
for the sake of its
fur but of its flesh.
When it perceives
the -hunter, it lies
still between the branches, but if disturbed from its hiding-
place, it attempts to escape by dropping among the herbage
and creeping silently away. ;



Virginiina (Lat. belonging to Virgint«), the
Opossum.



64 THE COMMON SEAL

Its food consists of insects, birds, eggs, &c., and it is
very destructive among the hen-roosts. ‘The Opossum. uses
its tail for climbing and swinging from branch to branch,
as the spider monkeys use theirs; but the Opossum uses
its tail in a manner that the monkeys have never yet been
observed to do, that is, making it a support for its young,
who sit on its back and twist their tails round their
mother’s in order to prevent them from falling off.

It is a most crafty animal, and when overtaken by its
pursuers, can simulate death so admirably, that it fre-
quently deceives the foe, and quietly makes its escape.

The length of the Opossum is about twenty-two inches,
and its height about that of an ordinary cat. When dis-
turbed or alarmed, it gives out a very unpleasant odour.

The Seats and Waa es, although they are truly mam-
malia, are inhabitants of the water, and specially formed
for an aquatic existence.

The fore-feet of the Seal are used as fins, and the two
hinder feet almost as the tail of a fish, to assist and direct
its course. On land the movements of this animal are
very clumsy ; it shuffles along by means of its fore-feet, or
rather paddles, and drags its hind-feet after it.

The Common Seat inhabits the coast of Europe, and is
not unfrequently found in many parts of the Scottish coasts,
where seal-hunting is a favourite amusement. The young
are taken by stretching nets across the narrow straits
which they frequent, but the older and stronger animals
are shot or knocked down with clubs when they attempt
to scramble into the sea, as a blow on the nose instantly
disables them.

A young seal was tamed by the guard of a small island
in the Frith of Forth, above Edinburgh. It seemed quite
to consider itself one of the party, would accompany their
boat across the water, and when the vessel was made- fast
it used to take its station inside, and watch until the
owners returned. It had the playful manners of a water-
dog, and would snatch a stick from its master’s hand, and
dash into the sea with it, where it would toss and tumble



THE WALRUS 65

about, sometimes approaching close to the shore, and
swimming off again when its master attempted to grasp
the stick; but it : :
invariably brought Proca.—(Gr. &4en, a Seal, Seal kind.)
back whatever it
had taken. It would
also bring fish out
of the water, and
give them to its
owners.

- The length of the
Common Seal is
about four or five
feet, and its weight often two hundred and twenty-four
pounds. When surprised basking on the shore, it scram-
bles off towards the water; but if intercepted, dashes at
its antagonist, oversets him if possible, and makes its escape
as fast as It can.

There are many Sub-family ¢. Trichectna. -
TricHicus.-—(Gr. Tpextxds, hairy.)

seals known, among Sasi

which are the Sea ees
Leopard, a spotted
species; the Harp
Seal, so called be-
cause the markings
on its back resem-
ble a lyre; the Sea
Bear and the Sea
Lion.





The Watrus_ in-
habits the northern

seas, but has been 2 aah :

k 3 t cae bee Rosmirus (Scandinavian, Rosmar,* the ,
nown to visit Our Walrus), the Walrus, or Aforse.

coasts. Three in- Be

* In the Scandinavian tongue, the word ‘Ros’ signifies horse, and ‘Mar’ sea. The
meaning of the word ‘Rosmar’ is thus ‘Sea horse.’ Sometimes the two syllables
are transposed, making the word ‘ Mar-ros,’ which we contract into ‘ Morse."

In the same manner ‘Walrus’ is an Anglicism of Hval-ros, or Whale-horse.
The reader will notiee the resemblance of these words to the corresponding
words in German:



66 THE CETACEA, OR WHALES

stances of this have happened, one in 1817, one in 1825 at
the Orkney Isles, and a third in 1839 at the mouth of the
Severn. The most remarkable point in the Walrus is the
great length of its upper canine teeth, which extend down-
wards for nearly two feet, and resemble the tusks of the
elephant. They furnish very fineivory, and are extensively
used by dentists in making artificial teeth, as teeth made
from them remain white much longer than those made from
the tusks of elephants. These tusks are used by the Walrus
for climbing the rocks or heaps of ice, and also for digging
up the sea-weeds on which the animal mostly subsists. It
will also eat shrimps and young seals.
The Walrus is often hunted for the
sake of its oil, its flesh, its skin, and its
teeth. It is generally found in troops ;
and if one is wounded, its companions
rush to its rescue, and attack the enemy
with their sharp tusks, which they have
WALRUS STERULTS been known to drive through the bottom
of a boat. The length of the Walrus is
about Afton or sixteen feet, and it yields from twenty to
thirty gallons of excellent oil.



The Crracea, or WHALE tribe, closely resemble the
fishes, and have often been placed among these animals by
naturalists. They, however, are distinguished by possess-
ing warm blood, and, in conseqtience, being forced to rise
at intervals in order to breathe the air, instead of separating
from the water, by means of their gills, sufficient oxygen
for supporting life.

Yet the whale remains under water for a time so much
longer than could be borne by any other warm-blooded
animal, that the most indifferent observer cannot fail to
perceive that the whale is furnished with some plan for
supporting life during its stay beneath the water.

The manner in which this object is attained is at once
beautiful and singular. Jivery one knows that the object
of breathing is to oxygenize the blood, which in its course
through the body becomes deprived of its native qualities,



GREENLAND WHALE 67

and is actually poisonous. If the blood is not renewed, it
causes apoplexy and death, as is the case when a person is
strangled or drowned. The most natural way to supply
this want in the whale would be to give it much more
lungs, in order that it might take into its body a reservoir
of air, from which the blood might be renewed. But if

BaLana.—(Gr. Badawa, a Whale. Whale kind.)

































































Mysticétus (Gr. Méorat, a moustache ; «970s, asea monster), the Whale.

this were the case, the animal would be seriously incon-
venienced by such an amount of air, which would make it
too buoyant, and prevent it from diving into the depths of
the sea. But there must be a reservoir somewhere, and,
therefore, instead of a reservoir of air to arterialize the -
blood, there is a reservoir of blood already arterialized.
Along the interior of the ribs there is a vast collection
of blood-vessels, ramifying from one another, and capable
of containing a large quantity of blood, having no imme-
diate connexion with that portion of the blood which is
already circulating in the body. As fast as the exhausted



68 -FOOD OF THE WHALE

and poisonous blood returns from its work, it passes into
another reservoir adapted for its necessities, while a por-
tion of the arterialized blood in the arterial reservoir
passes into the circulation, It will be seen from this
statement, that the whale, and others of the same order,
possess more blood in proportion than any animals. By
means of this wonderful apparatus, a whale can remain
below the water for more than half an hour at a time.

The depths to which the whale can descend are astonish-
ing, wounded whales having been known to take down
perpendicularly nearly 800 fathoms of line. The pressure
of the water at this depth is very great, amounting, ac-
cording to Scoresby’s calculation, to "911, 200 tons. ‘This
pressure would certainly cause the water to burst through
their nostrils, and enter the lungs, were it not that the
nostrils are formed so as to close themselves more firmly -
as the pressure of water increases,

The great Greenland Whale is found in the Northern
Oceans, living amid ice and perpetual cold. Many ships
are annually fitted out for the capture of this creature,
which, unhappily for itself, furnishes oil and whalebone.
The oil is obtained from the thick layer of fatty substance,
called blubber, which lies immediately under the skin ;
and the whalebone—which, by the way, is not bone at all
—is obtained from the interior of the mouth, where it
fringes the jaws, and acts as a sieve for the whale to strain
his food through. The throat of the Greenland Whale is
so small, that the sailors, who always use forcible ex-
pressions, say that a penny loaf would choke a whale.
The greater proportion of its food consists of a little crea-
ture, about an inch and a
half long, called Clio bore-
alis, one of the marine Mol-
lusca, belonging to the class
sae Pteropida, or wing-footed

JAW OF GREENLAND WHALE. creatures, so called because

it propels itself through

the water with two wing-like organs. The whale, when
it wishes to feed, rushes through the water with its im-





THE CACHALOT 69

mense jaws wide open, enclosing a host of little sea
animals, and a few hogsheads of water. As the whale
only wants the animals, and not the water, it shuts its
mouth, and drives all the water out through the fringes of
whalebone, leaving the little creatures in its jaws.

The Whale shows great
attachment to its young,
which is called the cub,
and on the approach of
danger, seizes it with its
fin or flipper, and carries it
down out of danger. The
Whale has no fins, properly
so called, as it is not a fish,
but one of the mammalia.
Its flippers, which supply
the place of fins, are in fact
fore-legs, furnished with a TES ERTG CT
kind of hand covered with
a thick skin. They seem to be principally employed in
balancing the animal. The hind-legs are wanting. The
length of this Whale averages sixty feet. Its tail is placed
transversely, and not vertically, as in the fishes.



The Cacuatot.—This animal is not furnished with
“baleen,” or whalebone, but is armed with a number of
strong conical teeth, which are placed in the lower jaw, and
which are often used in defending itself from the attacks of
the whalers’ boats. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is
an under jaw-bone of this whale, sixteen and a half feet
in length, containing forty-eight huge teeth. Besides this
method of defence, it has a very unpleasant habit of
swimming off to a distance, and then rushing at the ©
boat with its head, thereby knocking it to pieces. One
of these whales actually sank a ship by three or four
blows from its head.

Spermaceti is obtained from the head of the Cachalot,
and it is this substance that causes the immense size of
the head. When the whale is killed, a hole is made in



70 . THE CACHALOT

the upper part of the head, and the spermaceti is baled
out with buckets. When just procured it is almost fluid,
but is rendered solid and transparent by being first drained
of its oil, then boiled in water, and lastly set to cool in

PuysiTEr.—(Gr. évonrhp, a blow-pipe, or bellows.)



aT =
on

Macrocephilus (Gr. Maxpés, long; Kepaadn, a head), the Cachadot,
or Spermacett IVhale.

wide pans, where it soon assumes the white flaky appear-
ance so well known in this country. The skull of the
Cachalot occupies a comparatively small portion of the
head, the huge mass at the end of the mouth being com-
posed of a gristly kind of substance. The bone of the
upper jaw occupies about one-fourth of the distance
between the mouth and the top of the snout. It runs
backwards nearly straight until just before the eyes, when
it joins the remainder of the skull with a bold sweep.
That part of the skull is called “ Neptune’s Chair” by the
sailors, and is the part where the spermaceti is found.



THE DOLPHIN 71

The layer of blubber is thin, but yields a fine and valu-
able oil.

Ambergris, so long a riddle to all inquirers, is now found
to be produced in the interior of the Cachalot. This sub-
stance is of the consistency of wax, inflammable, and gives
out a kind of musky odour. It was once in great repute
as a medicine, but is now only used as a perfume.

The Cachalot, although an inhabitant of the Arctic seas,
has sometimes been found and captured off. our coasts.
The length of this whale is about seventy feet.

Those readers who have formed their ideas of DoLPHIns
from the very graceful and elegant creatures represented
under that name in the pictures of the “old masters,” or
the statues of the ancient sculptors, will find that the real
animal differs as much from the ideal, as the red and green
lions wearing golden collars, represented in heraldry, differ
from the lion of
Africa. Sad to Derpuinus.—(Lat. a Dolphin.)
say, almost the ; F
whole history of
the Dolphin is
imaginary — very
poetical, but very
untrue. The red
and blue colours of 3F : =
the heraldic lion Aiea
are not less fa- Delphis, the Dolphin.
bulous than the
changing tints of the dying dolphin, so dear to poetry.
Alas! our unpoetical Dolphin, when we have harpooned
and brought him on deck, is only black and white, and
all the change that he makes, is that the black becomes
brown i in time, and the white changes to grey.

The creature that really displays these colours hen
dying, is a fish called the Coryphene, and not a cetaceous
animal of any kind. The sailors generally call it the

Dolphin, which has led to the mistake,





72 THE PORPOISE

6
We will leave poetry and its beautiful errors, and pass

on to facts. The Dolphin is, like the whale, a warm-
blooded animal, suckles its young, and is forced to come
to the surface in order to breathe. Its snout is very long,
and is apparently used for capturing such fish, and other
animals, as live in the mud.

The length is from six to ten feet. Several species
of Dolphin are known, of which the British Museum
possesses Six.

The Porroisr.—These animals may be observed in
plenty playing their absurd antics off every coast of Eng-
land. “There are numbers of them off the Nore, a place
which they frequent greatly, as it is the mouth of a river,
and they find more food there than in the open sea.
They tumble at the surface of the water for the purpose
of breathing.

In the olden times, when glass windows were considered
an effeminate luxury, and rushes supplied the place of
carpets, the flesh of the Porpoise constituted one of the

standard delicacies

_ PHocawxa.—(Gr. bdxave, a Porpoise.) of a public feast,
but it haslong since
been deposed from
itsrankatthe table.
Like most of the
cetacea, its flesh has
a very strong oily
flavour which, how-

Comminis (Lat. common), the Porpotse, over relished by oD

or Porpesse. Esquimaux, is not
agreeable to the
palate of an European epicure of the present day.

The voracity of the Porpoise is very great. It feeds
on various fishes, but its great feasts are held when the
periodical shoals of herrings, pilchards, and other fish
arrive on the coasts. In the pursuit of its prey, it fre-
quently ventures some distance up a river, and is then
often taken in nets by the fishermen.





THE NARWHAL 73

~ The teeth of this animal are very numerous, and inter-
lock when the jaws are closed, so that the fish when once
seized cannot escape. Its length is about five feet; its
colour a rich black, becoming white on the under side.

The Narwnat.—Although the Narwhal has not suffered
from false reports so much as many other animals, yet it
has unwittingly contributed to propagate a very old error.
The spiral tusk of the Narwhal was accustomed to be sold
as the real horn of the unicorn; and as an accredited part
of that animal, forming direct proof of its existence, it
used to fetch a very high price. Of course, when the

Monoénon.—(Gr. Mévos, solitary ; é50és, or 45:v, 2 tooth.)



Monocéros (Gr. Mévos—xépas, a horn), the Narwhad.

whale fishery was established, the real owner of the horn
was discovered, and the unicorn left still enveloped in
mystery.

The name Monodon is not strictly correct, as the Nar-
whal possesses ¢wo of these tusks, one on each side of its



74 THE RODENTIA

head. Only the left tusk projects, the other remaining
within the head. Sometimes a specimen has been found
with both tusks projecting, and some think that when the
left tusk has been broken off by accident, the right one
becomes large enough to supply its place.

Although an inhabitant of the northern seas, it has
several times visited our coasts. Its body is from thirty
to forty feet in length, and its tusk from five to nine.

The Manatees and Dugongs belong to the Cetacea, but
are omitted from want of space.



WE now arrive at the RopEnTIA, or gnawing animals,
so called from their habit of gnawing through, or paring
away, the substances on which they feed. For this pur-
pose their teeth are admirably formed, and by these teeth
it is always easy to ascertain a member of the Rodents.
They have none of those sharp teeth called canine, such
as are seen in the lions and in those animals which seize
and destroy living animals, but in the front of each jaw
there are two long flat teeth, slightly curved, and having
a kind of chisel edge for rasping away wood, or other
articles.

The constant labour which these teeth undergo, would
rapidly wear them away. To counteract this loss, the
teeth are constantly growing and being pushed forward,
so that as fast as the upper part is worn away, the tooth
is replenished from below. So constant is this increase,
that when an unfortunate rabbit, or other rodent, has lost
one of its incisors, the opposite one, meeting nothing to
stop its progress, continually grows, until sometimes the
tooth curls upwards over the lips, and prevents the
wretched animal from eating, until it is gradually starved
to death.

The Brown Rat, sometimes called the Norway Rat, is
the species usually found in England. It was some years
since imported into this country, and from its superior



THE BROWN RAT 75

size, strength, and ferocity, has so completely established
itself, and expelled the original Black Rat, that it is very
difficult indeed to find a Black Rat in any part of England.

It is at all times difficult to get rid of these dirty, noisy
animals, for they
soon learn to keep
out of the way of
traps, and if they
are poisoned they
revenge their fate 4
by dying behind a 4

_ Wainscot or under
a plank of the 2 ar
floor, and make the ;
room uninhabit-
able. There are, however, two ways recommended to
attain the desired object.

Place a saucer containing meal in a room frequented by
rats, letting them have free access to it for several days.
They will then come to it in great force. When they
have thus been accustomed to feed there regularly, mix
a quantity of jalap with the meal, and put it in theaccus-
tomed place. This will give them such internal tortures
that they will not come near the place again.

The second plan is to use the same precautions, but to
mix phosphorus with the meal and make it into a ball.
The phosphorus is said not to kill rats, but to afflict
them with such a parching thirst that they rush to the
nearest water and die there. By this method the danger
of their dying in the house is avoided.

I have not proved either of these plans experimentally,
but offer them for the benefit of those who are afflicted -
by the rat pest.

Mus.—(Lat. a Mouse.)




Decumanus (Lat. tenth or large), the Rat.

The Common Mouse is so well known, that a descrip-
tion of its form and size is useless. It almost rivals the
rat in its attacks upon our provisions, and is quite as
difficult to extirpate. It brings up its young in a kind of
nest, and when a board of long standing is. taken up in a

F



76 THE COMMON MOUSE

room, it is not uncommon to find under it a mouse’s nest,
composed of rags, string, paper, shavings, and everything
that the ingenious little architect can scrape together. It
is a round mass,-
MUS. looking something
A like a rag ball very
loosely made. When
opened, seven or
eight littlemice will
probably be found
in the interior—lit-
tle pink transparent
es creatures, three of
Musciilus (Lat. @ little mouse), the Mouse. which could go into
a lady’s thimble,
sprawling about ina most unmeaning manner, apparently
greatly distressed at the sudden cold caused by the
opening of their nest:

The two objects here represented are two portions of
the same hair, the larger one being the centre and the
smaller being taken near the
origin. It is worth while
Ss to notice that although to

PARE Ane: - external appearance the fur
PAIROR SA RERSSLOL ES: of the mouse exactly re-

KE sembles that of the bat, yet

ee Ree when they are placed under
the microscope they are
shown to be differently formed.

A white variety of mouse is tolerably common, and is
usually bred in cages. As it is very tame and beautiful,
it is in great repute as a pet.





The Harvest Movusz, the smallest of the British
quadrupeds, discovered by White and described in his
“Selborne,” is very much smaller than the ordinary
mouse, a halfpenny weighing down two of them when
placed in a pair of scales. Its nest is raised about a foot
and a half from the ground, and supported on two or



THE WATER RAT—THE BEAVER 77

three straws. It is
made of grass, about
the size of a cricket-
ball, and very com-
pact.

The Water Rat
is a native of Eng-
land, and very com-
mon on the banks
of rivers, brooks,
&c, These animals
exist in great num-
bers round Oxford,
and I have repeat-
edly watched them
feeding. I never
saw them eating fish,
nor found fish-bones
inside their holes,



MicroOmys.—(Gr. Mixpés, small; pis, a
Mouse.)

Minitus (Lat. very small), the Harvest
Mouse.

except when a kingfisher had taken possession; but I

havefrequently seen
them gnawing the
green bark from
reeds, which they
completely __ strip,
leaving the mark of
each tooth as they
proceed.

The ‘BEAVER.—
North America is
the principal coun-
try wherethe Beaver



ARVICOLA.—(Lat. arvwm, a field ; colo, I
inhabit.)



Amphibius (Gr. Au@l, on both sides ; Bidw,
L live), the Water-rat.

is found, but it is also common on the Euphrates, and
along some of the larger European rivers, as the Rhone

and the Danube.

The houses of the Beaver are built of mud, stones, and
sticks. They are placed in a stream, and their entrance is



78 THE BEAVER ~

always below the surface. Asa severe frost would freeze
up their doors, it is necessary to make the stream deep
enough to prevent the frost from reaching the entrances.
This object is at-
Castor.—(Gr. donee; a Beaver.) tained by building a
L- dam across the river,
to keep back the
water until it is
sufficiently deep for
the Beaver’s pur-
poses. The dam is
made of branches
which the Beaver
cuts down with its
strong sharp teeth,
and mud and stones
worked in among
the branches. The
Fiber (Lat. a Beaver), the Been Beavers throw these
branches into the
water, and sink them to the bottom by means of stones,
and by continually throwing in fresh supplies a strong
embankment is soon made.

As many Beavers live together in one society, the form-
ation of a dam does not take very long. By their united
efforts they rapidly fell even large trees, by gnawing them
round the trunk, and always take care to make them
fall towards the water, so that they can transport the logs
easily. The mud and stones used in their embankments
are not carried on their tails, as some say, nor do the
Beavers use their tails as trowels for laying on the mud,
the fact being that the stones and mud are carried between
their chin and fore-paws, and the mistake respecting the
tail is evidently caused by the slap that Beavers give with
that member when they dive. In order that their pond
may not be too deep they always leave an opening in the
dam to let the water escape when it rises above a certain
height.

During the severe winter their mud-built houses freeze





THE COMMON PORCUPINE 79

quite hard, and prevent the wolverine, their greatest
enemy, except man, from breaking through and devouring
the inmates. Every year the Beavers lay a fresh coating
of mud upon their houses, so that after the lapse of a few
years the walls of the house are several feet in thickness.
Many of the houses are built close together, but no two
families can communicate with each other, except by
diving below the walls and rising inside their neighbours’
houses.

When in captivity the Beaver soon becomes tame, and
will industriously build dams across the corner of a room
with brushes, boots, fire-irons, books, or anything it can
find. When its edifice is finished, it sits in the centre
apparently satisfied that it has made a beautiful structure
to dam up the river—a proof that the ingenuity of the
Beaver is not caused by reason but by instinct.

The fur of the Beaver, like that of many other animals,
consists of a fine wool intermixed with long and stiff hairs.
The hairs are useless, but the peculiar construction of the
fur causes it to penetrate and fix itself into the felt which
forms the body of a hat. In making the hat, the only
method required to fasten the fur into the felt is to knead
the fur and felt together. The hair is toothed on its sur-
faces, and makes its way into the felt, just as an awn of
barley will travel all over the body if placed up the
sleeve.

The length of the Beaver is about three feet and a half.

The Common Porcupine is found in Africa, Tartary,
Persia, India, and some parts of Europe. It lives in holes
which it digs in the ground, and only comes forth at night
in order to feed. It eats vegetable substances only, such —
as roots, bark, and other similar substances. The array of
spines or quills with which this animal is covered forms
its principal means of defence. If it cannot escape, it
suddenly stops, erects all its quills, and runs backwards
against its adversary, striking the quills against him by
the weight of its body. Occasionally a looser quill than
usual remains in the wound or falls on the ground, which



80 THE CAPYBARA

evidently gave rise to the foolish error that the Porcupine
could dart its weapons at its adversary from a distance.
There are two kinds of these quills,—one kind long and
curved, the other short, thick, and pointed. These last
are the weapons of defence, as the former are too slender
to do much service. When the porcupine walks, its quills
make a kind of rustling sound, caused principally by those
arranged on the tail, which are large, hollow, and sup-
ported on long slender stalks.

Hystrix.—("Yorpiz, a Porcupine, Porcupine kind.)



Cristata (Lat. crested), the Porcupine.

The American Indians use the quills extracted from the
Canada Porcupine, a species living on trees, for ornament-
ing various parts of their dress, especially their moccasins
or skin shoes. The length of the Porcupine is about two
feet, and its spines or quills are from six to fourteen inches
long.

The CapyBara or Cuicurra is the largest of all the
Rodentia. At first sight, it looks very like a pig, and its



THE GUINEA-PIG 81

skin is covered thinly with hairs like bristles, which add
to the resemblance.

It inhabits the borders of lakes and rivers in many parts
of Southern Ame-
rica. During the Hyprocuervs. ee "T8pw, water; xoipos, a pig.)
day it hides among $
the thick herbage
of the banks, only
wandering forth to
feed at night, but
when alarmed it
instantly makes
for the water, and os
escapes by diving. Capybara (native name), the Capybdra,

It is hunted for the

sake of its flesh, which is said to be remarkably good. The
food of the Capybara consists of grass, vegetables, and
fruits. Its length is about three feet six inches.



The Guinea-Pic, or Resttess Cavy, belongs to the sub-
family Caviina. It was originally brought from South
America, and is frequently domesticated in England. Its
beauty is its only recommendation, as it shows little intel-
ligence, and is never used for food. Children, however,
and particularly school-boys, are fond of keeping guinea-
pigs, as they are wonderfully prolific, easy to manage, and
donot make much noise. They are popularly supposed to
keep off rats,and are therefore usually patronised in con-
nexion with rabbit-hutches.

The Hare is one of our most common quadrupeds.
When full-grown, it is larger than the rabbit and ex-
ceedingly like that animal, but its colour is slightly
different, and the black spot on the extremity of its ears
is a simple method of distinguishing it. The Hare does
not burrow like the rabbit, but makes a kind of nest of
grass and other materials. In this nest, called a “form,”
the Hare lies, crouching to the ground, its ears laid along
its back, and, trusting to its concealment, will often remain
quiet until the foot of an intruder almost touches it.



82 THE HARE—THE RABBIT

Innumerable foes besides man surround this animal.
Foxes, ferrets, stoats, and all their tribe, are unmerciful
enemies, and sometimes a large hawk will destroy a leveret,

Lepus.—(Lat. @ Hare. Hare kind.)



oe
AY,
Ba





Timidus (Lat. timid), the Hare.

as the young Hare is called. Although destitute of all
means of defence, it is often enabled to escape by the
quickness of its hearing and sight, which give it timely
warning of the approach of an enemy, and enable it to
escape to a place of safety.

In cold countries the Hare changes its fur during winter,
and becomes white, like the Arctic fox and the ermine.
The Alpine Hare, inhabiting the northern parts of Scot-
land, isa good example of this change.

The well-known Ragsit is rather smaller than the hare,
but closely resembles it in form. It lives in deep holes,
which it digs in the ground.

The female Rabbit forms a soft nest at the bottom of



THE JERBOAS 83

her burrow, composed of fur torn from her body, of hay
Here the young rabbits are kept until

and dried leaves.
they are strong
enough to shift for
themselves, and
make their own
burrows.

The tame Rabbit
is only a variety,
rendered larger by
careful feeding and
attendance.

LEPUS.





==NS .
Cunictilus (Lat. @ dittle Rabbit),

_ The Jerpoas are celebrated for their powers of leaping.
Their long hind legs enable them to take enormous springs,
during which their tails serve to balance them. ‘Indeed a
Jerboa when deprived of its tail is afraid to leap. ;

In the history of the polar bear it was mentioned that
its feet were prevented from slipping on the ice by a coat-

ing of thick hair.
The foot of the
Jerboa is defended
in the same manner
by long bristly
hairs, which not
only give the crea-
ture a firm hold of
the ground for its
spring, but also de-
fend the foot from
the burning soil on
which it lives.

The timidity of
the Jerboa is very
great, and on the
slightest alarm it
instantly rushes to



Dipus.—(Gr. Ats, double ; mods, a foot.)

=

Zigyptius (Lat. belonging to Egypt),
the Jerboa,

its burrow, but if intercepted, skims away over the plain
with such rapidity that it seems: to fly, and when at full
speed a swift greyhound can scarcely overtake it.



84 THE DORMOUSE—THE SQUIRREL

Grain and bulbous roots are its chief food; while eating,
it holds the food with its fore paws, and sits upright on
its haunches, like the squirrels and marmots.

There are many kinds of Jerboa; the Egyptian Jerboa is
rather small, being about the size ofa large rat its colour
is a tawny yellow.

The Dormovse is very common in all the warmer
parts of the Continent, and is often found in this country,
especially in the
Myoxus.—(Gr. Muotdés, or Muatéds, a Dormouse. ) southern and
voidland counties.
It lives in copses
andamong brush-
wood, through
which it makes
its way with such
rapidity thatit is
very difficult to
becaptured. Dur-
se ing the winter it
Avellanarius (Lat. from Avellana, a filbert), lies torpid, but
the Dormouse. takes care to
have a stock of
food laid up, on which it feeds during the few inter-
ruptions to its slumbers. A warm day in winter will
usually rouse it, but during the cold weather it lies
rolled up, with its tail curled round its body. While in
this torpid state, a sudden exposure to heat kills it, but a
gentle warmth, such as holding it in the hand, rouses it
without injury. It lives principally on nuts, acorns, and
grain, It brings up its young in a nest composed of leaves
and hay, and seems to be fond of society in its household
labours, as tenor twelve nests have been seen close to
each other.



The SQuiRReEL is a very common animal in woods, where
numbers may be seen frisking about on the branches, or
running up and down the trunks. If alarmed, it springs
up the “bree with extraordinary activity, and hides behind



THE SQUIRREL 85

a branch, By this trick it escapes its enemy the hawk,
and by constantly slipping behind the large branches, fre-
quently tires him

out. The activity Scrirus.—(Gr. Sid, a shadow; odpd, a tail.)
and daring of this '

little animalareex- I,
traordinary. When
pursued, it makes
the most astonish-
ing leaps from
branch to branch, 5 ZA.
or fromtreetotree, Zag "ig i:
and has apparently eMac ie

some method of al- Europeus (Lat. European), the Squirrel.
tering its direction

while in the air, possibly by means of its tail acting as a
rudder.

It is easily domesticated, and is very amusing in its
habits when suffered to go at large in a room or kept in a
spacious cage ; but when confined in a little cramped box,
especially in one of the cruel wheel cages, its energies and
playfulness are quite lost. Men often go about with
squirrels for sale, and generally cheat those whe buy them.
In the first place, they constantly try to sell old squirrels
for young, but this imposition may be detected by looking
at the teeth of the animal, which are nearly white if young,
but if old are of a light yellow.

In the second place, let the purchaser beware of very
tame and quiet squirrels. These are generally animals
just caught and perfectly wild, but made sedate by a dose
of opium or strychnine, which in many cases causes their
death in a short time. One of my friends was deceived in
this manner only a few months since, the squirrel dying in
the course of the evening of the day on which it was
~ purchased.

The colour of the English Squirrel is a deep reddish
brown, and its tail so large and bushy as to shade its whole
‘body when carried curled over its back, from whence it
derives its name of Sciurus, or shadow-tail.





86 _ THE ox

The Ox.—The Ruminantia, or animals that chew the
cud, include the oxen, sheep and goats, deer, giraffe, and
camels. They have a peculiar construction of stomach,
which receives the freshly-gathered food, retains it for
some hours, and then passes it back into the mouth to be
re-masticated,

Bos.—(Lat. an Ox.)



Taurus (Lat. @ Build), the Ox.

The Ox is spread widely over the earth, scarcely any
country being without its peculiar breed. In this country,
where it is our most useful domesticated animal, there are
nearly as many breeds as counties, generally distinguished
by the length or shape of their horns. There is the “long-
horned breed” from Lancashire, the “ short-horned” from
Durham, the “middle-horned’”’ from Devonshire, and the
“ polled” or hornless breed. Each of these breeds has its
particular value: some fatten easily, and are kept especially
for the butcher ; others give milk, and are valuable for the
dairy. The best dairy cow is the Alderney, a small, short-
horned animal, furnishing exceedingly rich milk.

In some parts of England oxen are used to draw wag-
gons, or to drag the plough. They are not so strong as
horses, and their movements are much slower.



THE CAPE BUFFALO 87

Every part of the Ox is of value. We eat his flesh, we
wear shoes soled with his skin, our candles are made from
his fat, our tables are joined with glue made from his
hoofs, his hair is mixed with the mortar of our walls, his
horns are made into combs, knife handles, drinking cups,
&c., his bones are used as a cheap substitute for ivory, and
the fragments ground and scattered over the fields as
manure—and soup is made from his tail.

The young ox is called a calf, and is quite as useful in
its way as the full-grown ox. The flesh is termed veal, and
by many preferred to the flesh of the ox or cow, which is
called beef: jelly is made from its feet. The stomach is
salted and dried, and is named rennet. Cheese is made by
soaking a piece of rennet in water, and pouring it into
a vessel of milk. The milk soon forms a curd, which is
placed in a press, and the watery substance, called whey,
squeezed from it. The curd is coloured and salted, and is
‘then cheese.

BUBALUS.



Caffer, the Cape Buffaio.

The Carr Burrato is a native of Southern Africa. It
is exceedingly ferocious and cunning, often lurking among



88 THE BISON

the trees until an unsuspecting traveller approaches, and
then rushing on him and destroying him. The ferocious
creature is not content with killing his tim, but stands
over him mangling him with its horns, #nd stamping on
him with its feet.

a

The Bison inhabits the plains or prairies of North
America in countless multitudes. Its enorfmous and heavy
mane, its fierce eyes and lowering appearance, give this-
animal a most terrific aspect. The American Indians con-
stantly hunt the Bison, which they call by the name of
Buffalo. Their weapons are principally bows and arrows,
apparently weak and small, but which, when wielded by
a skilful ged, will strike the huge Bison to the heart. In

* Bison.—(Gr. Biowy, a Buffalo.)



Americinus (Lat. American), the Boson.

Catlin’s account of his travels among the North American
Indians are many most interesting accounts of ‘ buffalo



THE BISON 89

hunts.” Mounted on a swift horse, and armed with a
spear and bow gnd arrows, the Indians kill great numbers
of these animg#g. They ride up close to the Bison, and
with the greatest apparent ease bury an arrow up to its
feather in the creature’s body. Indeed many instances are
known where. ghe slight Indian bow, drawn without any
perceptible effort, has thrown the arrow completely through
the body of te. huge animal. There are many modes “of
destroying this animal in vogue among the Indians and
white settlers. The skin is so valuable that every exertion
is made to procure it. Of the bulfalo’s hide they make
their wigwams or tents, their shields, their robes, their
shoes, &c. The Indians can also sell the hides to the
traders for a considerable sum, so that an @ndian can
almost measure his importance and wealth by fhe number
of hides that he takes. d

The hunters take advantage of the gregarious instincts
of this animal, and hunt them when they are collected
together in their vast herds, which blacken the face of the
prairie for miles. Sometimes they form in line, and drive
the herd to the edge of some tall cliff, over which they fall
in hundreds, those behind pushing on those in the van;
or sometimes they form a large circle, driving the animals
into a helpless and leaderless mass, into which the hunters
spring, leaving their horses, and treading wih the skill of
rope-dancers on the backs of the bewilderedâ„¢Bisons, whom
they slaughter as they pass, stepping from one to the other,
and driving the sharp blade of their spear through the
spine of the animal whose back they have just quitted.

When only wounded the Bison is a most dangerous
antagonist, and rushes on its enemy with the most deter-

mined ferocity.

Despite the wholesale suena of this animal which is
carried on annually by the Indians, there seems to be no
decrease in their numbers. They are more wary than
before, and have withdrawn themselves into more distant
lands, but their dark masses still crown the plain as of
yore, although it is now impossible to judge as men could
do in former days of the various migrations which the



90 THE YAK

herds would make. The dreaded firearms have had their
effect on the Bison as on every other animal, and it with-
draws as far as possible from the haunts of civilized
man.

. The improvidence of the Indians is rauch to be regretted.
Myviads of these animals are slaughtered every year, merely
for the sake of their skin, their “hump,” or their marrow-
bones, the remainder of the animal being left to the wolves
and the birds.

The principal use of the flesh of the Bison is to make
“jerked meat” of it. This is made by cutting the meat
into long narrow slips, and drying them in the sun, There
is a peculiar art in the cutting these slips. The operator
takes a large lump of the flesh, and holding his knife
firmly in one hand, presses the meat against its edge with
the other, continually turning it round and round, until
the whole piece is converted into one long strip. The
strips thus prepared are pegged out on stakes, as washer-
women peg their clothes, or suspended in festoons on the
branches of trees, like red snakes, until they are dry
enough to be packed up. Three days is considered suf-
ficient for the purpose. The cow is preferred to the bull
for conversion into jerked meat, while the skin of the bull
is more valuable than that of the cow, from the mass of
woolly hair about the shoulders.

The flesh of the Bison is tolerable eating, but the
“hump” appears from all accounts to be unapproachable
in delicacy. It is exceedingly tender, and possesses the
property of not cloying even when eaten in excess. The
fat also is said to be devoid of that sickening richness
which is usually met with in our domesticated animals.

The cow is smaller than the bull, and considerably
swifter. She is also generally in better condition and
fatter than her mate, and in consequence the hunters who
go to “get meat,” always select the cows from the herd.

The Yax inhabits Tartary. Of this animal in a native
state little or nothing is known. The name of “ grun-
niens,” or grunting, is derived from the peculiar sound



Full Text


ter ge WV Capp
Frans ve 1G

THE

BOY'S OWN BOOK

OF

NATURAL HISTORY

BY THE

REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A, F.LS.

AUTHOR OF THE “ILLUSTRATED NATURAL HISTOKY”



WITH THREE HUNDRED AND THIRTY ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED

BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
1898
Ricuarp CLay & Sons, Limrrep,
Lonpon & Bunaay,
PREFACH

AxtHoucH the number of works on Natural History
might deter any new writer from venturing on so ex-
tensively handled a subject, there is at present no work
of a really popular character in which accuracy of inform-
ation and systematic arrangement are united with brevity
and simplicity of treatment.

All the best-known popular works on Natural History
are liable to many objections, among which may be named
a want of correct classification, the absence of explanations
of the meanings and derivations of scientific words, the
strange inaccuracy of many of the accompanying illustra-
tions, and of the accounts of many animals. Nor do the
conventional anecdotes chronicled in their pages evince
that personal experience of the animal race which alone
can repress romance and prevent inaccuracy. These de-
ficiencies, it is hoped, are at all events partly supplied in
the present work.

The present volume, although exceeding the limits
originally contemplated, is but a brief digest of a large
mass of materials, derived either from personal experience,
from the most recent zoological writers, or from the kind-
ness of many friends, who are familiar with almost every
portion of the world, and to whom my best thanks are due.
My original intention was to carry the work as far as the
Zoophytes, but it grew so rapidly, especially in the first
iv PREFACE

two classes, the Mammals and Birds, that it was found
necessary to conclude at the Insects, and even then to give
but an exceedingly short and meagre account of them.
This was much regretted by me, as my experience had lain
so much in the practical entomological part of Natural
History, that during the earliest stages of the work I
looked forward with some pleasure to giving a very much
fuller account of the British Insects than will be found in
the last few pages of this volume.

In arrangement, the order of the Catalogue of the
British Museum has been followed, with the view of
rendering it a useful companion to that most valuable
collection, especially for young visitors. In accordance
with that catalogue, the volume commences with a short
sketch of mankind and of the theories respecting the
different races of humanity; and at the same time a few of
the distinctions are mentioned which so widely separate
man from any other inhabitant of the earth.

As for the illustrations, they will best speak for them-
selves. It will, however, be well to observe that they have
all been designed expressly for the present work, and that
the combined abilities of Messrs. Harvey and Dalziel, as
artist and engravers, are a guarantee for their accuracy and
perfect execution. For the anatomical and microscopical
vignettes, I am myself answerable, as well as for several
of the later drawings, together with parts of a few others,
all of which were drawn from actual specimens.

It has been an object with me in the accounts of each
animal, to give as far as possible new anecdotes. In many
cases, the anecdotes related have never been published
before, and in many more, they have been extracted from
works which, either from their scarcity, their cost, or their
nature, would be very unlikely to be placed in the hands of
general readers.

I dismiss these pages with almost a feeling of regret,
that a task which has to me been a labour of love, has
come to an end. Indeed, the only drawback experienced
during its progress was its necessary brevity, which
constrained me to omit many creatures, not only beautiful
PREFACE Vv

and wonderful in form, but interesting in habits. I was
also compelled to describe many others so briefly, as to
render the account little more than a formal announcement
of their name, country, and food,

If, however, the perusal of the following pages should
induce any one to look upon the great plan of Creation
more as a whole than merely as an aggregation of separate
parts, or to notice how wonderfully each creature is
adapted for its peculiar station by Him who has appointed
to each its proper position, and assigned to each its own
duties, which could not be performed so well by any other
creature, or even by the same animal in another place, my
end will be attained.

Perhaps, also, this volume may cause some who have
- hitherto been troubled with a causeless abhorrence of
certain creatures against which they have nourished early
prejudices, to examine them with a more indulgent—I
should perhaps say, a more reverent—eye. I say reverent,
because it has long given me deep pain when I have heard
others stigmatizing as ugly, horrid, or frightful, those
beings whom their Maker saw at the beginning of the
world, and declared very good. A naturalist will see as
much beauty in a snake, spider, or toad, as in any of those
animals which we are accustomed to consider models of
beauty; and so will those who have before feared or
despised them, if they can only persuade themselves to
examine them with an unprejudiced eye.

In those three creatures mentioned a few lines above,
there is great beauty even on a superficial examination.
The movements of the snake are most graceful, and the
changing colours of its varied scales leave the imitations of
art far behind. The spiders too are beautiful, even in
colour; some are bright crimson, some pale pink, some
entirely yellow, some banded with broad streaks of alter-
nately velvety black and silvery white; while the eye of
the toad is a living gem of beauty. But when we come to
look closer,—to watch their habits—to note their instincts
—or, by the use of the microscope, to lay open to our view
some of the details of their organization,—then indeed are


vi PREFACE

we lost in wonder and amaze at the vastness of creation,
which, even in one little, apparently insignificant animal,
presents to our eyes innumerable marvels—marvels which
increase in number and beauty as our power for perceiving
them increases,

The present edition may rather be termed a condensation
than an abridgment of the larger work. JI have en-
deavoured to make no omissions that would destroy one
link of the marvellous living chain that binds all animate
existences of earth into one harmonious whole; and in
compressing the subject into a smaller compass, I have con-
centrated the language without excluding any necessary
information,


NATURAL HISTORY

Genus. ... .. Homo.



BOSJESMAN AND LION.

Spectes I. Sapiens (Lat. wise), Man.

Man holds the foremost place in the order of creation.
The perfection of his bodily form is as far superior to that
of other beings as his intellect surpasses their instinct,
beautiful and marvellous though it be. Between man
and brutes there is an impassable barrier, over which man
2 ; INSTINCT AND REASON

can never fall, or beasts hope to climb. It is the human
spirit indwelling in Man that gives consistency and force
to his reason, and therefore, even when fallen from his
high estate, and deprived of the right use of his intellect, he
still holds his supremacy over the lower animals, and owns
no subjection even to the most perfect and powerful
brutes.

There is but one genus of mankind, Hono, and but one
species, Sapiens ; that is, the rational human being. In-
tellect, or reason, differs from instinct in its power of
accommodation to circumstances; whereas instinct ever
remains unchanged. The beaver, when confined in a cage,
still builds dams in order to confine the stream that never
visits it; the captive squirrel, although it is regularly
supplied with its daily meals, still conceals the remnants
of its food for a future repast; the magpie approaches a ,
dead wasp with the same caution as if it were living ; and
the dog flies from a recently flayed tiger skin with no less
fear than if the living tiger stood before him. In those
cases where animals alter their habits to suit the changed
circumstances in which they find themselves, their reason,
not their wstinct, acts. On the contrary, the power of
man’s reason enables him to alter his habits and actions
according to the change of external circumstances. The
same man can inhabit the burning sands of the tropics, or
the everlasting snows of the north pole; and can defend
himself from the scorching heat of the one, or set at
defiance the piercing cold of the other.

Man, although he is temporarily clothed with material
particles during his short stay upon the material earth, is
essentially an immortal: and ever progressing spirit, and
is, in virtue of this spiritual life, as entirely removed from
the highest of brute animals as they from the vegetables,
which possess vitality but not animation. Some theorists
have asserted that Man was gradually developed from the
lower animals, and that the negro is but an improved
monkey.

We will briefly examine this theory respecting the hu-
manity of the negro. That monkey, or rather ape, whose
MAN AND APE = 8

form most resembles that of man, is the Chimpansee. Let
us compare the skull of this animal with that of the Negro
—its thick bony ridges, its irregular promi-
nences, its small capacity of brain, with —
the noble sweep of cranium, and the small
globular surface of the human skull. The
comparative dimensions of the head and
jaws are widely different in the ape and
the Negro, for the face of the ape is an
instrument for procuring food, and a
weapon for attack and defence, while — sxvzn or man.
that of man is an ever-changing index

of the workings of the mind within. We therefore find
that the jaws of the ape are enormously developed,
armed with formidable fangs, and marked with strong
bony ridges, to which the powerful muscles which move
the jaws are attached. On the other hand, as man is
enabled to procure food and to manufacture weapons by
means of his hands, his jaws and teeth are reduced to the
smallest size compatible with the preservation of life.

The habitually erect posture is another characteristic of
mankind. Other animals are not fitted for it; since, when
they attempt to assume that position, their head is thrust
so far forward that its weight destroys their balance, and
the bones of the leg and the pelvis are so formed as to give
them a tottering gait. When the ape attempts to stand
erect, it is forced to balance itself by its immensely long
arms, and cannot walk without assisting itself along by
the knuckles pressed on the ground. The fingers of
the feet, or more properly the hinder hands, prevent the
ape from planting more than the heel upon the ground.
It therefore hobbles along with its body bent, and at best
can only contrive to manage an uncertain and vacillating -
shuffle; nor does it ever walk so well or so gracefully in
the erect posture as many of the performers at Astley’s do
on their hands, which are apparently less fitted for walking
than those of the ape.

The power of the thumb is much greater in man than
in the apes; it is by means of this instrument that man


4 WEAPONS AND FIRE

is able to handle large or small objects, to wield a sword
or a pen, to cast a spear or thread a needle, There are
also many anatomical differences which need not be
described. :

The intellectual power in man shows its supremacy over
the instinct of the ape in many ways. We will take as
our example of mankind one of the smallest and the most
abject of the human race, the Bosjesman, as represented at
the commencement of this chapter. Surely that slain lion
was not destroyed by an ape. No ape or monkey was
ever able to manufacture weapons for itself. It may,
indeed, take up a stick or a stone, and defend itself vigor-
ously, although even this statement is generally discredited
by naturalists; but it could never form a bow and arrow,
much less reflect that the juices of certain plants rubbed
on the points of its weapons would cause inevitable death
to any person wounded by them. Yet the diminutive
Bosjesman, who is far lower in intellect, and much less
civilized than the calumniated Negro, boldly attacks, with
perfect certainty of success, an animal before which the most
intelligent ape that ever lived would fly in helpless terror.

Neither can an ape procure fire, nor even renew it. It
will sit delighted by a flame which a chance traveller has
left, and spread its hands over the genial blaze; but when
the glowing ashes fade, it has not sufficient understanding
to supply fresh fuel, but sits and moans over the expiring
embers.

The Bosjesman makes a bow and arrow; he tips the
arrow with a hard substance to make it penetrate; he
imbues the point with substances which he has learned
are fatal when mingled with the blood, and then sallies
forth in search of some animal whose skin may serve as
a dress, and whose flesh may furnish him a meal. When
by his unerring weapons he has succeeded in destroying
the terrible and ferocious lion, the swift antelope, or the
wary ostrich, he constructs for himself a hut by the side
of his prey, strikes fire, fetches fuel, and dresses his meat.
These are actions which no beast ever performed, and no
ape could ever imitate.
LANGUAGE ‘ 5

€

One point of difference between man and brutes has yet
to be mentioned—naneuace. This one word includes
almost every distinction mentioned, as it is by the use of
language that we are enabled to communicate our ideas to
each other, to give the thoughts hidden in our minds an
almost visible shape, to record our experience for the
benefit of others; in a word, it is by language that we are
civilized. The ape has no language, although there is no
apparent anatomical reasoning why apes should not speak,
and therefore, the Orang-outan in the gardens of the Zoo-
logical Society is no more refined, nor does it make a
nearer approach to civilization, than its ancestors in the
time of Adam.

There is but one species of man, although there are
several permanent varieties, which are ordinarily termed
“races”? by the authors who have written on this abstruse
but fascinating subject. Some writers describe the human
family as divided into five varieties or races: the Cauca-
sian, the Mongolian, the Ethiopian, the Malayan, and the
American ; each of these being subdivided into families, as
for instance, the Caucasian race subdivided into the Cau-
casian, the Celtic, the Germanic, the Arabian, the Libyan,
the Nilotic, and the Indostanic families. The division
generally received is that of Pickering, who enumerates
eleven distinct races of men, all of whom he has seen: the
Arabian, Abyssinian, Mongolian, Hottentot, Malay, Papuan, ~
Negrillo, Telingan, Ethiopian, Australian, and Negro. He
differs from Prichard in several points, but especially in
referring the population of America to the Mongolian race, .
whereas Prichard considers it as entirely separate.

The characteristics and distribution of each race are
briefly these. The Arabian race extends over the whole
of Europe, excepting Lapland, about half of Asia, including
the greater part of India, and most of the northern third ~
of Africa. The complexion is light, the lips are thin, the
nose is prominent, and the beard thick. Number, about
350,000,000.

The Abyssinian race occupies a small tract towards the
east of Africa, including part of Abyssinia and part of
6 RACES OF MANKIND

Nubia. The features are like those of Europeans, the
complexion is light, the hair is crisp, and the beard
moderate. Number about 3,000,000.

The Mongolian race is remarkable for a feminine aspect
in both sexes, so that a stranger is often perplexed to dis-
tinguish a man from a woman at a short distance; the hair
is straight, and the beard is wanting. It extends over the
eastern half of Asia, except Corea, over Lapland, and the
whole of America, except the western coast by California,
and the upper part of South America. Number 300,000,000.

The Hottentot race occupies the southern extremity of
Africa. The complexion is not so dark as that of the
Negro, the hair is woolly, and frequently grows in irregular
patches, leaving a bald spot in the centre of each patch.
This race includes the Bechuanas and the Bosjesmans.
The complexion of the Bosjesmans, or Bushmen, is very
light, and strongly resembles that of an European, with a
few sooty patches irregularly placed. Number about
500,000.

The dMalay race is almost amphibious, and is never
found far inland. It is widely spread, and inhabits the
centre of Madagascar, the whole of the islands in the
Pacific Ocean, except the Fiji, New Hebrides, Solomon’s
Isles, Papua, and parts of the Philippines. The parts of
America not populated by the Mongolians are also inhabited
by this race. The complexion is a dark copper, the hair
straight, when cut it stands erect, and the beard is thin.
Number 120,000,000.

The Papuan race inhabits about two-thirds of Papua,
and the Fiji islands, where Pickering saw the only indi-
viduals of this race who came under his notice. The com-
plexion is dark, the hair bushy, the beard copious. The
most remarkable point in this race is the skin, which is
astonishingly rough and harsh. Number 3,000,000.

The Negrillo race is like the Papuan in colour, but the
hair is more woolly, the stature is small, and the beard
absent. The Negrillos inhabit part of Papua, Solomon’s
Isles, the northern extremities of Luzon and Sumatra, and
the New Hebrides. Number 3,000,000,
DISTRIBUTION OF RACES 7

The Zelinyan, or Indian race, inhabits the eastern parts
of India, especially about Calcutta, several isolated spots
in other parts of India, and the east coast of Madagascar.
The complexion is dark (best imitated by a mixture of
red and black), the skin is soft, the features are like
those of Europeans, hair straight and fine, and the beard
copious. Number 60,000,000.

The Lthiopian race is darker than the Telingan, the
hair is. crisp and fine, skin soft, and the features are more
like European features than those of the Negro. This
race inhabits the north-eastern portion of Africa, including
Southern Egypt, part of Nubia, and part of Abyssinia; a
few detached spots toward the north-west, and a large
tract of country by Senegambia. Number 5,000,000.

The Australian race inhabits Australia alone. The
complexion is like that of the Negro, but the hair is not
woolly like that of the Negro. Number 500,000.

The Wegro race inhabits the central parts of Africa,
from the north of Ashanti to a little southward of Zan-
zibar. The complexion is black, the lips are immensely
thick, the nose is flat, and the hair is close and curly,
strongly resembling wool. Number 55,000,000. The
numbers given in this distribution are of course in many
cases only conjectural.

In the distribution of races, it is most interesting
to observe the influence of climate and vegetation on the
character of man. The vast tract of desert extending
from the north-west of Africa, through Arabia, part of
India and Tartary, as far as Mongolia, is inhabited by
nomadic, or wandering tribes, who depend principally on
the milk of their domesticated animals for subsistence.

The interminable and trackless woods of North America
develop tribes whose faculties are moulded to the exi- _
gencies of their position. To their practised senses the
tangled forests are as clear as the highway; the moss on
the trees, the sun by day, the stars by night, the rushing
of the wind, or the sounds of animal life, are as broad
roads and legible signs to them, although we could dis-
cover no means to escape from the wilderness of trees.
8 CUSTOMS AND CLIMATE

Dependent in a great measure on hunting for their sub-
sistence, their keen eye marks the slightest trace of the
expected prey ; a drooping leaf, a twisted blade of grass,
a bent twig, a ripple in the stream, are all noticed and all
understood. Ever eagerly bent on the destruction of
inimical tribes, and deeming the number of “scalps”
attached to their dress, each designating a slain enemy,
as the best mark of nobility, they learn to track an enemy
by his footsteps with unexampled patience and untiring
assiduity. No bloodhound ever followed his prey with
more certainty than the American Indian when on his
“war-path” tracks his untiring enemies, and when near
them his approach is silent as the gliding of the serpent,
his blow as deadly as its fangs.

The Malay race, whose lot is thrown amid islands and
coasts, are as crafty and fierce on the waters as the
American Indians in their woods. Accustomed to the
water from their earliest infancy, able to swim before
they can walk, using as their toys waves that would dash
an ordinary swimmer to pieces against the rocks, their
existence is almost entirely passed on the water. As the
American Indians are slayers and robbers by land, so are
the Malays murderers and pirates by sea. They have
been known to capture a ship in the midst of a storm by
swimming to it and climbing up the cable, and many
instances of their crafty exploits in ship-taking are on
record. Fora full account of their ferocity, cunning, and
endurance, the reader is referred to Sir James Brooke's
reports on the Borneo pirates.

The Esquimaux, situated among ice and snow, where
mercury freezes in the open air and water becomes ice
within a yard of a blazing fire, pass a comparatively in-
active life. They actually form the ice and snow into
warm and comfortable houses; wrapped up in enormous
fur garments that almost disguise the human form, they
defy the intensity of the frost, and place their highest
happiness in the chance possession of a whale, which will
furnish them with food, clothing, and light through their
long winter.
THE CHIMPANSEE 9

All these races, although they differ in habits and ex-
ternal appearance, are not different genera, or even different
species, but only varieties of one species. There is not so
marked a distinction between the European and Negro, as
between the light and active racer and the heavy brewers’
horse; yet no one attempts to deny that these two
animals belong to one species. The varieties in man are
permanent; that is, the child of Negro parents will be
a Negro, and the child of Malay parents will be a Malay,
but that is no proof of a distinct species, as precisely the
game argument may be used with regard to the horse.
The spirit, not the body, is the important element in
man.

2

THE section QuUADRUMANA includes the apes, baboons,
and monkeys. The name of Quadrumana is given to
these animals because, in addition to two hands like
those of man, their feet are also formed like hands, and
are capable of grasping the branches among which most
monkeys pass their lives.

Apes are placed at the head of the Quadrumana because
their instinct is mostly superior to that of the baboons
and monkeys, of whom the former are usually sullen and
ferocious, when arrived at their full growth, and the latter
volatile and mischievous.

The Chimpansee is a native of Western Africa, and is
tolerably common on the banks of the Gambia and in

Congo.

' Large bands of these formidable apes congregate to-
gether and unite in repelling an in-
vader, which they do with such fury
and courage that even the dreaded
elephant and lion are driven from
their haunts by their united efforts. oe
They live principally on the ground, gxuxz or cumpansen,
and, as their name imports, spend

much of their time in caves and under rocks, Their


,
10 THE CHIMPANSEE

height is from four to five feet, but they are said not to
reach this growth until nine or ten years of age.

TROGLODYTES.—(Gr. tpdéyAn, a hole; dd, to creep.)



LGELEED

= LM ye yf eB!
â„¢ Di EI

Niger (Lat. black), the Chimpansee.

Several young chimpansees have been recently imported
into this country, and have shown themselves very docile
and gentle; but, had they lived, they would probably in
a few years have become fierce and obstinate, as apes
almost invariably are when they reach their full growth.

The Oranc-ouran inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. In
Borneo there are certainly two species of orang, called by
the natives the Mias-kassar and the Mias-pappan. Some
naturalists suppose that the Sumatran orang is also a
distinct species. :

This is the largest of all the apes, as it is said that
THE ORANG-OUTAN 11

orangs have been obtained from Borneo considerably above
tive feet in height. The strength of this animal is tre-
mendous; a female snapped a strong
spear asunder after having received many
severe wounds. Its arms are of extra-
ordinary length, the hands reaching the
ground when it stands erect. This
length of arm is admirably adapted fo
climbing trees, on which it principally “=
resides. Mr. Brooke, the Rajah of Sara- Aone
wak; gives the following account of the ; a
orangs of Borneo. There appears also to be a third
species, the Mias-rombi :—

“On the habits of the orangs, as far as I have been
able to observe them, I may remark that they are as dull
and as slothful as can well be conceived, and on no occa-
sion, when pursuing them, did they move so fast as to
preclude my keeping pace with them easily through a
moderately clear forest ; and even when obstructions below
(such as wading up to the neck) allowed them to get away
some distance, they were sure to stop and allow us to
come up. I never observed the slightest attempt at
defence; and the wood, which sometimes rattled about
our ears, was broken by their weight, and not thrown, as
some persons represent. If pushed to extremity, how-
ever, the pappan could not be otherwise than formidable ;
and one unfortunate man, who with a party was trying
to catch one alive, lost two of his fingers, besides being
severely bitten on the face, whilst the animal finally beat
off his pursuers and escaped. When they wish to catch
an adult, they cut down a circle of trees round the one on
which he is seated, and then fell that also, and close before
he can recover himself, and endeavour to bind him.

“The rude hut which they are stated to build in the
trees would be more properly called a seat, or nest, for it
_ bas no roof or cover of any sort. The facility with which
they form this seat is curious; and I had an opportunity
of seeing a wounded female weave the branches together,
and seat herself in a minute. She afterwards received our

B


12 THE ORANG-OUTAN

fire without moving, and expired in her lofty abode,
whence it cost us much trouble to dislodge her.

“The pappan is justly named Satyrus, from the ugly
face and disgusting callosities. The adult male I killed
was seated lazily on a tree; and when approached only
took the trouble to interpose the trunk between us, peeping
at me and dodging as I dodged. I hit him on the wrist,
and he was afterwards despatched. I send you his pro-
portions, enormous relative to his height; and until I
came to actual measurement my impression was that he
was nearly six feet in stature. °

Smiia.—(Lat. an Ape.)



SatYrus (Gr. Sdrupos, a satyr), the Orang-outan.

“The great difference between the kassar and the pappan
in size would prove at once the distinction of the two
species; the kassar being a small slight animal, by no
means formidable in his appearance, with hands and feet
THE AGILE GIBBON : 13

proportioned to the body, and they do not approach the
gigantic extremities of the pappan either in size or power ;
and, in short, a moderately strong man would readily over-
power one, when he would not stand a shadow of a chance
with the pappan.” :

I saw a young Orang-outan not long since. It was rather
spidery in its development, having a very small and very
rotund body, to which were affixed very long and slender
limbs. Its face was like that of a very misanthropical old
miser, thoroughly wearied of life, and contemplating sur-
rounding objects with a calm but derisive pity.

It possessed in a high degree the expressive mobile cha-
racter of the lips, which appeared to express its feelings
much in the same manner as do the ears of a horse. When
it was alarmed or astonished at any object it was accus-
tomed to shoot out both its lips, and to form its mouth
into a trumpet kind of shape. A snail was very effectual
in producing this contortion of countenance.

The creature was very tame, and delighted in walking
about the garden leaning on the arm of its keeper, and if
any lady would venture to be its guide, it appeared as
happy as any such misanthropical being could be.

When young the Orang-outan is very docile, and has
been taught to make its own bed, and to handle a cup
and saucer, or a spoon, with tolerable propriety. For the
former occupation it proved itself particularly apt, as it
not only laid its own bed-clothes smooth and comfortable,
but exhibited much ingenuity in stealing blankets from
other beds, which it added to its own. The young Orang
. in the collection of the Zoological Society evinced extreme
horror at the sight of a small- tortoise, and, when the
reptile was introduced into its den, stood aghast in a most
ludicrously terrified attitude, with its eyes intently fixed
on the frightful object.

Tue Acite GriBBon is a native of Sumatra. It derives
its name of Agile from the wonderful activity it displays
in launching itself through the air from branch to branch.
One of these creatures, that was exhibited in London
14 THE KAHAU

some time since, sprang with the greatest ease through
distances of twelve and eighteen feet; and when apples
Hyoparrs.—(Gr. #an, a wood ; Balvw, to er nate were pore

traverse.) : 7 to her while in the
air, she would catch
them without discon-
tinuing her course. She
kept up a succession
of springs, hardly
touching the branches
in her progress, con-
tinually uttering a
musical but almost
deafening cry. She
was very tame and
gentle, and would per-
mit herself to be
touched or caressed.
The height of the
Gibbon is about three
feet, and the reach of
the extended arms
about six feet. The
young Gibbon is
usually of a paler
colour than its parent. There are several species of
Gibbon, amongst which some naturalists include the
Siamang, a monkey chiefly celebrated for the .pains it
takes to wash the faces of its young, a duty which it con-
scientiously performs in spite of the struggles and screams
of its aggrieved offspring.



Agilis (Lat. active), the Agile Gibbon, or
Oungka.

The Kanau isa native of Borneo. It derives its name
from the ery it utters, which is a repetition of the word
“Kahau.” It is remarkable for the extraordinary size and
shape of its nose, and the natives relate that while leaping
it holds that organ with its paws, apparently to guard it
against the branches. As may be seen from the engraving,
it is not an animal of very captivating appearance; but
THE MANDRILL 15

when it has been macerated in spirits of wine for a few
months, its ugliness is quite preternatural.

The length of the ani- Presny G ; a
mal from the head to the P®#S8¥7™s.—( aoe er os
tip of the tail is about
four feet four inches; and
its general colour is asandy
red, relieved by yellow
cheeks and a yellow stripe
over the shoulders.

We now arrive at the
Baxsoons. This tribe is
principally distinguished
from the apes by their
short and insignificant-
looking tails.

The Mandrill, which is

the most conspicuous of
the baboon tribe, is a Larvatus (Lat. masked) Kahau, ci

native of Guinea and Proboscis Monkey.



CynocEPHALuS.—(Gr. kiwv, a dog ; xeparn, a head.)



Mormon (Gr. Mopydy, a bogie), the Mandritl.


16 AMERICAN MONKEYS

Western Africa, and is chiefly remarkable for the vivid
colours with which it is adorned. Its cheeks are of a
brilliant blue, its muzzle of a bright scarlet, and a stripe of
crimson runs along the centre of its nose. These colours
are agreeably contrasted by the purple hues of the hinder
quarters. It lives principally in forests filled with brush-
wood, from which it makes incursions into the nearest
villages, plundering them with impunity. On this account
it is much dreaded by the natives, who feel themselves
incapable of resisting its attacks. It is excessively fero-
cious, and easily excited to anger ; and when enraged, so
boundless is its rage, that Cuvier relates that he has seen
several of these animals actually expire from the violence
of their fury. ,

The greenish-brown colour of the hair of this and other
monkeys is caused by alternate bands of yellow and black,
which exist on each hair. The brilliant colours referred
to above belong to the skin, and fade away entirely after
death, becoming paler when the animal is not in perfect
health.

The AmeEricAN Monkeys, or Cebide, are found exclu-
sively in South America, and are never seen north of
Panama. Their tails are invariably long, and, in some
genera, prehensile.

The Coaita is one of the Spider Monkeys, so called from
their long slender limbs, and their method of progressing
among the branches. The tail seems to answer the purpose
of a fifth hand, as it is capable of being used for every
purpose to which the hand could be applied; indeed, the
Spider Monkeys are said to use this member for hooking
out objects where a hand could not be inserted. The tail
is also of considerable use in climbing among the branches
of trees; they coil it round the boughs to lower or raise
themselves, and often will suspend themselves entirely by
it, and then by a more powerful impetus swing off to
some distant branch. The habits of all the Spider Monkeys
are very similar. They are extremely sensitive to cold,
THE COAITA SPIDER MONKEY 17

and when chilly are in the habit of wrapping their tail
about them, so that this useful organ answers the purpose
of a boa as well asa
hand. They will also,
when shot, fasten their
tail so firmly on the
branches, that they re-
main suspended after
death. The great
length of their tail
enables them to walk
in the erect attitude
better than most mon-
keys. In walking, .
they cast their tails
upwards as high as
the shoulders, and ~
then bend it over so
as to form a counter-
balance against the
weight of the body,
which is thrown very :

much forward in that Paniscus (Gr. Mavicxos, dim. of wav, a little
and most-other mon- Pan), the Coaita Spider Monkey.
keys. The genus is called Ateles, or imperfect, because
in most of the species the thumb is wanting. The Coaita
inhabits Surinam and Guinea.

Atiies.—(Gr. &reatjs, imperfect.)



The Howiine Monkeys are larger and not so agile as
the Spider Monkeys, and are chiefly remarkable for the
peculiarity from which they derive their name. These
animals possess an enlargement in the throat, composed of
several valvular pouches, which apparatus renders their
ery exceedingly loud and mournful. An arrangement
somewhat similar may be seen in the throat of several
loud-voiced birds.

They howl in concert, principally at the rising and setting
of the sun; one monkey begins the cry, which is gradually
taken up by the rest, precisely as may be observed in a
18 THE HOWLER MONKEY

colony of rooks. They are in great request among the
natives as articles of food, their slow habits rendering

them an easy prey.
Mycirrs.—(Gr. puxnrhs, a howler.)



Ursinus (Lat. Ursa, a bear—Bearlike), the Ursine Howler.

The Ursine Howler, or Araguato, is common in Brazil,
where forty or fifty have been observed on one tree. They
generally travel in files, an old monkey taking the lead,
and the others following in due order. They feed prin-
cipally on leaves and fruit; the tail is prehensile like that
of the Spider Monkeys.

The MarmoseEt is a most interesting little creature. It
is exceedingly sensitive to cold, and when in England is
usually occupied in nestling among the materials for its
bed, which it heaps up in one corner, and out of which it
seldom emerges entirely. It will eat almost any article of
food, but is especially fond of insects, which it dispatches
in a very adroit manner. It will also eat fruits, especially
those of its native country. Its fondness for insects is car-
ried so far, that it has been known to pinch out the figures
of beetles in entomological work, and swallow them.

A beautiful little marmoset in the Zoological Gardens
THE MARMOSET 19

ate a great number of flies which I caught and presented

to it. Its little eyes
sparkled with eager-
ness each time that
it saw my hand mov-
ing towards a fly
settled out of its
reach, and it even
ventured from its
warm woolly nest,
and climbed up the
wires of its cage as
it saw the fly ap-
proaching. It was
also rather expert at
catching for itself the
flies that settled on
the bars of the cage.

considered a great prize.

Jaccuus.—(Gr. “Iaxyos, Bacchus.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Ifarmoset.

A blue-bottle fly was evidently

This pretty little Monkey is also called the Ouistiti,
from its peculiar whistling cry when alarmed or provoked.

LEMUR.


20 THE SLENDER LORIS

The Lemurs derive their name from their nocturnal
habits, and their noiseless movements. The Ruffled
Lemur is a native of Madagascar. It lives in the depths
of the forests, and only moves by night, the entire day
being spent in sleep. Its food consists of fruits, insects
and small birds, which latter it takes while they are
sleeping. This is the largest of the Lemurs, being rather
larger than a cat.

The StenpEr Loris is a native of India, Ceylon, &e. It,
like the Lemur, sel-
dom moves by day,
but prowls about at
night in search of
food. No sooner does
it espy a_ sleeping
bird, than it slowly
advances until within
reach ; then putting
forward its paw with
a motion slow and
imperceptible as the
movement of the
shadow on the dial,
it gradually places its
fingers over the de-
voted bird; then, with a movement swifter than the eye
can follow, it seizes its startled prey.

Loris. (Native name.)

Paces



Gracilis (Lat. slender), the Slender Loris,

We now arrive at the Bats, or Cheiroptéra. This name
is derived from the singular manner in which their fore-
paws, or hands, are developed into wings. If the fingers
of a man were to be drawn out like wire to about four
feet in length, a thin membrane to extend from finger to
finger, and another membrane to fall from the little finger
to the ankles, he would make a very tolerable imitation of
a Bat.
THE VAMPIRE BAT 21

VAmpinus (‘‘said by Adelung to be of Servian origin”).





Spectrum (Lat, a spectre), the Vampire Bat.

The usual food of Bats is insects, which they mostly
capture on the wing, but some, as the Vampires, suck blood
from other animals, and a few, as the Kalong, or Flying
Fox, live upon fruits, and so devastate the mango crops, that
the natives are forced to cover them with bamboo baskets,
to preserve them from the ravages of these animals, who
would soon strip the fruit trees without these precautions.
Even the cocoa nut is not secure from their depredations.

The membrane of the Bat’s wing is plentifully supplied
with nerves, and is extremely sensitive, almost appearing
to supply a sense independent of sight. Many Bats pos-
sess a similar membrane on the nose, which is possibly
used for the same purpose.

The object of the elongation of the finger joints is to
give the animal the power of extending the wing mem-
brane or folding it at pleasure. When the bat wishes to
walk, it half folds the membrane, and assumes an attitude
admirably represented in the cut of the Long-eared Bat.

The thumb-joint has no part of the wing attached to it,
but is left free, and is armed with a hook at the extremity
22 THE VAMPIRE BAT

by means of which it is enabled to drag itself along in that
singular vacillating hobble which constitutes a Bat’s walk.

There are five tribes, or sub-families, of Bats, according
to Gray, each tribe including many genera. The British
Museum alone possesses eighty genera.

The Vampire Bat is a native of South America, where it
is very common, and held in some dread. It lives on the
blood of animals, and sucks usually while its victim sleeps.
The extremities, where the blood flows freely, as the toe
of a man, the ears of a horse, or the combs and wattles of
fowls, are its favourite spots, When it has selected a sub-
ject, on which it intends to feed, it watches until the
animal is fairly asleep. It then carefully fans its victim
with its wings while it bites a little hole in the ear or
shoulder, and through this small aperture, into which a
pin’s head would scarcely pass, it contrives to abstract
sufficient blood to make a very ample meal. The wound
is so small, and the Bat manages so adroitly, that the
victim does not discover that anything has happened until
the morning, when a pool of blood betrays the visit of the
Vampire.

The wound made by the bat’s teeth is no larger than
that made by a needle, and hardly penetrates the skin, so
that the blood must be extracted by suction. There have
been very different accounts of the Vampires from travel-
lers, some denying that they suck blood at all, and others
narrating circumstantially the injuries inflicted upon their
own persons. The cause for these discrepancies is probably
owing to the constitution of the narrators, there being some
persons whom a Vampire will not touch, while others are
constantly victimised.

This Bat is placed among the Phyllostomina, because
the membrane on its nose resembles a leaf. The length
of its body is about six inches.



THE LONG-EARED BAT.

The Lone-rarep Bar is found in most parts of Europe,
and is common in England. It may be seen any warm
THE LONG-EARED BAT 23

evening flying about in search of insects, and uttering its
peculiar shrill ery. It is very common on Hampstead
Heath. The fears are. about an inch
and a half in length, and have a fold in
them reaching almost to the lips, from
which peculiarity the genus is called
Plecotus.

This Bat rs very easily tamed, and EE
will take flies and other insects from
the hand. One that I hadin my own possession used to hang
by the wing-hooks during
the whole of the day, and
could hardly be persuaded
to move, or even to eat;
but when the evening
came on it became very
brisk indeed, and after
carefully combing itself with its hind feet, it would
eagerly seize a fly or beetle and devour it, always rejecting
the head, legs, and
wings. It was then Pxecorus. aad TNs I fold ; ods, an ear.)
very impatient to
be released from the
cage, and would
show its uneasiness
by climbing about
the cage and flut-
tering its wings. It
unfortunately died
before further in-
vestigations could
be made, but dur-
ing the short time
that it survived, it





HAIR OF LONG-EARED BAT.



.
Aisa Auritus (Lat. auris, an ear ;—Eared),
seemed Very, gentle, the Long-cared Bat.

and only bit me

once, although I used frequently to handle it.
When the Long-eared Bat is suspended by its hinder
claws, it assumes a most singular aspect. The beautiful
24 QUADRUPEDS

long ears are tucked under its wings, which envelop great
part of its body. The tragus, or pointed membrane visible
inside the ear, is then exposed, and appears to be the actual
ear itself, giving the creature a totally different cast of
character.



QUADRUPEDS.

Tue former sections have been characterised by the
number and properties of the hands. In the section that
we are about to consider, the hands have been modified
into feet. At the head of the quadrupeds, or four-footed
animals, are placed the carnivora, or flesh-eAters, and at the
head of the carnivora, the Felide, or cat kind, are placed,
as being the most perfect and beautiful in that section.
The Felide all take their prey by creeping as near as they
can without observation, and then springing upon their
unfortunate victim, which seldom succeeds in making its
escape, as the powerful claws and teeth of its enemy usually
dash it insensible to the ground. The jaws and teeth of
the Felide are very different from those of the animals
already described; their jaws are more powerful, and
their teeth longer and sharper. Their claws, too, are
necessarily very long, curved and sharp, and to prevent
them from being injured by coming into contact with the
ground, they are retracted, when not in use, into a sheath,
which effectually guards them and keeps them sharp.
There are five claws on the fore-feet, and four on the
hinder feet. The tongue of the Felidx is very rough, as
may be proved by feeling the tongue of a cat. This
roughness is occasioned by innumerable little hooks which
cover the tongue, point backwards, and are used for the
purpose of licking the flesh off the bones of their prey.
The bristles of the mouth, or whiskers, are each connected
with a large nerve, and are exceeding useful in indicating
an obstacle when the animal prowls by night. Their eyes
THE LION 25

are adapted for nocturnal vision by the dilating power of
the pupil, which expands so as to take in every ray of
light,

THE LION.

The Lion stands at the head of the wild beasts. His
noble and dignified bearing, the terrific power compressed
into his comparatively small frame, and the deep majesty
of his voice, have gained for him the name of “king of
beasts.” The Lion inhabits Africa and certain parts of
Asia, such as portions of Arabia and Persia, and some parts
of India. It varies in external appearance according to
the locality, but there is little doubt that there is but
one species.

The roar of the Lion is one of its chief peculiarities ; the
best description. of it is in Gordon Cumming’s Adven-
tures :—

“One of the most striking things connected with the
Lion is his voice, which is extremely grand and peculiarly
striking, It consists, at times, of a low deep moaning,
repeated five or six times, ending in faintly audible sighs ;
at other times he startles the forest with loud, deep-toned,
solemn roars, repeated five or six times in quick succession,
each increasing in loudness to the third or fourth, when
his voice dies away in five or six low, muffled sounds,
very much resembling distant thunder. At times, and
not unfrequently, a troop may be heard roaring in concert,
one assuming the lead, and two, three, or four more regu-
larly taking up their parts like persons singing a catch.”

“As a general rule lions roar during the night, their
sighing moans commencing as the shades of evening
envelop the forest, and continuing at intervals through-
out the night. In distant and secluded regions, however,

' I have constantly heard them roaring loudly as late as

nine or ten o’clock ona bright, sunny morning. In hazy
and rainy weather they are to be heard at every hour in
the day, but their roar is subdued.”
26 THE LION

The opinion that lions will not touch a dead animal is
erroneous, as they were frequently shot by Mr. Cumming
while devouring gnoos, &c., that had fallen by his rifle.

‘

Lro. — (Lat. a Lion.)



Barbarus (Lat. fierce), the Lion.

Those lions who have once tasted human flesh are gener-
ally the most to be dreaded, as they will even venture to
spring in among a company of men, and seize their victim.
These lions are called Man-eaters.

The Lioness is much smaller than the Lion, and is desti-
tute of the magnificent mane which is so great an ornament
to her mate. As a general rule she is more fierce and
active than the male, especially before she has had cubs, or
while she is suckling them. She has usually from two to
four cubs at a time. They are beautiful, playful little
things, and are slightly striped. They have no mane
until about two years old. While her cubs are small, the
THE LION 27

Lioness knows no fear, and will attack a company of
men, or a herd of oxen, if they come too near
her den.

The cubs are remarkably heavy for their age. Many
years ago I had a pair of young lion cubs in my hands.
They were about the size of very large cats, but weighed
considerably more than their size led me to believe. They
were playful little animals, but struck rather too hard to
be agreeable.

The Lion when young is easily tamed, and shows a
strong attachment to its keeper. Those who have seen
Van Amburgh will know what influence man may obtain
over this powerful creature.

There is one remarkable difference in the characters of
the feline and canine tribes. If a man is overcome by a
wolf or a dog, the animal ceases not to mangle its van-
quished foe until life is quite extinct. A dog killing a
rab is a good instance of this trait of character. But if
a lion or any other feline animal vanquishes a man, it
contents itself with the victory for some time without
making any attempt to injure him, unless he tries to
escape, in which case he is again dashed to the earth, and
probably considerably bitten as a warning. A cat treats
a mouse just as a lion treats a man.

This propensity in the lion has been the cause of saving
several lives, the men having been able either to destroy
their foe by cautiously getting out a weapon, or by lying
still until they were succoured.

At the extremity of the lion’s tail there is a small hook
or claw, which has been represented as the means by
which the animal lashes itself into fury, using it as a spur.
This is impossible, as the claw or prickle is very small,
not fixed to the bone as the claws of the feet are, but
merely attached to the skin, and falls off if roughly
handled. It is not present in all lions, as Mr. Wood only
‘discovered it once out of numerous specimens which he
examined, :
28 THE TIGER

Ticris.—(Lat. @ Tiger.)



Regalis (Lat. royal), the Tiger.

This magnificent animal is found only in Asia, Hin-
dostan being the part most infested by it. In size it is
almost equal to the lion, its height being from three to
four feet, and its length rather more than eightfeet. It
has no mane, but to compensate for this deficiency, it is
decorated with black stripes, upon a ground of reddish
yellow fur, which becomes almost white on the under
parts of the body. The chase of the Tiger is among the
most exciting and favourite sports in India. A number
of hunters assemble, mounted on elephants trained to the
sport, and carry with them a supply of loaded rifles in
their howdahs, or carriages mounted on the elephants’
backs. Thus armed, they proceed to the spot where a
tiger has been seen. The animal is usually found hidden
THE TIGER 29

in the long grass or jungle, which is frequently eight or
more feet in height, and when roused, it endeavours to
creep away under the grass. The movement of the leaves
betrays him, and he is checked by a rifle-ball aimed at
him through the jungle. Finding that he cannot escape
without being seen, he turns round, and springs at the
nearest elephant, endeavouring to clamber up it, and attack
the party in the howdah. This is the most dangerous
part of the proceedings, as many elephants will turn round
and run away, regardless of the efforts of their drivers to
make them face the tiger. Should, however, the elephant
stand firm, a well-directed ball checks the tiger in his
spring, and he then endeavours again to escape, but a
volley of rifle-balls from the backs of the other elephants,
who by this time have come up, lays the savage animal
prostrate, and in a very short time his skin decorates the
successful marksman’s howdah.

Tigers are usually taken by the natives in pitfalls, at
the bottom of which is planted a bamboo stake, the top of
which is sharpened into a point. The animal falls on the
point, and is impaled.

The general notion that tigers cannot be tamed is
erroneous. They can be tamed as easily as the lion;
but great caution must be used with all wild animals,
as in a moment of irritation, their savage nature breaks
out, and the consequences have more than once proved
fatal.

In the British Museum are three cubs bred between a
lion and a tigress. They are not unlike lion cubs, but
the stripes are much darker, and the colour of the fur is
brighter.

The colouring of the tiger is a good instanco of the
manner in which animals are protected by the similarity
of their external appearance to the particular locality in
which they reside. The stripes on the tiger’s skin so
' exactly assimilate with the long jungle grass amongst
which it lives, that it is impossible for unpractised eyes
to discern the animal at all, even when a considerable
portion of its body is exposed.
30 THE LEOPARD

Leorarpus,—(Lat. dco, a lion ; pardus, a panther.)



Varius (Lat. varied), the Leopard, or Panther.

The Leoparp is an inhabitant of Africa, India, and the
Indian Islands. A black variety inhabits Java, and is
not uncommon there. Its height is about two feet. This
and the following Felide are accustomed to live much on
trees, and are on that account called Tree-tigers by the
natives. Nothing can be more beautiful than the ele-
gant and active manner in which the leopards sport
among the branches of the trees: at one time they will
bound from branch to branch with such rapidity, that
the eye can scarcely follow them; then, as if tired, they
will suddenly stretch themselves along a branch, so as to
be hardly distinguishable from the bark, but start up
again on the slightest provocation, and again resume their
graceful antics. It is easily tamed, and expresses great
fondness for its keeper, and will play with him like a
cat. A remarkably beautiful specimen in Wombwell’s
Menagerie was exceedingly fond of playing with the tuft
at the extremity of a lion’s tail, and from the familiar
manner in which he patted and bit it he evidently
THE JAGUAR’ 31

considered it as manufactured for his own particular
entertainment.

This animal is exceedingly fond of some scents, especially
preferring lavender water, by means of which predilection
it has been taught to perform several tricks.

The Leopard and Panther are considered as the same
animal, on the authority of Mr. Gray.

The Jaguar inhabits America. It is larger and more
powerful than the leopard, which it resembles in colour,
but has a_ black
streak across the LEOPARDUS.
chest, and a black
spot in the centre
of the rosettes. It
is fond of climb-
ing trees, and finds
little difficulty in
ascending, even
when the trunk
is smooth and des-
titute of branches.
It chases monkeys
successfully, and
is said to watch
for turtles on the
beach, and to scoop
out their flesh by
turning them on
their backs, and
inserting its paws
between the shells.
Nor does it confine
its attention to the turtles themselves, for it watches them
lay their eggs, and then scoops them out of the sand with
its claws. It often makes fearful havoc among the sheep-
folds, and is said to depart so far from the usual habits of
the Felidae, as to enter the water after fish, and to capture



Onca (Gr. “Oya, a proper name),
the Jaguar.
32 THE PUMA

them in the shallows by striking them out of the water
with a blow of its paw. There have been instances of
the domestic cat acting in the same manner.

When it captures one of the larger animals it destroys
it by leaping upon its back, and twisting the head of its
prey round, until the neck is dislocated.

_ The Puma inhabits the whole of America, where it is
held in much dread by the natives. Its colour is an
uniform grey, fading into white on the under parts of its

LEOPANDUS,



body, and this similarity of colour is the reason that the
name “concolor” has been given to it. It lives much on
trees, and usually lies along the branches, where its uni-
form dusky fur renders it so like the bark that it can
scarcely be distinguished from the branch.

The Americans always speak of this animal as the pan-
ther, or “painter,” as it is more familiarly pronounced ;
and many authors still term it the cougar, a word con-
tracted from the original elongated unpronounceable
Mexican name, ‘“ Gouazouara,”
THE OCELOT—THE CAT 33

The Ocgtor, one of the Tiger-cats, is a native of Mexico
and Peru. Its height is about eighteen inches, and its
length about three
feet. It is a most
beautiful animal,
and is easily tamed.
When ina wild state
it lives principally
on monkeys, which
it takes by strata-
gem.

LEOPARDUS.




Ber
Wt ZS
WINES

iN =



The domestic Cat
was formerly sup-
posed to be the same
animal as the wild
Cat, but it is now
proved to be a dis-
tinct species, and the difference is seen at once by the
form of the tail. That of the domestic Cat is long and
taper, while that of the wild cat is bushy and short.

The cat is familiarly known to us as a persevering
mouse-hunter. So strong, indeed, is the passion for hunt-
ing in the breast of the Cat, that she sometimes disdains
mice “and such small deer,” and: trespasses on warrens or
preserves. A large tabby cat, residing at no great distance
from White Horse Vale, was accustomed to go out poach-
ing in the preserves of a neighbouring nobleman, and so
expert was she at this illegal sport that she constantly re-
turned bearing in her mouth a leveret or a partridge, which
she insisted on presenting to her mistress, who in vain
endeavoured to check her marauding propensities. These
exploits, however, brought their own punishment; for
one day, when in the act of seizing a leveret, she found
herself caught in a vermin trap, which deprived her of one
of her hind legs. This misfortune did not damp her
enthusiasm for hunting, as, although the loss of a leg pre-
vented her from chasing hares, and such-like animals, she
would still bring in an occasional rat.

Pardilis (Gr. mépSadrs, a pard), the Ocelot,
34 THE CAT

This instinctive desire of hunting seems to be implanted
in cats at a very early age. I have seen kittens but just
able to see, bristle up at the touch of a mouse, and growl
in a terrific manner if disturbed.



Domestica (Lat. domestic), the Cat.

The Cat displays a great affection for her kittens, and
her pride when they first ran about is quite amusing.
While I was an undergraduate at college, a cat belonging
to the baker’s department formed a great friendship for
me, and used to come every morning and evening to
obtain her share of breakfast and tea. She continued her
attentions for some time, but one morning she was absent
from her accustomed corner, nor did she return until
nearly a week had passed, when she came again, but
always seemed uneasy unless the door were open. days afterwards she came up as usual, and jumped on my
knee, at the same time putting a little kitten into my
hand. She refused to take it back again, so I restored it
to its brothers and sisters myself. A few hours afterwards,
on going into my bedroom, I found another black kitten
fast asleep on the bed.
THE CANADA LYNX 35

Cats are very fond of aromatic plants and several power-
ful scents. My own cat has just been discovered in the
act of eating the green tops
of a musk plant that was
standing in the window. Vale-
rian appears to be the great
attraction for cats; and any
one who is disposed to place
a plant of valerian in his gar- CATS) TAILS.* :
den must beware of the cats, for they will come in num-
bers, roll over it, and scratch up the plant until there is
not a vestige of it left. Moreover they will fight for the
fragments in various parts of the garden, and cause great
confusion among the seeds.

There are several varieties of the domestic cat, among
which the Angora cats, with their beautiful long fur, and
the Manx cats of the Chartreuse breed, which have no
tails, are the most conspicuous.



The Lywxes are remarkable for the pencil of hairs which
tufts their sharply pointed ears.

The Canapa Lynx
ig a native of North
America, and is re-
markable for its
gait. Its method of
progression is by
bounds from all
four feet at once,
with the back
arched. It feeds
principally on the
American hare, as
ib is not courageous
enough to attack
the larger quadru-

Lyncus.—(Gr. Adyé, a Lynx.)



Canadensis (Lat. of Canada), the
peds. Its length Canada Lyna. :

is about three feet.
The natives sometimes eat its flesh, which is white and
* . Tail of Domestic Cat; 2. Tail of Wild Cat,
36 THE CHETAH

firm, and not unlike that of the American hare itself. Its
skin forms an important article of commerce, and between
seven and nine thousand are imported yearly by the
Hudson’s Bay Company, by whom the grey specimen in
the British Museum was presented.

The CHETAH, or Huntinea LEoPARD, as it is sometimes
called, is one of the most elegant and graceful animals
known, It is a native both of Africa and India, but it is

GUEPARDA.



Jubata (Lat. crested), the Chetah.

only in the latter country that it is used for hunting game,
as the Africans appear not to possess sufficient ingenuity
to train the animal. The method of employing it is
usually as follows :—The Chetah is either led blind-folded
in a chain, or placed upon a hackery, or native cart, and
taken as near as possible to the place where antelopes or
deer are feeding. When close enough, the hunter takes
the band from its eyes, and directs its head towards the
game. Directly the Chetah sees the deer, ib creeps off the
cart, and makes towards them as rapidly and silently as it
can, carefully availing itself of the accidental cover of a
THE STRIPED HYHNA 37

bush, or stone, precisely as a cat does when stealing after
a bird. When it has succeeded in unobservedly approach-
ing the unsuspecting herd, it makes two or three tre-
mendous springs, and fastens on the back of one unfor-
tunate deer, brings it to the ground, and waits until its
keeper comes up, who induces it to leave its prey by a
ladle-full of the blood, which he takes care to have ready.
The Chetah is then hooded and led back to his cart. It is
so easily tameable and so gentle that it is frequently led
about the streets by a string for sale.

It is rather larger than the leopard, and differs from it
in the length of its paws, its inability to climb trees, and
the crispness of its fur. It is therefore placed ina different
genus from the leopard. It derives its name of ‘“ jubata”’
from a thin mane running down the neck.

The Hyentna, or Hyanas, are remarkable for their pre-
datory, ferocious, and withal cowardly habits. There are
several Hyzenas, the ;
striped, the spotted, Hyawa.—(Gr. “Yauva.)
and the villose, but
as the habits of all
are very similar,
only one will be
mentioned. The
Hyenas, although
very repulsive in
appearance, are yet
very useful, as they
prowl in search of
dead animals, espe-
cially of the larger
kinds, and will de-
vour them even Stridta (Lat. striped), the Striped Hyena.
when putrid, so that
they act the same part among beasts that the vultures do
among birds, and are equally uninviting in aspect. They
not unfrequently dig up recently interred corpses, and in
Abyssinia, according to Bruee, they even flock in numbers


38 THE CIVET CAT

into the village streets, where they prey on slaughtered men
who are thrown out unburied. One of these animals attacked
Bruce in his tent, and was only destroyed after a severe
battle. Their jaws and teeth are exceedingly powerful, as
they can crush the thigh-bone of an ox with apparently
little effort ; and so great is the strain upon the bones by
the exertions of these muscles, that the vertebree of the
neck become anchylosed, as it is called, that is, become
united together, and the animal has a perpetual stiff neck
in consequence. Before the anatomy of the hyena was
better known, people thought that it had only one bone in
its neck, The skull too is very strong, and furnished with
heavy ridges for the support of the muscles which move
the jaw.

The hinder parts of the Hyena are very small, and give
it a strange shambling appearance when walking. The
Hyzena is easily tamed, and even domesticated, so that the
tales of its untameable disposition are entirely erroneous.

The striped Hyena is found in many parts of Asia and
Africa, where it is both a benefit and a pest, for when dead
animals fail it, the flocks and herds are ravaged, and even
man does not always escape.

The VIVERRINA, or CIvETS, are active little animals,
averaging about two feet in length. The whole group is
celebrated for the
perfume which is
secreted in a glan-
dular pouch near the
tail, and is of some
importance in com-
merce.

The Civet is only
; found in North

Civetta (Arabic Zibette, scent), the Africa, especially, ae

Civet Cat. Abyssinia, where it

takes up its abode

on uncultivated and barren hills. It feeds upon birds
and the smaller quadrupeds, which it takes by surprise.

Viverra.—(Lat. a Ferret.)


THE ICHNEUMON 39

The Icuneumons, or Mancousts, well deserve their
name of Creepers, for with their long bodies and snouts,
their short limbs and slender tails, they insinuate them-
selves into every crevice in their way in search of their
expected food. Few animals are more useful than the -
Ichneumons. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles’ eggs, or even
young crocodiles themselves, form their principal food,
and their activity is so great that, when these sources fail,
they are able to secure birds, and even seize upon the
swift and wary lizards, which, when alarmed, dart off like
streaks of green light glancing through the bushes.

HERPESTES.—(Gr. Eprnorhs, a creeper.)



Ichneumon (Gr. ixveduor, a tracker), the Egyptian Ichnewmon.

The Egyptian Ichneumon, or Pharaoh’s Rat, as it is
sometimes called, is a native of North Africa, and is often
domesticated for the purpose of destroying the various
snakes, and other reptile annoyances, which are such a
pest in the houses of hot countries. Its length without
the tail is about eighteen inches.

THE DOG.

We now arrive at the Dog Faminy, which includes the
Dogs, Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes. The first of the Dogs
is the Kolsun, or Dhale, which inhabits Bombay and
Nepaul. It hunts in packs, as most of the dogs do even
in a wild state, and has been known to destroy tigers
and chetahs. Let us pass to a more interesting animal,
the Newfoundland Dog. This magnificent creature was
originally brought from Newfoundland. It is often con-

‘
40 THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG

founded with the Labrador Dog, a larger and more power-
ful animal. Both these dogs are trained by their native
masters to draw sledges and little carriages, and on that
account are highly esteemed. The Newfoundland Dog is
well known as a most faithful guardian of its master’s
property. It is remarkably fond of the water, and will

CANIS.



LATIN MS
f TaN
Y ARI wn ~

fi

Familidvis (Lat. familiar), the Newfoundland Dog.

fetch out any article that its master indicates, and lay it
at his feet. Many instances are known of this noble
animal saving the lives of people that have fallen into the
water, and must have perished but for its timely aid.

This is one of the largest of the dogs, as it stands
nearly two feet two inches in height. =‘

Tue BuroopHounp.—There are several varieties of this
animal, inhabiting Cuba, Africa, and England. They all
are endowed with a wonderfully acute sense of smell, and
THE BLOODHOUND—THE FOXHOUND 4]

can trace a man or animal with almost unerring certainty.
The Cuban Bloodhound was formerly employed by the
Spaniards to hunt down the natives while endeavouring
to escape from their invasions, A few years since, one of
these dogs saved the life of its master, an American



THE BLOODHOUND.

hunter, by boldly attacking a puma which had sprung on
him in the darkness, and was lacerating him in a dreadful
manner, The sagacious animal had been tied up at home,
but apparently knowing the dangers of the forests through
which his master was about to pass, he broke his chain,
and arrived barely in time to save the hunter from a
horrible death.

The Foxnounp and Brace are not very dissimilar in
form or habits. They both follow game by the scent, and
are used in hunting. The Foxhound, as its name implies,
is used for hunting the fox, and enters into the sport with
extraordinary eagerness. The height of the foxhound is
about twenty-two inches.

The BEAGLE is used principally for hare hunting. It is
much smaller than the foxhound, and not nearly so swift,
42 ; THE BEAGLE-



THE FOXHOUND.

but its scent is so perfect that it follows every track of the
flying hare, unravels all her windings, and seldom fails to
secure her at last. Sportsmen usually prefer the smallest
beagles obtainable. The most valuable pack of these dogs
known used to be carried to and from the field in a pair
of panniers slung across a horse’s back. Unfortunately,
this pack was so well known, that numerous were the
attempts to gain possession of it. One ill-fated evening,
as the dogs were returning in their panniers after the
day’s sport, the keeper was decoyed away by some strata-
gem, and when he returned, his dismay was great to find
that the dogs, panniers, and horse were all missing. No
traces of them were discovered, and it was conjectured
that they must have been sold on the Continent. It is
a common custom in the military schools, and sometimes
at the universities, to follow the beagle on foot. There
has been for several years a society at Oxford, who thus
hunt cn foot. As too much time would be lost in looking
for a living hare, a dead rabbit is trailed along the ground,
and as its fur has been rubbed with aniseed, the dogs can
follow it easily.
{HE POINTER—THE MASTIFF 43

The Pointer is used by sportsmen to point out the
spot where the game lies. It ranges the fields until it
scents the hare or partridge lying close on the ground.
It then remains still as if carved in stone, every limb



THE POINTER,

fixed, and the tail pointing straight’ behind it. In this .
attitude it remains until the gun is discharged, reloaded,
and the sportsman has reached the place where the bird
sprang.

The group of the Mastirr dogs is: distinguished by the
shortness of the nose and the breadth of the head. This
group includes the mastiff, the bull-dog, and the almost
obsolete absurd little pug-dog. The breadth of their heads
is caused by the large muscles which move the jaw.

The English Mastiff is generally employed as a house-
dog, as its powerful frame and deep voice are well fitted to
scare away marauders, or to repel them if they approach
.too near. It is by far the most sagacious of the whole
group, and exhibits much more attachment to its master
than the others. This animal has been called by several
names, of which “Ban-dog” is the best known. Bewick

D
A4 THE BULL-DOG



THE MASTIFF.

thinks that the ban-dog is a separate species, of a lighter
make than the ordinary English mastiff.

The Butz-poc is proverbial for courage and endurance.
Unfortunately its social qualities are by no means pleasing,
as, although it has
some attachment to
its master, yet it is
not always safe even
for him to disturb
it. This dog was
extensively used in
the cruel sport of
bull-baiting, a re-
creation now extinct.
When opposed to
the bull, the dog
: would fly at its

THE BULL-DOG. nose, and there hang
in spite of all the infuriated animal’s struggles,


THE ENGLISH TERRIER 45

The Terrizrs never grow to any considerable size.
There are several breeds of terriers, among which the
English and Scotch are most conspicuous. These dogs are
principally used for
destroying rats or
other vermin, and
are so courageous
that they do not he-
sitate to unearth the
fox or the badger.
Otters are also hunt-
ed by them, but
prove by no means
an easy prey, as their
snake - like body,
sharp teeth, and
amphibious habits
vender them very
difficult to seize, and their tenacity of life will frequently
enable them to escape when the dog considers them dead.

Terriers are extremely attached to their master, and are
capable of learning many amusing tricks.



THE ENGLISH TERRIER,

LE,

Nea,



THE SHEPHERD'S DOG.
A6 THE SHEPHERD'S DOG—THE GREYHOUND

The SHEPHERD’s Doc is a rough, shaggy animal, with
sharp pointed ears and nose. It is an invaluable assistant
to the shepherd, as it knows all its master’s sheep, never
suffers them to stray, and when two flocks have mixed, it
will separate its own charge with the greatest certainty.
It understands every look and gesture of its beloved
master, and drives the flock to any place which he points
out.



THE GREYHOUND,

The GrevHounp is the swiftest of all dogs, and is
principally used in the pursuit of the hare, which amuse-
ment is termed coursing. It has but little delicacy. of
scent, and hunts almost entirely by sight. The hare en-
deavours to baffle it by making sharp turns, which the dog
cannot do on account of its superior size, and has there-
fore to take a circuit, during which the hare makes off in
another direction. The hare also has the property of
stopping almost instantaneously when at full speed. It
puts this manceuvre into force, when it is nearing its.
favourite hiding-place. It induces the dog to spring upon
it, and then suddenly checks itself. The dog is carried
twenty or thirty yards forward by its own momentum, and
the hare springs off to her place of refuge.
THE FOX 47

The Fox.—This terror of hen-roosts and delight of
sportsmen is found in most parts of England, and many
other countries. It varies very much in colour and size,
according to the country where it lives.

The habits of this animal are mostly nocturnal. It lies
by day concealed in its burrow, if it be fortunate enough
to possess one, or in the depths of some thicket, if it is
not a householder. Towards evening it sallies out in
search of food, and woe to: the unfortunate hare, rabbit,
pheasant, or fowl that comes in its way !

Vutprs.—(Lat. a Fox.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Fox.

Sometimes he steals into the hen-roost, destroys and
carries off most of its inmates, some of which he devours
on the spot, others he carries home, and the remainder he
buries for a future repast.

When irritated, the fox gives out a strong disagreeable
scent, which lies so long on the ground that it may be
perceived for nearly an hour after the fox has passed.
Partly on this account, and partly on account of its speed,
endurance, and cunning, the chase of the fox is one of
the most admired English sports.
48 THE WEASELS—THE PINE MARTEN

The MustEtina, or WEAasELs, are easily distinguished
by their long slender bodies, short muzzle, sharp teeth,
and predatory habits. They inhabit almost every part of
the world, and procure their food by creeping on the
unsuspecting victim, generally a rabbit, rat, or bird, and
then suddenly darting at it and piercing its neck with
their sharp teeth. Almost all the weasels devour the
brain and suck the blood of their prey, but seldom touch
the flesh, unless they are pressed by hunger.

Two kinds of Martens inhabit England, named, from
their favourite haunts, the Pine and the Beech Marten.
Some naturalists as-

sert that these two
Oe martens are not dis-
tinct animals, but
only varieties of the
same species. The
Pine Marten is not
uncommon in Der-
byshire, where it is
much too fond of
chickens and duck-
lings to be a de-
sirable neighbour.

co}
This animal, as well

Manrers,—(Lat. a Marten.)



HANA SS

: ; as the Sable,i :
Abictum (Lat. of the Pine-tree), the Pine 2 bi a ON ante
“‘Murten. sought after on ac-

count of its skin,
which furnishes a beautiful fur, not much inferior to.
that of the Sable.

The Sroat, or Ermine, is also another common English
animal, It is smaller than the polecat, but its habits are
scarcely less predaceous. Hares and rabbits fall easy
victims to their little enemy, who despatches them with a
single bite, penetrating the brain. During the winter,
the stoat becomes partially white, in northern countries
wholly so, except the tip of the tail, which remains black.
In this state it is called the Ermine, and is killed in great
THE WEASEL 49

numbers for the
sake of its beautiful Musria.—(Lat. a Weasel.)
and valuable fur.

The WEAsEL is
the least of this
tribe. It is exces-
sively useful to far-
mers, aS it wages
unrelenting war on 3
rats and mice, and Erminéa.— The Stout.
in an incredibly
short space of time extirpates them from a barn or stack.
It hunts by scent like dogs, and tracks the unfortunate
rat with the most i
deadly certainty. It Se ee
is a most courage-
ous little animal,
and will evenattack
men, who have
found it by no
means a despicable
antagonist, as its
instinct invariably
leads it to dash at
the throat, where a bite from its long sharp teeth would
be very dangerous.





Vulgiris (Lat. common), the Weasel.

The Bapcrr.—This harmless and much injured animal
(which is often subjected to such ill treatment that the
term “badgering’”’ a person is used to express irritating
him in every possible way) is found throughout Europe
and Asia, It is not now very common in England, but is
frequently found in Scotland, where it is termed the
“ Brock.”

The Badger lives at the bottom of deep burrows which
it excavates, and in which it passes all the day, sleeping
on a very comfortable bed of hay and grass. When the
evening approaches it seeks its food, consisting of roots,
50 THE BADGER

fruit, insects, and sometimes young rabbits. It is also
said to attack the wild bee, and boldly to devour the
honey and combs, its thick hair and skin rendering it
utterly regardless of the stings of the enraged bees, who
“might as s well attack a barber's block.”

The cruel sport of
baiting the badger
is still continued,
although not so
openly or frequently
as a few years back.
The poor creature
is placed inside a
kennel, and dogs set
at it, who are not un-
frequently worsted
by the badger, as
its bite is terrific,
andits skin sotough,
and hair so thick,
a that the bites of the

Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Badger. dog do not take full

effect.

The power of the badger’s bite is caused principally
by the manner in which the under jaw is seb on. Not
only are its teeth sharp, and the leverage of its jaw
powerful, but the jaw is so contrived, that when the crea-
ture closes its mouth, the jaw locks together as it were,
and is-held fast without much exertion on the part of the
badger.

Its skin is rather valuable, the hair being extensively
employed in the manufacture of brushes, and its fur being
in some request for holsters. The length of the badger is
about two feet three inches.

Metrs.—(Lat. a Badger.)



SSS

The Orrrr seems to play the same part in the water as
the polecat and the other weasels on the land. Like the
polecat, it is excessively rapacious; like the polecat, it
destroys many more creatures than it can devour; and as
THE OTTER 51

the polecat only eats the brain and sucks the blood, so the
other daintily eats the flakes at the back of the fish’s neck,
and leaves the remainder for less fastidious animals.

It is extremely interesting to watch the actions of this
almost amphibious creature. It slides noiselessly into the
‘water, turns and twists about below the surface with the
same or greater ease
than a fish, then, Lurra.—(Lat. an Otter.)
with a_ graceful
sweep of the body,
it glides to the sur-
face and ascends the
bank with almost
the same motion.
While below the
surface it bears a
greatresemblanceto Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Olter.
the seal, the method
in which it disposes its hind feet greatly assisting the
effect. Its rapid and easy movements in the water are
‘mostly performed by the assistance of its powerful tapering
tail.

The otter is easily tamed, and its predatory habits have
been occasionally turned to account, as it is sometimes
trained to catch fish and bring them to shore, precisely as
the falcon is trained to catch terrestrial game.

The Hindoos have brought the art of otter training to
great perfection, and keep their otters regularly tethered
with ropes and straw collars on the banks of the river.





The Bears and their allies are mostly heavy, and walk
with the whole foot placed flat on the ground, unlike the
cats, dogs, &c., who walk with merely their paws or toes.
All the bears are omnivorous, that is, they can eat either
animal or vegetable food, so that a leg of mutton, a pot of
honey, a potato, or an apple, are equally acceptable.

The Brown Bear inhabits the north of Europe, Switzer-
Jand, and the Pyrenees. It has been extirpated from
52 THE BEAR

England for many centuries, but is recorded to have been
found in Scotland so late as 1057. The inhabitants of
Northern Europe hunt it with much skill, and take it in
traps and pibfalls.

In the time of Queen Elizabeth the bear used to be
baited, that is to say, the bear was tied to a pole, and

URSUS.



Arctos (Gr. “Aprros, a bear), the Bear,

several dogs were set at him, the object being, to see
whether the bear could bite the dogs, or the dogs bite the
bear with the greater force; but this cruel sport is now
happily extinct. s

The Grizzty Brar.— Bernardin de St. Pierre said,—
‘At the sight of man, all animals are struck either with
love or fear.’ He forgot to mention a third impression
made on many animals when they see a man, namely,
THE GRIZZLY BEAR 53
‘hunger, and a great desire to eat him.’” This observa-
tion applies most fully to the Grizzly Bear, a native of
North America. It is the most ferocious and powerful
of its family, and is an animal which must either be
avoided or fought, for there is no medium. If a Grizzly
Bear once sees a man, it will probably chase him, and will
do so with great perseverance. An American traveller
told me lately, that he had been chased nearly thirty

URSUS,



ively Bear.

miles by one of these bears, who would probably have
kept up the chase as many miles more, had not my infor-
-mant crossed a wide river, over which the bear did not
choose to follow him.

The Grizzly Bear is marvellously tenacious of life.
Sometimes, it is said, after a party of hunters have been
combating one of these bears, it is impossible to find four
square inches of sound skin in the animal’s body, a ball
54 THE POLAR BEAR

through the brain, or heart, affording the only means of
safety to the hunter.

It is rather singular that this bear has the power of
moving each claw separately, as we move our fingers.
It is able to overcome and carry off the enormous bison,
and to dig a pit in which to bury it.

THALARCTOS.—(Gr. from @dAagca, the sea, and &pros, a bear.)



Maritimus (Lat. belonging to the sca), the Polar Bear.

The Potar, or Wuitr Berar, called Nennook by the
Esquimaux, lives in the Arctic regions, where it feeds on
seals, fish, and even the Walrus, but it dares not attack
the latter animal openly. It is a formidable antagonist
either by land or water, as it dives with great ease, and is
able to chase the seal amid the waves. Ag the seals
frequently crawl out of the water upon rocks or fragments
of ice, the Polar bear is forced to swim after them; but
lest they should observe him he makes his approaches by
a succession of dives, and contrives that the last dive
THE RACOON 55

brings him directly under the unsuspecting seal, who is
immediately grasped and killed. Richardson states that
these bears are often drifted from Greenland to Iceland on
fields of ice, and that they find the flocks and herds so
very delicious after a long course of seal diet, that the
inhabitants are forced to rise in a body and put an end to
their depredations.

To give this animal, who is constantly running over
fields of ice, a firm footing, the soles of its feet are thickly
covered with long hair.

The Racoon is an animal about the size of a large fox,
and an inhabitant of Canada and other parts of America.
It derives its name, Jotor, from the habit it is said to
possess, of washing its food -before eating it. Its skin is
very valuable, and is much sought after by American
hunters.

The food of the Proc¥ox.—(Gr. Mporbwv, a constellation.)
Racoon is princi- gH
pally small animals VER
and insects. Oysters
are also a very fa-
vourite article of its
diet. It bites off the
hinge of the oyster,
and scrapes out the
animal in fragments
with its paws. Like
a squirrel when eat-
ing a nut, the Ra-
coon usually holds
its food between its Lotor (Lat. a washer), the Racoon.
fore-paws pressed
together, and sits upon its hind quarters while it eats.
Poultry are very favourite objects of its attack, and it
is said to be as destructive in a farm-yard as any fox,
for it only devours the heads of the murdered fowl. Like
the fox, it prowls by night.

When taken young it is easily tamed, but very fre-

A
<<

oS


56 THE MOLE

quently becomes blind soon after its capture. This effect
is supposed to be produced by the sensitive state of its
eyes, which are only intended to be used by night; but as
it is frequently awakened by daylight during its captivity,
it suffers so much from the unwonted glare, that its eyes
gradually lose their sight.

The Morz.—Many ridiculous stories of the Mole and its
habits may-be found in several authors, among whom Ausop
stands very conspicuous. This much maligned animal is
said to be deprived of eyes, to undergo unheard-of tortures
in forcing its way through the earth, and to spend a life of
misery in subterranean damp and darkness. But so far
from being a miserable animal, the mole seems to enjoy its
life quite as much as any other creature. It is beautifully
fitted for the station which it fills, and would be unhappy
if removed from its accustomed damp and darkness into
warmth and light.

The eyes of the mole are very small, in order to prevent
them from being injured by the earth through which

the animal makes its

TALPA, way ; indeed, larger

5 eyes would be use-

less underground.
When, however, the
mole requires to use
its eyes, 1b can bring
them forward from
the mass of fur
which conceals and
Europea (Lat. belonging to Hurope), the Mole. protects them when
‘ not in use. The

acute ears and delicate sense of smell supply the place of
eyes. Its fur is very fine, soft, capable of turning in any
direction, and will not retain a particle of mould. But the
most extraordinary part of the mole is the paw or hand
with which it digs. The two fore paws are composed of
five fingers, armed with sharp, strong nails, in order to
scrape up the earth; and to prevent the accumulated


THE MOLE 57

mould from impeding the mole’s progress, the hands are
turned outwardly, so as to throw the earth out of its way.
_. The mole is a most voracious animal, and is incapable

of sustaining even a slight fast. Its principal food is the
earth-worm, in chase of which it drives its long galleries
underground ; but it also will eat insects, bits of meat, and
is said sometimes to catch birds, which it takes by surprise,
and then rapidly tears to pieces with its powerful claws.
This ravenous appetite causes it to suffer from thirst if a
supply of water is not at hand. For this reason the mole
always makes a tunnel towards a pond or brook, if there is
one near. If no water is near, it digs a number of little
wells, which receive the rain or dew, and enable it to
quench its thirst.

It is a good swimmer, and can pass from bank to bank,
or from the shore to an island, and when the fields are
inundated by floods it can save itself by swimming.

The construction of the mole’s habitation is very singu-
lar and interesting.
Each mole has its
own habitation and
hunting ground, and
will not permit
strangers to trespass
upon its preserves,
which it guards, not
by “man-traps and spring-guns,” but by its own claws
and teeth. ; ae

In order to construct a fortress, the mole selects a secure
place, as the foot of a tree, or the side of a high bank. It
then throws up a heap of earth, which it presses firmly
together, as within this mould its fortress has to be made.
It commences by running a circular gallery near the summit
of the mound, and another larger one near the bottom.
These two galleries it connects by five descending passages.
' In the very centre of the mound, and at the level of the
ground, it now digs a circular hole, which it connects with
the upper gallery by three ascending passages. Lastly, it
makes a number of passages from the lower gallery, and



















MOLE HILL.
58 THE MOLE

connects the circular chamber with the largest of them, or
high road, by a passage that first bends downwards, and
then rises into the high road a little outside the large gallery.
In the circular chamber the mole sleeps, and can escape
into the high road either by the upper gallery or by the
road from the bottom of its dormitory.

I have already stated that each mole has its own hunt-
ing ground, and permits no intruder. If a strange mole
should happen to trespass upon the domains of another,
there would be a furious fight, and the conqueror would.
devour his vanquished foe.

Although each mole has its own hunting ground, yet
there are mostly high roads, which connect the different
hunting grounds with each other, and which are used by
many individuals in common, the only precaution taken
being, that if two males should happen to meet, the weaker
_ immediately retreats into one of the numerous side galleries
which open from the high road, and permits its aristocratical
neighbour to pass.

All the passions of the mole seem to be furious. Even
its passion for work, ¢.¢. search after its food, has some-
thing fierce init. The animal works desperately for several
hours, and then rests for as many hours. The country
people about Oxford say that it works at intervals of three
hours each, .

The mode of_ burrowing by this animal, is by rooting up
the earth with its snout, and then scooping it away with
its fore feet. I have often seen this operation performed.

The depth at which this animal works depends almost
entirely on the time of year. In the summer, the worms
come to the surface, and the mole accordingly follows them,
making quite superficial runs, and sometimes only scooping
trenches on the surface. But in the winter, when the
worms sink deep into the ground, the mole is forced to
follow them there, and as it cannot fast above an hour or
two, it is forced to work at the comparatively hard and
heavy soil, as it did in the light earth nearer the surface.

Moles vary in colour, the usual tint being a-very deep
brown, almost black, but they have been seen of an orange
THE SHREW MOUSE 59

colour, and a white variety is not uncommon. I have a
cream-coloured skin in my possession. There are several
moles known,—the Shrew Mole, the Changeable Mole,
the Cape Mole, and the Star-nosed Mole, are the most
conspicuous.

The Surew Movusz.—This pretty little animal is very
like the common mouse, but is easily distinguished from it
by the length of the nose, which is used for grubbing up
the earth in search of earth-worms and insects.

The reader must not imagine that the Shrew has any
connexion with the true mice. It belongs to an entirely
different class of animals, its teeth being sharp and pointed,
not unlike those of the mole and the hedgehog, whereas
those of the mouse are broad and chisel- -shaped like the
teeth of the rabbit.

A peculiar scent is diffused from these animals, which
is possibly the reason why the cat will not eat them,
although she will readily destroy them.

Many species of shrews are known, inhabiting various
countries. There are, besides the common species, the
Oared and the Water
Shrew, all three in- SORES. ay a Rat.)
habiting England. :
The formation of
their hair, as seen
under a powerful
microscope, is very
beautiful, but quite
distinct from the
hair of the mouse or
rat. In the autumn,
numbers of these little animals may be seen lying dead,
but what causes this destruction is not. known.

This is one of the numerous animals that have suffered
by false reports, and have been treated with great cruelty on
account of those fables. Rustics formerly believed that the
poor little harmless creature paralysed their cattle by run-
ning over them, and that the only way to cure the diseased

E



Aranéus cee a Shr a the Shrew Mouse.
60 Y THE HEDGEHOG

‘animal was to place a bough of shrew-ash on the injured
part. The shrew-ash was made by boring a hole into an
ash-tree, and -then plugging up in the hole a living shrew
mouse. By the same process of reasoning a shrew cut in
half, and placed on a wound supposed to be caused by its
bite, was considered a certain remedy.

The Hxrpcermoe, is remarkable as being our only English
animal that is guarded with spikes. These spikes are
fixed into the skin in a very beautiful and simple manner.

When the hedge-
Enrnackus.—(Lat. a Hedgehog.) hog is annoyed it
rolls itself up, and
the tightness of the
skin causes all its
spines to stand firm
and erect, bidding
defiance to an unpro-
tected hand. While
rolled up, even the
dog and the fox are
bafled by it; but
their ingenuity enables them to overcome the difficulty
by rolling it along until they push it into a puddle or
pool, when the astonished hedgehog immediately unrolls
itself to see what is the matter, and before it can close
itself again is seized by its crafty enemy.

Many more fortunate animals have outlived the asper-
sions cast upon their character by ignorant persons, but
the prejudice against the hedgehog is still in full vigour
in the agricultural districts. Scarcely a farmer or labourer
will be “persuaded that the hedgehog does not suck the
cows. Now this is an impossibility for the hedgehog ; but
I have seen pigs—not hedgepigs, but real bacon pigs—
suck the cows whilst lying down.

_ The food of the hedgehog consists not of cow’s milk,
but insects, snails, frogs, mice, and snakes. Dr. Buckland
placed a snake in the same box with the hedgehog. The
hedgehog gave the snake a severe bite, and then rolled



Europeus (Lat. belonging to Europe), the
Hedgehog.
THE KANGAROO 61

itself up, this process being repeated until the spine of the
snake was broken in several places; it then began at the
tail, and ate the snake gradually, as one would eat a radish.
White has seen it bore down and eat the roots of the
plantain, leaving the leaves and stem untouched.

The flesh of the hedgehog is said to be good eating, and
the gipsies frequently make it a part of their diet, as do the
people in some parts of the continent.

During the winter it lives in a torpid state, in a hole
well lined with grass and moss, and when discovered looks
like a round mass of leaves, as it has rolled itself among
the fallen foliage, which adheres to its spikes. The en-
graving of the spine, or quill, of this animal shows the
method by which it is retained in the skin. The quill is
as it were pinned through the skin, and retained by the
head. The curvature is such, that when the animal con-
tracts itself, the quills are drawn upright, and form a
strong and elastic covering, useful for more purposes than
merely defence from foes. The hedgehog has been known
to throw itself boldly from a considerable
height, trusting to the elasticity of the ¢ =
spring for breaking its fall. It will be
seen that when the spines are upright,
the shock of the fall would not tend to drive the end of
the quill upon the animal, but merely spend its force upon
the elasticity of the curved portion.

SPINE OF HEDGEHOG,

The Kancaroo.—In the mole we saw that the power of
the body was placed chiefly in the fore legs; we now come
to a family which has the principal power placed in the
hinder part of the body. In the Kangaroos the hind legs
are very long and immensely powerful; the fore legs are
very small, and used more as hands than for walking ; the
tail also is very thick and strong, and assists the animal in
its leaps.

The Great Kangaroo inhabits New Holland and Van
Diemen’s Land. Its singular formation, peculiarly adapted

_to the country, calls forth a corresponding degree of inge-
nuity on the part of the natives, who live much on its
62 THE KANGAROO

flesh. Its method of progression is by immense leaps from
its long hind legs.

The natural walking position of this animal is on all
four legs, although it constantly sits up on the hinder legs,
or even stands on a tripod composed of its feet and tail, in
order to look out over the tops of the luxuriant grass
among which it lives. The leaping movements are required
for haste or escape, the length of each leap being about

fifteen feet.
MACROPT.



Major (Lat. larger), the Kangaroo.

Hunting this animal is a very favourite sport with both
colonists and natives. The natives either knock it down
with the boomerang, spear it from behind a bush, or unite
together and hem in a herd, which soon fall victims to the
volleys of clubs, spears, and boomerangs which pour in on
all sides. The colonists either shoot it or hunt it with
dogs, a pack of which is trained for that purpose just as
THE OPOSSUM 63

we train fox-hounds. The “old man,” or “boomer,” as
the colonists call the Great Kangaroo, invariably leads the
dogs a severe chase, always attempting to reach water and
escape by swimming. It is a formidable foe to the dogs
when it stands at bay, as it seizes the dog with its fore-
legs, and either holds him under water until he is drowned,
or tears him open with a well-directed kick of its powerful
hind feet, which are armed with a very sharp claw.

The female Kangaroo carries its young about in a kind
of pouch, from which they emerge when they wish for a
little exercise, and leap back again on the slightest alarm.
All the kangaroos and the opossums have this pouch, from
which they are called “marsupiated” animals, from the
Latin word marsupium, a purse or pouch.

The length of the Great Kangaroo is about five feet
without the tail, the length of which is about three feet.

There are many species of kangaroo, the most extra-
ordinary being the Tree Kangaroo, which can hop about on
trees, and has eurved
claws on its fore-
paws, like those of
the sloth, to enable
it to hold on the
branches.

DipELrHys.—(Gr. Als, double; deAgds, a
pouch. )

The Opossum. —
This animal inhabits
North America, and
is hunted with al-
most as much per-
severance as the ra-
coon, not, however,
for the sake of its
fur but of its flesh.
When it perceives
the -hunter, it lies
still between the branches, but if disturbed from its hiding-
place, it attempts to escape by dropping among the herbage
and creeping silently away. ;



Virginiina (Lat. belonging to Virgint«), the
Opossum.
64 THE COMMON SEAL

Its food consists of insects, birds, eggs, &c., and it is
very destructive among the hen-roosts. ‘The Opossum. uses
its tail for climbing and swinging from branch to branch,
as the spider monkeys use theirs; but the Opossum uses
its tail in a manner that the monkeys have never yet been
observed to do, that is, making it a support for its young,
who sit on its back and twist their tails round their
mother’s in order to prevent them from falling off.

It is a most crafty animal, and when overtaken by its
pursuers, can simulate death so admirably, that it fre-
quently deceives the foe, and quietly makes its escape.

The length of the Opossum is about twenty-two inches,
and its height about that of an ordinary cat. When dis-
turbed or alarmed, it gives out a very unpleasant odour.

The Seats and Waa es, although they are truly mam-
malia, are inhabitants of the water, and specially formed
for an aquatic existence.

The fore-feet of the Seal are used as fins, and the two
hinder feet almost as the tail of a fish, to assist and direct
its course. On land the movements of this animal are
very clumsy ; it shuffles along by means of its fore-feet, or
rather paddles, and drags its hind-feet after it.

The Common Seat inhabits the coast of Europe, and is
not unfrequently found in many parts of the Scottish coasts,
where seal-hunting is a favourite amusement. The young
are taken by stretching nets across the narrow straits
which they frequent, but the older and stronger animals
are shot or knocked down with clubs when they attempt
to scramble into the sea, as a blow on the nose instantly
disables them.

A young seal was tamed by the guard of a small island
in the Frith of Forth, above Edinburgh. It seemed quite
to consider itself one of the party, would accompany their
boat across the water, and when the vessel was made- fast
it used to take its station inside, and watch until the
owners returned. It had the playful manners of a water-
dog, and would snatch a stick from its master’s hand, and
dash into the sea with it, where it would toss and tumble
THE WALRUS 65

about, sometimes approaching close to the shore, and
swimming off again when its master attempted to grasp
the stick; but it : :
invariably brought Proca.—(Gr. &4en, a Seal, Seal kind.)
back whatever it
had taken. It would
also bring fish out
of the water, and
give them to its
owners.

- The length of the
Common Seal is
about four or five
feet, and its weight often two hundred and twenty-four
pounds. When surprised basking on the shore, it scram-
bles off towards the water; but if intercepted, dashes at
its antagonist, oversets him if possible, and makes its escape
as fast as It can.

There are many Sub-family ¢. Trichectna. -
TricHicus.-—(Gr. Tpextxds, hairy.)

seals known, among Sasi

which are the Sea ees
Leopard, a spotted
species; the Harp
Seal, so called be-
cause the markings
on its back resem-
ble a lyre; the Sea
Bear and the Sea
Lion.





The Watrus_ in-
habits the northern

seas, but has been 2 aah :

k 3 t cae bee Rosmirus (Scandinavian, Rosmar,* the ,
nown to visit Our Walrus), the Walrus, or Aforse.

coasts. Three in- Be

* In the Scandinavian tongue, the word ‘Ros’ signifies horse, and ‘Mar’ sea. The
meaning of the word ‘Rosmar’ is thus ‘Sea horse.’ Sometimes the two syllables
are transposed, making the word ‘ Mar-ros,’ which we contract into ‘ Morse."

In the same manner ‘Walrus’ is an Anglicism of Hval-ros, or Whale-horse.
The reader will notiee the resemblance of these words to the corresponding
words in German:
66 THE CETACEA, OR WHALES

stances of this have happened, one in 1817, one in 1825 at
the Orkney Isles, and a third in 1839 at the mouth of the
Severn. The most remarkable point in the Walrus is the
great length of its upper canine teeth, which extend down-
wards for nearly two feet, and resemble the tusks of the
elephant. They furnish very fineivory, and are extensively
used by dentists in making artificial teeth, as teeth made
from them remain white much longer than those made from
the tusks of elephants. These tusks are used by the Walrus
for climbing the rocks or heaps of ice, and also for digging
up the sea-weeds on which the animal mostly subsists. It
will also eat shrimps and young seals.
The Walrus is often hunted for the
sake of its oil, its flesh, its skin, and its
teeth. It is generally found in troops ;
and if one is wounded, its companions
rush to its rescue, and attack the enemy
with their sharp tusks, which they have
WALRUS STERULTS been known to drive through the bottom
of a boat. The length of the Walrus is
about Afton or sixteen feet, and it yields from twenty to
thirty gallons of excellent oil.



The Crracea, or WHALE tribe, closely resemble the
fishes, and have often been placed among these animals by
naturalists. They, however, are distinguished by possess-
ing warm blood, and, in conseqtience, being forced to rise
at intervals in order to breathe the air, instead of separating
from the water, by means of their gills, sufficient oxygen
for supporting life.

Yet the whale remains under water for a time so much
longer than could be borne by any other warm-blooded
animal, that the most indifferent observer cannot fail to
perceive that the whale is furnished with some plan for
supporting life during its stay beneath the water.

The manner in which this object is attained is at once
beautiful and singular. Jivery one knows that the object
of breathing is to oxygenize the blood, which in its course
through the body becomes deprived of its native qualities,
GREENLAND WHALE 67

and is actually poisonous. If the blood is not renewed, it
causes apoplexy and death, as is the case when a person is
strangled or drowned. The most natural way to supply
this want in the whale would be to give it much more
lungs, in order that it might take into its body a reservoir
of air, from which the blood might be renewed. But if

BaLana.—(Gr. Badawa, a Whale. Whale kind.)

































































Mysticétus (Gr. Méorat, a moustache ; «970s, asea monster), the Whale.

this were the case, the animal would be seriously incon-
venienced by such an amount of air, which would make it
too buoyant, and prevent it from diving into the depths of
the sea. But there must be a reservoir somewhere, and,
therefore, instead of a reservoir of air to arterialize the -
blood, there is a reservoir of blood already arterialized.
Along the interior of the ribs there is a vast collection
of blood-vessels, ramifying from one another, and capable
of containing a large quantity of blood, having no imme-
diate connexion with that portion of the blood which is
already circulating in the body. As fast as the exhausted
68 -FOOD OF THE WHALE

and poisonous blood returns from its work, it passes into
another reservoir adapted for its necessities, while a por-
tion of the arterialized blood in the arterial reservoir
passes into the circulation, It will be seen from this
statement, that the whale, and others of the same order,
possess more blood in proportion than any animals. By
means of this wonderful apparatus, a whale can remain
below the water for more than half an hour at a time.

The depths to which the whale can descend are astonish-
ing, wounded whales having been known to take down
perpendicularly nearly 800 fathoms of line. The pressure
of the water at this depth is very great, amounting, ac-
cording to Scoresby’s calculation, to "911, 200 tons. ‘This
pressure would certainly cause the water to burst through
their nostrils, and enter the lungs, were it not that the
nostrils are formed so as to close themselves more firmly -
as the pressure of water increases,

The great Greenland Whale is found in the Northern
Oceans, living amid ice and perpetual cold. Many ships
are annually fitted out for the capture of this creature,
which, unhappily for itself, furnishes oil and whalebone.
The oil is obtained from the thick layer of fatty substance,
called blubber, which lies immediately under the skin ;
and the whalebone—which, by the way, is not bone at all
—is obtained from the interior of the mouth, where it
fringes the jaws, and acts as a sieve for the whale to strain
his food through. The throat of the Greenland Whale is
so small, that the sailors, who always use forcible ex-
pressions, say that a penny loaf would choke a whale.
The greater proportion of its food consists of a little crea-
ture, about an inch and a
half long, called Clio bore-
alis, one of the marine Mol-
lusca, belonging to the class
sae Pteropida, or wing-footed

JAW OF GREENLAND WHALE. creatures, so called because

it propels itself through

the water with two wing-like organs. The whale, when
it wishes to feed, rushes through the water with its im-


THE CACHALOT 69

mense jaws wide open, enclosing a host of little sea
animals, and a few hogsheads of water. As the whale
only wants the animals, and not the water, it shuts its
mouth, and drives all the water out through the fringes of
whalebone, leaving the little creatures in its jaws.

The Whale shows great
attachment to its young,
which is called the cub,
and on the approach of
danger, seizes it with its
fin or flipper, and carries it
down out of danger. The
Whale has no fins, properly
so called, as it is not a fish,
but one of the mammalia.
Its flippers, which supply
the place of fins, are in fact
fore-legs, furnished with a TES ERTG CT
kind of hand covered with
a thick skin. They seem to be principally employed in
balancing the animal. The hind-legs are wanting. The
length of this Whale averages sixty feet. Its tail is placed
transversely, and not vertically, as in the fishes.



The Cacuatot.—This animal is not furnished with
“baleen,” or whalebone, but is armed with a number of
strong conical teeth, which are placed in the lower jaw, and
which are often used in defending itself from the attacks of
the whalers’ boats. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is
an under jaw-bone of this whale, sixteen and a half feet
in length, containing forty-eight huge teeth. Besides this
method of defence, it has a very unpleasant habit of
swimming off to a distance, and then rushing at the ©
boat with its head, thereby knocking it to pieces. One
of these whales actually sank a ship by three or four
blows from its head.

Spermaceti is obtained from the head of the Cachalot,
and it is this substance that causes the immense size of
the head. When the whale is killed, a hole is made in
70 . THE CACHALOT

the upper part of the head, and the spermaceti is baled
out with buckets. When just procured it is almost fluid,
but is rendered solid and transparent by being first drained
of its oil, then boiled in water, and lastly set to cool in

PuysiTEr.—(Gr. évonrhp, a blow-pipe, or bellows.)



aT =
on

Macrocephilus (Gr. Maxpés, long; Kepaadn, a head), the Cachadot,
or Spermacett IVhale.

wide pans, where it soon assumes the white flaky appear-
ance so well known in this country. The skull of the
Cachalot occupies a comparatively small portion of the
head, the huge mass at the end of the mouth being com-
posed of a gristly kind of substance. The bone of the
upper jaw occupies about one-fourth of the distance
between the mouth and the top of the snout. It runs
backwards nearly straight until just before the eyes, when
it joins the remainder of the skull with a bold sweep.
That part of the skull is called “ Neptune’s Chair” by the
sailors, and is the part where the spermaceti is found.
THE DOLPHIN 71

The layer of blubber is thin, but yields a fine and valu-
able oil.

Ambergris, so long a riddle to all inquirers, is now found
to be produced in the interior of the Cachalot. This sub-
stance is of the consistency of wax, inflammable, and gives
out a kind of musky odour. It was once in great repute
as a medicine, but is now only used as a perfume.

The Cachalot, although an inhabitant of the Arctic seas,
has sometimes been found and captured off. our coasts.
The length of this whale is about seventy feet.

Those readers who have formed their ideas of DoLPHIns
from the very graceful and elegant creatures represented
under that name in the pictures of the “old masters,” or
the statues of the ancient sculptors, will find that the real
animal differs as much from the ideal, as the red and green
lions wearing golden collars, represented in heraldry, differ
from the lion of
Africa. Sad to Derpuinus.—(Lat. a Dolphin.)
say, almost the ; F
whole history of
the Dolphin is
imaginary — very
poetical, but very
untrue. The red
and blue colours of 3F : =
the heraldic lion Aiea
are not less fa- Delphis, the Dolphin.
bulous than the
changing tints of the dying dolphin, so dear to poetry.
Alas! our unpoetical Dolphin, when we have harpooned
and brought him on deck, is only black and white, and
all the change that he makes, is that the black becomes
brown i in time, and the white changes to grey.

The creature that really displays these colours hen
dying, is a fish called the Coryphene, and not a cetaceous
animal of any kind. The sailors generally call it the

Dolphin, which has led to the mistake,


72 THE PORPOISE

6
We will leave poetry and its beautiful errors, and pass

on to facts. The Dolphin is, like the whale, a warm-
blooded animal, suckles its young, and is forced to come
to the surface in order to breathe. Its snout is very long,
and is apparently used for capturing such fish, and other
animals, as live in the mud.

The length is from six to ten feet. Several species
of Dolphin are known, of which the British Museum
possesses Six.

The Porroisr.—These animals may be observed in
plenty playing their absurd antics off every coast of Eng-
land. “There are numbers of them off the Nore, a place
which they frequent greatly, as it is the mouth of a river,
and they find more food there than in the open sea.
They tumble at the surface of the water for the purpose
of breathing.

In the olden times, when glass windows were considered
an effeminate luxury, and rushes supplied the place of
carpets, the flesh of the Porpoise constituted one of the

standard delicacies

_ PHocawxa.—(Gr. bdxave, a Porpoise.) of a public feast,
but it haslong since
been deposed from
itsrankatthe table.
Like most of the
cetacea, its flesh has
a very strong oily
flavour which, how-

Comminis (Lat. common), the Porpotse, over relished by oD

or Porpesse. Esquimaux, is not
agreeable to the
palate of an European epicure of the present day.

The voracity of the Porpoise is very great. It feeds
on various fishes, but its great feasts are held when the
periodical shoals of herrings, pilchards, and other fish
arrive on the coasts. In the pursuit of its prey, it fre-
quently ventures some distance up a river, and is then
often taken in nets by the fishermen.


THE NARWHAL 73

~ The teeth of this animal are very numerous, and inter-
lock when the jaws are closed, so that the fish when once
seized cannot escape. Its length is about five feet; its
colour a rich black, becoming white on the under side.

The Narwnat.—Although the Narwhal has not suffered
from false reports so much as many other animals, yet it
has unwittingly contributed to propagate a very old error.
The spiral tusk of the Narwhal was accustomed to be sold
as the real horn of the unicorn; and as an accredited part
of that animal, forming direct proof of its existence, it
used to fetch a very high price. Of course, when the

Monoénon.—(Gr. Mévos, solitary ; é50és, or 45:v, 2 tooth.)



Monocéros (Gr. Mévos—xépas, a horn), the Narwhad.

whale fishery was established, the real owner of the horn
was discovered, and the unicorn left still enveloped in
mystery.

The name Monodon is not strictly correct, as the Nar-
whal possesses ¢wo of these tusks, one on each side of its
74 THE RODENTIA

head. Only the left tusk projects, the other remaining
within the head. Sometimes a specimen has been found
with both tusks projecting, and some think that when the
left tusk has been broken off by accident, the right one
becomes large enough to supply its place.

Although an inhabitant of the northern seas, it has
several times visited our coasts. Its body is from thirty
to forty feet in length, and its tusk from five to nine.

The Manatees and Dugongs belong to the Cetacea, but
are omitted from want of space.



WE now arrive at the RopEnTIA, or gnawing animals,
so called from their habit of gnawing through, or paring
away, the substances on which they feed. For this pur-
pose their teeth are admirably formed, and by these teeth
it is always easy to ascertain a member of the Rodents.
They have none of those sharp teeth called canine, such
as are seen in the lions and in those animals which seize
and destroy living animals, but in the front of each jaw
there are two long flat teeth, slightly curved, and having
a kind of chisel edge for rasping away wood, or other
articles.

The constant labour which these teeth undergo, would
rapidly wear them away. To counteract this loss, the
teeth are constantly growing and being pushed forward,
so that as fast as the upper part is worn away, the tooth
is replenished from below. So constant is this increase,
that when an unfortunate rabbit, or other rodent, has lost
one of its incisors, the opposite one, meeting nothing to
stop its progress, continually grows, until sometimes the
tooth curls upwards over the lips, and prevents the
wretched animal from eating, until it is gradually starved
to death.

The Brown Rat, sometimes called the Norway Rat, is
the species usually found in England. It was some years
since imported into this country, and from its superior
THE BROWN RAT 75

size, strength, and ferocity, has so completely established
itself, and expelled the original Black Rat, that it is very
difficult indeed to find a Black Rat in any part of England.

It is at all times difficult to get rid of these dirty, noisy
animals, for they
soon learn to keep
out of the way of
traps, and if they
are poisoned they
revenge their fate 4
by dying behind a 4

_ Wainscot or under
a plank of the 2 ar
floor, and make the ;
room uninhabit-
able. There are, however, two ways recommended to
attain the desired object.

Place a saucer containing meal in a room frequented by
rats, letting them have free access to it for several days.
They will then come to it in great force. When they
have thus been accustomed to feed there regularly, mix
a quantity of jalap with the meal, and put it in theaccus-
tomed place. This will give them such internal tortures
that they will not come near the place again.

The second plan is to use the same precautions, but to
mix phosphorus with the meal and make it into a ball.
The phosphorus is said not to kill rats, but to afflict
them with such a parching thirst that they rush to the
nearest water and die there. By this method the danger
of their dying in the house is avoided.

I have not proved either of these plans experimentally,
but offer them for the benefit of those who are afflicted -
by the rat pest.

Mus.—(Lat. a Mouse.)




Decumanus (Lat. tenth or large), the Rat.

The Common Mouse is so well known, that a descrip-
tion of its form and size is useless. It almost rivals the
rat in its attacks upon our provisions, and is quite as
difficult to extirpate. It brings up its young in a kind of
nest, and when a board of long standing is. taken up in a

F
76 THE COMMON MOUSE

room, it is not uncommon to find under it a mouse’s nest,
composed of rags, string, paper, shavings, and everything
that the ingenious little architect can scrape together. It
is a round mass,-
MUS. looking something
A like a rag ball very
loosely made. When
opened, seven or
eight littlemice will
probably be found
in the interior—lit-
tle pink transparent
es creatures, three of
Musciilus (Lat. @ little mouse), the Mouse. which could go into
a lady’s thimble,
sprawling about ina most unmeaning manner, apparently
greatly distressed at the sudden cold caused by the
opening of their nest:

The two objects here represented are two portions of
the same hair, the larger one being the centre and the
smaller being taken near the
origin. It is worth while
Ss to notice that although to

PARE Ane: - external appearance the fur
PAIROR SA RERSSLOL ES: of the mouse exactly re-

KE sembles that of the bat, yet

ee Ree when they are placed under
the microscope they are
shown to be differently formed.

A white variety of mouse is tolerably common, and is
usually bred in cages. As it is very tame and beautiful,
it is in great repute as a pet.





The Harvest Movusz, the smallest of the British
quadrupeds, discovered by White and described in his
“Selborne,” is very much smaller than the ordinary
mouse, a halfpenny weighing down two of them when
placed in a pair of scales. Its nest is raised about a foot
and a half from the ground, and supported on two or
THE WATER RAT—THE BEAVER 77

three straws. It is
made of grass, about
the size of a cricket-
ball, and very com-
pact.

The Water Rat
is a native of Eng-
land, and very com-
mon on the banks
of rivers, brooks,
&c, These animals
exist in great num-
bers round Oxford,
and I have repeat-
edly watched them
feeding. I never
saw them eating fish,
nor found fish-bones
inside their holes,



MicroOmys.—(Gr. Mixpés, small; pis, a
Mouse.)

Minitus (Lat. very small), the Harvest
Mouse.

except when a kingfisher had taken possession; but I

havefrequently seen
them gnawing the
green bark from
reeds, which they
completely __ strip,
leaving the mark of
each tooth as they
proceed.

The ‘BEAVER.—
North America is
the principal coun-
try wherethe Beaver



ARVICOLA.—(Lat. arvwm, a field ; colo, I
inhabit.)



Amphibius (Gr. Au@l, on both sides ; Bidw,
L live), the Water-rat.

is found, but it is also common on the Euphrates, and
along some of the larger European rivers, as the Rhone

and the Danube.

The houses of the Beaver are built of mud, stones, and
sticks. They are placed in a stream, and their entrance is
78 THE BEAVER ~

always below the surface. Asa severe frost would freeze
up their doors, it is necessary to make the stream deep
enough to prevent the frost from reaching the entrances.
This object is at-
Castor.—(Gr. donee; a Beaver.) tained by building a
L- dam across the river,
to keep back the
water until it is
sufficiently deep for
the Beaver’s pur-
poses. The dam is
made of branches
which the Beaver
cuts down with its
strong sharp teeth,
and mud and stones
worked in among
the branches. The
Fiber (Lat. a Beaver), the Been Beavers throw these
branches into the
water, and sink them to the bottom by means of stones,
and by continually throwing in fresh supplies a strong
embankment is soon made.

As many Beavers live together in one society, the form-
ation of a dam does not take very long. By their united
efforts they rapidly fell even large trees, by gnawing them
round the trunk, and always take care to make them
fall towards the water, so that they can transport the logs
easily. The mud and stones used in their embankments
are not carried on their tails, as some say, nor do the
Beavers use their tails as trowels for laying on the mud,
the fact being that the stones and mud are carried between
their chin and fore-paws, and the mistake respecting the
tail is evidently caused by the slap that Beavers give with
that member when they dive. In order that their pond
may not be too deep they always leave an opening in the
dam to let the water escape when it rises above a certain
height.

During the severe winter their mud-built houses freeze


THE COMMON PORCUPINE 79

quite hard, and prevent the wolverine, their greatest
enemy, except man, from breaking through and devouring
the inmates. Every year the Beavers lay a fresh coating
of mud upon their houses, so that after the lapse of a few
years the walls of the house are several feet in thickness.
Many of the houses are built close together, but no two
families can communicate with each other, except by
diving below the walls and rising inside their neighbours’
houses.

When in captivity the Beaver soon becomes tame, and
will industriously build dams across the corner of a room
with brushes, boots, fire-irons, books, or anything it can
find. When its edifice is finished, it sits in the centre
apparently satisfied that it has made a beautiful structure
to dam up the river—a proof that the ingenuity of the
Beaver is not caused by reason but by instinct.

The fur of the Beaver, like that of many other animals,
consists of a fine wool intermixed with long and stiff hairs.
The hairs are useless, but the peculiar construction of the
fur causes it to penetrate and fix itself into the felt which
forms the body of a hat. In making the hat, the only
method required to fasten the fur into the felt is to knead
the fur and felt together. The hair is toothed on its sur-
faces, and makes its way into the felt, just as an awn of
barley will travel all over the body if placed up the
sleeve.

The length of the Beaver is about three feet and a half.

The Common Porcupine is found in Africa, Tartary,
Persia, India, and some parts of Europe. It lives in holes
which it digs in the ground, and only comes forth at night
in order to feed. It eats vegetable substances only, such —
as roots, bark, and other similar substances. The array of
spines or quills with which this animal is covered forms
its principal means of defence. If it cannot escape, it
suddenly stops, erects all its quills, and runs backwards
against its adversary, striking the quills against him by
the weight of its body. Occasionally a looser quill than
usual remains in the wound or falls on the ground, which
80 THE CAPYBARA

evidently gave rise to the foolish error that the Porcupine
could dart its weapons at its adversary from a distance.
There are two kinds of these quills,—one kind long and
curved, the other short, thick, and pointed. These last
are the weapons of defence, as the former are too slender
to do much service. When the porcupine walks, its quills
make a kind of rustling sound, caused principally by those
arranged on the tail, which are large, hollow, and sup-
ported on long slender stalks.

Hystrix.—("Yorpiz, a Porcupine, Porcupine kind.)



Cristata (Lat. crested), the Porcupine.

The American Indians use the quills extracted from the
Canada Porcupine, a species living on trees, for ornament-
ing various parts of their dress, especially their moccasins
or skin shoes. The length of the Porcupine is about two
feet, and its spines or quills are from six to fourteen inches
long.

The CapyBara or Cuicurra is the largest of all the
Rodentia. At first sight, it looks very like a pig, and its
THE GUINEA-PIG 81

skin is covered thinly with hairs like bristles, which add
to the resemblance.

It inhabits the borders of lakes and rivers in many parts
of Southern Ame-
rica. During the Hyprocuervs. ee "T8pw, water; xoipos, a pig.)
day it hides among $
the thick herbage
of the banks, only
wandering forth to
feed at night, but
when alarmed it
instantly makes
for the water, and os
escapes by diving. Capybara (native name), the Capybdra,

It is hunted for the

sake of its flesh, which is said to be remarkably good. The
food of the Capybara consists of grass, vegetables, and
fruits. Its length is about three feet six inches.



The Guinea-Pic, or Resttess Cavy, belongs to the sub-
family Caviina. It was originally brought from South
America, and is frequently domesticated in England. Its
beauty is its only recommendation, as it shows little intel-
ligence, and is never used for food. Children, however,
and particularly school-boys, are fond of keeping guinea-
pigs, as they are wonderfully prolific, easy to manage, and
donot make much noise. They are popularly supposed to
keep off rats,and are therefore usually patronised in con-
nexion with rabbit-hutches.

The Hare is one of our most common quadrupeds.
When full-grown, it is larger than the rabbit and ex-
ceedingly like that animal, but its colour is slightly
different, and the black spot on the extremity of its ears
is a simple method of distinguishing it. The Hare does
not burrow like the rabbit, but makes a kind of nest of
grass and other materials. In this nest, called a “form,”
the Hare lies, crouching to the ground, its ears laid along
its back, and, trusting to its concealment, will often remain
quiet until the foot of an intruder almost touches it.
82 THE HARE—THE RABBIT

Innumerable foes besides man surround this animal.
Foxes, ferrets, stoats, and all their tribe, are unmerciful
enemies, and sometimes a large hawk will destroy a leveret,

Lepus.—(Lat. @ Hare. Hare kind.)



oe
AY,
Ba





Timidus (Lat. timid), the Hare.

as the young Hare is called. Although destitute of all
means of defence, it is often enabled to escape by the
quickness of its hearing and sight, which give it timely
warning of the approach of an enemy, and enable it to
escape to a place of safety.

In cold countries the Hare changes its fur during winter,
and becomes white, like the Arctic fox and the ermine.
The Alpine Hare, inhabiting the northern parts of Scot-
land, isa good example of this change.

The well-known Ragsit is rather smaller than the hare,
but closely resembles it in form. It lives in deep holes,
which it digs in the ground.

The female Rabbit forms a soft nest at the bottom of
THE JERBOAS 83

her burrow, composed of fur torn from her body, of hay
Here the young rabbits are kept until

and dried leaves.
they are strong
enough to shift for
themselves, and
make their own
burrows.

The tame Rabbit
is only a variety,
rendered larger by
careful feeding and
attendance.

LEPUS.





==NS .
Cunictilus (Lat. @ dittle Rabbit),

_ The Jerpoas are celebrated for their powers of leaping.
Their long hind legs enable them to take enormous springs,
during which their tails serve to balance them. ‘Indeed a
Jerboa when deprived of its tail is afraid to leap. ;

In the history of the polar bear it was mentioned that
its feet were prevented from slipping on the ice by a coat-

ing of thick hair.
The foot of the
Jerboa is defended
in the same manner
by long bristly
hairs, which not
only give the crea-
ture a firm hold of
the ground for its
spring, but also de-
fend the foot from
the burning soil on
which it lives.

The timidity of
the Jerboa is very
great, and on the
slightest alarm it
instantly rushes to



Dipus.—(Gr. Ats, double ; mods, a foot.)

=

Zigyptius (Lat. belonging to Egypt),
the Jerboa,

its burrow, but if intercepted, skims away over the plain
with such rapidity that it seems: to fly, and when at full
speed a swift greyhound can scarcely overtake it.
84 THE DORMOUSE—THE SQUIRREL

Grain and bulbous roots are its chief food; while eating,
it holds the food with its fore paws, and sits upright on
its haunches, like the squirrels and marmots.

There are many kinds of Jerboa; the Egyptian Jerboa is
rather small, being about the size ofa large rat its colour
is a tawny yellow.

The Dormovse is very common in all the warmer
parts of the Continent, and is often found in this country,
especially in the
Myoxus.—(Gr. Muotdés, or Muatéds, a Dormouse. ) southern and
voidland counties.
It lives in copses
andamong brush-
wood, through
which it makes
its way with such
rapidity thatit is
very difficult to
becaptured. Dur-
se ing the winter it
Avellanarius (Lat. from Avellana, a filbert), lies torpid, but
the Dormouse. takes care to
have a stock of
food laid up, on which it feeds during the few inter-
ruptions to its slumbers. A warm day in winter will
usually rouse it, but during the cold weather it lies
rolled up, with its tail curled round its body. While in
this torpid state, a sudden exposure to heat kills it, but a
gentle warmth, such as holding it in the hand, rouses it
without injury. It lives principally on nuts, acorns, and
grain, It brings up its young in a nest composed of leaves
and hay, and seems to be fond of society in its household
labours, as tenor twelve nests have been seen close to
each other.



The SQuiRReEL is a very common animal in woods, where
numbers may be seen frisking about on the branches, or
running up and down the trunks. If alarmed, it springs
up the “bree with extraordinary activity, and hides behind
THE SQUIRREL 85

a branch, By this trick it escapes its enemy the hawk,
and by constantly slipping behind the large branches, fre-
quently tires him

out. The activity Scrirus.—(Gr. Sid, a shadow; odpd, a tail.)
and daring of this '

little animalareex- I,
traordinary. When
pursued, it makes
the most astonish-
ing leaps from
branch to branch, 5 ZA.
or fromtreetotree, Zag "ig i:
and has apparently eMac ie

some method of al- Europeus (Lat. European), the Squirrel.
tering its direction

while in the air, possibly by means of its tail acting as a
rudder.

It is easily domesticated, and is very amusing in its
habits when suffered to go at large in a room or kept in a
spacious cage ; but when confined in a little cramped box,
especially in one of the cruel wheel cages, its energies and
playfulness are quite lost. Men often go about with
squirrels for sale, and generally cheat those whe buy them.
In the first place, they constantly try to sell old squirrels
for young, but this imposition may be detected by looking
at the teeth of the animal, which are nearly white if young,
but if old are of a light yellow.

In the second place, let the purchaser beware of very
tame and quiet squirrels. These are generally animals
just caught and perfectly wild, but made sedate by a dose
of opium or strychnine, which in many cases causes their
death in a short time. One of my friends was deceived in
this manner only a few months since, the squirrel dying in
the course of the evening of the day on which it was
~ purchased.

The colour of the English Squirrel is a deep reddish
brown, and its tail so large and bushy as to shade its whole
‘body when carried curled over its back, from whence it
derives its name of Sciurus, or shadow-tail.


86 _ THE ox

The Ox.—The Ruminantia, or animals that chew the
cud, include the oxen, sheep and goats, deer, giraffe, and
camels. They have a peculiar construction of stomach,
which receives the freshly-gathered food, retains it for
some hours, and then passes it back into the mouth to be
re-masticated,

Bos.—(Lat. an Ox.)



Taurus (Lat. @ Build), the Ox.

The Ox is spread widely over the earth, scarcely any
country being without its peculiar breed. In this country,
where it is our most useful domesticated animal, there are
nearly as many breeds as counties, generally distinguished
by the length or shape of their horns. There is the “long-
horned breed” from Lancashire, the “ short-horned” from
Durham, the “middle-horned’”’ from Devonshire, and the
“ polled” or hornless breed. Each of these breeds has its
particular value: some fatten easily, and are kept especially
for the butcher ; others give milk, and are valuable for the
dairy. The best dairy cow is the Alderney, a small, short-
horned animal, furnishing exceedingly rich milk.

In some parts of England oxen are used to draw wag-
gons, or to drag the plough. They are not so strong as
horses, and their movements are much slower.
THE CAPE BUFFALO 87

Every part of the Ox is of value. We eat his flesh, we
wear shoes soled with his skin, our candles are made from
his fat, our tables are joined with glue made from his
hoofs, his hair is mixed with the mortar of our walls, his
horns are made into combs, knife handles, drinking cups,
&c., his bones are used as a cheap substitute for ivory, and
the fragments ground and scattered over the fields as
manure—and soup is made from his tail.

The young ox is called a calf, and is quite as useful in
its way as the full-grown ox. The flesh is termed veal, and
by many preferred to the flesh of the ox or cow, which is
called beef: jelly is made from its feet. The stomach is
salted and dried, and is named rennet. Cheese is made by
soaking a piece of rennet in water, and pouring it into
a vessel of milk. The milk soon forms a curd, which is
placed in a press, and the watery substance, called whey,
squeezed from it. The curd is coloured and salted, and is
‘then cheese.

BUBALUS.



Caffer, the Cape Buffaio.

The Carr Burrato is a native of Southern Africa. It
is exceedingly ferocious and cunning, often lurking among
88 THE BISON

the trees until an unsuspecting traveller approaches, and
then rushing on him and destroying him. The ferocious
creature is not content with killing his tim, but stands
over him mangling him with its horns, #nd stamping on
him with its feet.

a

The Bison inhabits the plains or prairies of North
America in countless multitudes. Its enorfmous and heavy
mane, its fierce eyes and lowering appearance, give this-
animal a most terrific aspect. The American Indians con-
stantly hunt the Bison, which they call by the name of
Buffalo. Their weapons are principally bows and arrows,
apparently weak and small, but which, when wielded by
a skilful ged, will strike the huge Bison to the heart. In

* Bison.—(Gr. Biowy, a Buffalo.)



Americinus (Lat. American), the Boson.

Catlin’s account of his travels among the North American
Indians are many most interesting accounts of ‘ buffalo
THE BISON 89

hunts.” Mounted on a swift horse, and armed with a
spear and bow gnd arrows, the Indians kill great numbers
of these animg#g. They ride up close to the Bison, and
with the greatest apparent ease bury an arrow up to its
feather in the creature’s body. Indeed many instances are
known where. ghe slight Indian bow, drawn without any
perceptible effort, has thrown the arrow completely through
the body of te. huge animal. There are many modes “of
destroying this animal in vogue among the Indians and
white settlers. The skin is so valuable that every exertion
is made to procure it. Of the bulfalo’s hide they make
their wigwams or tents, their shields, their robes, their
shoes, &c. The Indians can also sell the hides to the
traders for a considerable sum, so that an @ndian can
almost measure his importance and wealth by fhe number
of hides that he takes. d

The hunters take advantage of the gregarious instincts
of this animal, and hunt them when they are collected
together in their vast herds, which blacken the face of the
prairie for miles. Sometimes they form in line, and drive
the herd to the edge of some tall cliff, over which they fall
in hundreds, those behind pushing on those in the van;
or sometimes they form a large circle, driving the animals
into a helpless and leaderless mass, into which the hunters
spring, leaving their horses, and treading wih the skill of
rope-dancers on the backs of the bewilderedâ„¢Bisons, whom
they slaughter as they pass, stepping from one to the other,
and driving the sharp blade of their spear through the
spine of the animal whose back they have just quitted.

When only wounded the Bison is a most dangerous
antagonist, and rushes on its enemy with the most deter-

mined ferocity.

Despite the wholesale suena of this animal which is
carried on annually by the Indians, there seems to be no
decrease in their numbers. They are more wary than
before, and have withdrawn themselves into more distant
lands, but their dark masses still crown the plain as of
yore, although it is now impossible to judge as men could
do in former days of the various migrations which the
90 THE YAK

herds would make. The dreaded firearms have had their
effect on the Bison as on every other animal, and it with-
draws as far as possible from the haunts of civilized
man.

. The improvidence of the Indians is rauch to be regretted.
Myviads of these animals are slaughtered every year, merely
for the sake of their skin, their “hump,” or their marrow-
bones, the remainder of the animal being left to the wolves
and the birds.

The principal use of the flesh of the Bison is to make
“jerked meat” of it. This is made by cutting the meat
into long narrow slips, and drying them in the sun, There
is a peculiar art in the cutting these slips. The operator
takes a large lump of the flesh, and holding his knife
firmly in one hand, presses the meat against its edge with
the other, continually turning it round and round, until
the whole piece is converted into one long strip. The
strips thus prepared are pegged out on stakes, as washer-
women peg their clothes, or suspended in festoons on the
branches of trees, like red snakes, until they are dry
enough to be packed up. Three days is considered suf-
ficient for the purpose. The cow is preferred to the bull
for conversion into jerked meat, while the skin of the bull
is more valuable than that of the cow, from the mass of
woolly hair about the shoulders.

The flesh of the Bison is tolerable eating, but the
“hump” appears from all accounts to be unapproachable
in delicacy. It is exceedingly tender, and possesses the
property of not cloying even when eaten in excess. The
fat also is said to be devoid of that sickening richness
which is usually met with in our domesticated animals.

The cow is smaller than the bull, and considerably
swifter. She is also generally in better condition and
fatter than her mate, and in consequence the hunters who
go to “get meat,” always select the cows from the herd.

The Yax inhabits Tartary. Of this animal in a native
state little or nothing is known. The name of “ grun-
niens,” or grunting, is derived from the peculiar sound
THE GNOO 91
that it utters. The tail of the Yak is very long and fine,
and is used in India as a fan or whisk to keep off the

mosquitos. The tail is fixed into an ivory or metal handle,
and is then called a chowrie. Elephants are sometimes

PorrHicus.—(Gr. én, grass; payw, I eat.)

oy
; a



‘Grunniens (Lat. grunting), the Yak.

taught to carry a chowrie,. and wave it about in the air
above the heads of those who ride on its back. In Turkey,
the tail is called a “ horse-tail,” and is used as an emblem
of dignity.

From the shoulders of the Yak a mass of long hair falls
_ almost to the ground, something like the mane of a Lion.
This hair is applied to various purposes by the Tartars.
They weave it into cloth, of which they not only make
articles of dress, but also tents, and even the ropes which
sustain the tents.

The Gyoo, or WILDEBEEST, inhabits Southern Africa.
At first sight it is difficult to say whether the horse, buf-
falo, or deer predominates in its form. It however belongs
to neither of these animals, but is one of the bovine An-

aq
99 THE GNOO

telopes. The horns cover the top of the forehead, and
then, sweeping downwards over the face, turn boldly
upwards with a sharp curve. The neck is furnished with
a mane like that of the horse, and the legs are formed like
those of the stag. It is a very swift animal, and when
provoked, very dangerous. When it attacks an opponent
it drops on its knees, and then springs forward with such
force, that, unless he is extremely wary and active, he can-
not avoid its shock,

CaToBLiEPAS.—(Gr. KatrwBAérov, looking down.)



Guu (native name), the Gnoo.

When it is taken young, the Gnu can be domesticated,
and brought up with other cattle, but it will not bear
confinement, and is liable to become savage under re-
straint.

There are several species of this animal, three being
satisfactorily ascertained, namely, the common Gnoo, repre-
sented in the accompanying engraving, the Cocoon (Cato-
blépas Taurina), and the Brindled Gnoo (Catoblépas Gorgon),
all three animals being in the British Museum.

The size of the Gnoo is about that of a well-grown ass,

te
THE KOODOO 93

that is, about four feet in height. Its flesh is in great
repute both among the natives and colonists.

The Koopoo is a native of South Africa, living along
the wooded borders of rivers. It is chiefly remarkable for
its beautifully shaped horns, which are about four feet in
length and twisted into a large spiral of about two turns
and a half. A bold ridge runs along the horns and follows

STREPSICEROS.—(Gr. Srpéfis, a twisting ; xépas, a horn.)



Kudu (native name), the Koodoo.

their curvature. When hard pressed it always takes to
the water, and. endeavours to escape by its powers of
swimming. Although a large animal, nearly four feet in
height, it can leap with wonderful activity. The weight
of the horns is very considerable, and partly to relieve
itself of that weight, and partly to guard them from
94 THE GAZELLE

entanglement in the bushes among which it lives, and on
which it feeds, it carries its head backwards, so that the
horns rest on its shoulders,

GAZELLA.



Ariel (Gr. proper name), the Gazelle.

The GazELLE, so famous in Oriental poetry, inhabits
Arabia and Syria. Its eyes are very large, dark and
lustrous, so that the Oriental poets love to compare the
eyes of a woman to those of a Gazelle, just as Homer
constantly applied the epithet ox-eyed (Sowmic) to the
more majestic goddesses, such as Juno and Minerva. It
is easily tamed when young, and is frequently seen domes-
ticated in the courtyards of houses in Syria. Its swiftness
is so great that even a greyhound cannot overtake it, and
the hunters are forced to make use of hawks, which are
trained to strike at the head of the Gazelle, and thus con-
fuse it, and retard its speed, so as to permit the dogs to
come up. The height of the Gazelle is about one foot
nine inches ; its colour a dark yellowish brown fading into
white on the under parts.
THE CHAMOIS—-THE IBEX “95

The CHamors is found only in mountainous regions,
especially the Alpine chains of Europe and Western Asia.
It lives on the loftiest ridges, displaying wonderful activity,

RupicApra.—(Lat. Rock-gout.)

im Geers
CXC TA
Coe a



and leaping with certainty and security on places where
the eye can hardly discern room for its feet. The skin
of the Chamois is used extensively by shoemakers,

Several genera are omitted.

The Isrx inhabits the Alpine regions of Europe and
Western Asia. It is instantly recognised by its magnifi-
cent horns, which curve with a bold sweep from the head
almost to the haunches. The horns are surrounded at
regular intervals with rings, and are immensely strong,
serving, aS some say, to break the fall of the Ibex when it
makes a leap from a height.

The height of the Ibex is.two feet six inches; the
length of its horns often three feet.

The common Goat is not in much request in England,
but in some other countries, as Syria and Switzerland,
large herds of goats are kept for the sake of their milk,
96 : THE COMMON GOAT—THE SHEEP

and in fact almost entirely take the place of the cow.”
The most celebrated

variety of this ani-

OREEE Slat 016001) mal is the Cashmir

goat, which fur-
nishes the beauti-
fully fine wool from
which the costly
Cashmir shawls are
made. The shawls
bear a high value.
even in their own
country, but in Eu-
rope the price is
much increased by
the various taxes
which are paid in
every stage of the
manufacture — the
average number of



































: hs taxes paid on each
i ” x ~, shawl being about
AEA ti thirty, several of
Ibex, the Ibex, or Steinbok. which are limited

only by the pleasure

of the collector.
The Surep.—There are many kinds of Sheep, among
which the common sheep, the long-tailed sheep, and the
Wallachian sheep are the most conspicuous. Next to the
cow, the sheep is our most useful animal. England pro-
duces better wool than any country; for although the
wool of the Spanish sheep is finer than ours, it is much
less in quantity. The Merino, as this sheep is called, is
annually conducted from one part of the country to another,
and back again. The distance traversed is. upwards of
four hundred miles, and the time necessary to complete
the journey about six or seven weeks. The proprietors of
the flocks think that these periodical journeys improve the
wool ; but it is in all probability a mistaken notion, as the.
THE SHEEP 97

stationary flocks of Leon and Estremadura produce quite
as fine a fleece. Of course such a body of sheep—nearly
six millions—do great damage to the lands over which
they pass, and many fall victims to fatigue or are destroyed
by wolves,

CAPRA,



Hireus (Lat. a He-goat), the Goat.

The long-tailed sheep inhabits Syria and Egypt. Its

tail is so large and so loaded with fat, that to prevent it
from being injured by dragging on the ground, a board is
fastened to the under side of it, and wheels are often
attached to the board. The peculiar fat of the tail is
considered a great delicacy, and is so soft as to be frequently
used as butter. The weight of a large tail is about seventy
pounds. :
- The Wallachian or Cretan sheep is found in Crete,
Wallachia, Hungary, and Western Asia. Its horns are
exceedingly large, and are twisted in a manner resembling
those of the Koodoo. It is very strong, and extremely
vicious and unruly. In this and several other sheep the
fleece is composed of wool and hair mixed. The hair of
the Wallachian sheep is long and silky like that of a
spaniel, and of great length, falling almost to the ground,
98 THE GIRAFFE

The Grrarre.—This beautiful and extraordinary animal
is found only in South Africa. As the gnoo seems to
combine the properties of the antelope, horse, and buffalo, .
so the Giraffe appears to bear the characteristics of the
antelope and the camel. In the opinion of modern
naturalists, it holds a place by itself between the deer
and antelopes ;—it forms, at all events, a group to which
no other animals belong.

Ovis.—(Lat. a Sheep.)
EN



Aries (Lat. a Ram).

The height of the Giraffe varies from thirteen to
eighteen feet. Its beautiful long neck enables it to browse
on the leaves of the trees on which it feeds. It is very
dainty while feeding, and plucks the leaves one by one
with its long and flexible tongue. On its head are two
very remarkable projections, closely resembling horns.
These projections are not horns, but only thickenings of
the bone of the skull, covered with skin, and bearing a
tuft of black hair at the extremity of each. The fore legs
at first sight appear longer than the hind ones, but this
apparent difference is only caused by the great length of
the shoulder-blades, as both pair of legs are of the same
THE GIRAFFE 99

length at their junction with the body. Its eyes are very
large and prominent, so that the animal can see on every
side without turning its head. Just over and between the
eyes is a third bony prominence, resembling the projecting
enlargements of the skull, called horns. The use of these
projections is not very well known, as although in play

CAMELOPARDALIS,—(Gr. Kéunaos, a camel; mép3aais, a pard.)



Giraffa (Arabic, Zarapha), the Giraffe.

the Giraffe will swing its head round and strike with it, -
yet when it wishes to repel an assailant it has recourse to
violent and rapid kicks from its hind legs. So light and
swift are these kicks that the eye can scarcely follow them,
and so powerful are they that the lion is not unfrequently
driven off by them. Le Vaillant relates that a Giraffe which -
he was hunting, kept off his pack of dogs by its rapid
kicks. Indeed, if it were to venture its head tao near the
100 THE GIRAFFE

lion, a blow from his tremendous paw would in all pro-
bability lay the animal prostrate.

The skin of this animal is an inch and a half in thick-
ness, so that it is necessary for the hunter to make very
sure of his aim before he fires at an animal so well
defended.

The Giraffe has much difficulty in reaching the ground
with its mouth, nor does it often attempt to do so, unless
it is bribed with something of which it is very fond, such
as a lump of sugar. It then straddles widely with its
fore legs, and with some trouble succeeds in reaching the
object aimed at. This attitude was noticed and copied in
the Praenestine pavement.

The first living Giraffes, in the
possession of the Zoological Society,
were brought by M. Thibaut in
1835. He succeeded in taking
four, all of which he brought with
him. One of them is still living.
From this stock several Giraffes
have been born, some of which
are now in England, and others have been sent to other
countries.

One of the four originals killed himself soon after his
arrival, by striking his head against a wall as he was
rising from the ground. An accident of the same nature
happened recently to another animal, one of its horns
being broken off, and bent backwards; but owing to the
presence of mind of the keeper, who immediately pulled
the horn into its place again, no bad results followed, the
fractured parts uniting naturally.

The tongue of the Giraffe is one of the most remarkable
parts of its structure. It is very flexible and capable of
great changes of form, the Giraffe being able to contract
it so that its tip could enter an ordinary quill. The
animal is very fond of exercising its tongue, and some-
times pulls the hairs from its companions’ manes and
tails, and swallows them: no very easy feat, as the hair
of the tail is often more than four feet long.



SKULL OF THE GIRAFFE,
THE CAMEL 101

The movements of the Giraffe are very peculiar, the
limbs of each side appearing to act together. It is very
swift, and can outrun a horse, especially if it can get
among broken ground and rocks, over which it leaps with
a succession of frog-like hops.

In this country it endures the climate well. The
Giraffes in the Zoological Gardens which were born and
bred in this country seem very healthy and are exceedingly
tame, examining the hands of their visitors, and following
them round the enclosure. They eat herbs, such as grass,
hay, carrots, and onions. When cut grass is given to
them, they eat off the upper parts and leave the coarse
stems, just as we eat asparagus,

CamMELUS.—(Gr. Kdyndos, a Camel.)





Arabicus (Lat. Arabian), the Camel.

The Camet.—There is much confusion about the names
of the Camels. The Bacrrian Camen is distinguished
by bearing two humps on its back, the ARABIAN CAMEL
by bearing only one. The Arabian camel is sometimes,
102 THE CAMEL

but erroneously, called the Dromedary, as the Dromedary,
or El-Heirie, is a lighter variety of that animal, and only
used when despatch is required.

The Camel forms the principal wealth of the Arab ;
without it he could never attempt to penetrate the vast
‘deserts where it lives, as its remarkable power of drinking
at one draught sufficient water to serve it for several days,
enables it to march from station to station without
requiring to drink by the way. The peculiar structure of
its stomach gives it this most useful power. In its
stomach are a great number of deep cells, into which the
water .passes, and is then prevented from escaping by a

CAMELUS,







. é

Bactriinus (Lat. Bactrian), the Bactrian Camel.

muscle which closes the mouth of the cells. When the
Camel feels thirsty, it has the power of casting some of
the water contained in these cells into its mouth. The
habits of this animal are very interesting.
THE CAMEL—THE LLAMAS 103

The foot of the Camel is admirably adapted for walking
on the loose sand, being composed of large elastic pads,
which spread as the foot is placed on the ground. To
guard it from injury when it kneels down to be loaded,
the parts of the body on which its weight rests are defended
by thick callosities. The largest of these callosities is on
the chest, the others are placed on the joints of the legs.

The Bactrian Camel inhabits Central Asia, Thibet, and
China. It is distinguished from the Arabian camel by
possessing two humps.

The Lramas, of which there are several species, inhabit
America, and are used for the same purposes as the camel.
When wild they are very timid, and fly from a pursuer
the moment that they see him; but their curiosity is so
great that the hunter often secures them by lying on the
ground and throwing his legs and arms about. The Llamas
come to see what the extraordinary animal can be, and
give the hunter an opportunity of firing several shots,
which the astonished animals consider as part of the
performance.

The Llamas, like the camels, have a series of cells in
the stomach for containing water, and can go for several
days without requiring to drink. If too heavily laden,
or when they are weary, they lie down, and no threats
or punishment will induce them to rise, so that their
masters are forced to unload them. When offended they
have a very unpleasant habit of spitting at the object of
their anger. Formerly it was supposed that their saliva
was injurious, and produced blisters if it touched the skin.

The fleece of the Llama is very long and fine, more
resembling silk than wool. It is very valuable, and is
extensively imported into this country for the purpose of
making cloth and other fabrics. The fleece of the Alpaca
is considered the best, as it is sometimes twelve inches in
length, and very fine.

In Chili and Peru the natives domesticate the Llama,
which in a state of captivity frequently becomes white.
It is by no means a large animal, as it measures about
104 THE LLAMAS—THE RED-DEER

four feet six in height. In general shape it resembles the
camel, but has no hump on its back, and its feet are pro-
vided with sharp hoofs for climbing the rocky hills among

Lrama.—(Peruvian name.)

is Sz





ft
ZEA
TEN .
HANNAN



which it lives. In Peru, where it is most commonly
found, there are public shambles established for the sale of
its flesh.

The Rep-peer, or Srac, is the largest of our deer. In
the language of hunters, it bears different names according
to the size of its horns, which increase year by year. All
the male deer have horns, which they shed every year, and
renew again. The process of renewal is most interesting.
A skin, filled with arteries, covers the projections on which
the horns rest. This skin, called the “velvet,” is engaged
in continually depositing bone on the footstalks, which
rapidly increase in size. As the budding horns increase,
the velvet increases also, and the course of the arteries is
marked on the horn by long furrows, which are never
obliterated. When the horn has reached its full growth,
it cannot be at once used, as the velvet is very tender,
THE RED-DEER 105

and would bleed profusely if wounded. The velvet cannot
be suddenly removed, as the blood that formed the arteries
would rush to the brain and destroy the animal. A ring
of bone forms round the root of each horn, leaving passages
through which the arteries pass. By degrees, these passages

CERVUS.



\ oA
Wes

Elaphus (Gn es a Stag), the Stag.

become narrow, and finally close entirely, thus gradually
shutting off the blood. The velvet, being deprived of
its nourishment, dies, and is peeled off by the deer, by
rubbing against a tree, leaving the white, hard horn
beneath.

Hunting the Stag is a very favourite amusement in this
country, and packs of hounds, called stag-hounds, are kept
expressly for that purpose.
106 HE FALLOW-DEER

Dama.—(Lat, a Deer.)



ERs
“EEN AYE
= G MBE

Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Fallow-deer.

The FaLLow-DEER are usually seen in parks, where they
congregate in large herds, and forma most pleasing addition
to the landscape when they are seen reposing under the
trees, or chasing one another in graceful play. One pecu-
liarly large buck always takes the lead, and suffers none
but a few favourite does to
approach his regal presence,
all the other bucks moving
humblyaway directly he makes

aati ae hisappearance. They aregene-
rally tame, and will suffer people to come very close to
them ; but at certain times of the year they become savage,
and will not permit any one to approach their domains. If
an intruder is bold enough to venture within the pro-
scribed distance, the buck will instantly charge upon him,
and if he does not make his escape, will in all probability
inflict considerable damage upon him. They soon become


THE FALLOW-DEER—THE REINDEER 107

familiar with those who treat them with kindness, and will
eat from their hands.

Rancirer.—(Linnean generic name. )*



Tarandus (Gr. Tépavdos, a Reindeer), the Reindeer.

The ReiNnpDEER is found throughout the Arctic regions of
Europe, Asia, and America. The finest animals are those
of Lapland and Spitzbergen. The Laplander finds his
chief wealth in the possession of the Reindeer, which not
only serves him as a beast of burden, but furnishes him
also with food and clothing. A Laplander in good cir-
cumstances possesses about three or four hundred deer,
which enable him to live in comfort. The subsistence of
one who only possesses one hundred is very precarious,
and he who has only fifty usually joins his animals with
the herd of some richer man, and takes the menial labours
upon himself.

* Possibly a Latinized form of the Scandinavian word ‘Ren-dyr,’ the word
‘dyr’ signifying ‘ beast,’ like the Greek @jp, to which it is evidently allied.
H
108 THE REINDEER—THE EUROPEAN ELK

The Reindeer feeds principally on a kind of lichen,
which it scrapes from beneath the snow. During the
winter, its coat thickens, and assumes a lighter hue, many
deer being almost white. Its hoofs are divided very high,
so that when the animal places its foot on the ground,
the hoof spreads wide, and as it raises the foot, a snap-
ping noise is heard, caused by the parts of the hoof closing
together. When harnessed to a sledge, it can draw from
250 to 300 pounds’ weight at about ten miles an hour.

Atcrs,—(Gr. “AAcy, an Elk.)



‘Palmatus (Lat. palmed), the Elk. ;

The Evuropran Ex inhabits the northern parts of
Europe. It was considered at one time to be identical
with the American Elk, but naturalists now believe it to
be a distinct animal. Its usual pace is a high, awkward
trot, but when frightened, it sometimes gallops. It is
very strong, and can destroy a wolf with a single blow of
THE EUROPEAN ELK—THE HORSE 109

its large and powerful horns. In Sweden it was formerly
used to draw sledges, but on account of the facility of
escape offered to criminals by its great speed, the use of it
was forbidden under high penalties. The skin of the Elk
is so tough, that a regiment of soldiers was furnished with
waistcoats made of its hide, which could scarcely be Bee
trated by a ball.

Like the reindeer, the Elk makes a great clattering with
its hoofs when in vapid motion. It is a good swimmer,
and is fond of taking to the water in summer time. It
is a rather dangerous antagonist when incensed, as it fights
desperately with its horns and hoofs, with which latter
weapons it has been known to destroy a wolf with a single
stroke.

The Horsr.—We now arrive at the Pachydermata, or
thick-skinned- animals, which do not chew the cud. The
first on the list is the Horse, an animal too well known
in all its varieties to need much description. The ancient
war-horse, so magnificently described in the Book of Job,
is well represented by that most wonderful head in the
British Museum, a fragment from the Temple of Minerva
at Athens. The ancients never appeared to ride on the
horse to battle, but fought from small open chariots, to
which two or more horses were harnessed.

The Arabian Horse is a model of elegance and beauty.
The Arab treats his horse as one of his family ; it lives in
the same tent with him, eats from his hand, and sleeps
among his children, who tumble about on it without the
least fear. Few Arabs can be induced to part with a
favourite horse. The Rev. V. Monro relates that an Arab,
“the net value of whose dress and accoutrements might
be calculated at something under seventeen pence halt-
penny,” refused all offers made to purchase a beautiful
mare on which he rode, and declared that he loved the
animal better than his own life.

The plains of La Plata and Paraguay are tenanted by
vast herds of wild horses. These are captured by the
110 THE HORSE

lasso, bitted, mounted, and broken within an hour, by the
daring and skilful Gauchos. :

The ponderous and powerful dray-horse is of the
Flanders breed. These huge animals, as they slowly pace

EQUUS.



Caballus (Lat. a Saddle-horse).

along the streets, conducted by men who seem to be a
Flanders race also, never fail to attract the attention of
admiring foreigners.

‘Wales and the Shetland Isles produce a breed forming
a great contrast to the Flanders horse. The Sheltie, as it
is called, is very small, its height sometimes being only
thirty-four inches; but it is very strong and sure-footed,
carrying its rider with perfect safety along the most
terrific precipices, and almost invariably choosing to walk
on the very edge.

The Race Horse is supposed to have been originally
derived from the Arabian breed. The Godolphin Arabian,
THE ASS lll

and the Flying Childers, are two of the most celebrated
racers, The skeleton of Eclipse, another celebrated racer,
is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

The Ass.—The
humble and hardy
Assis scarcely less
serviceable to man
than the more im-
posing horse. In
thiscountry, where
it meets with harsh
treatment, is scan-
tily fed, and only
-used for laborious
tasks, it is dulland
obstinate; but in
the East, where it
is employed by the
rich nobles, and is



properly treated, it is an elegant and spirited animal,
with good action and smooth coat,



=

ASINUS,

eS

Zebra, the Zebra,
112 THE ZEBRA—-THE INDIAN ELEPHANT

The Zepra is found in fouth Africa. This beautiful
animal lives in troops among the mountains, shunning the
presence of man. It is a very conspicuous animal, and
easily distinguished by the regular stripes of brownish
black with which its whole body is covered even down to
the hoofs. It is very wild and suspicious, carefully
placing sentinels to look out for danger. Notwithstanding
these precautions, several Zebras have been taken alive,
and some, in spite of their vicious habits, have been
trained to draw a carriage. In all probability it might be
domesticated like the ass, as the black cross on the back
and shoulders of the latter animal prove the affinity
between them. The voice of the Zebra is very peculiar,
and can hardly be described.

ELEPHAS,



Indicus (Lat. Indian), the Indian Elephant.

Of this magnificent animal, whose form is familiar to
every eye, two species are known, the Indian and the
THE INDIAN ELEPHANT 113

African. The anatomy of this huge quadruped is well
worthy of consideration. Its head and tusks are so very
' heavy that no long neck would bear them; the neck is
therefore very short. But this shortness of neck prevents
the Etepnanr from putting its head to the ground, or
from stooping to the water’s edge. This apparent defect
is compensated by the wonderful manner in which its .
upper lip and nose are elongated, and rendered capable of
drawing up water or plucking grass. In the proboscis or
trunk there are about forty thousand muscles, enabling the
' Elephant to shorten, lengthen, coil up, or move in any
direction this. most extraordinary organ. The trunk is
pierced throughout its length by two canals, through which
liquids can be drawn by suction. If the Elephant wishes
to drink, after drawing the liquid into its trunk, it inserts
the end of its proboscis into its mouth, and discharges the
contents down its throat; but if it merely wishes to wash
itself or play, it blows the contained liquid from the trunk
with great violence. Through the trunk the curious
trumpet-like voice of the Elephant is produced. At the
extremity is a finger-like appendage, with which it can
pick up small objects. In order to sustain the muscles of
the jaw and neck, the head must be very large: were it
solid, it would be very heavy. The skull is therefore
formed of a number of cells of bone, forming the necessary
expanse without the weight, leaving but a very small
cavity for the brain.

This fact will account for the numberless bullet wounds
which an elephant will endure in the skull. The ball,
instead of penetrating to the brain, merely lodges among
the bony cells, and does no great mischief. Not long since,
a ball was found firmly imbedded in the tusk of an ele-
phant; it was thoroughly impacted, and there was no
apparent opening by which it could have reached the
place that it occupied. It was afterwards found that the
ball must have struck the elephant at the base of the tusk,
so as to have sunk among the soft and as yet unformed
ivory. This by degrees was pushed on as the tusk grew
in successive years, until it was at last surrounded closely
ii4 THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT

by hard ivory. A spear-head has been also found similarly
imbedded.

The Indian Elephant is almost invariably taken from its
native haunts and then trained. The Indian hunters pro-
ceed into the woods with two trained female elephants.
These advance quietly, and by their blandishments so
occupy the attention of any unfortunate male that they
meet, that the hunters are enabled to tie his legs together
and fasten him to a tree. His treacherous companions
now leave him to struggle in impotent rage, until he is so
subdued by hunger and fatigue that the hunters can drive
him home between their two tame elephants. When once
captured he is easily trained.

' In captivity, it is very docile and gentle, but sometimes,
when provoked, will take a very ample revenge. Of this
propensity, many anecdotes are told.

The tusks and teeth of the Elephant furnish exceedingly
fine ivory, which is used for various purposes, such as
knife-handles, combs, billiard balls, &e. There is a great
art in.making a billiard ball. Some parts of the tusk are
always heavier than others, so that if the heavy part
should fall on one side of the ball, is would not run true.
The object of the maker is either to get the heavier portion
in the centre, or to make the ball from a piece of ivory of
equal weight. In either case, the ball is made a little
larger than the proper size; it is then hung up in a dry
room for several months, and finally turned down to the
requisite dimensions.

All Elephants are fond of the water, and sometimes sub-
merge themselves so far, that nothing but the tip of the
proboscis remains above the surface. Ina tame state, the
Elephant delights in concealing itself below the water, and
deluging the spectators with a stream sent from its trunk.

The ArricaN ELEPHANT is distinguished from the Indian
Elephant by the markings of its teeth and some differences
in form.

The Tarr forms one of the links connecting the elephant
with the hog. The snout is lengthened into a kind of
THE TAPIR 115

proboscis like that of the elephant, but it is comparatively
short, and has. no finger-like appendage at the extremity.
Some of the remaining links are supplied by the various
species of the fossil genus Paleotherium.

The Common Tapir is spread throughout the warmer
regions of South America. It sleeps during the day, and
wanders about at night in search of its food, which consists
of water melons, gourds, and other vegetables. It is very
fond of the water, and can remain below the surface for
a considerable period. It is a very powerful animal, and
as if is furnished with a very thick hide, it plunges .
through the brushwood, breaking its way through any
obstacles that may oppose its progress.

Tapirnus.—(From native name.)



Malayanus (Lat. A/aday)..

Its disposition is gentle, but when annoyed, it some-
‘times rushes at its antagonist, and defends itself vigorously
with its powerful teeth. The jaguar frequently springs
on it, but is often dislodged by the activity of the Tapir,
who rushes through the bushes immediately that it feels
the claws of its enemy, and endeavours to brush him off
116 THE BOAR

against the thick branches. The height of the American
Tapir is from five to sixfeet. The
Malay Tapir is somewhat larger,
and is known by the greyish white
colour of the loins and hind quar-
ters, which give the animal an
appearance as if a white horse-
cloth had been spread over it.



SKULL OF THE TAPIR,

The Boar.—The animals com-
posing the Hog tribe are found in almost every part of
the globe. Their feet are cloven and externally resemble
those of the Ruminants, but an examination of the bones
at once points out the difference.

The Wild Hog or Boar inhabits many parts of Europe,
especially the forests of Germany, where the chase of the
Wild Boar is a common amusement. It has become ex-
tinct in this country for many years. Its tusks are terrible

a

Sus.—(Lat. @ Sow.)
Son:



Scrofa (Lat. an old Sow), the Boar.

>
weapons, and capable of being used with fatal effect. They
curve outwards from the lower jaw, and are sometimes
eight or ten inches in length. In India, where the Boar
attains to a great size, the horses on which the hunters are
mounted often refuse to bring their riders within spear
THE DOMESTIC HOG 117

stroke of the infuriated animal, who has been known to
kill a horse, and severely injure the rider with one sweep
of its enormous tusks.

The Domustic Hoe scarcely needs any description. It
is by no means the unclean and filthy animal that moralists
love to represent it. It certainly is fond of wallowing in
the mire, as are the elephant, tapirs, &c., but no animal
seems to enjoy clean straw more than the Hog. We shut
it up ina dirty narrow crib, give it any kind of refuse to
eat, and then abuse it for being a dirty animal and an
unclean feeder.

The Banyroussa inhabits the Molucca Islands and Java.
It is remarkable for possessing four tusks, two of which
proceed from the upper jaw, and do not pass out between



Babyroussa (native word, Hog-deer), the Babyroussa.

the lips, but through an aperture in the skin, half way
between the end of the snout and eyes, The sockets of
the two upper tusks are curved upwards, and give a
singular appearance to the skull of the animal. It looks
a ferocious animal, nor do its looks contradict its habits, as
it is very savage, and cannot be hunted without danger.
Yet when taken young it can be tamed without much
difticulty, and conducts itself much after the manner of a
well-behaved pig.
118 THE RHINOCEROS

Only the male possesses the remarkable double pair of
tusks, the female being destitute of the upper pair, and
only possessing those belonging to the under jaw in a
rudimentary degree. It lives in troops, as do most of the
hog kind, and thus does great damage to the cultivated
grounds, especially to the maize, a plant to which it is,
unfortunately, very partial. It is a good swimmer, and
often voluntarily takes to the water in order to cross to
another island. The size of the animal when full grown
is about that of a very large hog.

The’ RuinocrRros.—There are, apparently, six species of
this formidable animal, inhabiting various parts of Asia

Rurinoceros.—(Gr. ‘Piv, or pls, a nose; xépas, a horn.
p pas,

\
\ WU!
i

hi \
i
Yo

ny



Unicornis (Lat. Unus, one ; corna, a horn), the Rhinoceros.

and Africa. They can be distinguished from each other
by the number and shape of their horns, and the colour of
their bodies. Their habits are much alike.
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS 119

The Rhinoceros is always a surly and_ ill-tempered
animal, and is much given to making unprovoked attacks
on man and beast, if it should happen to fancy itself
insulted by their presence. Their chief peculiarity, the
so-called horn, is a mass of fibres matted together, and
closely resembling the structure of whalebone. Their feet
are divided into three toes, incased in hoofs. The horn is
not connected with the skull, but is merely a growth from
the skin, from which it can be separated by means of a
sharp penknife. Being made of very-strong materials, it
is employed in the manufacture of ramrods, clubs, and
other similar implements. When properly worked, it is
capable of taking a very high polish, and is often cut into
drinking cups.

The organs of scent of the Rhinoceros are very acute,
and as the creature seems to have a peculiar faculty for
detecting the presence of human beings, it is necessary for
the hunters to use the greatest circumspection when they
approach it, whether to avoid or to kill, as in the one case
it may probably be taken with a sudden fit of fury, and
charge at them, or in the other case, it may take the alarm
and escape.

The upper lip is need by the Rhinoceros as an instrument
of prehension, with which it can grasp the herbage on
which it feeds, or pick up small fruit from the ground.
The very tame Rhinoceros in the Zoological Gardens will
take a piece of bun or biscuit from a visitor’s hand by
means of its flexible upper lip.

The Hippopotamus.—-There is, dn all probability, but
one species of Hippopotamus. It inhabits Africa exclu-
sively, and is found in plenty on the banks of many rivers
in that country, where it may be seen. gambolling and
snorting at all times of the day.

These animals are quiet and inoffensive while undis-
turbed, but if attacked, they unite to repel the invader,
and have been known to tear several planks from the side
of a boat, and sink it. They can remain about five or six
minutes under water, and when they emerge. they make
120 THE HIPPOPOTAMUS

a loud and very peculiar snorting noise, which can be
heard at a great distance.

The hide is. very thick and strong, and is chiefly used
for whips. The well-known “cow-hides” are made of
this material. Between the skin and flesh is a layer of
fat, which is salted and eaten by the Dutch colonists of
Southern Africa. When salted it is called Zee-koe speck,
or Sea-cow’s bacon. The flesh is also in some request.

HiproroTamus,—(Gr. “Immos, a Horse ; rotauds, a river.)



Amphibius (Gr. ’Auq:, on both sides; Bidw, I live), the Hippopotamus.

The Hippopotamus feeds entirely on vegetable sub-
stances, such as grass and brushwood. The fine animal
now in the possession of the Zoological Society eats all
kinds of vegetables, not disdaining roots. This individual
is peculiarly interesting from being the first Hippopo-
tamus brought to Europe for many hundred years, and
is in all probability the first that has ever reached this
country.
THE sLOTH 121

From the construction of the head, the animal is enabled
to raise its eyes and nostrils above the water at the same
time, so that it can survey the prospect and breathe with-
out raising more than an inch or two of its person from
the water. In order to attain this object, the eyes are
very small, and placed very high in the head, while the
muzzle is very large, and the nostrils open on its upper
surface.

Cumming relates that the track of the Hippopotamus
may be readily distinguished from that of any other animal
by a line of unbroken herbage which is left between the
marks of the feet on each side, as the width of the space
between the right and left legs causes the animal to place
its feet so considerably apart, as to make a distinct double
track.

The teeth of the Hippopotamus are the mainstay of the
dentist, who cuts from the tusk of a Hippopotamus those
series of elegant teeth which replace those that age or
accident has struck out of the human mouth. The ivory
is exceedingly hard, and does not readily lose its beautiful
whiteness, being properties which render it especially valu-
able for such purposes.

This is supposed by many to be the animal called Behe-
moth in Scripture.



The Stotu.—The Edentata include the Ant-eaters and
the Pangolins, which possess no teeth at all, and the Sloths,
Armadillos, &¢., whose teeth are small and of peculiar
structure, ;

The Sloth, or Ai, is another example of the errors into
which even great naturalists are led from hasty observation.
The great Cuvier himself condemns the Sloth as a degraded
and miserable animal, moving with pain, and misshapen
inform. Yet no animal is more fitted for its position than
the Sloth. “The Sloth,” says Waterton, “in its wild
state, spends its whole life in the trees, and never leaves
them but through force or accident, and, what is more
extraordinary, not upon the branches, like the squirrel
and monkey, but under them. He moves suspended from
122 THE MANIDS, OR PANGOLINS

the branch, he rests suspended from the branch, and he
sleeps suspended from the branch.” In fact, as Sydney
Smith observes, he passes a life of suspense, like a young
clergyman distantly related to a Bishop.

BravyYpus.—(Gr. Bpadus, slow; movs, a foot.)



Tridact¥lus (Gr. Tpiddervaos, three-fingered), the Sloth.

To*render it fit for this singular mode of life, its long
and powerful arms are furnished with strong curved claws,
which hook round the branches, and keep the animal sus-
pended without any effort. When on the ground, these
claws are very inconvenient, and it can barely shufile
along ; but when it is among its native branches, it moves
with exceeding rapidity, particularly in a gale of wind,
when it passes from branch to branch, and from tree to
tree, with an activity which its movements on the ground
by no means portend.

The Manip#, or Panco.ins, are immediately known by
the peculiar strong, horny plates with which their bodies
THE ARMADILLOS 123

are defended, giving them the appearance of animals enve-
loped in a suit of scale armour. When attacked they roll
themselves up, wrap their tails round them, and raise the
whole array of sharp-edged scales with which their body
is covered, and bid defiance to almost any enemy except
man. ‘They live on ants, and termites, or white ants, as
they are called, which they take by thrusting their long
slender tongue among the ants, which adhere to it by a
gummy saliva. When the tongue is covered it is rapidly
retracted, and the ants swallowed. To obtain the ants,
the Pangolins are furnished with powerful claws to tear
down the dwellings of their prey.

Manis (native name).



Tetradactyla (Gr. Terpaddxruaos, four-fingered), the Phatigin, or
Long-tailed Manis.

The Long-tailed Manis is widely scattered through
Africa, but is not very common. The length of its body
is about two. feet, and that of its tail rather more than
three.

The Short-tailed Manis, or Bajjerkeit, is very common
in India. Its entire length is about four feet.

The Armapiitos live exclusively in the warmer parts
of America. They eat carrion, insects, and sometimes
fallen fruit. The great mainstay of these animals lies in

3 I
124 THE ANT-EATER

the number of bisons annually slaughtered for the sake of
their hides. The carcases of these animals are left to rot
on the plain, and would speedily do so did not the com-
bined effect of birds and beasts soon destroy every trace
of the animal and only leave a heap of bones. In this
work the Armadillo takes his full share.

Das¥pus.—(Gr. Aacds, hairy ; mods, a foot.)



Sexcinctus (Lat. stz-banded), the Armadillo.

The armour that covers them, instead of resembling scale
armour like that of the Manis, forcibly reminds the
observer of the modified plate armour worn in the time of
Charles I. They burrow with great rapidity, and can only
be forced from their refuge by smoke or water. When
they are hunted and are very close pressed, they either
endeavour to escape their foes by rapidly burrowing into
the earth, or try to oppose a partial resistance by rolling
themselves up and trusting to the protection of their
armour. The natives and colonists consider them great
delicacies when roasted in their shells.

The Ant-EaTeR.—This curious animal inhabits Guiana,
Brazil, and Paraguay. As its name imports, it lives prin-
cipally upon ants and termites, which it procures in pre-
cisely the same manner as was related of the Manis. Its
short legs and long claws would lead an observer to sup-
pose that its pace was slow and constrained, but when
THE ANT-EATER 125

chased, it runs off with a peculiar trot, and with such
rapidity that it keeps a horse to its speed to overtake it.

The tongue of this animal looks exactly like a great red
worm, and when the creature is engaged in devouring its
food, the rapid coiling and twisting of the tongue add in
no small degree to the resemblance.

MyrmrcorHicsa.—(G1, Mupuné, an Ant; @ayetv, to eat.)
/ i for Stef ;



Jubita (Lat. crested), the Ant-cater.

The claws are very long and curved, and as they are
used in tearing down the habitation of the termites or
white ants, as they are called, are exceeding strong. They
are placed on the foot in such a manner that when the
animal is walking, its weight rests on the outside of the
fore feet and the outer edge of the claws, which make a
great clattering, if the ant-eater is walking upon a hard
surface.

When it sleeps, it les on one side, rolls itself up, so
that its snout rests on its breast, places all its feet together,
. 126 THE DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS

and covers itself with its bushy tail. The fur of the
animal at all times resembles hay, and when it is thus
curled up in sleep, it is so exactly like a bundle of hay,
that any one might pass it carelessly, imagining it to be
nothing but a loose heap of that substance.

Schomburgh relates that a tame Ant-eater, in his posses-
sion, by no means restricted itself to ants, but devoured
meat, when minced, with much avidity. The same natur-
alist also discovered a Julus, or Millipede, in the stomach
of an Ant-eater which he dissected. The ordinary length
of this animal is about three feet seven inches, and its
height about three feet.



— 3 Ne
dine
Paradoxus (Lat. puzzling), the Duck-billed Platypus.

The Duck-Bintep Puiatypvus.*—Australia, where every-
thing seems to be reversed, where the north wind is warm
and the south wind cold, the thick end of a pear is next
the stem, and the stone of a cherry grows outside, is the
residence of this most extraordinary animal. When it
was first introduced into Europe, it was fully believed to
be the manufacture of some impostor, who with much
ingenuity had fixed the beak of a duck into the head of
‘some unknown animal. Jt will, however, be seen by the

* The word ‘ Platypus’ signifies broad-footed, and is derived from the Greek
words wAarus, broad, and mous, a foot.
THE DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS 127

woodcut representing the skull of the animal, that this
duck-like beak really belongs to the animal, and is caused
by a prolongation of some of the bones of the head.

It lives by the banks of rivers, in which it burrows like
the water-rat. Curiously enough, it finds no difficulty in
this labour, for the feet are so constructed that the animal
can fold back the web at pleasure, and thus the foot is
enabled to perform its task. It feeds upon water-insects
and shell-fish, always rejecting the crushed shells after
swallowing the inhabitant.

The male has a sharp spur on its hind feet.

The learned have given the animal several names. Some
follow Shaw, and call it Platypus Anatinus; some give it
the name of Ornithorhyncus rufus or fuscus, or crispus or
brevirostris, with other titles. The native name for the
creature is “ Mullingong,” a title which, although not-
euphonious, is perhaps little less so than the scientific
names, while it certainly has the advantage over them in
point of brevity.



SKULL OF THE PLATYPUS,
BIRDS.

Gyrakrus.—(Gr. Tuy, a Vulture; *Aerds, an Eagle. Vulture-eagle kind.)



Barbatus (Lat. bearded), the Bearded Vulture or Lammergeyer,

Birps are immediately distinguished from the Mammalia
by their general form, their feathery covering, and by pro-
ducing their young enclosed in eggs.

The different orders of birds are principally known by
the character of the claws and beak, examples of which
will be seen in the progress of the work. Before we pay
attention to any individual species, we will first examine
some of the structures common to all birds.

One of the first great marks of distinction in birds is
the wing. This organ is a modification of the arm or fore-
limb of mammalia, clothed with feathers instead of hair.

The bones of adult birds are not filled with marrow like
the bones of mammalia, but are hollow and filled with air,
and are therefore rendered very light, a bone of a goose
being barely half the weight of a rabbit’s bone of the same
size, after the marrow has been extracted. In this forma-
tion, strength as well as lightness is consulted, as a tubular

: 128
BIRDS 129

rod is well known to be very much stronger than the same
quantity of matter formed into a solid bar. The bones
forming the wing are worthy of notice for the beautiful
manner in which they are jointed together, and arranged
so as to give great strength together with lightness. Un-
scientific individuals are apt to make certain mistakes in
their ideas of birds, and especially as regards the formation
of their legs. Most persons seem to fancy that the foot of
the bird is that part which grasps the branch, or by means
. of which it walks on the ground—that the joint above
that member is the knee—and that the thigh is the
feathered portion of the limb that proceeds from the bird’s
body. Now, all these ideas are wrong; with this method
of arrangement, the knee of the bird would bend back-
_ wards, a “thing which no perfectly formed knee ever did or
ever will do.

The leg of a bird is formed on much the same principle
as the hind leg of a quadruped, the part that grasps the
branches being composed of the toes, the so-called knee-
joint being the heel bone of the foot, so that the whole
foot reaches half way from the perch to the bird. The
knee-joint is placed high up against the body, and is
buried in the feathers. In the following figure, the limbs



ee

cf
nee oe
LEG OF BIRD, LEG OF MAN, LEG OF BIRD, PERCHING,

of a man and of a bird are compared, the corresponding
divisions of each being marked by similar letters,
130 PLUMAGE OF BIRDS

As many important characteristics are drawn from the
plumage, it will be necessary to give a figure, as below,
exhibiting the feathers of the different parts, together with
their names :—a, primaries, or great quill feathers of the
wing; B, secondaries; c, tertials; p, lesser coverts; 5,
greater coverts; F, winglet, or bastard wing; G, scapu-
laries; H, upper tail coverts; 1, under tail coverts; x,
rectrices or tail-feathers. :

In the above engraving is also a figure, showing the
method by which birds hold on the perch while sleeping..
It will be seen that the great tendon a, which is connected
with all the toes or claws, passes over the joints in such a
manner that when the leg is bent, the tendon is shortened
and the claws drawn together, so that the weight of the



PLUMAGE. STERNUM,

bird while perched, pressing on the tendon, holds it firmly
on the branch. This action of the tendon is easily ob-
served by watching a common fowl walk. At each step
that it makes, on lifting its foot, the claws are seen to be
drawn together. It is partly by this power that the birds
of prey are enabled to fix their talons so forcibly into the
bodies of their prey. When, for example, an eagle wishes
to drive his claws into its prey, he perches on it, and then
sinks down with the whole weight of his body, by which
movement the tendon is shortened, and the claws forcibly
pressed together.

As the wing presents a very broad surface to the air, it
is necessary that very powerful muscles should be used to _
THE LAMMERGEYER ; 131

move it with sufficient rapidity. The pectoral muscles
are therefore enormously developed, extending almost the
whole length of the body,
as every one who has
carved a fowl must have
seen; and in order to
form an attachment for
these immense muscles,
the ridge of the breast-
bone is equally enlarged.
It is the want of these enlarged muscles that prevents
man from flying, even when he has attached wings to his
arms.

The principal characteristics of birds are taken from
their foot and beak. I therefore give the reader a figure
representing the general character of the head and foot of
the rapacious birds.



CLAW AND BEAK OF RAPACIOUS BIRD.

The Limmercrver (Germ. Lamb’s-vulture), or BEARDED
VuLtTuRE, inhabits most mountain ranges, and is very
common in the Alps of Switzerland and Germany, where,
from its depredations on the kids and lambs, it has earned
its name of Limmergeyer.

Although called the Bearded “ Vulture,” it is not strictly
a vulture, as its head and neck are feathered, and it rejects
putrid flesh, unless hard pressed by hunger. ,

Jt destroys hares, and young or sickly sheep and goats,
nor, when rendered fierce by hunger, does it fear to attack
the adult chamois, or even man. It is said to destroy the
larger animals by watching until they are near the brink
of a precipice, and then suddenly driving them over the
rocks by an unexpected swoop. In this manner the strong
and swift chamois falls a victim to the craft of its winged
foe, and instances are not wanting where the chamois
hunter himself has been struck from a narrow ridge into
the valley beneath by a blow from this ferocious bird.

It is exceedingly bold, and shows but little fear of man.
While Brice was preparing his dinner on the summit of a
mountain, one of these birds, after scalding its feet in
132 THE CONDOR

several unavailing attempts to extract some meat out of
the boiling water, actually seized a piece from a platter,
and went off with it.

The name of “ Bearded”? Vulture is given to it on ac-
count of the long tuft of hairs with which each nostril is
clothed. The length of its body is about four feet, and
the expanse of its wings from nine to ten. The second
and third primary feathers are the longest.

It lays two eggs,—white, marked with brown blotches.

SARCORHAMPHOS.—(Gr. Sdpé, flesh ; paudos, beak.)



Gryphon (Gr. I'pdw, a Griffon), the Condor.

The Conpor.—The Sarcorhamphide are distinguished
by a fleshy tuft growing on their beaks, somewhat resem-
bling the wattles of a turkey. The genus Sarcorhamphos
VULTURES 133

includes the Condor, the King Vulture, and the Californian
Vulture. These birds are distinguished by the wattles on
their beaks, their naked necks, ad the size of the nostrils.
The third primary feather is the longest.

The Condor inhabits the Andes of South America,
always choosing its residence on the summit of a solitary
rock. It appears that this bird does not build any nest,
but lays its two white eggs on the bare rock after the
manner of many sea birds. It is a very large bird, but
by no means the gigantic creature some former naturalists
relate, with wings twenty feet in length, and powerful
enough to carry off a horse. The real expanse of wing is
about nine or ten feet, and the length of the bird about
three feet. It is, however, exceedingly strong and tenacious
of life. Two Condors will attack and kill the llama, or.
even the puma; for by their repeated buffeting and pecking
they weary it so completely that it yields to their per-
severance,



We now arrive at the true Vutturrs. These birds are
the representatives of the carrion-devouring animals, such
as the hyenas, wild dogs, &c. They however do not, as
the hyenas and wild dogs, attack living animals. The
neck of the Vulture is almost naked, very slightly sprinkled
with down, and from the formation of the lower part of
the neck, the bird is enabled to draw its head almost under
the feathers of its shoulders, so that a hasty observer
would conclude that the creature had no neck at all.

The marvellous quickness with which the Vultures dis-
cover a dead animal has caused many discussions among
naturalists as to the sense employed; some, as Audubon,
declaring entirely for sight, and others, as Waterton,
asserting that the scent of putrid animal matter leads the
vultures to their prey.

He especially ridicules one experiment tried by Audubon,
by stuffing a deer’s hide, and placing it in the open air,
The Vultures soon came to the stuffed skin, and one of
them tore open the skin, just as if the ania had been
134 THE GRIFFON VULTURE

really lying dead, and continued to pull out large quan-
tities of straw, until it became tired and went away.
Audubon argues from this experiment, that the Vultures
were led to the bait by the sight, and not by the scent, or
they would not have been so taken in as to work for so
long a time at a stuffed skin. However, few people see the
same incident in the same light, and Waterton’s inferences
are widely different from those drawn by Audubon. He

Gyrs.—(Gr. Tin, a Vulture.)



Fulvus (Lat. tawny), the Griffon Vulture,

declares that the experiment of stuffing a deer’s hide, and
placing it exposed in the open air, was by no means con-
clusive, as the hide, however dry, must have given out
some odour, and the Vulture certainly acted very properly
in pulling out the straw, and endeavouring to get at the
inside. ;
EAGLES 135

The probability is that both senses are used, one aiding
the other; for in another experiment, where a dead hog
was hidden under canes and briars, numbers of vultures
were seen sailing in all directions over the spot, evidently
directed by the scent, but unable to discover by their eyes
the exact position of the animal. The olfactory nerves of
the Vulture are beautifully developed, so that Waterton
had reason for his pathetic remark,—“JI never thought I
should have lived to see this bird deprived of its nose.”

The Grirron VuLture is found in almost all parts of
the Old World. It is one of the largest of its group, mea-
suring upwards of four feet in length. Like most of the
Vultures, it does not appear to move its wings while flying,
but soars on expanded pinions in large circles, apparently
gaining the necessary impetus by the movements of its
head and body, just as-an accomplished skater uses but
little force in his various evolutions—an imperceptible
inclination of the head, or sway of the body, sufficing to
keep up the impetus gained at starting, and to bring him
round in any direction he chooses.

Vultures are generally protected by the natives of the
countries where they reside, on account of their great
utility in clearing away the putrid animal matter, which
would otherwise be exceedingly injurious as well as dis-
agreeable.



Eacies.—The Vultures seem to hold the same place
among birds as the Hyenas among the Mammalia; and in
like manner the Falconide fill the same position in the
ornithological kingdom as do the Felide among the quad-
rupeds. The beak of this family is strong and curved,
and the feet furnished with sharp talons, just as the Felide
are armed with long sharp teeth and powerful claws. The
Falconide differ from the Vulturide in having feathered
necks, and in killing their prey themselves, and devouring
it while fresh.

At the head of the Falconide the Eacies are placed.
In them the wings are large, powerful, and slightly
136 THE GOLDEN EAGLE

rounded, the fourth primary feather being longest. The
feet of the genus Aquila are feathered to the toes.

The Golden Eagle is found in most parts of Europe, and
is not uncommon in Great Britain, especially in the moun-
taizous parts of Scotland and the Hebrides. The flight of
this magnificent bird is peculiarly beautiful and imposing,
but its gait when on land is rather awkward ; for its long
talons encumber it in the same manner that the Sloth and
Great Ant-eater are impeded by their long curved- claws,
when they attempt to walk with any rapidity.

Aquita.—(Lat. an Eagle.)



Chrysaétos (Gr. Xpuoderos, Golden Eagle), the Golden Eagle.

Its food is usually sea birds and the smaller quadrupeds,
such as hares, rabbits, &c.; but it does not hesitate to
carry off young lambs, or sometimes to destroy a sickly
sheep. Some instances have been related of children that
have been carried away by this eagle, but they are very
THE BUZZARD 137

doubtful. Eagles certainly have pounced upon children,
and carried them a little way; but there are no authen-
ticated accounts of children having been actually taken to
the Eagle’s nest, although there are many pretty stories
founded on such a supposition.

It generally hunts in pairs, one Eagle watching from
some height while the other courses along the ground, and
drives the game from the bushes. The male and female
remain together all the year, and very probably for life. It
lays two eggs of a yellowish white colour with pale brown-
ish spots, on a nest composed of a great mass of sticks,
rushes, and grass, and the young are fledged about the end
of July. While the young are in the nest, it is very dan-
gerous to approach the spot, as the Eagles are then ex-
tremely fierce and daring.

The eye of this bird, and
of most of the birds of prey,
is provided with an arrange-
ment for enabling it to see
an object near or at a great
distance. The old tale of
the Eagle delighting to gaze
at the sun is equally poetical
and false, the true fact being
that the eye is shaded from
the sun by the projecting
eyebrow. As to the nictitat-
ing membrane, which some
assert to be given to the
Eagle, in order to enable it to
gaze at the sun, all birds
have it, and the owl, who is
blinded by ordinary daylight,

Butrito.—(Lat. @ Buzzard.)



Vier . Vulgaris (Lat. common), the
possesses it in perfection. Buzzard.

The Buzzarp.—The family of the Buzzards are dis-
tinguished by their short beaks, large rounded wings, and
squared tails. They all live on small animals, reptiles,
and various insects.
138 FALCONS

The Common Buzzard occurs throughout most of Europe
and part of Asia, being frequently found in England.
When searching for food, it rests upon some high branch,
keeping a keen watch on the ground, and waiting patiently
until some small animal, such as a rat or young rabbit,
makes its appearance, when it instantly sweeps down from
its elevation, seizes its prey without settling on the ground,
and returns, if not disturbed, to the same spot, very much
in the same manner that the fly-catcher may be observed
to act. ;

It generally builds in high trees, but has been known to
make its nest among rocks. Its eggs are usually three in
number, of a whitish colour, spotted with pale brown, and
almost devoid of the peculiar red tinge that generally char-
acterises the eggs of the diurnal birds of prey. The length
of. this bird is from twenty to twenty-two inches: the
fourth primary feather is the longest.

The Kire, GLEDE, or GLED, is nob uncommon in England,
and is spread over Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. It
is especially hated by the farmer for its depredations on
his poultry, and its appearance is the signal for a general
outcry among the terrified poultry, who perceive it long
before the keenest-eyed man can distinguish it from a
casual spot in the distant sky. The sportsman also detests
it for the havoc which it makes among the game,—possibly
the kite hates the sportsman for the same reason.

It builds in tall trees, and lays three eggs, white, spotted
with reddish brown at the larger end. Its length is rather
more than two feet; the fourth primary feather is the
longest, the first and ‘seventh nearly equal.

Fatcons.—In the genus Falco, the second primary
feather is the longest, the first and third being of equal
length.

The Prrrcrine Fatcon, an inhabitant of most parts of
Europe, Asia, and South America, was in the palmy days
of hawking one of the favourite falcons chosen for that
THE PEREGRINE FALCON 139

sport. Its strength and swiftness are very great, enabling
it to strike down its prey with great ease; indeed, it has
been known to disable five partridges in succession. From
its successful pursuit of ducks the Americans call it the
Duck Hawk.

Miivvus.—(Lat. « Kite.)



Regilis (Lat. royal), the Kite.

There is a peculiarity in the method of attack which
this bird employs when pursuing small game. Instead of
merely dashing at its prey, and grasping it with its claws,
the Peregrine Falcon strikes its victim with its breast, and
actually stuns it with the violence of the blow before seizing
it with its claws. The boldness of the Peregrine Falcon
is so great that it was generally employed to take the
formidable Heron. After the Heron had been roused from
his contemplations by some marsh or river, the Falcon,
who had previously been held hooded on its master’s

K
140 THE KESTREL

hand, was loosed from its bonds and cast off. A contest
then generally took place between the Heron and the
Falcon, each striving to ascend above the other. In this
contest the Falcon was always victorious, and after it had
attained a suflicient altitude, it swept, or “stooped,” as the
phrase was, upon ~ the
Fauco.—(Lat. « Faleon.) Heron. When the Falcon
z had closed with its prey,
they both came to the
ground together, and the
sportsman’s business was
to reach the place of con-
flict as soon as possible,
and assist the Falcon
in vanquishing its prey.
Sometimes, however, the
wary Heron contrived to
receive its enemy on the
point of its sharp beak,
and transfixed it by its
own impetus.
i! ° It changes the colour
Peregrinus (Lat. wandering), the of its plumage several
Peregrine Falcon. times before it arrives at
full maturity, and in the
days of falconry was known by different names, such as
“haggard” when wild, ‘“eyeass,” “red falcon” when
young, “tiercel” or “tassel-gentle” when a full-grown
male; a term forcibly recalling the words of Juliet, ‘‘Oh
for a falconer’s voice, to lure this tassel-gentle back again!”
Tt builds on ledges of rocks, laying four eggs of a red-
dish brown colour. Its length is from fifteen to eighteen
inches.







The KestreL, or WINDHOVER as it is often called,
frequently falls a victim to the mistaken zeal of the
farmer, who takes every opportunity of destroying it, as
he confounds it with the sparrow-hawk, The natural
food of the Kestrel is field-mice, so that the farmer should
THE SPARROW-HAWK : 141

protect instead of remorselessly murdering his benefactor.
These birds are not uncommon. Many live close to
Oxford, and especially in Bagley Wood, where they may
be seen almost daily. They also live in great numbers
among the precipices in Dovedale. Their nest is usually
built in the deserted mansion of a crow or magpie. The
eggs are four in number, of a dark reddish brown. The
length is from thirteen to fifteen inches.

TinnunctLus.—(Lat. @ Kestrel.)



a

Alaudarius (Lat. of a Lark), the Kestrel.



The Spearrow-Hawk is common throughout Europe.
It displays great pertinacity in pursuit of its prey, which
it will chase for a long while, skimming along a few feet
above the ground. One of these hawks was known to
dash through a window in pursuit of a small bird. When.
taken young it is easily tamed, and will then associate
with the most incongruous companions.
a young Sparrow-hawk which used to live in his dovecote
among his pigeons, would accompany them in their flights,
and was uneasy if separated from his strange friends,

‘Although a brave little bird in its wild state, it some-
times becomes sadly degenerate when domesticated. I had
a tame Sparrow-hawk, which was purchased for the osten-
142 THE SECRETARY BIRD

sible purpose of frightening birds from the vegetables in
the garden. But unfortunately, his presence was rather
an attraction than otherwise, for besides the pleasing
excitement caused by mobbing him, he was invaluable to
-the-tomtits, who always ate his meat if he were not pro-
tected by some human being. He would fly in terror
before the wagtails, and
Acciriter.—(Lat. a Hawk.) the tomtits regularly
charged at him when he
was fed, and then made
a dash at his saucer of
provisions,

But all tame Sparrow-
hawks are not so demo-
ralized. I know one of
these birds, which, al-
though young, is the
acknowledged master of
an establishment consist-
ing of three dogs and a
cat. He flies at the dogs
By if they approach too near

Nisus (Lat. proper name), his throne, and sometimes
the Sparrow-hawk. dashes at them without
any apparent reason.

The length of this bird is from twelve to fifteen inches.
The fourth and fifth primary feathers are the longest. It
builds upon lofty trees, laying five eggs, of a whitish
colour -blotched with variable reddish “brown markings,
usually collected towards the large end, and often forming
a deep reddish irregular band.



The Secretary Birp derives its name from the tufts
of feathers at the back of its head, which bear a fanciful
resemblance to pens stuck behind the ear. This extra-
ordinary bird, whose true position in ornithology has been
such a stumbling-block to naturalists, inhabits South
Africa, Senegambia, and the Philippine Islands. Probably
a different species inhabits each of these countries. It
THE SECRETARY BIRD 143

feeds on snakes and other reptiles, of which it consumes
an amazing number, and is on that account protected.
When battling with a snake, it covers itself with one wing
as with a shield, and with the other strikes at the reptile
until it falls senseless, when a powerful blow from the

SERPENTARIUS.—(Lat. of a Serpent.)



Reptilivorus (Lat. Reptile-cating), the Sccretary Bird.

beak splits the snake’s head asunder, and the vanquished
enemy is speedily swallowed. In the crop of a Secretary
Bird that was dissected by Le Vaillant were found eleven
large lizards, three serpents, each a yard in length, eleven
small tortoises, and a great quantity of locusts and other
insects. Besides these, the bird had just overcome another
serpent, which would in all probability have been trans-
ferred to the same receptacle had it not been killed. The
Secretary is easily tamed, and is then exceedingly useful.
144 THE SNOWY OWL

It builds on high trees, laying three large eggs, almost
white. Its length is about three feet.

Ow1is.—A large round head, with enormous eyes look-
ing forward, is a distinguishing mark of the Owl family.
Many species possess two feathery tufts placed on the

Nycrta.—(Gr. Nv«rios, nightly.)



Nivéa (Lat. snowy), the Snowy Ovl,

head, greatly resembling horns. The Owls are nocturnal
birds, pursuing their prey by night, and sleeping during
the day. In order to enable them to see their prey, their
eyes are enormously large, and capable of taking in every
ray of light. Their power of vision is also increased by
the method in which the eye is fixed in a kind of bony
socket, just like a watchmaker’s glass. The nictitating
membrane is very conspicuous in these birds. The power
of hearing is also very delicate, and greatly assists them.
THE GREAT EARED OWL 145

In order to protect them from the cold, they are furnished
with a dense covering of downy feathers, which also pre-
vent the movements of the wing from being heard by the
wary mouse; and so noiseless is their flight that they
seem to be borne along by the wing like a tuft of thistle-
down.

The Snowy Ow1* is properly an inhabitant of the north
of Europe, but has more than once been discovered in
Great Britain. Itis also found in North America. Wilson
relates that it is a good fisher, snatching its prey from the
water by a sudden grasp of the foot. It also preys on
lemmings, hares, ptarmigans, &c., chasing and striking at
them with its feet. It makes its nest on the ground, and
lays three or four white eggs, of which more than two are
seldom hatched. Its length is from twenty-two to twenty-
seven inches, the expanse of wing four feet; the third
primary feather is the longest.

The Great Earep Owt, or Eaciz OWL, is the largest of
the family. This powerful bird, not satisfied with the
“rats and mice and such small deer” which content the
English owls, boldly attacks young fawns, hares, and
rabbits, together with small birds. It inhabits the north
of Europe, but has been several times observed in Great
Britain. It lays its eggs in the clefts of rocks or in
ruined buildings. The length of this bird is upwards of
two feet.

The Barn Own affords another instance of mistaken
persecution. This beautiful and most useful bird, whose
carcase we so often see triumphantly nailed to the barn,
actually feeds upon and destroys in incalculable numbers
the rats and mice which bear it company in its undeserved
punishment.

Few people know what a little bird this Owl really is.
The thick loose plumage is so deceptive, that no one
unacquainted with the structure of the bird would imagine

* See page lid.
146 THE BARN OWL

that it is hardly so large as a pigeon. The head, too, when
deprived of its feathery covering, completely loses its pre-
vious aspect, being long and narrow, like that of a hawk.
In fact, few creatures look more contemptible than an owl -
stripped of its feathers,

The domestic habits of the bird are very curious. When
irritated or alarmed, it has a habit of snapping its beak

Buzo.—(Lat. an Owl.)



Maximus (Lat. greatest), the Great Eared Owl.

loudly, and making a hissing sound, something like that
of a cat when very much provoked, Indeed there is
something very cat-like in the whole aspect’ of the owl.
Its round soft-looking face, in which are set two great
eyes that shine in the dusk of the evening with an almost
phosphoric gleam, and are capable of taking in every
feeble ray of light; its noiseless movements in pursuit of
“THE BARN OWL 147

its prey, all strongly remind the observer of the feline
character.

The plumage of this bird is very thick, in order to de-
fend it from the cold night air, and very soft, in order to
admit of its flight with ,
such silence that even Srrix.—(Lat. a Screech Owl.)
the quick and wary ear
of the timid field-mouse
may not perceive the ap-
proach of its enemy. This
noiselessness is caused
by the formation of the
feathers, which, instead
of being stiff and smooth,
like those of the diurnal
birds of prey, are loose .
and furnished at their ex-
tremities with a delicate
fringe, which completely
prevents that rushing
sound which accompanies (
the flight of the eagle or Flamméa (Lat. flaming), the Barn Owl.
the hawk.

Tts method of devouring a mouse is quite different from
the mode in which it eats a bird. Ifa mouse is given to
an owl, the bird seizes it across the back, and gives it one or
two smart bites, much asa terrier handles a mae The mouse
is then jerked upwards, and caught again head downwards.
A second jerk sends the mouse half down the owl’s throat,
while its tail remains sticking out of the side of its bill,
where it is rolled about as if the owl were smoking.
After some time has been spent in this amusement,
another jerk causes the mouse to disappear altogether, and
the owl looks very happy and contented. But if a small
bird is presented to it, the owl tears it up and devours it
piecemeal.

The Barn Owl lays three or four eggs upon a mass of
those pellets which all the owls disgorge. There is a
rough chalky look about the eggs of the owl, which renders


148 THE ACCIPITRES

them different from the eggs of all other birds, from which
they can be distinguished by the touch alone. There is
a peculiarity in the domestic economy of this owl, for it
often has at the same time in the nest young owls almost
fledged, and eggs on which the hen bird is sitting.

The length of the bird is rather more than twelve
inches; the second primary feather is the longest. Its
colour is a bright yellowish brown, marked with dots and
lines of various tints, the lines being generally dark and the
dots light. The under parts of the bird are very variable,
and seldom exactly the same in any two individuals, the
white feathers being sometimes greyish white, sprinkled
with brown dots ; sometimes pure white, without any marks
at all; and sometimes white very slightly dotted indeed.

When it is threatened or attacked, it throws itself on
its back, and fights vigorously with its claws and bill.



Tux Accipitres, it will be remembered, possess strong
hooked beaks and sharp curved claws. The foot and head
of the Passeres are entirely different ;—the beak being
without the formidable curved tip, and the claws being of
a quiet and peaceful character.

The first tribe of this order, the Fissirostres, are so
called from the peculiar formation of their mouths, which
appear as if they had been slit up from their ordinary ter-
mination to beyond the eyes, much resembling the mouth
of a frog. In the insect-eating Fissirostres this formation
is admirably adapted for capturing their active prey, and
in the Kingfishers it is equally useful for securing the
slippery inhabitants of the waters.

The Caprimulgide are nocturnal in their habits, chasing
their insect prey by night or at the dusk, when the chaffers
and large moths are on the wing. In order to prevent the
escape of the insect when taken, the mouth is fringed with
long stiff bristles, called ‘“vibrisse.” The name of Goat-
sucker is derived from a silly notion that they suck goats,
a piece of credulity only equalled by the hedgehog’s sup-
posed crime of sucking cows, and the accusation against
THE GOAT-SUCKER 149

the cat of sucking the breath of children. The genus
Caprimulgus is furnished with a kind of comb on the
middle claw of its foot, but for what purpose is not clearly
ascertained. The power of wing in these birds is very
great, and hardly surpassed by that of the swallow, both
birds obtaining their food in a similar manner.

CAPRIMULGUS.—(Lat. w Goxt-sucker.)



Kuropeus (Lat. Huropean), the Goat-sucker.

The Nicur-sar, or GoAt-sucKER, sometimes called the
Fern Owl, is spread over Europe, and is tolerably common
in England.* It may be seen at the approach of evening,
silently wheeling round the trees, capturing the nocturnal
moths and beetles ; then occasionally settling and uttering
its jarring cry. When flying, the bird sometimes makes
its wings meet over its back, and brings them together
with a smart snap. It arrives in this country at the
beginning of May, and leaves in December. It makes no

* I have seen it near Amicns, accompanying a train, and apparently hawking
after the moths that were attracted by the lights.
150 . SWALLOWS—-THE COMMON SWIFT

nest, but lays two mottled eggs on the bare ground. Its
length is ten inches. The Whip-poor-Will and the Chuck-
Will’s-Widow both belong to this family.

SwaLLows.—The Hirundinide are remarkable for their
great power of wing, their wide mouths, and short legs.
In the genus Cypselus, the toes are all directed forward,
and the tarsus is thickly feathered. The whole of their
plumage is constructed with a view to rapid and active

CypsiLus.—(Gr. Kiwedos, a Martin.)



Apus (Gr. &ous, without feet), the Swift.

motion. The feathers of their bodies are firm and close,
goas not to impede their passage through the air; their
wing feathers are long, stiff and pointed, and their tails
are long and forked; all which properties we know to
belong to great speed.

The Common Swrrr, popularly called “Jack Screamer,”
is the largest and swiftest of the British Hirundinide. It
THE CHIMNEY MARTIN, OR SWALLOW 151

seems to spend the whole day on the wing, wheeling with
wonderful velocity, and occasionally soaring until it is
hardly perceptible, but screaming so shrilly, that the sound
is plainly heard. The number of insects which it destroys
is almost incredible ; they are retained in a kind of pouch
under the tongue, and when taken out, can hardly be
pressed into a tea-spoon. These are intended: for the
young, and the supply is constantly renewed. It lays
from two to four long white eggs, on a nest composed of
grass, straws, feathers, silk, &c. The colour of this bird
is a dusky black. The length is eight inches, the ex-
panse of wing eighteen inches, and its weight barely one
ounce. -

The foot of the Swift is of a singular form; unlike that
of any other bird. All the toes are directed forward,
there being no hinder toe at all. Some naturalists say
that the object of this formation is that the bird may
be enabled to climb up the eaves under which its nest
is made. If, however, that is the case, we may ask,
Why is not the same shape of foot found in the
sparrows and other birds, which build in precisely similar
localities ?

The Cuimney Martin, or Swattow, is the most common
of its family, and too well known to need much deserip-
tion. When skimming over ponds or rivers in search of
insects, the snap with which it closes its bill may easily
be heard. In the course of its flight over the surface, it
often dashes up the water with its wings, which action
gave rise to the opinion that Swallows passed the winter
under water, and rose in the spring. It is so eager after
its prey, that it may be easily, caught with a rod and line
baited with a fly, after the manner of anglers,

When I was at school, we used to knock down plenty
of swallows with stones in the following manner. We
went to a bridge, or some such place, where many swallows
were flying about. .Where they appeared in the greatest
numbers we threw a small white stone, and immediately
hurled a larger one after it, The swallows all dashed at
152 THE SAND MARTIN

the little stone, taking it for some entomological luxury,
and one or two were generally struck down by the big
stone following in its wake.

It breeds twice in the year, building a nest of mud
against a wall or other convenient situation, and laying
five very pale pink eggs, spotted with reddish brown, the
pink of which vanishes when the egg is emptied of its
contents, as it is caused by the light passing through the

Hirvnpo.—(Lat. a Swallow.)



Rustica (Lat. rustic), the Chimney Martin.

yolk, and has to be renewed by artificial means if the
egg is placed in a collection. Such is also the case with
most small light-coloured eggs.

The bird appears regularly to return, year by year, to
its old nest. The whole of its upper surface is a deep
purplish black, its forehead and throat chestnut.

Humboldt, in his “Travels,” relates that he saw a
swallow perch on the rigging of the vessel when it was
one hundred and twenty miles from the land.

The Sanp Martin is the smallest of our British Swal-
lows, but makes its appearance before any of its brethren.
It principally builds in cliffg of sandstone, boring holes
three feet or more in depth, and often winding in their
course, most probably to avoid a casual stone or spot too
hard for its bill, which, although small and apparently
THE MARTIN, OR WINDOW SWALLOW 153

unfitted for the task, makes its way through the sand-
stone with extraordinary rapidity. Where a convenient
sand-cliff exists, hundreds of these pretty little birds may

CoriLE.—(Gr. Keridos, twittering.)



Riparia (Lat. of a bank), the Sand Martin.

be seen working away at their habitations, or dashing
about in the air, looking at a distance like white butter-
flies, and occasionally returning to the rock, which is often
completely honeycombed by their labours.

CHELIDON.—(Gr. XeArddv, a Swallow.)



Bae Se
Urbica (Lat. of the city), the Martin.

The Martin, or Winpow SwALLow, reaches this country
a little after the Swallow, and almost invariably takes
154. THE ESCULENT SWALLOW

possession of its old nest, which it repairs about May. It
lays five eges closely resembling those of the sand martin.
About September, immense numbers may be seen perched
upon houses and trees preparatory to their departure. The
dome of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford is a favourite
assembling place for these birds, where they may be seen
lingering for several days after most of their fellows
have vanished. At these times every available point is
covered with them. The dome of St. Paul’s is also a
favoured spot.

The Escutent SwaLtow, whose nests are considered
such a delicacy among the Chinese, builds its singular
habitation in the sides of almost inaccessible cliffs, so that
the business of procuring them is a most dangerous task.
The nature of the jelly-like, transparent material of which
the nests are made is not yeb known. The nests are chiefly
found in Java.

The Trocon.—The magnificent family of the Trogons
stands pre-eminent in beauty and brilliancy of plumage,
the usual tint being a metallic golden green, boldly con-
trasted with scarlet black, nl brown. The toes are
placed two behind and two before, like those of the
woodpeckers.

The Resplendent Trogon is the most gorgeous of all
this gorgeous family. Its long and gracefully curved tail,
nearly three feet long, the whole of the upper surface,
and the throat, are a glowing g green ; the breast and under
parts are bright crimson ; the. middle feathers of the tail
black, and the outer feathers white. This splendid bird
is an inhabitant of Mexico, and was used by the Mexican
nobles as an ornament to their head-dress.

From the feathers of these and other Trogons the
mosaic pictures of the Mexicans were made. One of
these, most delicately and beautifully executed, containing
many figures, is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford,
and is there said to be made of humming-birds’ feathers,
THE TROGON 155

The subject is “Christ fainting under the cross.” The
whole picture is about the size of the palm of the hand,
and the figures are barely half an inch in height.

Trocon.—(Gr. Tpdyew, I gnaw.)



WW

Resplendens (Lat. shining), the Resplendent T'rogen.

This is a very difficult bird to stuff, on account of the
delicate texture of the skin, which is so fragile that it
tears almost as easily as wet blotting paper.

The Kinerisner.—The peculiarities of their form im-
mediately distinguish the Kingfishers from other birds.
The disproportionate: length of the bill is their chief
characteristic.

The common Kingfisher is found in most parts of
England. Scarcely anything more beautiful can be con-

L
156 THE KINGFISHER

ceived than the metallic glitter of its plumage as it shoots
along the banks of the river, or darts into the water after
its struggling prey. Its usual method of fishing is by

placing itself on a

AucEpo.—(Lat. @ LUST SIEE) stump or stone over-






* eT, 5
Se Ban hanging the water,
Nee from which spot it

watches for the un-
suspecting fish be-
neath. After a fish
=> 1s caught, the bird
SS kills it by beating it
WN several times against
a eg VEZ > SX __ its resting-place, and
! MZ INNES then swallowing it,
yp iif (NaS ee head foremost. Some-
cise sufficient caution
in its devouring pro-
pensities. A heedless Kingfisher was exhibited at the
Ashmolean Society, which had been found dead with a
peculiarly large minnow firmly fixed in its throat.

It lays its eggs in holes bored in the banks of rivers or
ponds, and appears to build no nest. A pair of king-
fishers, for two successive years, inhabited a bank of a very
small stream, little more than a drain, at Little Hinton,
Wiltshire, where no fish lived, nor were there any to be
found within a considerable distance.

The eggs are from four to seven in number, of a pearly
whiteness, and remarkably globular in shape.







Hispida (Lat. rough), the Kingfisher.



The Hooproz,* one of the most elegant birds that visit
this country, is unfortunately a very rare guest, and
seldom, if ever, breeds here. Its beautiful crest can be
raised or depressed at pleasure, but is seldom displayed
unless the bird is excited from some cause. Its food con-
sists of insects, which it first batters and moulds into an

* See page 157.
THE HOOPOE 157

oblong mass, and then swallows, with a peculiar jerk of

‘the head. In Yarrell’s “British Birds,” there is a very
interesting account of a tame Hoopoe in the possession of
Mr. Bartlett.

In France Hoopoes are very common, and may be
seen examining old ;
and rotten stumps
for the insects that
invariably congre-
gate in such places.
There they may be
seen in flocks, but
they never seem to
‘come over to Eng-
land in greater num-
bers than one pair
ata time. M. Bech-
stein gives a curious
account of the atti-
tude assumed by the
Hoopoe on perceiv-
ing a large bird in
the air. ‘As soon
as they perceived a
raven, or even a
pigeon, they were on
their bellies in the
twinkling of an eye,
their wings stretched out by the side of the head, so that
the large quill feathers touched the head, leaning on
the back with the bill pointing upwards. In this curious
posture they might be taken for an old rag!”

The Hoopoe lays from four to seven grey: eggs in the
hollow of a tree. Its length is one foot.

Urtra.—(Gr. ofoy, contracted from 6 “Emo,
the Hoopoe, Hoopoe kind.)





4

KY a
Epops (Gr. “Erow), the Hoopoe.

The Hummine-Birp.—These little living gems are exclu-
sively found in the New World, especially about the tropical
parts, becoming gradually scarcer as we recede from the
158 THE RUBY-THROATED HUMMING-BIRD

tropics in either direction. Only two species are known
to exist in the northern parts, but in the central portions
and in the islands about Florida they absolutely swarm.
They glance about in the sunshine, looking like streaks of
brilliant light ; and so rapid is the vibration of their fine
and elastic wings, that when hovering over a flower, a
humming or buzzing sound is produced, from which pecu-
liarity the name of Humming-bird has been given them
in almost every language. ‘Waterton’s description of the
appearance of the Humming-bird in the sun is very
characteristic.

“Though least in size, the glittering mantle of the Hum-

é ming-bird entitles
Trocuitus.—(Gr. Tpox{Aos.) it to the first place
, in the list of the
birds of the New
World. It may
truly be called the
Bird of Paradise ;
and had it existed
in the Old World, it
would have claimed
the title instead of
the bird which has
now the honour to
bear it. See it dart-
ing through the air
almost as quick as
thought! now it is
within a yard of
your face—in an instant gone—now it flutters from flower
to flower to sip the silver dew—it is now a ruby—now
a topaz—now an emerald—now all burnished gold.”

The tongue of the Humming-bird is formed much like
that of the woodpecker, being curled round the head,
under the skin, and thus capable of being darted to a
considerable distance.

Like many other little creatures, the Humming-bird is
remarkable for its assurance and impudence. It is easily



Coltibris (Lat. like a snake), the Ruby-throated
Humining-bird.
THE HUMMING-BIRD 159

tamed for that very reason, and has been known to domes-
ticate itself in an hour from the time of its capture, and
even when released, it has returned again to partake of
the dainties which it had tasted during its captivity.



‘Gouldii (Lat. of Gould), Gould’s Humming-bird,
Sappho (Gr. proper name), the Bar-tailed Humming-bird.
Cora (proper name), the Cora Humming-bird. j

Chrysolépha (Gr. Xpuvods, gold; Adpos, a crest), the Doudle-crested
Humming-bird.

There are an immense number of species of these
exquisite birds, varying from the size of a swift to that
of a humble-bee. *

The nests are very neat and beautiful, and, as may be
imagined from the diminutive size of the little architect,
exceedingly small. They are composed of down, cotton,
&e., and are sometimes covered on the outside with
mosses and lichens.
160 THE CREEPER

The Crrrprrs are remarkable for their long slender
bills and claws, adapted for climbing trees and capturing
insects. The common Creeper may often be seen in this
country, running spirally up the trunks of trees; and

Cerntnta.—(Gr. Kép0cos, a Creeper.)



Familiaris (Lat. familiar), the Creeper.

probing the bark with its bill; and so firmly do the claws
hold, that, when shot, it does not always fall, but remains
clinging to the tree. The nest of this elegant little
bird is made in a decayed tree. The eggs are from seven
to nine in number, grey, with dusky spots.

The Wren shares with the Robin some immunity from
juvenile sportsmen. Although it may be fearlessly hop-
ping about in the hedge, jerking its funny little tail, and
playing its antics just.at the muzzle of the gun, few boys
will fire at it—a privilege for which it is difficult to give
a reason, except, perhaps, the very incomprehensible as-
sertion that “The robin and the wren are God Almighty’s
cock and hen;” although why these two birds, both pro-
verbially quarrelsome and pugnacious, should be selected,
to the exclusion of others, is difficult to say. Perhaps the
Robin enjoys his immunity from the “ Babes in the Wood,”
and the Wren makes a convenient rhyme. Be this as it
THE NIGHTINGALE 161

may, it is to be wished that a similar rhyme existed,
including the owl and the kestrel.

The nest of the Wren is built in any convenient cranny ;
an ivy-covered tree, the thatch of a barn, or a warm
scarecrow, are all used by this fearless little bird. The
nest is usually of an oven-like shape, always covered on
the outside with some material resembling the colour of

TROGLOPYTES. — (Gr. TpwyAodurns, a creeper into caves.)

=



Parvitlus (Lat. very small), the Wren.

the objects round it, such as green moss if built among
ivy, or brown lichen if built on a rock or in the fork of a
withered branch. The eggs are six or eight in number—
white, speckled with reddish brown.

The NigHTINGALE.—
«Tinu tiun tiuu tinu—Spe tiuu zqua—
Tid tid tid tio tio tio tio tix—Qutio qutio qutio qutio—
Zquo zquo zquo zquo—Tzii tzii tzu tzti tat tii tzii tzti tati tzi—
Quorror tiu zqua pipiquisi—Zozoz0z02020z02020202020 zirrhading! &c. &e.”
So does a well-known naturalist endeavour to express the
wild and spiritual melody of this most exquisite of British
song-birds, the Nieutincats. And in truth it is perhaps
as good a description as can be given without the aid of
music. Even its own marvellous notes sound compara-
tively weak unless backed by the accompaniments of night
and tranquillity; for the inimitable song of this Men-
162 THE NIGHTINGALE

delssohn among birds loses great part of its beauty when
uttered by day, deadened and confused with other sounds.
There are some people who cannot appreciate the song of
this bird. There is a story that a man who was engaged
as gardener in a gentleman’s family, was permitted to live
within the grounds. In a short time he asked to be
allowed to change his house, and on being asked his
reason for giving up so good a situation, answered that he
could get no sleep at night, because those nasty Nightin-
gales kept up such a continual guggling.

Luscinta.—(Lat. a Nightingale.)



Philoméla (Gr. :Aouwqaa, proper name), the Nightingale.

In some counties of England it is never found, but in
many its nightly strains are frequently heard. The fields
and college gardens of Oxford are full of Nightingales,
whose songs add greatly to the effect of the scene. Well
may Isaak Walton say in his delightfully quaint language:

“But the Nightingale, another of my airy creatures,
breathes such sweet, loud music out of her instrumental
throat, that it might make mankind to think that miracles
are not ceased. He that at midnight, when the very
labourer sleeps securely, should hear, as I have very often,
the clear airs, the sweet descents, the natural rising and
falling, the doubling and redoubling of her voice, might
well be lifted above earth, and say, ‘ Lord, what music hast
THE BLACKCAP 163

thou provided for the swints in Heaven, when thow affordest
bad men such music on earth 1?”

Tt must be borne in mind, that not only in this bird,
but in other singing birds, the male is the vocalist, so that
Milton’s address to the “sweet songstress” is unfortunately
not quite so correct as poetical; a misfortune of frequent
occurrence,

The WaRBLERS are spread over almost the entire globe,
and many gladden this country with their pleasant songs.

The Buacxeap, almost a rival to the nightingale, is at
once recognized by the black colour of the crown of the
head. Only the males, however, are thus decorated, the
crown of the head
of the female being
dark brown. Its
sweet notes are
poured forth from
the concealment of
some thicket or tuft
of trees, where it
trusts to the dens-
ity of the foliage
to elude discovery.
Like the mocking-
bird of America, it
can imitate the
songs of other birds
with such perfect
inflection that it is
almost impossible to detect the imposture.

Among bushes and brambles it builds its nest, which is
made of dried grass, moss, and hairs. The eggs are five
in number—reddish brown, marked with dark spots.
The length of the bird is nearly six inches; the third
primary feather is the longest,

SYLVIA.



Atricapilla (Lat. black-hatred), the Blackcap
Warbler.



The GoLprEn-cresteD Reeutus, as it ought properly to
be called, is one of the smallest of British birds. Fir
164 THE GOLDEN-CRESTED WARBLER

plantations are its favourite resort, and there it may be
seen hopping about the branches, or running round them,
head downwards, in search of the insects hidden beneath
the bark. Its name is derived from the orange-coloured
tuft of feathers on the crown of its head, for which reason
it is often called the
Reetius.—(Lat.) Kinglet. Its note is
weak, but very pleas-
ing, and much re-
sembles that of the
common wren. The
female is very bold
while sitting, and
will permit close
observation without
quitting the nest.
The nest itself is
an object of great
beauty. It is usu-
ally placed on the
Cristitus (Lat. crested), the Golden-crested under side of a
Wren. fir branch, sheltered
by the overhanging
foliage, and sometimes further protected by a large bunch
of cones forming a kind of roof over it. The eggs are
from six to ten in number, very small, and of a reddish
white colour. The length of the bird is three inches
and a half. The fourth or fifth primary feather is the
’ longest.



@ as gps

The Reppreast, or Roprn REDBREAST, as it is affection-
ately termed, has, by its fearless conduct, earned itself
golden opinions from all kinds of men. Every nation
seems to protect it. Even the American Redbreast lives
unharmed, possibly on account of its connexion with its
English relation, whose oft-told charity towards the Babes
in the Wood has turned aside from its posterity even the
unsparing hand of the sporting schoolboy.

In the winter, when the berries are gone, insects dead,
THE REDBREAST, OR ROBIN REDBREAST 165

and the worms hidden under the hard frozen soil, then
the Robin flies for refuge to the habitations of man for
shelter and food. It is very amusing to see the half trust-
ing, half fearful look with which it hops to the window-
sill for the first time. After a while, it becomes bold, and
taps at the win-

dow, if the expect- EryrnAcus.*—(Gr. 'Epi@axos, a Redbreast.)
ed crumbs are not
thrown ‘out. Be-
fore very long, it
ventures to enter
the room, hops
about on the table,
and quite seems to
consider as a right
what was first
merely a favour.
When once esta-
blished, it is very
jealous, and will
not suffer a friend Rubecitla (Lat. a Redbreast), the Redbreast,
to be partaker of

the same comforts, but attacks him with the greatest
fury; so the unfortunate second comer has to wait shiver-
ing outside the window, with his feathers puffed up, and
his little bright’ eye glancing from the depths of his
plumage.

About the year 1843, a Robin used to frequent our
house. He was so tame as to answer to his name “ Bob,”
and continued his attachment even through the summer.
When the rabbits were fed, Bob always came to assist, and
usually contrived to perch on the edge of the pan from
which the rabbit was eating. Both parties seemed per-
fectly satisfied, and Bunny and Bob always continued very
good friends,

The nest of this bird is built in a crevice of an old ivied
wall, in a bank, sheltered by the roots of trees, or in a



* This word ought properly to be spelled Eriraacus, but I haye taken the
etymology of the British Museum Catalogue,
166 THE BLUE TITMOUSE

mass of ivy clinging to an old tree. The eggs are five in
number, of a pale grey colour, profusely marked with
reddish spots.

‘The Trrs.—The birds of the family of the Tits are re-
markable for their active habits among the branches of
trees. There are few who have not seen these beautiful
and interesting little birds twisting round the branches,
perfectly unconcerned at the presence of the spectator,
sometimes hanging head downwards, sometimes chasing
an unlucky beetle along the bark, and invariably catching
it, in spite of its swift limbs and active wings; sometimes

Panus.—(Lat. a Titmouse.)



Ceeruléus (Lat. blwe), the Blue Titmouse,

twisting off a bud, and pulling it to pieces with marvellous
rapidity, in order to secure the lurking caterpillar within ;
sometimes pecking away at a piece of loose bark, and ex-
tracting an unwilling spider by one of its legs left incau-
tiously projecting from its lurking-place. Pity it is that
their funny little sharp beaks should ever be put to worse
uses ; but they lie under a grave imputation of using these
very beaks in the slaughter of the defenceless young of
other birds.

The little Buuz Trrmovse is so well known as hardly to
require any description. It is most amusingly courageous,
and from the strenuous resistance it offers to its capturer,
THE PIED WAGTAIL 167

has acquired from rustic boys the name of “ Billy-biter.”
The angry hiss of the female has frequently caused an in-
truding hand to be rapidly withdrawn, for the sound is so
exceedingly like the hiss of an irritated snake, and the
little beak is so sharp, that few have the courage to proceed
with their investigations. A pair of these birds built
their nest in the coping of the Great Western Railway, at
the Shrivenham station, not two feet from the fiery and
noisy engines, which were constantly passing. The men
respected the courage of the little birds, and this whole
brood was hatched, and suffered to fly at liberty.

The utter contempt which this bird entertains for fire-
arms often leads to its destruction, for when the disap-
pointed schoolboy has been wasting his powder and shot
in attempting to hit larks and such large game, he consoles
himself by shooting the unfortunate Titmouse, who will
allow him to come so close that few vestiges of it remain
except a tuft of blue feathers.

The eggs of the Blue Titmouse are from six to eight in
number, white, marked with reddish brown spots. Its
length is about four inches and a half.

The Prep Wacrait.—The Wagtails, so named from the
almost incessant vibration of their tails, are exclusively
confined to the Old World. The Pied Wagtail is the
most common of its race. We often see it pass rapidly,
with its peculiar dipping flight; it settles on the ground
and wags its tail; it runs a few paces, and wags its tail
again; pecks at an insect, and its tail again vibrates. It
does not hop, like the warblers, finches, &c., but runs with
great rapidity, and altogether looks very like a diminutive -
magpie. Sand-banks by the sides of rivers are the usual
resort of these birds, where they may almost always be
seen, running about by the water’s edge, sometimes snatch-
ing at an incautious may-fly, sometimes wading into the
water after a caddis-worm or a stray grub, or pecking at
an unfortunate little minnow, which has come too near the
surface—and then it flies off to another spot to repeat the
same maneuvres. This bird also greatly frequents pastures,
168 THE WATER OUZEL, OR DIPPER

and may be seen running about among the cows in the
most nonchalant manner imaginable, catching the flies
that torment those animals in the summer, or flying off to
its unfinished nest with a beak full of hairs. Their nests
are built near the water, in crevices among stones, or in
the hole of a wall. Frequently when stones are piled by
a wet quarry, several nests may be found in one heap of
stones. The eggs are four or five in number, of a dusky
white colour, spotted with ashy brown. The length. of
the bird is seven inches and a half.

Moracitta.—(Lat. a Wagtail.)



Yarrellii (Lat. of Yarrell), the Pied Wagtail.

The Water Ouzen, or Dipper, is one of the most in-
teresting of our native birds. It is found principally in
hilly places where there are clear and rapid streams, such
as in Derbyshire and Yorkshire. There it may be seen to
go through its far-famed movements under the water,
which have given rise to so much controversy. It dives
for considerable distances with apparent ease, and has a
habit of dipping and rising repeatedly, from which practice
its name has been derived.

The nest is usually built by the water side, and is most
carefully concealed. In general appearance it is nob un-
like that of the Wren, being made of intertwined mosses,
with an entrance at the side. It lays five largish eggs,
THE SONG-THRUSH, THROSTLE, OR MAYVIS 169

of a pure white. The length of this bird is about seven
inches. j

The Sone-Turvsn, Tarostiz, or Mavis, is deservedly
considered one of our best singing birds. Its powerful
and rich notes may be heard even during the month of
January, when most of the other singing birds are either
silent or have departed. Its nest is built almost before
any other bird has commenced, and may often be seen
conspicuously placed in a bush, some time before the leaves



Cinclus (Gr. KeytaAos), the Dipper.

have begun to sprout. In order to defend the callow young
from the cold winds of the season when they are hatched,
the nest is more substantial than birds are accustomed to
build, being thickly plastered within with a coating of
mud, effectually keeping out the chilly blasts. Were it
only for its singing powers, the Thrush would deserve
protection ; but the services it renders to the gardener in
devouring insects, snails, and other destructive creatures,
‘entitle it to a double share of regard.

It is very amusing to watch a Thrush listening for the
sound of the earth-worm working his way through the
ground, or the gnawing teeth of the cockchafer grub.
The grub he unearths and devours without further cere-
mony, but he knows that if he is not cautious, the earth-
170 THE BLACKBIRD

worm will withdraw itself out of his reach. He therefore
gives several hops near the worm, which, fancying that it
hears its enemy the mole pursuing it, comes to the surface,
and is instantly seized in triumph by the crafty thrush.

TURDUS.



Musicus (Lat. musical), the Song-Thrush.

It clears the shells from snails by beating them against
a stone, and when it has found a convenient place for that
purpose, it invariably returns to the same spot with its
prey, so that heaps of broken snail-shells may often be.
found where the thrushes have been at work.

The eggs of the Thrush are five in number, of a bluish-
green colour, spotted with a deep reddish brown. Some-
times the spots are altogether absent.

The Buackpirp is another delightful songster, whose
jetty hue and “orange-tawny”’ bill are too well known to
need description. It isa very shy bird, and if disturbed
in a hedge, has a habit of darting through it, and then
escaping on the other side, uttering a sharp cry of alarm.
The habits of this bird are not unlike those of the thrush,
THE MOCKING BIRD, OR POLYGLOT THRUSH 171

especially in its zeal for unearthing the cockchafer grubs,
and possibly for eating cherries when they are ripe.
Its nest is built
usually at the foot TURDUS.
of a hedge, fre-
quently in the very
centre of a holly
bush, safe from most
enemies, except wea-
sels and schoolboys.
The eggs are five
in number, of a
bluish-green colour,
profusely spotted
with brown.

The Mockine
Birp, or PoLyeLor
THRUSH, is a native
of most parts of
America. This won-
derful bird stands
pre-eminent in pow-
ers of song. Not Meriila (Lat. a Blackbird), the Blackbird.
only are its natural
notes bold and spirited, but it has the faculty of imitating
with deceptive fidelity every sound it hears. To its flexible
organs, the harsh setting of a saw, the song of a nightin-
gale, the creaking of a wheel, the whistled tune of a
passer-by, the full and mellow notes of the thrush, the
barking of a dog, the crowing of a cock, and the savage -
scream of the bald eagle, are each equally easy of execu-
tion, and follow one another with such marvellous rapidity
that few can believe that the insignificant brown bird
before them is the sole author of these varied sounds. ,
The Virginian nightingale and the canary hear their exqui-
site modulations performed with such superior execution,
that the vanquished songsters are silent from mere mortifi-
cation, while the triumphant Mocking-bird only redoubles

M


172 THE MOCKING BIRD, OR POLYGLOT THRUSH

his efforts. Wilson, whose animated description of this
bird has never been surpassed, says :—“ His expanded
wings and tail glistening with white, and the buoyant
gaicty of his action arresting the eye, as his song does
most irresistibly the ear, he sweeps round with enthusi-
astic ecstasy, and mounts and descends as his song swells
or dies away. He often deceives the sportsman, and sends
him in search of birds that are not perhaps within miles
of him, but whose notes he exactly imitates: even birds
themselves are frequently imposed upon by this admirable
mimic, and are decoyed by the fancied calls of their
mates, or dive with precipitation into the depth of
thickets at the scream of what they suppose to be the
sparrow-hawk.” °

OrPHEUS.—(Gr. proper name of a famous musician. )

ERAN es

y ful



Polyglottus (Gr. Tate many; yA@rra, a tongue), the Mocking Bird.

While sitting on its eggs it is an exceedingly courageous
bird, attacking without discrimination man, dogs, or any
animal who may approach too near the nest. But the
black snake is the special object of its vengeance. The
snake, who has perhaps just arrived at the vicinity of the
nest, and is contemplating a pleasant breakfast on the
THE SPOTTED FLYCATCHER 173

young or eggs, is violently attacked by the enraged Mock-
ing-bird, who, by repeated blows on the head, generally
destroys its enemy, and then, mounting on a bush, pours
forth a triumphant song of victory.

The nest is made generally in a bush or apple-tree, fre-
quently close to houses, as the bird is protected by the
inhabitants. The Mocking-bird is often kept tame, in
which case, so far from its imitative powers showing any
decrease, the variety of domestic sounds heard about the
house is often very perplexing.

The Sporrep FrycatcHer may be considered as the
type of the entire family. It may be constantly seen in
gardens and orchards, going through the evolutions that
have given it the
names of Flycatch- Musrcdpa.—(Lat. Musca, a Fly ; capio,
er, Post-bird, Beam- - I take. )
bird, &c. It takes
its station on some
elevated spot, such
as the overhanging
bough of a tree, a
post, or a rail; and
from thence watches
for a passing insect,
on seeing which, it
darts from its post,
secures the insect in
the air, and returns
to the same spot
by a short circular Grisbla, the Spotted Flycatcher.
flight. It is not a
timid bird, and will permit an observer to stand quite
close to it, provided that he does not disturb it.

Tt is only a summer visitor to England, arriving in May,
and departing about the beginning of October. The note
of this bird is a weak chirp, and even that is not often
heard.

The nest is built usually in holes of trees or walls, or


174 THE SHRIKES, OR BUTCHER BIRDS

sometimes between a branch of a wall-fruit tree and the
wall itself. The eggs are five in number, spotted with
reddish brown on a grey ground. The length of the bird
is about five inches.

The SuHrixes, or Butcurer Brrps, well deserve their
name, as they live upon insects and small birds, which
they kill, and afterwards transfix with a thorn, preparatory
to devouring them. They take their prey much after the
same manner as the flycatchers, by darting on it from some
place of concealment.

Lantus. —(Lat. a Butcher.)



Excubitor (Lat. @ Sentinel), the Great Grey Shrike.

The Great Grey SarikE is supposed to be only an
occasional visitor to this country. It feeds upon mice,
birds, frogs, and other small animals. After pouncing upon
its prey, the Shrike, by a few blows on the head from its
powerful bill, destroys it. The unfortunate animal is then
carried to the nearest hedge, impaled on a thorn, and the
Shrike devours it at his leisure. Large insects are treated
in the same manner. The object of this impalement is
THE JAY 3 175

apparently that-the creatures thus suspended should be-
come tender or ‘“‘high’’; so that the modern epicure, who
hangs up his venison until no one with an unsophisticated
taste would venture to touch it, has but borrowed his
custom from the Shrike. The bird, after hanging a lizard
or a mouse in this fashion, generally goes off and fetches
another, always preferring to eat those which have re-
mained longest on the thorn, and which are, as it were,
cooked in the sun.

There is a strong bodily resemblance between this Shrike
and the Mocking-bird, the distinction lying generally in
the outline ; while the plumage is so similar, that many
persons have actually confused the two birds, giving to
the one the habits of the other. Moreover, the resem-
blance is not merely in outward form; the Grey Shrike
can also imitate the notes of other birds, and often
does so.

The name Excubitor, or Sentinel, is given it from its
habit of watching for birds of prey, and chattering loudly
directly it perceives them; thereby proving that, like
most other tyrants, it has a great objection to suffering any
injury itself.

The nest is built on trees, and contains about six eggs,
greyish white, spotted with dark ash on the larger end ;
the length of. the bird is from nine to ten inches.



The Jay.—The Corvin are peculiarly remarkable for a
kind of preternatural air of sagacity with which they set
about any self-imposed task, especially if that task be a
mischievous one. The ravens and magpies are most con-
spicuous in these qualities.

The Jay, so well known for the beautiful blue markings
on its wings, is rather a shy bird, preferring to reside in the
.thickest woods, and seldom coming into the open country.
It is easily tamed when young g, and i is very amusing when
domesticated.

This bird possesses, like several others of the same
family, considerable talents for mimicry. It has been
176 : THE MAGPIE

known to imitate the sound of a saw, the bleat of a lamb,
or even the neighing of a horse, with the most perfect
accuracy. Nor do its powers cease here, for although its
natural voice is harsh and grating, yet it can imitate the
sweet notes of singing birds, such as the Greenfinch, with
wonderful fidelity. It has also frequently been taught to
articulate words.

The name of Glandarius has been given to the Jay, be-
cause it feeds on vegetable productions, such as acorns, &c.,
more than the true Crows. It is also partial to fruits,

GarruLus.—(Lat. talkative.)
Za







Glandarius (Lat. of the Acorn), the Jay.

especially, ripe cherries, and is consequently persecuted by
the gardener. It is also said to devour eggs and young
birds.

Its nest is built about twenty feet from the ground, the
upper part of a thick bush being preferred. The eggs are
five or six in number, of a yellowish white, thickly speckled
with brown. The length of the bird is nearly fourteen
inches.

The Magpiz, who seems to rival the Parrot in the proud
title of the Monkey of the Birds (the Raven being the
THE MAGPIE 177

ornithological Baboon), is a well-known inhabitant of this
country. Its thieving and hiding propensities have been
frequently told; but I must still venture to give a few
anecdotes of a tame Magpie that resided in Wiltshire.
This bird found a malicious enjoyment in pecking the un-
protected ankles of little boys not yet arrived at manly
habiliments, and was such a terror to the female servants
that they were forced to pass his lurking-place armed with
a broom. One of the servants having neglected this pre-
caution, was actually found sitting down on the stones to

Pica.—(Lat. @ Magpie.)



j ih eS

¢

Caudata (dong-tailed), the Magpie.

protect her ankles, the Magpie triumphantly pacing round
her, until aid was brought, and the bird driven away. But
to little boys and girls the Magpie showed no mercy,
springing out of its hiding-place and chasing them com-
pletely along the garden walk.
' It had also a great penchant for tearing and biting to
pieces any papers that came in its way, probably because
it had perceived that people valued them. One Sunday
morning, after the family had returned from church, the
178 THE RAVEN

rector found his study strewed with pamphlets, torn news-
papers, &c., so that until the delinquent was discovered,
he really thought that thieves had been in the house. A
Magpie never seems to be happy unless it possesses a
hiding-place, nor did this one form an exception to the
general rule, as it had pecked a hole in the thatch of a
barn, wherein to dispose of its ill-gotten goods, and dis-
played great. uneasiness if anybody approached it.

Another Magpie gained entrance into the chapel of
Wadham College, Oxford, and remained quiet enough
until the service had begun, when it gravely walked up
the centre, bowing and saying, “Pretty Mag! Pretty Mag!” .
much to the discomposure of the junior members. A
curious story is told respecting the power of the Magpie to
count numbers.

“George Le Roy states that a Magpie having stolen some
game, it was resolved to shoot it. A man hid himself ina
hut near its nest for this purpose. The bird flew away
when he entered, nor would return. The next day two
men entered and one came out. Mag was not to be
cheated ; she waited till the second left also. Three went
in and two came out, with the same result. Four then
entered, and three came away. The bird went back, and
was shot.—So magpies, says George Le Roy, can count
three but not four.”

The nest of the Magpie is built on a high tree, and
curiously defended with thorns, having a small hole just
large enough to admit the owners, so that the liberal use
of a pocket knife is frequently requisite in order to obtain
the eggs. The nest is covered with a dome of thorns,
and its interior is defended by a coating of mud, worked
smooth. The eggs are five in number, of a greenish white,
covered with brown markings. The length of the bird is
about eighteen inches.

The Raven is very common on the Continent, and most
parts of Asia and America, but is now seldom seen in this
country except in a domesticated state. It is more fre-
quently found in the Hebrides than in any other part of
THE RAVEN 179

Great Britain. In those islands it lives principally on
carrion of various kinds, such as a dead sheep or lambs,
whose death the Raven is accused with some justice of
hastening, and on fishes or cetaceous animals which have
been cast on shore by the waves. In these cases the Raven
conducts itself much in the manner of the vulture. It
commences by taking out the eye and tongue, and then
proceeds to tear open the abdomen, operations for which
its sharp and powerful bill-seems quite as well fitted as the

Corvus.—(Lat. a Crow.)



hooked beak of the rapacious birds. It is a very crafty
bird, and can with difficulty be approached ; but by laying
a dead carcase near its haunts, and being ,carefully con-
cealed, it may be seen cautiously approaching: first,
perching on an eminence, it looks carefully round; then
180 THE RAVEN

advancing with a sidelong step, it examines its expected
prey. When fully satisfied, it pecks out the eyes, and
proceeds to satiate itself with food. The Raven seems to
revel in storms, and to be deterred by no inclemency of
weather from seeking its prey.

Although formerly so plentiful in England that innu-
merable omens were drawn from its appearance, its croak-
ing, or its flight, it has almost become extinct, much to the
discomfiture of omen seekers. No incantation and no
dance of witches seemed to be considered complete without
a black cat, a toad or two, a bat, andraven. Certainly the
extraordinary gravity which marks the demeanour of the
Raven has something almost preternatural in it. The
manner in which he sets about a piece of mischief, as if he
considered it a moral duty, is most absurd, and the perti-
nacity with which he prosecutes a great work, such as the
feat of Charles Dickens’ Raven, who “new pointed the
greater part of the garden wall, by digging out the mortar,
and tore up and swallowed in splinters the greater part of
a wooden staircase of six steps and a landing,” is perfectly
astounding.

A Raven in our possession used to watch the gardener
taking particular pains to prop up and secure a valuable
plant. His labour was always in vain, for the Raven, with
a sidelong step and an unconcerned air, as if he were think-
ing of anything but the plant, would sidle by it, when one
wrench of his iron bill laid the unfortunate plant on the
earth, and the Raven moved off with a most provoking air
of innocence. The lady to whom the garden belonged was
quite afraid of the bird, and declared that she almost be-
lieved that it was possessed by some evil spirit. It used
to walk behind her, so that she could never see it; for
when she turned round, the Raven hopped round too, and
kept himself completely out of her sight. At last it be-
came so very mischievous that it was sent away, much to
my regret.

Not long ago, I was visiting a small collection of living
birds, among which was a Raven, whose wings were clipped,
and who was permitted to have the free range of the yard.
THE ROOK 181

He gained considerable benefit from his freedom, for he
could steal the provisions of the other birds, unless they
were very quick. When I went to his residence, I took
the back of a letter, and was reading the address, when I
saw the Raven watching my proceedings with great curi-
osity. The paper was of no consequence, so I let it fall,
and walked on as if it had been an accident. The Raven
waited until I had left the paper some few paces behind,
when he took a sidelong kind of a walk towards it, tore it
into scraps, and ran away with the largest piece under a
water-butt, where he kept watch over it.

It has a great capacity for imitating sounds, and can be
taught to pronounce whole sentences, or sing songs with
wonderful accuracy.

In the northern parts of Scotland it makes its nest on
high rocks, but not unfrequently builds on the summit of
a tall tree. The nest is a large irregular structure of heath,
grass, wool, and feathers, and sea-weed, if it builds near
the sea-shore. It lays from four to seven eggs, of a pale
green colour, spotted with greenish brown. The length of
the bird is two feet two inches, and the expanse of wing
four feet eight inches.

The Roox inhabits almost every part of Europe, and is
very common in England where it lives in a kind of semi-
domestication, usually inhabiting a grove of trees near a
house, or in a park, where it is protected by the owner,
although he makes it pay for this accommodation by shoot-
ing the young ones every year. Apparently in consequence
of this annual persecution, the Rook has an intense horror
of guns, perceiving them ata great distance. While feed-
ing in flocks in the fields, or following the ploughman in
his course, and devouring the worms and grubs turned up
by the share, the Rook has always a sentinel planted in a
neighbouring tree, who instantly gives the alarm at the
sight of a gun, or other suspicious-looking object.

The good which the Rook does by devouring the grubs
of the cockchafer, and the tipulus, or daddy-long-legs, both
of which are exceedingly injurious to the crops, more than
182 THE ROOK

compensates for the damage it sometimes causes by pulling
up young corn, or newly set potato cuttings; in the latter
case more, I believe, to get at the wireworms, which crowd
to slices of potato, than to eat the vegetable itself. In the
fruit season, the Rook, like most other birds, likes to have
his share of the cherries, pears, and walnuts, but may be
easily kept away by the occasional sight of a gun.

CORVUS,

Gee

Frugilégus (Lat. Corn-gatherer), the Rook,



Towards evening, the Rooks may be seen flying in long
lines to their resting-place—“ The blackening train of crows
to their repose.’ They then perform sundry evolutions in
the air, and finally settle to rest.

Round the base of the Rook’s beak is a whitish-looking
skin, denuded of feathers, the reason or cause of which is
not very obvious. A white variety of the Rook is some-
times seen. The gamekeeper at Ashdown had a very fine
white Rook, which he kept tame in his garden.

-The eggs of the bird are five in number, similar to those
of the Raven in colour, but much smaller. The length of
the bird is nineteen inches, :
THE JACKDAW 183

The Jackpaw is another well-known bird. It does not
build in the branches of trees like the rook, to which it is
very similar in many respects, but prefers holes in decayed
trees or old buildings, particularly frequenting church
towers and steeples. The Jackdaw feeds upon almost any
substance that it can find. It kills mice with a single
blow of its beak, and then devours them piecemeal.

CORVUS.



ee
Monediila (Lat. a Jackdaw), the Jackdaw.

Grasshoppers, beetles, &c., are also killed by a squeeze
across the thorax, and the head, wings, and legs are
twisted off before the bird begins to eat them. It treats
bees, wasps, and other stinged insects with much more
caution, The feathers upon the crown of its head are of
a greyish white colour, a peculiarity instantly distinguish-
ing it from the rook. It is frequently kept tame, and is
very amusing in captivity.

The eggs are of a lighter colour than those of the rook,
smaller and more sparingly spotted. The length of the
bird is fourteen inches.

The Crow, or Carrion Crow, as it is erroneously called,
184 THE CROW

seldom feeds on carrion; for poor indeed would be his
meals were he dependent on dead sheep or horses for a
livelihood. Possibly the name was given as a distinction
between it and the rook. Waterton states that the flesh
of the Carrion Crow is just as good as that of the rook,
and relates how he once served up a pie of these birds to
some friends, who thought them pigeons. It will also eat
cherries and walnuts like the rook, and when the supply
of insects has failed, it will then turn its attention to the
duck-pond and farm-yard, and carry off a young duckling
or chicken.

CORVUS.

SNe.



Cordne (Gr. Kopdyn), the Crow.

It also carries off eggs, by pouncing upon them, and
driving its bill through the shell, and even mice and rats
are not unaccustomed food.

The nests of this bird are placed on the summit of some
tall tree, and contain about five eggs, closely resembling
those of the rook. The length of the bird is eighteen
inches.

The CHoven is rather larger than the Jackdaw, and is
principally distinguished by the red hue of its bill and
legs. It inhabits the counties of the western coast of
England, and is, perhaps, more common in Cornwall than
in any other county. When tame, it shows a very inqui-
THE EMERALD BIRD OF PARADISE 185

sitive disposition, examining every novelty with the greatest
attention.

Cornacta.—(Gr. Kopdxias, like a Raven.)











Gractila (Lat. a Chough), the Chough.

It builds its nest in the cavities of high cliffs, and lays
four or five eggs of a yellowish white colour, spotted with
light brown. The length of the bird is seventeen inches,

The Emeratp Brrp or Parapise.—This most gorgeous
and elegant bird was once the subject of much discussion
between naturalists. The natives of New Guinea were
accustomed to dry them, having first cut off their legs, and
then to offer them for sale. In this footless state they
reached Europe, where it was universally stated that the
bird lived always in the air, buoyed up by the lightness
of its feathery covering; that the shoulders were used as
its nest; that the only rest it took was by suspending
itself from a branch by the filamentary feathers of the
tail; that its food was the morning dew; together with
many other conjectures not less ingenious than amusing.

This bird is about the size of a jay. Its body, breast,
and lower parts are of a deep rich brown: the front set
186 THE EMERALD BIRD OF PARADISE

close with black feathers shot with green; the throat is of
a rich golden green; the head yellow; the sides of the
tail are clothed with a splendid plume of long downy
feathers, of a soft yellow colour. By these are placed
two long filamentous shafts, which extend nearly two feet
in length.

PARADISEA.—(Iapaderros, a pleasure-ground. )



Apoda (Gr. ’Amots, without feet), the Lmerald Bird of Paradise.

“Which, like a bird of Paradise,
Or herald’s martlet, has no legs,”



Of these beautiful feathers the bird is so proud, that it
will not suffer the least speck of dirt to remain upon them,
and it is constantly examining its plumage to see that
there are no spots on it. When in its wild state, it always
flies and sits with its face to the wind, lest its elegant
filmy plumes should be disarranged.
THE STARLINGS 187

So far from living exclusively on dew, it eats no small
amount of insects, such as grasshoppers, which it will not
touch if dead, and commences its repast by stripping off
the legs and wings. When in confinement, it also eats
boiled rice, plantains, and other vegetables; but in the
wild state it seems to feed mostly on the seeds of the
teak-tree, and a kind of fig.

There are several species of Paradise Birds known, but
the one given in the engraving is the most common, and
is the one of which the above-mentioned fables were told.

The STaRLINGs comprise many genera, among which the
PEnsILE ORIOLES of America are the most interesting.

Icritrus.—(Gr. “Inrepos.)



Baltimorus (Lat. bedonging to Baltimore), the Baltimore Oriole.

These birds build, or rather weave, a fabric not unlike
loose cloth, composed of hemp or flax.
N
188 THE COMMON STARLING

This nest is of the singular form represented in the above
engraving, and the entrance is at the side. In all proba-
bility this singular formation is for the purpose of keeping
out the Black Snake, who is constantly on the look-out
for young birds. The parent Orioles often attack the
snake, and compel him to retreat.

The plumage of the male when full grown is very
brilliant. The head, throat, and back are black, the under
parts are orange, the breast vermilion. A band of orange
passes over the shoulders, and the tail is orange and black.
The length of the bird is almost eight inches. This is not
the only bird that constructs pensile nests; the Weaver
Birds also form these nests, but of a different form. They
look like great pistols hung up by the butt, the entrance
being at the muzzle, and the nest in the butt.

The Common Staring is a bird well known both for
its beauty and its singular method of flight. When a
flock of Starlings begin to settle for the night, they wheel
round the place selected with great accuracy. Suddenly,
as if by word of command, the whole flock turn their

Srurnus.—(Lat. @ Starling.)



sides to the spectator, and with a great whirring of wings
the whole front and shape of the flock is altered. No
body of soldiers could be better wheeled or countermarched
THE GROSBEAK, OR HAWFINCH 189

than are these flocks of Starlings, except, perhaps, an un-
fortunate few, who are usually thrown out at each change,
and whom we must charitably suppose to be recruits,

The Starling lives principally among old buildings, and
is very fond of gaining admittance into dovecotes, where
it is a harmless visitor, and may be suffered to remain
without detriment to the pigeons or their eggs, Its nest
is made usually in a hole in a wall, sometimes in a decayed
tree, and contains five eggs of a very delicate uniformly
pale blue.

There is never any difficulty in discovering the nest of
the Starling, for if it builds in a hole of a wall it generally
leaves several straws sticking out, as if to indicate the
locality ; and when it goes to take food to its young, both
parent and children set up such an outcry, that it may be
heard a long way off. Consequently, there are few eggs
so prevalent in the string of the country boy as those of
the Starling.

The GRosBEAK, or CoccoTHRAUSTES.—(Gr. Kénkos,
Hawrincw. —— We a berry ; O@pavw, I break.)
now arrive at the
Finches ; a very large
and interesting fa-
mily. None of the
species are large, and
most of them are .
excellent songsters.
Their beaks are co-
nical, and fitted for
the destruction of
corn, peas, &e.

The Grosbeak, or
Hawfinch, well de-
serves its generic
name of “ Berry-
breaker,” for its beak Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Haawfinch.
is capable of breaking


190 THE CHAFFINCH, OR PIEFINCH

the hard kernels of the cherry, and, according to Wil-
loughby, even those of the olive. It is not a very rare
bird, although it is but seldom seen. This fact is accounted
for by its great shyness and dread of mankind; so that,
although it remains in this country throughout the year, it
seldom ventures out of the thick woods in which it delights
to dwell.

The nest of this bird is very shallow, and slightly put
together, being hardly superior to that of the wood-pigeon.
The eggs are from four to six in number, of a greenish
white, covered with dark marks and spots, The length of
the Grosbeak is seven inches.

The CHarrincu, or PIeFINcH, as it is often called, is so
well known as to need no description. It is chiefly re-
markable for the beautiful nest which it constructs. The

forks of a thorn or
FrIncItnA.—(Lat. a Finch.) wild crab-tree are
: favourite places for
the nest, which is
composed of mosses,
hair, wool, and fea-
thers, covered on the
exterior with lichens
and mosses, so ex-
actly resembling the
bough on which the
nest is placed, that
the eye is often de-
ceived by its appear-
ance. In the nest
four or five very
pretty eggs are laid ;
these are of a reddish-brown colour, sparely marked with
deep brown spots, especially toward the larger end.

The name Celebs, or Bachelor, is given to this bird,
because the females quit this country about November,
leaving large flocks of males behind them,



Ceelebs (Lat. Bachelor), the Chaffinch.
THE GOLDFINCH, OR THISTLEFINCH 191°

The GoLDFINCH, or THISTLEFINCH, so called on account
of its fondness for the down of the thistle, is one of our
most beautiful birds. Where thistles abound, small flocks
of goldfinches may be seen flying from hedge to hedge, and
occasionally pecking the wliite tops of the thistles. The
tufted seed of the dandelion, groundsel, and other plants
is also eaten by the Goldfinch.

FRINGILLA.



Carduélis (Lat. a Linnet), the Goldfinch.

In captivity it is very tame, and can be trained to
perform a multitude of tricks; the most common of which
are, drawing its own food and water with a chain and
bucket, or firing a gun when commanded. The nest is
- very beautiful, being mostly made of wool and down from
various plants, and is usually placed on the extremity of
a spray. The eggs are small, of a whitish tint, spotted
with orange brown,

The Common Linwner frequents commons and neglected
pastures. Its song is very sweet, and many bird-fanciers
Suppose that the mixed breed of a canary and a linnet has
a sweeter song than either bird.

Its nest is usually built in the centre of a large and
dense bush. The eggs are five in number, greyish-white
speckled with red.
192 THE COMMON LINNET—THE CANARY

FRINGILLA.



Cannabina (Gr. Kavyydfwos, fond of hemp), the Linnet.

The Cawnary.—This pretty little songster is so well
known as to need but little description, particularly as

CARDUELIS.—(Lat. a Linnct.)



Canaria (Lat. the Canary).

there are no opportunities of studying its natural course of
life. From the manner in which the Canary is usually
reared, it is evident that the bird has but very little oppor-
tunity of exhibiting its natural instincts.
THE SPARROW 193

The Sparrow.—The courageous, impudent, quarrelsome
Sparrow is known to all, and, therefore, will not be par-
ticularly described. There are few who have not seen this
little bird, when pressed by cold in the winter, come to the
window, expecting his donation of crumbs. It is very fond
of grain of various kinds,
and does some damage
to the farmer, but the
destruction of caterpillars
by the bird more than
compensates for the loss
of the grain. The little
impertinent bird has no
scruple in perching on
the pig’s trough, and par-
taking of his dinner, or
in mixing with fowl and
taking its share of their
provisions; and on a
newly-thatched house it
absolutely revels. Dozens
of sparrows may then be
seen pecking and pulling
at the straws in high
enjoyment. I was once watching a flock of sparrows on
a newly-thatched barn, hopping, pecking, and scrambling
in perfect happiness, when suddenly a sharp twitter was
heard, and the whole body hastily adjourned to a tree
close by, making a prodigious chattering. Presently I saw
appear, over the ridge of the house, the head of a cat,
who had walked up the thatcher’s ladder, hoping to
secure a few sparrows in the midst of their meal. The
nest of the House Sparrow is usually built in holes of
roofs. The eggs are speckled black and white, and very
variable.

PassEr.—(Lat. a Sparrow.)



Domesticus (Lat. domestic), the
House Sparrow.

The YEttow-Hammer, or YetLow Bunrine, is a very
delicately-marked little bird, very common in our hedges,
where it flits before the traveller, always keeping about
194 THE SKYLARK.

- twenty yards in front. It makes its nest on the ground,
and lays five eggs curiously scribbled over with dark
chocolate lines, just as if a child had been trying to write

Arabic on the eggs.

Emperizs.—(Lat. « Bunting.)



Some say that the name ought to be Yellow-Ammer, the
’ word Ammer being German for Bunting, and the German
word for this bird being Goldammer.

ALAUDA.—(Lat. a Lark.)



Arvensis (Lat. belonging to the fields), the Skylark.

The Larxs are known by their very long hind toe. The
Skylark, which pours forth its animated song while sus-
THE BULLFINCH 195

pended high in the air, is an inhabitant of most parts of
Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it is not found in
America, A very interesting story is told of a Skylark
that was taken out to America by a poor emigrant, and
which used to collect crowds of delighted listeners round
its cage. An English settler, who happened to be passing
by while the bird was singing, was so affected by the
reminiscences which its song called up, that he offered his
horse and cart for the bird, on the spot. The owner, how-
ever, would take no price for it, although most extravagant
offers were made, and kept it till his death. The bird
afterwards passed into other hands, but refused to sing
until its cage was hung up in the open air. After its death,
its skin was sent back to its native land, and is now
stuffed, seated in its old cage, with a suitable inscription:
attached.

The nest is made on the ground, frequently in the print
of a horse’s foot, and, contains five eggs of a greenish-
white, thickly spotted with brown. There are generally
two broods in the year; one in May, and the other in July
‘or August. Immense numbers of these birds are caught
annually and sent to the London markets. The mode of
catching the Larks is generally by means of a number of
horsehair nooses attached to a long line. Food is scat-
tered among the nooses, and the Larks in reaching the food
get their limbs entangled in the horsehair, and either
strangle themselves, or are held until the fowler comes. to
take them out. Dunstable is the most celebrated place for
them. It does not at all agree with the sense of justice,
that these beautiful birds, who charm us with their voices,
should be killed to increase the pleasures of the table.

The Butirince affords a singular instance of the power
of art on the song of birds, The natural note of the
Bullfinch is low, and can only be heard at a short dis-
tance ; but when well trained the bird whistles, or “ pipes,”
as it is called, any melody which has been taught it, in
a fine flute-like tone. A good piping Bullfinch sells at
a very high price. The method of teaching is to confine
196 THE RHINOCEROS HORNBILL

the birds in a dark room, and, before their food is given,
to play the air that they have to learn, on an instrument
called a bird-organ. The
' birds soon begin to imi-
tate the notes, and by
degrees the whole tune
is learned. Some trainers
substitute a small cla-
rionet for the bird-organ.

When in captivity the
Bullfinch is very sociable,
and soon learns to know
his owners, and to come
to them when called.

The nest of this bird
is made in thick bushes,
or fir-trees. The eggs are
of a pale greenish white,

S spotted with orange
Rubieilla (Lat, reddish), the Bulfinch. Boa eae is
on account of the large proportionate size of its head and
neck, When in captivity, its plumage sometimes turns
black, the result of feeding it too profusely with hemp-
seed.

PyRRHULA.—(Gr. Mupfotaas, from
Tlugpés, flame-coloured. )



The Rurnoceros Horngity.—This singular and almost
startling family comprises but few species, which are all
natives of India and Africa. The enormous bill, with its
incomprehensible appendage, although of course heavy, is
really much lighter than it looks; being composed of a
kind of light honeycombed structure. The upper pro-
tuberance is hollow, and the only conjecture formed of its
use, is that it serves as a sounding-board to increase the
reverberations of the air, while the bird is uttering its
peculiar roaring cry.

In spite of the apparently unwieldy bill, the bird is
very active, and hops about the branches of the trees with
much ease, The appendage to the upper mandible is small
THE RHINOCEROS HORNBILL 197

when the bird is young, and only attains its enormous size
when the Hornbill has reached its full growth. The bill
of the hoopoes presents a somewhat analogous peculiarity,
as when the bird is young the bill is short and pointed,
and increases with the size of the bird. From this cireum-
stance, together with some other resemblances, some natur-

alists imagine that there is an affinity between the horn-
bills and hoopoes.

Buctros.—(Gr. Bovxepws, ox-horned.)



Rhinocéros, the Rhinoceros Hornbill.

The Hornbills seem to be omnivorous, fruits, eggs, birds,
_reptiles, &c., forming their food. The African Hornbills
are extremely fond of nutmegs, and are, on that account,
said to be peculiarly delicate eating, reminding one of the
Barmecide’s memorable lamb fed on pistachio nuts.
The Rhinoceros Hornbill is a native of India, and the
198 THE TOUCAN

Indian islands. The length of its bill is usually about ten

inches.
ieee

The ScaNsorREs, or Ciimpinc Brrps, now engage our
attention. According to Mr. Gray, under this order are
placed the Toucans, the Parrots, the Woodpeckers, and the
Cuckoos. The feet of these birds have two toes in front
and two behind.

RHAMPHASTOS.—(Gr. ‘Paypnoris, properly, a Pike.)



Toco (native name), the Toco Toucan.

The Toucans are all natives of tropical America. Their
enormous bill is rendered light in the same way as that of
the hornbills, by being chiefly composed of a honeycomb
structure, It seems to be very sensitive, and well supplied
with nerves, as the bird not only appears to enjoy holding
THE RINGED PARRAKEET 199

meat or fruits with the tip of its bill, but has been seen to
scratch that organ with its foot, plainly proving that there
must be sensation. Jt seems to be omnivorous, but is
particularly fond of mice, and small birds, which it kills
by a powerful squeeze, then strips and finally pulls to
pieces and devours, having previously reduced them to
a shapeless mass by repeated lateral wrenches with its
enormous and saw-like bill.

When sleeping, the Toucan takes great care of its bill,
packing it away, and covering it carefully with the feathers
of its back, and altogether presents the appearance of a
large round ball of feathers. The body is about eighteen
inches in length. These birds, together with the hoopoes
and hornbills, have a habit of throwing their food down
their throats with a peculiar jerk of the bill.



The Macaws.—Many naturalists imagine, and with
some reason, that the Psittacide ought to be formed into
an order by themselves. In this family the construction
of the bill is very remarkable. As the curved tip of the
bill would prevent the bird from opening it wide enough
to admit its food, the upper mandible is united to the
skull by a kind of hinge joint, of, equal strength and
flexibility. When climbing among the branches of trees,
or about their cages, the Parrots invariably make great use
of their hooked bills in assisting themselves both in
ascending and descending. The crossbills have been ob-
served to climb much in the same way.

’ The Parrots are said to be very long-lived; some have
certainly been known to live upwards of eighty years in
captivity, and may be imagined to exceed that period in a
wild state. :

The Macaws are natives of South America. The blue

and yellow Macaw inhabits Brazil, Guiana, and Surinam,
living principally on the banks of rivers.

The Rincep Parraxest is frequently seen domesticated
in this country, where its pleasing manners and gentle
200 THE BLUE AND YELLOW MACAW

disposition render it a great favourite. It seems to be
exceedingly fond of ripe walnuts, divided in halves; and,
while it is picking out the kernel, continually utters a
short clucking sound indicative of pleasure.

Macrocercus.—(Gr. Maxpdés, long ; «épxos, tail.)



Ararauna (from the Brazilian word Avrara), the Blue and Yellow
Macaw. i

It soon learns to repeat words and short sentences, and
to speak with tolerable distinctness. Sometimes, when
excited, it utters most ear-piercing screams, and always
appears to practise any new accomplishment when it thinks
that no one is within hearing. A Ringed Parrakeet be-
longing to one of my scholars was accustomed to live in
the schoolroom. At first it used to become angry that it
was not noticed during school hours, and to utter a suc-
cession of screams; but after being shut up in a dark
THE COCKATOO 201

closet several times, it learned to behave very demurely,—
giving an example worthy of imitation to several of its
human playfellows. JI am

sorry to say that the bird es- Panzornis.—(Gr. Tladatds, olil ;
caped from its cage, and was dputs, & Wir, )

shot by an ignorant farmer
in the neighbourhood.

The colour of the bird
is green, and a rose-coloured
band round its neck gives it
the name of the Rose-ringed
Parrakeet. The bill is red.

The CockaToos are re-
markable for the powdery
. surface of their wings, and
the crest on the head, which
can be raised or depressed
at pleasure. The Sulphur-
crested Cockatoo is an in-
habitant of New Guinea.
Its colour is white, and the
crest is of a sulphur yellow. Torquatus (Lat. collared), the
Its white plumage glancing Ringed Parrakeet.
among the dense dark foliage
of its native forests, imparts a wonderful beauty to the scene ;
and as Sir Thomas Mitchell remarks, “amidst the wmbra-
geous foliage, forming dense masses of shade, the white
cockatoos sported like spirits of light.” This Cockatoo is
easily tamed, and is of a very affectionate disposition.
When in captivity it has been known to live to the age
of 120 years. Its nest is built in hollow trees and the
crevices of rocks. The eggs are white. The length of
the bird is about eighteen inches.



The Woopprckers, whose name indicates their habits,
are widely spread, being found in all quarters of the globe
except Australia. They subsist on imsects and grubs,
202 THE WOODPECKER

which they dig out of trees, or discover under the bark.
For this purpose their whole structure is admirably adapted.
The bill is long, sharp,
CacaTua.—(From the native name.) and powerful, and the
formation of the feet and
legs is such that the bird
is able to grasp the tree
firmly with the feet, while
swinging with the force
of his whole body against
it. Another most sin-
gular point in the Wood-
peckers, is the method
by which they are en-
abled to thrust the tongue
deep into the crevices,
and bring out any insects
that may happen to be
there. The tongue is
connected with two elas-
Sulphuréa (Lat. swlphury), the Great tic ligaments which are
Sulphur Cockatoo. inserted near the junc-
ture of the upper man-
dible with the skull. From thence they sweep round the
back of the head, and passing under the lower mandible,
enable the tongue to be thrust out a considerable distance.
The tip of the tongue is sharp, and barbed with several
filaments ; and more firmly to secure the prey, a kind of
gummy secretion causes those insects to adhere that would
be too small to be impaled.

It appears to be an erroneous opinion, that these birds
injure trees. Their only object in pecking away the wood
and bark is to get at the insects, which they know are
hidden within. Now insects seldom or never bore into
healthy wood, but a decayed branch or stump is always
full of them, as is well known to the entomologist; so the
winged entomologist, when he perceives a decayed branch,
or finds an unsound spot in the trunk, immediately sets to
work industriously, and is rewarded by finding plenty of


THE GREEN WOODPECKER 203

insects, which he draws out and demolishes, with more
benefit to himself, and possibly more good to others, than
many human entomologists can boast.

Although the Woodpecker does not scoop away sound
trees, yet it is because it has no motive for doing so—not
that the power is wanting. Wilson had an Ivory-billed
Woodpecker in his possession, which pecked away lath
and plaster in its efforts to escape, and utterly ruined a
mahogany table to which it was fastened.

Picus.—(Lat. @ Woodpecker.)



ae

Virtdis (Lat. green), the Green Woodpecker.

The Green Wooprecker is by far the most common in
this country, and may be often seen in woods, tapping the
trees with wonderful rapidity, the blows following each
‘other something like the sound of a watchman’s rattle.
It generally runs up the trunk of the tree in a spiral
direction, occasionally striking off large pieces of dry bark.
When it descends, it still keeps its head uppermost.

0
204 THE WRYNECK

I have more than once seen the Green Woodpecker
busily employed among the trees of the Christ Church
Walks, Oxford, and very frequently in Bagley Wood. I
have never seen it on the ground, and but once on the
smaller branches of the trees.

The Wryneck is tolerably common in the southern
counties of England, but is scarcely ever seen in the north
and west. It principally feeds on ants, which it picks up
with great rapidity by means of its long tongue, covered
with a glutinous
secretion like that
of the Woodpecker.
The rapidity with
which the ants are
taken is so great,
that ‘an ant’s egg,
which is of a light
colour, and more
conspicuousthan the
tongue, has some-
whatthe appearance
of moving to the
mouth byattraction,
as a needle does to

es the magnet.” The
Torquilla (Lat, twisting), the Wryneck. term Wryneck is
given it from its
habit of rapidly twisting its head and neck, and hissing
like a serpent, if disturbed upon its eggs. The young
also hiss if they are molested.

Its eggs are laid on the bare wood in the holes of trees.
Like most eggs that are laid in holes, they are of a pure
white. The length of the bird is seven inches.

~ Yunx.—(Gr. “Ivyét.)


THE CUCKOO 205

The Cuckoo, spring’s harbinger, has, in all ages, obtained
for itself a name at once pleasing and disreputable:
pleasing, because its well-known notes are a sign that the
cold winter is gone; and disreputable, because it usurps
the nests of other birds, of which the hedge sparrow is
the usual victim. In its nest the cuckoo deposits one of
its own eggs, which are remarkably small in proportion to
the size of the bird. The unsuspecting hedge sparrow

CucuLus.—(Lat. a Cuckoo.)



Candrus (Lat. musical), the Cuckoo,

hatches the intruder together with her own young. The
Cuckoo rapidly increases in size, and monopolizes no small
portion of the entire nest, besides taking the lion’s share
of the provisions. The mother, however, never seems to
perceive the difference, but feeds and tends the interloper
with quite as much care as her own young.

Dr. Jenner states that the young Cuckoo ejects the
former and rightful occupants of the nest, by managing to
get the egg or young bird upon its back, clambering up to
206 THE RINGDOYE

the edge of the nest, and then throwing it over by -a
sharp jerk.

At some times of the year, Cuckoos are comparatively
tame. I have repeatedly decoyed them by imitating their .
cry, until they came near enough for me to see the move-
ment of the beak. Once a Cuckoo came voluntarily, and
settled on a hurdle close by, uttered his peculiar ery several
times, and then leisurely flew off.

The Cuckoo feeds principally on the hairy caterpillars,
especially those of the tiger moth (Arctia caja), the hairs
of which form a kind of lining to its stomach. These
hairs are placed so regularly, that it was imagined for
some time that they were a growth from the stomach
itself. To settle the point, the microscope was brought to
bear on the subject; and by its aid, the hairs were found
to be exclusively those of the caterpillar above mentioned.

The Cuckoo will also feed on other insects, as is proved
by Gilbert White, who saw several cuckoos engaged in
feeding by a large pond. They were chiefly employed in
catching the dragon flies, some of which they took while
resting on the water plants, and others they caught on the
wing.

A tame Cuckoo, that lived for more than a year in
captivity, seemed to consider a young mouse an especial
treat. The mouse was first beaten against the ground on a
hard stone, until it was reduced to a soft mass, after which
process it was swallowed. The length of the bird is
about fourteen inches.

——$<>

The Dovzu.—This family is supposed ‘to be more widely
distributed than any other.

The Rinepove, or Cusnat, is the largest of our native
pigeons. A black ringlet round the neck, edged with
white, gives it the name of ringdove. It is very common
in England; and its nests are usually found to consist of
a few sticks, thrown loosely together on a spray of fir or
DOMESTIC PIGEONS 207

holly. The structure of this platform, for nest it can
hardly be called, is so loose, that the white eggs can
generally be seen from below through the interstices of
the nest.

The following group comprises the most conspicuous
‘varieties of the Domestic Pigeon. All these birds, except

CoLumba.—(Lat. @ Dove.)



Palumbus (Lat. @ Pigeon), the Ringdove.

the Carrier, the Pouter, and Tumbler, are very similar in
their habits, and need no description.

The TumsBier is a very little pigeon, and derives its
name from its singular habit of falling backwards when
_on the wing. Pigeon fanciers assert that a flight of twelve
Tumblers may be covered with a handkerchief.

The Pourer is a large pigeon. It stands particularly
erect, and seems exceedingly vain of the swollen crop
which gives it the name of Pouter. The bird is enabled
208 DOMESTIC PIGEONS

to inflate its crop with air, until the head is almost hidden
behind it. This inflation sometimes causes the bird to
lose its balance, and fall.down chimneys, on which it is
fond of standing, thereby illustrating the proverb that
“Pride will have a fall.”

The Carrier Pigeon is the bird that was so largely
employed to take messages, before the invention of the
Electric Telegraph rendered even the speed of the wind



DOMESTIC PIGEONS.

too slow for the present day. The most valuable Carriers
were trained to carry to and from their residence. A
letter was written on a small piece of paper, and fastened
under the wing of the pigeon, or to its feet. The feet
were then bathed in vinegar to keep them cool, lest the
bird should stop on the way to bathe. When the pigeon
was set free, it rose high in the air, made one or two
circular flights, and then darted off like an arrow in the
proper direction. One of these birds has been known to
fly nearly one hundred and fifty miles in one hour.
THE PEACOCK 209

The Peacock.—This magnificent bird is not a native
of this country, but has been domesticated in England for
many years. Some suppose that it was first brought from

Pavo.—(Lat. a Peacock.)



P| ? 4M
Vie a 43 cae

Cristatus (Lat. crested), the Peacock.

India by Alexander, and by him introduced into Europe.
The gorgeous plumes that adorn the Peacock do not com-
pose the tail, as many suppose, but are only the tail-
coverts. The tail feathers themselves are short and rigid,
910 THE COMMON PHEASANT

and ‘serve to keep the train spread, as may be seen when
the bird walks about in all the majesty of his expanded
plumage.

Although pea-fowl seek their food on the ground, they
invariably roost on some elevated situation, such as a high
branch, or the roof of a barn or haystack. When the
bird is perched on the roof, its train lies along the thatch,
and is quite invisible in the dark.

We have almost dismissed pea-fowl from our entertain-
ments in these days, but in the times of chivalry, a
roasted peacock, still clothed in its plumage, and with its
train displayed, formed one of the chief ornaments of the
regal board. The nest of this bird is made of sticks and
leaves rudely thrown together, and contains from twelve
to fifteen eggs. The young do not attain their full
plumage until the third year, and only the males possess
the vivid tints and lengthened train, the female being a
comparatively ordinary bird. A white variety of the
Peacock is not uncommon. In this case, the eyes of the
train feathers are slightly marked with a kind of neutral
tint.

The voice of the Peacock is as unpleasant and unmusical
as its external appearance is attractive.

The Common Purasant was originally brought from
Georgia, and has completely naturalized itself in this
country. It is a hardy bird, and bears the cold months
very well. Although it can be tamed, and will come to
be fed with the poultry, yet an innate timidity prevents -
it from being thoroughly domesticated. Young pheasants
that have been hatched under a hen, scamper off in terror
if an unexpected intruder makes his appearance among
them, although the remainder of the poultr vy. remain per-
fectly unconcerned.

This bird loves to perch at night on trees, especially on
the spreading branches of the larch, Poachers are so
well aware of this habit that they always visit the larches
first, while on their marauding excursions.

A few spruce-firs surrounded by dense and tall holly
DOMESTIC FOWL 211

hedges form an excellent place of refuge for the birds, .
who can bid the poacher defiance from their strong-
hold; while a few dozen wooden pheasants nailed on the
branches of the unguarded trees, are admirably adapted
for trying the patience and wasting the ammunition of
the nocturnal plunderer.

Puastanus.—(Lat. a Pheasant.)



Colchicus (Lat. Colchian), the Pheasant.

A white variety of the Pheasant sometimes occurs, but
seems never to be propagated. The nest of the bird is
made on the ground, and contains from ten to eighteen
eggs of an uniform dun colour.

The Domestic Fowts are too well known to need much
description.

There are many varieties, the most pone pICUOaE of
“which are the Cochin-China, Crested, and Bantam. The
Game Fowl was formerly in great request for the cruel
212 DOMESTIC FOWL

sport of cock-fighting, an amusement which, although
happily now almost extinct, was in great vogue but a few
years since. The Java Fowl, of which the enormous
Cochin Ghing - bird is, a -varlety, is Supposed to.

ks ‘door fowl. ‘ ik has _be



pre 1g bind” ‘are “mu
making artificial flies.
The celebrated Jungle Fowl of India belongs to this
THE TURKEY 213

race, and is by many supposed to be the origin of our
domestic game fowl. The Chinese, who are greatly
addicted to the sport of cock- fighting, pEcier: he bird for
xe eae atheis el amusement. Aas
: orking Fowl is a large and delicate speciss The
‘peculiarity in this bird is the double hind toe, sO
atzit fee five.toes instead of. four. ,













se eee cs Mencarypls, a Guinea-fowl.)



: LD! e aa
large flocks, the birds “seldom using their wings except ~
when attacked, or in order to cross a river. The powerful
214 THE PARTRIDGE é

birds can easily cross a river of a mile in breadth, but the
weaker frequently fall into the water, and then paddle to
shore with some rapidity. This migration is performed
about the end of October.

The Parrriper, an inhabitant of this country, is well
known as one of the birds included in the designation of
“game.” It lays from
PERDIx.—(Gr. Mépd:é, a Partridge.) fifteen to twenty eggs in
: a rude nest placed on the
ground, and displays great
attachment to them, and
no small ingenuity in de-
coying an intruder away.
Mr. Jesse mentions that
a gentleman who was over-
looking his ploughman,
saw a partridge run from
her nest, almost crushed
by the horses’ hoofs. Being
certain that the next fur-
row must bury the eggs
and nest, he watched for
the return of the plough,
Cineréa (Lat. ashy), the Partridge. when to his great astonish-
ment, the nest, previously
containing twenty-one eggs, was vacant. After a search, he
found the bird sitting upon the eggs under a hedge, nearly
forty yards from the nest, to which place she and her
mate had removed the whole number in less than twenty
minutes. In some parts of England the Partridge is
very plentiful—one sportsman having shot in two days
one hundred and sixty-eight brace on one manor.

The length of the bird is twelve inches and a half; the
wing is short and rounded, causing the peculiar whirring
sound when in motion; the third and fourth primary
feathers are the longest.


THE QUAIL—THE BLACK GROUSE 215

The QuarL is a tolerably common little bird, visiting
England in the summer. Countless flocks of them are
spread over the whole of Southern Europe, and multitudes
are taken and sent to the London markets; thirty-six
thousand having been purchased during one season by the
London poulterers.

Corurnix.—(Lat.)



Commiinis (Lat. common), the Quatl.

Temminck states that hundreds of thousands arrive in
Naples and Provence, and are so fatigued that for several
days they suffer themselves to be taken by hand. We are
here reminded of the flight of Quails with which the
Israelites were fed, the sacred narrative even preserving
the nocturnal flight of these birds. “And it came to
pass, that at even the Quails came up and covered the
camp.” Probably the instinct to fly by night is implanted
in them for the purpose of avoiding the-birds of prey ©
that would attack them by day. The female lays from
seven to twelve eggs in a rude nest on the ground.

The length of the bird is seven inches; the second
primary feather is the longest.

The Brack Grovusz, or Buack Coc, is still found on
the moors of Scotland and some parts of England, and,
together with the red grouse, tempts innumerable sports-
men annually to spend their leisure months on the moors.
216 THE PTARMIGAN

Trerrio.—(Lat. a Grouse.)



Tetrix (Gr. Térpit or Térpag, a Grouse), the Black Grouse.
The Prarmican.—The legs and feet of the Ptarmigans
are thickly covered with hair-like feathers, reaching as far

LAGOPUS.



1h
Vig, : Mace

Albus (Lat. white), the Plarmigan.

as the claws. Their plumage bears a singular analogy to
the fur of the ermine and some other quadrupeds, as it
changes in winter from a rich tortoiseshell colour to a pure
THE MOUND-MAKING MEGAPODE 217

white. The common Ptarmigan inhabits the northern
parts of Europe and America, and is also found in the north
of Scotland, principally among the mountains. The colour
of the bird is so similar to that of the mossy and lichen-
covered rocks among which it dwells, that a whole covey
easily eludes an unpractised eye.

Enormous numbers of Ptarmigans are annually im-
ported from the north of Europe, especially from Norway
and Sweden, to the London market. One poulterer has
purchased fifteen thousand of these birds; and twenty-
four thousand have been exported in one ship from one

lace.
S Like that of the grouse, the Ptarmigan’s nest is a loosely-
constructed heap of twigs and grass, and contains from

ten to fourteen eggs, of a reddish white spotted with
brown.

Mrcapopius.(Gr. péyas, great ; mobs, a foot.)



Tumilus (Lat. @ mound), the Mound-making Megapode.

The Movunp-maxineg Mecaropr inhabits the dense
thickets bordering on the sea-shore, and is never found
218 THE OSTRICH

far inland. Like the Brush Turkey, it deposits many
eggs in one mound, but instead of placing them at intervals
in the mound, the bird makes deep holes, from five to six
feet, at the bottom of which the eggs are deposited. The
natives obtain the eggs by scratching up the earth with
their fingers, until they have traced the hole to the bottom ;
a very laborious task, as the holes seldom run straight,
and often turn off at right angles to avoid a stone or root.
The mounds are enormously large. Mr. Gilbert was told
by the residents that they were the tombs of the aborigines,
nor was it until after some time that their real nature was
made known. The height of one mound was fifteen feet,
and its circumference at the base sixty feet.

Saar crara

The Ostrica.—The Struthionide include the Ostrich,
Emu, Cassowary, and Apteryx. The birds of this family
are all remarkable for the shortness of their wings, which
are weak and unable to raise them from the ground, but
appear to assist them in running. On this account Cuvier
called the family Brevipennes, 7. e. short-winged birds.

The Ostrich is the largest bird as yet known to exist,
its height being from six to eight feet. It is an inhabitant
of Africa, and from thence the elegant plumes are brought.
These plumes are mostly obtained from the wings of the
bird, and not from the tail, as is generally imagined. -

An immense number of eggs are laid by the Ostriches
in one spot, several birds belonging to each nest. The
eggs are very large and strong, and are in general use by
the Bosjesmans for holding water. By means of these
eggs, which they bury at intervals in the sand, after filling
them with water, they are enabled to make inroads across
the desert and retreat with security, as none can follow
them for want of water. Hach ege holds rather more
than five pints. An excellent omelet is made by the’
natives, by burying the fresh egg in hot ashes, and stirring
round the contents with a stick through a hole in the
upper end, until thoroughly cooked.
THE OSTRICH 219

The principal strength of the Ostrich tribe lies in the
legs. These limbs are so powerful that a swift horse has

SrruTHio.—(Gr. Srpov0ds, an Ostrich.)











Camélus (Gr. Kdpnaos, a Camel), the Ostrich.

great difficulty in overtaking the bird. As the Ostrich
mostly runs in large curves, the hunters cut across and
Intercept the bird, which would in all probability escape
if followed in its exact course.

The Ostrich is easily tamed, as those who have been
pursued by the magnificent birds in the Zoological Gardens
can testify. These frequently astonish the visitor by

P
920 THE OSTRICH

suddenly snatching out of his hand a bun or cake which
he had intended for his own especial benefit, their long
necks enabling them to reach to a surprising distance.
Many of my readers have doubtless seen the tame Ostriches
at the Hippodrome, who ran races bearing riders on their
backs, and really seemed to enjoy the sport as much as
any of the spectators. The interesting narrative of Captain
Cumming contains some useful remarks on the habits of
the Ostrich, and the method in which it is destroyed by
the Bosjesmans.

“While encamped at this vley we fell in with several
nests of ostriches; and here I first ascertained a singular —
propensity peculiar to these birds. If a person discovers
the nest, and does not at once remove the eggs, on re-
turning he will most probably find them all smashed.
This the old birds almost invariably do, even when the
intruder has not handled the eggs, or so much as ridden
within five yards of them. The nest is merely a hollow
scooped in the sandy soil, generally amongst heath or other
low bushes ; its diameter is about seven feet; it is believed
that two hens often lay in one nest. The hatching of the
egg is not left, as is generally believed, to the heat of the
sun, but, on the contrary, the cock relieves the hen in the
incubation. The eggs form a considerable item in the
Bushman’s cuisine, and the shells are converted into water
flasks, cups, and dishes, I have often seen Bush-girls
and Bakalahari women, who belong to the wandering
Bechuana tribes of the Kalahari desert, come down to the
fountains from their remote habitations, sometimes situated
at an amazing distance, each carrying on her back a kaross,
or a net-work containing from twelve to fifteen ostrich
egg-shells, which had been emptied by a small aperture at

_one end ; these they fill with water, and cork up the hole
with grass.

“A favourite method adopted by the wild Bushman for
approaching the Ostrich and other varieties of game, is to
clothe himself in the skin of one of these birds, in which,
‘taking care of the wind, he stalks about the plain, cun-
ningly imitating the gait and motions of the Ostrich, until
THE OSTRICH 221

within range, when, with a well-directed poisoned arrow
from his tiny bow, he can generally seal the fate of any
of the ordinary varieties of game. Their insignificant-
looking arrows are about two feet six inches in length ;
they consist of a slender reed, with a sharp bone head,
thoroughly poisoned with a composition, of which the
principal ingredients are obtained sometimes from a succu-
lent herb, having thick leaves, yielding a poisonous milky
juice, and sometimes from the jaws of snakes. The bow
barely exceeds three feet in length ; its string is of twisted
sinews. When a Bushman finds an ostrich’s nest he
ensconces himself in it, and there awaits the return of the
old birds, by which means he generally secures the pair.
It is by means of these little arrows that the majority of
the fine plumes are obtained which grace the heads of the
fair throughout the civilized world.”

The food of the Ostrich is vegetable, and it swallows
many stones, &c., to assist it in grinding its food. When
in confinement it picks up anything, glass, nails, &c., from
the effects of which it sometimes dies. I have assisted at
the dissection of an ostrich, and have seen an astonishing
amount of pebbles and other hard materials taken from
its stomach, among which were a tolerably large piece of
deal, and a considerable portion of a brickbat.

Capt. Cumming remarks a fact not generally known,
viz. the care that the Ostrich takes of its young. It has
generally been supposed, that after the eggs are laid the
female leaves them to be hatched in the sun, and takes no
more care for them. The following anecdote would do
honour to the far-famed Lapwing. “I fell in with a
troop of about twelve young ostriches, which were not
much larger than Guinea-fowls. I was amused to see the
mother endeavour to lead us away, exactly like a wild
duck, spreading out and drooping her wings, and throwing.
herself down on the ground before us as if wounded,
while the cock bird cunningly led the brood away in an
opposite direction.”

The Rhea, or American Ostrich, is abundant on the
banks of the river La Plata, and is chased by the Gauchos,
222 THE CASSOWARY

who pursue it on horseback, and kill it by throwing the
celebrated “bolas.” These curious weapons are made of a
long leathern thong, having a heavy stone or leaden ball
attached to each end. The Gaucho can throw it so as
either to stun his prey with a blow from the ball, or
strangle it by causing the thong to twist round its neck.

It is known that the Rhea can swim well, and it has
been seen to cross rivers several hundred feet in width, a
power which the ostrich and the cassowary are not ascer-
tained to possess. There are two species of this bird: one,
the Darwin’s Rhea, has been but lately introduced to
science. -

Casvarius.—(Latinised form of Cassowary.)

Ys
SSS



Casdar, the Cassowary.

The Cassowary is a native of the eastern parts of Asia.
Like the ostrich, it cannot fly, but runs with great swift-
THE EMU 223

ness, and if attacked by dogs kicks with extreme force
and rapidity. The feathers of this bird are remarkable
for being composed of two long, thread-like feathers,
sprouting from the same root. The wing feathers are
round, black, and strong, and resemble the quills of the
- porcupine. At the end of the last joint of the wing isa
sort of claw or spur. The crest upon its head is composed
of a cellular bony substance,

The food of the bird consists of vegetable substances,
and it will frequently swallow a tolerably large apple entire, -
trusting to the pebbles, é&c., in its stomach to bruise it. ,

The Emu is a native of New Holland, and nearly equals
the ostrich in bulk, its height being between five and six
feet. Its feathers lie loosely on the body, and its wings
are small and hardly to be distinguished. The skin of
the Emu furnishes a bright and clear oil, on which account
it is eagerly sought after. Mr. Bennett gives the following
account of the habits of this bird :—

“Jn its manners the Emu bears a close resemblance to
the ostrich, . . . Its food appears to be wholly vegetable,
consisting chiefly of fruits, roots, and herbage, and it is
consequently, notwithstanding its great strength, perfectly
inoffensive. The length of its legs and the muscularity
of its thighs enable it to run with great swiftness; and as
it is exceedingly shy, it is not easily overtaken or brought
within gun-shot. Captain Currie states that it affords
excellent coursing, equalling if not surpassing the same
sport with the hare in England; but Mr. Cunningham
says that dogs will seldom attack it, both on account of
some peculiar odour in its flesh which they dislike, and
because the injuries inflicted upon them by striking out
with its feet are frequently very severe. Tho settlers even
assert that the Emu will break the small bone of a man’s
_ leg by this sort of kick ; to avoid which, the well-trained
dogs run up abreast, and make a sudden spring at their
neck, whereby they are quickly dispatched.

“Tts flesh has been compared to coarse beef, which it
resembles both in appearance and taste. There is but
224. THE APTERYX

little fit for culinary use upon any part of the Emu except
the hind quarters.”

The voice of the Emu isa kind of low booming sound.
The eggs are six or seven in number, of a dark green
colour, and are much esteemed by the natives as food.
When the natives take an Emu, they break its wings, a

Dromatus.—(Gr. Apopaios, running swiftly.)



Novee-Hollandiz (Lat. of New Holland), the Emu.

curious custom of no perceptible utility. Young men and
boys are not permitted to eat the flesh of this bird.

The Aptrryx.—This extraordinary bird, whose name
is derived from the apparent absence of wings, those
members being merely rudimentary, inhabits the islands
of New Zealand. It conceals itself among the densest
fern, and when hunted by dogs, it hastens to seek a refuge
THE APTERYX 225

among rocks and in the chambers which it excavates in
the earth. In these chambers its nest is made and the
eges laid. The natives hunt it with great eagerness, as
the skins are used for the dresses of chiefs, who are so tena-
cious of them that they can hardly be persuaded to part
with a single skin. The feathers are employed to make
artificial flies. When attacked it defends itself by rapid
and vigorous strokes with its powerful feet.

Dr. Shaw first brought this bird before the notice of
the public, but for many years naturalists considered it an
extinct species. Lat-
terly the question Apriinyx.—(Gr. a, priv.; wréput, a wing,
has been set at rest, wingless. )
not only by the re-
searches of Gould
and other naturalists,
but by the arrival
in this country of
several skins and one
living specimen, now
in the Zoological
Gardens. This bird
has a singular habit
of resting with the
top of its bill placed
on the ground. The
nostrils of the Apte-
ryx are placed al-
most at the very
extremity of the bill.
The aborigines of
New Zealand give it
the name of Kiwi Australis (Lat. Australian), the Apteryx.
Kiwi. The. food of
the bird consists of snails, insects, and worms, which latter
creatures it obtains by striking the ground with its feet,
and seizing them on their appearance at the surface.

A small but well-preserved skin is mounted in the
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, in which the rudimentary


226 THE DODO

wings are very well shown. An entire skeleton is in the
museum of the College of Surgeons, and other specimens
are to be seen in various collections.

The Dopo.—This singular bird, which is supposed to
be extinct, was discovered in the Mauritius by the earlier
voyagers. For many years their accounts of the Dodars
were supposed to be mere flights of fancy. Lately, how-

Dinvus.—(Latinised form of Dodo.)



Ineptus (Lat. stupid), the Dodo.

ever, the discovery of several relics of this bird in various
countries has set the question of its existence at rest, but
not the question of the proper position of the bird. Some
think it belongs to the pigeons, and some to the ostriches.
In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford are a head and foot
of the Dodo, sole remnants of a perfect specimen known
to have existed in 1700; and in the same place, in the
year 1847, during the meeting of the British Association,
THE GREAT BUSTARD 227

were gathered together the whole of the existing remains
from every country.

In the travels of Sir T. Hubert, in the year 1627, are
several accounts. From the work. of this traveller, whose
amusement it was to re-write his travels, each time com-
pletely changing the language but retaining the matter, an
extract is taken.

“The Dopo, a bird the Dutch call Walghvogle, or
Dod Eersen : her body is round and fat, which occasions
the slow pace, or that her corpulencie, and so great as few
of them weigh less than fifty pound: meat it is with some,
but better to the eye than stomach, such as only a strong
appetite can vanquish. ... It is of a melancholy visage,
as sensible of nature’s injury in framing so massie a body
to be directed by complimental wings, such indeed, as are
unable to hoise her from the ground,
serving only to rank her among birds.
Her traine, three small plumes, short
and improportionable, her legs suiting
to her body, her pounces sharpe, her
appetite strong and greedy. Stones and
iron are digested; which description
will better be conceived in her representation.” The
“representation ”’ here alluded to is that of a globular-
shaped bird, perfectly naked, with the exception of three
separate feathers on the tail, and a few feathers on the
wing. The expression of lugubrious wisdom on the
countenance is irresistibly ludicrous.

It is still within the range of possibility that this bird
may again be discovered, as at present but little of
Madagascar has been searched, and in that island, if any-
where, it will be found.



BEAK OF THE DODO.

The Great Bustarp, our English representative of the
_ Otidee, is now scarcely ever seen in this country, although
formerly it was tolerably common. It runs with great
swiftness, and will never rise on the wing until forced, so
that instances have been known of Bustards being cap-
tured by greyhounds. It is exceedingly wary, and can
228 THE PLOVERS

hardly be approached within gun-shot, except by adopting
some disguise, as a labourer with the gun in his wheel-
barrow, or by driving a cart or a carriage by the spot
where it is feeding.

Orvs.—(Gr. *O7is, a Bustard.)



Tarda (Lat. slow), the Great Bustard.

. The male Bustard possesses a membranous pouch on the
fore part of the neck, capable of holding six or seven
pints of water. There isan opening to this pouch under
the tongue, and its use is possibly, like that of the pelican,
to carry water for the use of the young; but this is not
ascertained. The length of the bird is rather more than
three feet. Its nest is a loose heap of straw on the ground,
and contains two pale brown eggs, spotted with brown,
rather larger than those of the turkey.

_——

The Provers are known by their long legs, short toes,
and long, powerful wings. Many are inhabitants of Eng-
THE LAPWING, OR PEEWIT 229

land, of which the Lapwing and Golden Plover are the
most common,

The Lapwine, or PEEwitT, is very common in most
parts of England, and is well known from its plaintive
cry, and the stratagems it employs to decoy intruders
away from its nest, or rather eggs, for nest it has none.
Frequently, however, the attempts of the bird only draw
the attention of the passer-by to the evident vicinity of
the eggs. These eggs are dark brown, blotched with
black, and are hardly to be distinguished from the soil

VANELLUS.—(Linnean generic name.)

Aly

5.
ff ze Ue
2



Cristatus (Lat. crested), the Lapwing, or Peewtt.

where they are laid. If an intruder approach them, the
bird glides before him, and flutters along, drooping her
wings, as if wounded, invariably endeavouring to lead him
away from her nest. When it has succeeded in decoying
away the intruder, it suddenly mounts in the air, uttering
its ery of pee-weet, leaving the pursuer to gaze with
astonishment at the escaping bird. The eggs are sold in
great numbers, under the title of ‘‘ Plovers’ eggs,’ and
are considered great delicacies. When flying, the black
and white colours of its plumage make it very conspicuous.
On the head of the bird is a kind of crest.


230 THE COMMON CRANE—-THE HERON

The Common Orange is now but rarely seen on our
shores, although formerly as common as was the bustard.
It flies at so great a height, that although its hoarse cry
is audible, the bird itself is far out of the reach of sight.

Grus.—(Lat. a Crane.)



Cineréa (Lat. ashy), the Crane.

It generally feeds on snails, frogs, and worms, but is not
by any means averse to newly-sown grain. The nest is
made among reeds and rushes, aud contains two bluish-
green eggs, marked with brown. The length of the bird
is nearly four feet.

The Herron, or Herne, is a bird renowned in the noble
science of falconry, and respecting which much curious
knowledge is to be gained from the work of Dame Juliana
Berners, a book of most amusingly quaint language.

The Common Heron generally breeds in company, like
THE HERON, OR HERNE 231

the rooks ; indeed, these two birds frequently inhabit conti-
guous trees, but never interfere with each other. In the
dawn of the early morning, or while the moon casts an
uncertain light, the

Heron may be seen Anpiia.—(Lat. a Heron.)
standing in the shal-
low water, stiff and
motionless, and by
the faint light may
be mistaken for a
stump of a tree. But
his eye is keenly di-
rected on the water,
and no sooner does
a fish approach, than
a dart of his unerr-
ing bill secures it,
and the Heron soars
exultingly to his
nest, bearing his
prey with him. The
fixed patience that
the Heron displays
has caused it to be-
chosen as the em- Cineréa (Lat. ashy), the Heron.
blem of solitude.

The plumes of the Heron were formerly considered as
ornaments only to be worn by the noble. It is not an
uncommon sight to see this splendid bird slowly winnow-
ing his way through the air, when suddenly a magpie, or
a crow, gives the alarm, and the poor bird is instantly
beset by its annoying enemies, especially the crows, who
resent the Heron’s approach to their own residence, and
frequently drive him away.

_ There was, and may be still, a belief that the legs of

the Heron exhaled some scent that was attractive to the
fish, and caused them to approach as the bird stood with
its feet in the water. For that reason, anglers were accus-
tomed to make some kind of a preparation from the skin


932, THE BITTERN

taken from the legs of a Heron, a sort of Heron-skin tea,
and with this to prepare their bait, which they thought
was rendered quite irresistible by such a proceeding.

The Heron sometimes killed the falcon in its stoop by
throwing its head back, whether purposely or not is not
known, and receiving its enemy on the point of its sharp
beak, by which the falcon was transfixed as if on a
bayonet.

It has been lately ascertained that the Heron can
swim in deep water, and does so when it sees any prey
that cannot be reached by wading, such as a nice nestful
of young moor-hens, or a water-rat engaged at his
dinner.

The nest of the Heron is a flat mass of sticks, laid on
the highest branches of a tree, and contains five bluish-
green eggs. The length of the bird is about three feet.
An old name of this bird was the Herne, or Hernshaw,
from which was derived the saying, “He does not know a
Hawk from a Hernshaw.” The last word has been cor-
rupted into “ handsaw,” and of course renders the proverb
most unmeaning.

The Brrrern.—The beautiful Bittern has been almost
banished from this country, although it was formerly a
common bird. It frequents morasses, and dense beds of
reeds, where it lies concealed until the evening, when it
leaves its rushy bed and soars to a vast height, continually
uttering its sepulchral booming cry. This singular sound
is not unlike the bellowing of a bull, and is most startling
in its effect.

In olden times the Bittern was one of the birds chiefly
sought after in falconry, as the stout defence it makes
against its enemies, by darting its sharp and powerful
beak at them, and beating violently with its feet, renders
it by no means an easy prey. For this reason, the falconer’s
first care, on reaching the Bittern when brought to the
ground by his falcon, was to secure its head, and by fixing
‘its bill deep in the earth, to save his eyes from the rapid
and well-aimed blows of the wounded bird. The falcon
HE WHITE SPOONBILL 233

also was in danger of being transfixed by the sharp beak
of his victim.

The plumage of this beautiful bird is a rich reddish-
yellow ground, boldly variegated with various black marks,

Boraunus.—(Lat. boo, I bellow ; tawrus, a bull.)



Stellaris (Lat. starry), the Bittern.

which are most conspicuous in the loose, long feathers
that decorate its neck. In size, it is a little less than the
heron... It feeds principally on small reptiles, field mice,
and fish. Its nest is built on some slight elevation in a
morass, and contains five hluish-green eggs.

The Waite Spoonpirt.—The Common Spoonbill is
found in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and frequents Holland,
together with the stork. The strange shape of the tip of
its beak has gained it the name of Spoonbill. It has
234




A recent visitor to Constantinople remarks that the very
Storks seemed to have become Ottoman, for they sat on
the tops of the houses, looking staid and solemn, as
becomes the Oriental character, and managed their beaks
just as if they were pipes. It is true that they wore no





THE STORK 235

turbans, but each of them appeared to have left a turban
of preposterous dimensions, viz. his nest, on the roof of a
house close by.

The draining of our morasses seems to have driven the
Stork completely out of this country, where it was formerly
tolerably common. The food of this bird consists of rats,

Ciconta.—(Lat. a Stork.)



Alba (Lat. white), the Stork.

mice, frogs, é&c., and it is for the benefits it confers upon
man by devouring these vermin, that it is so carefully
protected and encouraged, especially in the East, where
the inhabitants do not trouble themselves by removing
carrion or offal, but leave that office to the vultures,
hyenas, and other scavengers of nature. The height of
the Stork is nearly four feet.
236 THE SACRED IBIS

The Sacrep Isis inhabits Egypt, but does not seem to
breed there. This is the bird so frequently depicted in
the hieroglyphics as playing a conspicuous part in religious
ceremonies, Their mummies are constantly found in the

Isis.—(Gr. 71fis.)



Religidsa (Lat. sacred), the Sacred Ibis.

tombs, and in one of these mummies Cuvier discovered
remnants of skin, and scales of snakes. It is a migratory
bird, appearing simultaneously- with the rise of the Nile,
and departing as the inundation subsides. The Sacred
Ibis is about the size of an ordinary fowl.

The Curtew, or Wuaup, is often found in the northern
parts of England and Scotland, and is spread over the
whole of the Old World, from South Africa to the polar
regions. In winter it collects in large flocks on the muddy
shores of the sea, where its long curved bill can easily
THE AVOCET 237

penetrate in search of food. It is an exceedingly shy
bird, and cannot

easily be ‘approached Cracricornis.—(Gr. Kparrucds, clamorous ;
within gun-shot. dpus, a bird.)

Its nest is com-
posed of grass and
rushes, collected
under the shelter of
a tuft of heath or
grass, and contains
four greenish olive
eggs blotched with
brown. The length
of the bird slightly
exceeds two feet.

The Avocret,#—
The bill in the genus
Recurvirostra is ex-
actly the reverse of
that in the genus



Cracticornis, the
curve being upwards
instead of down- Arquatus (Lat. arched), the Curlew.

wards. The common.
Avocet is spread throughout the warmer regions of Europe,
and is also found in some parts of Africa. It is very
common in Holland, and is frequently seen on the eastern
coasts of England, but seldom visits Scotland. It frequents
marshes and the mouths of rivers, where it finds in the
mud myriads of the small worms and insects on which it
feeds, and which it obtains by scooping them up from the
mud with its curiously curved bill. It is a good swimmer,
but seldom has recourse to that art except when it wades
unexpectedly out of its depth.

The eggs of the Avocet are laid on the ground, in a
depression sheltered by a tuft of herbage. Their colour
is a bluish green, spotted with black. The birds when

* See next page.
238 THE WOODCOCK

RECURVIROSTRA,—(Lat. with bi curved upwards.)



Avocctta, the Avocet.

disturbed at their nests feign lameness, like the lapwing,

in order to draw the intruder

of the bird is eighteen inches.

SCOLOPAX.



Rusticdla (Lat. fond of the country),
the Woodcock.

to a distance. The length

The Woopcock is a
native of the northern
_ parts of Europe and Asia,
and is common in this
country, but rarely has
been known to breed
here. It generally reaches
England at the begin-
ning of October, and
leaves us in March or
April, at which time its
flesh loses the delicacy
that characterises it, and
becomes coarse and value-
less. The Woodcock fre-
quents dense thickets
during the day, but at
night it leaves these
THE SNIPE—THE CORNCRAKE 239

retreats, and visits the swamps and flooded meadows, where
it finds a sufficiency of worms and insects.

The nest of this bird is a loose mass of grass and leaves,
gathered together in some sheltered depression. The eggs
are four in number,
of a yellowish brown, Noumentus.—(Gr. Novpfvios.)
blotched with dark
brown and grey.

The SwyirE is too
well known to need
description. In its
habits it much resem-
bles the woodcock,
excepting that it
breeds plentifully in
several counties of
England, Scotland,
and = Ireland. Tts
flight is very singu-



é E Scolopacsinus (Lat. like a Woodcock),
lar, vendering it a the Snipe.

dificult mark.

The Cornorake, or Lanprarn, is very common in
England. It reaches us at the beginning of April, and
leaves us at the end of October, after hatching its eggs.
During the early part of the summer months its harsh cry
may be heard in almost every field, but the bird itself is
very seldom seen, as it threads its way among the long
grass with marvellous rapidity. Its cry can be so exactly
imitated by drawing a quill sharply across the teeth of a
comb, that the bird may be decoyed by the sound until
quite close to the operator. The Corncrake is so averse to
-vising on the wing, that a dog is frequently employed to
hunt it. The young when taken feign death with admir-
wble accuracy, nor do they move until they i imagine that
the intruder is safely out of the way.

The nest of the Corncrake is by no means uncommon.
240 - .PHE WATER-HEN

ORTYGOMETRA.—(Gr. ’Optvyouijtpa, migrat- It is formed of hay,
‘ing with the Quails ; the Landrail.)



Crex (Gr. Kpéé, a Crake ; derived from its
cry), the Corncrake, or Landrail.

collected and worked
into some depression
in the ground, and
contains from eight
to twelve eggs, of
a greyish yellow,
covered with dark
brown spots. The
length of the bird
is about nine inches.

The Warer-HEn,
or Moore, is
very common along
the reedy banks of
rivers and_ ponds.
It is very widely

distributed, being found in almost all parts of the Old
World. It swims very gracefully, constantly nodding its

GALLINULA.—(Lat. )

Chlorépus (Gr. xAwpds, green; rods, a foot),
the Water-hen.

panied by a dog, for



head, and dives with
great skill and ra-
pidity, particularly
when alarmed, in
which case it gener-
ally dives under
some floating herb-
age, and remains
there with merely
its beak above the
water until the
danger is passed.
On account of this
habit, it is almost
useless to shoot this
bird unless the
sportsman is accom-

if it is not shot dead it instantly

dives, and nothing but a dog can discover its retreat.
“THE FLAMINGO 241

It runs on land with considerable activity, constantly
- flirting up its tail, so as to show the white feathers
beneath, and when alarmed, instantly makes for the water.

The nest of the Water-hen is built among sedges and
reeds at the water-side, and contains from five to eight or
nine eggs, of a cream yellow spotted with dark brown.
When the Water-hen leaves her nest, she covers the eggs
with dried grass and reeds, so as completely to conceal
them, apparently lest the rats should discover them. The
young when hatched look like round tufts of black down.
They swim and dive well, following their parent with
great address. The pike is their chief enemy, and destroys
numbers by darting at them from under the cover of
water-lilies or other plants.



The Framinco is an inhabitant of the warmer parts of
Europe, and is common in Asia and the coasts of Africa.
The singularly shaped beak of this splendid bird is pecu-
larly adapted to its long and flexible neck. When the
bird wishes to feed, it merely stoops its head to the water ;
the upper mandible is then lowest, and is well fitted to
receive the nutritive substances which are entangled in a
dilter placed on the edges of the beak, much resembling
the analogous apparatus of the whale.

The Flamingo frequents marshes, lakes, and mouths of
rivers, bidding defiance to the pestilent exhalations that
drive man far from their haunts. The colour of their
plumage is a deep brilliant scarlet, except the quill
feathers, which are black. When a number of these
birds stand ranged in a line, according to their custom,
they present the appearance of a small and well-drilled
body of soldiers, but are far more dangerous to approach
than the most formidable army, for the miasma of the
_ marshes has a more deadly aim than the rifle, and its
breath is more certainly fatal than the bullet.

The nest of the Flamingo is a curious conical structure
of mud, with a cavity at the summit, in which are placed
two or three whitish eggs. When the female bird sits on
242 THE TAME GOOSE

the nest, her feet rest on the ground, or hang into the |
water. The height of the bird is between five and six
feet.

Puenticorrkros.—(Gr. Sowixdarepos, red-winged. )



Rubra (Lat. red), the Flanvingo.

Of the Tame Goosz, Anser ferus, nothing need be said,
except that enormous flocks are bred in Lincolnshire, con-
taining from two to ten thousand birds each. The birds
are periodically subjected to the operation of plucking out
the quill-feathers, in order to supply the vast demand for
pens, &e.
THE MUTE OR TAME SWAN 243

The Mure or Tame Swan, a well-known ornament to
our lakes and rivers, is not an inhabitant of England, but
was introduced from Eastern Europe and Asia several
hundred years back. All are familiar with the graceful
deportment of this bird while sailing on the suface of the
water. Unfortunately, its progress on land by no means
corresponds with its aquatic grace, being confined to an
awkward waddle.

Cyanus.—(Lat. @ Swan.)



————

Olor (Lat. a Swan), the Mute Swan.

The female Swan makes its nest of a great mass of dry
reeds, placed among osiers or rushes near the water, and
lays six or eight large white eggs. During the time of
incubation, and while the young ave still small, the parent
birds defend them with great assiduity and courage.

Several large Swanneries are still in existence. The
Crown, and the Dyers’ and Vintners’ Companies own the
greater part of the Swans on the Thames, and their Swans
244 THE BLACK SWAN

are annually marked on the bills by men termed Swan-
uppers or hoppers. The mark of the Vintners’ Company
is a notch or nick at each side of the bill, from which
arose the term, ‘Swans with two nicks,” corrupted into
“necks.”

The spelling-books always say that a Swan can break a
man’s leg with a blow of its wing. Whether they can
break the leg of a man or not, I cannot say with certainty,

CuENOPIS.—(Gr. Xqv, a Goose ; dy, a face.)



Atrata (Lat blackened), the Black Swan.

but I have had ocular witness that they cannot break that
of a boy. I have repeatedly seen a boy chase a Swan
into a corner, catch it by the neck, and drag it out, in
spite of all the flapping of its wings.

“Like a Brack Swan” was formerly a well-known
proverb, analogous to the Horse Marines of the present
day; unfortunately for the proverb, a Swan has been
discovered in Australia, the whole of whose plumage is a
THE MALLARD, OR WILD DUCK 245

jetty black, with the exception of the quill feathers, which
are white. It has been domesticated in this country, and
may be seen in St. James’s Park eagerly seeking after the
crumbs offered by juvenile hands. It is rather smaller
than the Whistling Swan.

The Matuarp, or Witp Duck, is the origin of our
domestic bird, and is widely spread over the northern
Awas.—(Lat. a Duck.)

\

ame *
pe; yl










Boschas (Gr. Béoxas, a Mallard; from Béoxn, pasture), the Mallard.

parts of Europe, Asia, and America. In the winter it
migrates in countless flocks, many reaching this country.
In Lincolnshire incredible numbers of these birds are
taken in avery ingenious trap, called a decoy. It is a
perfect edifice of poles and nets, and is built in the form
of a tube, very wide at the mouth, and very narrow at the
extremity. The ducks are induced to enter the “pipe”
by the antics of a dog, and by some hempseed previously
strewn on the water. They are then driven onwards to
the smaller end, where they are caught and killed.



The CotympipZ are remarkable for their powers of
diving. The legs are placed very far behind, and the toes
are so arranged as to fold up when returning from the
stroke,
246 GREAT NORTHERN DIVER

The foot of the Gresrs is not webbed like that of most
water birds, but each toe is separated and flattened, so as
to serve as a separate paddle. The Grebes dive so instan-
taneously that it is difficult to shoot them, as they dive at
the flash, and do not reappear for nearly two hundred
yards, and then they merely raise their head above water
for a second, and again disappear.

CotymsBus.—(Gr. KéAup Bos, a Diver.)



TTF

Glacialis (Lat. tey), the Great Northern Diver.

All the Grebes feed upon fishes and the various water
insects, but their stomachs are almost invariably found to
contain a mass of their own feathers. This circumstance
presents a singular analogy to those masses of compacted
hair which are found in the stomachs of cows. In all
probability the reason for their presence is the same, that
THE PUFFIN 247

the feathers and hairs are accidentally conveyed to the
stomach after the creature has been making its toilet.

Of the three British species of Divers, the Great
Norrurrn Diver is the largest. It is generally found on
the shores of the Orkneys and Shetland.

This bird justly deserves its name of Diver, as it can
pursue fish under water with the greatest ease and cer-
tainty, and can remain under water without inconvenience
for a considerable time. :

The nest of this bird is a tolerably large flattened mass
of dead herbage, and is placed near the water’s edge, in
some place where the bird imagines that the reeds and
flags, among which it is laid, will guard it from discovery.
But unfortunately, the bird dislikes flying, and prefers to
walk to and from its nest, thereby leaving a very evident
track, by which it is often discovered. .

The -eggs are usually two in number, although three
have been found in one nest. Their colour is dark olive
brown, sparingly marked with dark spots.



The Purrin is common at the Needles and the western
islands of England. It forms deep burrows in the soil,
in which one egg is deposited, or usurps the burrow of a
rabbit. The hole is generally from three to four feet in
depth, when the Puffin is forced to labour for itself; it
usually takes a winding course; and the inhabitant is
secured from surprise by forming two entrances, in order
that if one entrance is attacked, it may escape by the other.
The ege is always deposited at the furthest extremity of
the hole, and is not easy to be obtained, on account of the
vigorous resistance made by the parent bird. It is an
excellent diver, plunging fearlessly from a lofty cliff into
the sea, and speedily returning with its beak full of fish,
usually sprats, which are secured by their heads, and lie
in a row along the bill of the Puffin, forming a kind of
piscatorial fringe. Its enormous and sharp-edged bill
renders it a formidable antagonist to intruders. The
length of the bird is thirteen inches.
248 THE CAPE PENGUIN

It is said that the Raven and the Puffin have occasional
conflicts, the object of dispute being generally the egg or
young of the Auk, for
Fratercta,—(Lat.) which the Raven has
a great predilection.
The issue of the com-
bat depends principally
on its position, each
bird trying to keep to
its own peculiar ele-
ment. If the Puffin
can drag the Raven
over the rocks into the
sea, it is speedily vic-
torious, as it drowns its
sable adversary with-
out much trouble, but
if, on the contrary, the
Raven can keep to
shore, its superior size
Arctica (Lat. Arctic), the Puffin. and strength gain the
dominion.

The Care PENGUIN is very common at the Cape of Good
Hope and the Falkland Islands. From the extraordinary
sound it produces while on shore, it is called the Jackass
Penguin. Darwin gives the following interesting account
of this bird :—“In diving, its little plumeless wings are
used as fins, but on the land as front legs. ‘When crawling
(it may be said on four legs) through the tussocks, or on
the side of a grassy cliff, it moved so very quickly that it
might readily have been mistaken for a quadruped. When
at sea and fishing, it comes to the surface, for the purpose
of breathing, with such a spring, and dives again so in-
stantaneously, that I defy any one at first sight to be sure
that it is not a fish leaping for sport.”

These birds feed their young in a very singular manner.
The parent bird gets on a hillock, and apparently delivers
a very impassioned speech for a few minutes, at the end
of which it lowers its head and opens its beak. The



wi
THE STORMY PETREL 249

young one, who has SPHENISCUS.—(Gr. S@nvicxos, a little
been a patient audi- wedge. )
tor, thrusts its head
into the open beak
of the mother, and
seems to suck its
subsistence from
the throat of the
parent bird. An-
other speech is im-
mediately made, and
the same process re-
peated until the
young is satisfied.
This Penguin is
very courageous, but
utterly destitute of
the better part of
courage—discretion ;
for it will boldly Demersus (Lat. submerged), the Cape
charge at a& man Penguin.
just as Don Quixote
charged the wind- Taazassipréma.—(Gr. @daacoa, the sea;
mills, and with the Spdmos, a race.)
same success, aS a
few blows from a
stick is sufficient to
lay a dozen birds
prostrate.



The Stormy Pr-
TREL is, under the
name of Mother
Carey’s chicken, the
terror of the sailor,
who always con-
siders the bird as
the precursor of a
storm. It is the


250 THE WANDERING ALBATROSS

smallest of the web-footed birds. Few storms are violent
enough to keep this curious little bird from wandering over
the waves in search of the food that the disturbed water
casts to the surface. Like the Fulmar, the Stormy Petrel
is so exceedingly oily in texture, that the inhabitants of
the Feroe Islands draw a wick through its body and use it
as a lamp.

DioMEDEA.—(Proper name.)



Sey
Extilans (Lat. banished), the Wandering Albatross.

The WanDERING ALBATROSS, the largest of the genus, is a
well-known bird in the southern seas, following ships for
many miles in hopes of obtaining the refuse thrown over-
board. So voracious is the Albatross, that it will swallow
entire a fish of four or five pounds’ weight. The flight of
this bird is peculiarly majestic. Its extreme length of
wing prevents it from rising at once from the ground, but
when once launched into the air, it seems to float and
direct its course without effort.

The voracity of the Albatross renders it an easy prey. A
hook is baited with a piece of blubber, fastened firmly
to.a string, and suffered to tow astern. The bird imme-
diately sweeps down to seize its prey, and is arrested by
THE BLACK-BACKED GULL 251

the hook, by means of which it is drawn into the ship. It
seems rather remarkable that a bird that lives in or over
the sea during its whole life, should prove a landsman
when taken on board. Yet, when the Albatross is caught
and placed on deck, it begins to stagger about, and soon
becomes as thoroughly sea-sick as the most inexperienced
cockney. The best description of the nidification of the |
Wandering Albatross is that given by Mr. Earl, quoted by
Gould.

Mr. Earl, after climbing a fearfully dangerous precipice
in the Island of Tristan d’ Acunha, arrived at a large plain
of dark grey lava, on the summit of- which the nests of
the Albatross were made. ‘‘A death-like stillness prevailed
in these high regions, and to my ear our voices had a
strange unnatural echo, and I fancied our forms appeared
gigantic, whilst the air was piercing cold. The prospect
was altogether sublime, and filled the mind with awe.
The huge Albatross here appeared to dread no interloper or
enemy ; for their young were on the ground completely
uncovered, and the old ones were stalking around them.
They lay but one egg, on the ground, where they make a
kind of nest by scraping the earth around it; the young
is entirely white, and covered with a woolly down, which
is very beautiful. As we approach, they snapped their
beaks with a very quick motion, making a great noise;
this and the throwing up the contents of the stomach are
the only means of offence and defence they seem to possess.
I again visited the mountain about five months afterwards,
when I found the young Albatrosses still sitting on their
nests, and they had never moved away from thems’ The
expanse of wing in the Wandering Albatross is from eleven
to fourteen feet.

The BuLack-BAcKED GuLL is a common bird on our
coasts. During the winter it seeks the warmer coasts of
southern Europe. It breeds in great numbers on the
shores of the Bristol Channel, the Orkneys, and other
coasts of Great Britain. Its nest is composed of grass,
rushes, and other materials, and contains three or four

R
be
OU
bo

THE COMMON TERN

Lanrus.—(Lat. a Guill.)





Marinus (Lat. belonging to the sea), the Black-backed Gull.

eggs, of an olive green marked with very dark brown.
Neither the gulls nor the terns dive, but snatch up their
prey when at or near the surface.

Sub-family c. Sternine.
SrERNA.—(Lat.)







Hirundo (Lat. a Swallow), the Common Tern.

The Terns, or SEa-SwALLows, are possessed of great power
and endurance of flight, their long forked tails and pointed
wings indicating strength and swiftness.
THE CORMORANT D 253

The Common Tern is found in plenty along the southern
shores of Europe, in many parts of Asia and Africa. It
is frequently seen on the southern shores of England, and
has been found in North America. It preys on fish, which
it snatches from the surface with unerring aim, as it skims
over the waves with astonishing velocity.

The nest of this bird is made on the sand above Tet
water mark, and contains two or three eggs, on which the
female usually sits by night. The length of the Common
Tern is about fourteen inches.

The Noddy, so frequently celebrated by travellers who
have passed the equator, is a species of Tern,

The Cormorant
is found in abund- PuHAtAcrocérax.—(Gr. éadaxpdés, bald ;
ance on our coasts, kedpag, a Raven.)
and is widely spread
over many parts of
the world. It is
exceedingly vora-
cious, and devours
an almost incredible
amount of fish. It
is an excellent diver,
and chases the fish
actually under the
water, seldom if ever
returning without
having secured its
prey. Like the otter,
when engaged in
chase, it occasionally
rises to take breath,
and then resumes 3
the pursuit with re- Carbo (Lat. a Coal), the Cormorant.
newed vigour.

“The Cormorant has the power of perching on trees, an
accomplishment which we should hardly suspect a web-
footed bird of possessing. Milton, in a-well-known passage


254 THE WHITE PELICAN

in his “ Paradise Lost,” alludes to this habit. Speaking
of Satan under the disguise of the Cormorant, he tells
that he,

se on the tree of life,

ane middle tree, and highest there that grew,
at.”



The Cormorant is easily tamed, and its fishing propen-
sities can be turned to good account, The Chinese, at the
present day, employ a kind of Cormorant for that purpose,
having previously placed a ring round the bird’s neck, to
prevent it from swallowing the fish. The eggs of this
bird are usually laid on the rock, but sometimes in the
branches of trees. A thick coat of chalk envelopes the

eggs, and can be
PreLecAnus.—(Latinised from Gr. WeAexdav.) easily scraped off
an with a knife. The
length of the bird
is about three feet.



The Waite PELI-
cAN inhabits Africa,
India, and great
part of the south-
eastern portions of
Europe. It is a
very conspicuous
bird, its singular
membranous pouch
offering a distinction
perfectly unmistak-
able. The pouch,
when distended,
= holds two gallons

7 : I
Onocrotilus (Gr. ’Ovoxpérados ; derived oe Ee ees poe
from Bvos, an ass, and xpéraAov, a rattle), OIA Aas the power
the White Pelican. of contracting it so

that it is scarcely to
be discerned. The pouch also serves as a net in which to
THE LIZARDS 255

scoop up the fish on which the Pelican feeds.* Another
most important use of the pouch is to convey food to the
young. The parent Pelican presses the pouch against its
breast, in order to enable the young to obtain the fish ;
which action, in all probability, gave rise to the fable of
the Pelican feeding its young with its own blood. The
red tip of the bill probably aided the deception.

Although a web-footed bird, the Pelican, like the cor-
morant, can perch on trees, although it prefers sitting on
rocks, The colour of this bird is a pure white, with a
very slight tinge of rose-colour, and the pouch is yellow.
The length of the bird is nearly six feet.

REPTILES.

WE now arrive at the singular Class of Reprinzs. The
animals of this class vary exceedingly in their forms, sizes,
and habits, but the peculiar formation of the circulatory
system, together with many other anatomical distinctions,
plainly mark them out as a distinct class.

The Lizarps are usually active, bright-eyed little crea-
tures, delighting to bask in the sun, near some safe retreat,
to which they dart with astonishing celerity upon the
slightest alarm. Two species of Lizards inhabit this
country, the Common Lizard and the Sand Lizard. The
latter animal is considerably larger than the Common
Lizard, as it sometimes measures a foot in length. It
frequents sandy heaths, and in the sand its eggs are de-
posited, fourteen or fifteen in number. The eggs are
hatched by the heat of the sun, and the young imme-
diately lead an independent life. During the winter this
as well as the Common Lizard hybernates in a burrow
usually made under the roots of a tree, nor does it again
make its appearance until the spring.

* The beautiful Pelicans in the Zoological Gardens exhibit this pouch and its
uses ao
256 THE BLIND-WORM
The Common Lizard is only six inches in length. It is
more active than the Sand Lizard, disappearing like magic
Zoorica.—(Gr. Zwds, living ; rixrw, to bring forth.)

x RAY
= AS ke

oN
S if
WY












Vivipara (Lat. viviparous), the Common Lizard.

on being alarmed. When seized, its tail frequently snaps
off like glass. Both British Lizards feed on insects.

The Butinp-worm is not a snake, as generally supposed,
but a legless lizard of the Skink family. It is perfectly

ANcUIS.—(Lat. a Snake.)



Fragilis (Lat. fragile), the Blind-worm or Slow-worm.

harmless ; its small mouth and very minute teeth pre
cluding all attempts to injure, even if it had the will.
THE IGUANA 257

When alarmed, it snaps asunder at the slightest blow, like
the tail of the Common Lizard, and from that peculiarity
has derived its name of “fragilis.” It feeds almost en-
tirely on small slugs, its jaws not being capable of admitting
any larger prey. It is very common in most parts of
England, and may be seen basking in the sun in hedge-
rows or under old walls, Its eyes are very small, but
brilliant.

The Iguana family is a very large one, containing 150
species. The Common Iguana is a native of Brazil, Cayenne,

Ievana.—(Native name.)



Tuberculita (Lat. covered with pimples), the Iguana.

Jamaica, &c, In spite of its repulsive appearance, it is
with many people a favourite article of food, and is said
somewhat to resemble chicken. It is very fierce when
-attacked, and snaps at its enemies in a most determined
manner, often scaring away an intruder by the ferocity of
its aspect. It is generally taken by throwing a noose
over its head, and dragging it from the branches by main
force. It is then immediately killed, as its sharp notched
258 : THE FLYING-DRAGON

teeth can inflict a very disagreeable wound. Sometimes it
is hunted with dogs trained to the sport. It attains a con-
siderable size, frequently reaching the length of six feet.
It feeds usually on vegetable substances, such as leaves,
fruit, and fungi; but Iguanas have been seen in the Island
of Isabella, that feed on eggs, insects, and even the intes-
tines of fowls. An enormous fossil Iguana has been
discovered by Dr. Mantell, whose length must have been
nearly seventy feet.



The terrible name of Fuiyinc Dracon belongs to a
harmless little lizard, bearing small resemblance to the

Draco.—(Lat. a Dragon.)





Ay \

Volans (Lat. flying), the Flying Dragon.



terrific animal so graphically depicted by Retsch. This
curious little lizard lives on trees, and feeds on insects
instead of devouring pilgrims bound to the Gnadenbilde.
The peculiar structure of its body bears a singular resem-
blance to that of the flying squirrel. The first six false
ribs are greatly elongated, and support a wing-like expan-
sion of skin, which when stretched serves to bear them up
as they skim through the air from one tree to another.
While running about on the branches, the so-called wings
are folded to the side, but when it wishes to throw itself
from the tree, the ribs are raised, and the wings expanded.
It is common in Java, India, and Borneo.
THE COMMON CHAMELEON _ 259

The Common CHAMELzON is plentifully found in northern
Africa, the south of Spain, and Sicily. It lives on trees,
but exhibits none of the activity usually found in arboreal
reptiles. On the contrary, its movements are absurdly
grave and solemn. The whole activity of the animal
seems to be centred in its tongue, by means of which
organ it secures flies and other insects with such mar-
vellous rapidity, that the ancients may be well pardoned
for their assertion that the air formed the only food of the
Chameleon. Highly exaggerated descriptions have been
given of the changes of colour in this animal. The

CHAMELKON.—(Gr. XapatAdwy, a Chameleon.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Chameleon.

changes are by no means so complete, nor are the colours
so bright, as generally supposed.

ee And then its hue,
Who ever saw so fine a blue?”



The poetic moralist further recounts its changes to green,
black, and white. The umpire referred to in the poem is
recorded to have asserted,

“Tf you don’t find him black, I'll eat him ;”

but every one who has watched a Chameleon for any time,
will be equally ready to eat him the moment that he turns
white.:

The power of the Chameleon to moveits eyes in different
‘260 THE RATTLE-SNAKE

directions at the same time gives it a most singular
aspect. Its enormously long tongue can be withdrawn into
the mouth when not in use; but when the creature sees
a fly within reach, the tongue is instantly darted forth, and
by means of a gummy secretion at the tip secures the fly.
The whole movement is so quick as almost to elude the eye.

—_—_——

‘Tue peculiar gliding movements of the Snakes render
them excellent types of the Reptiles; a word derived
from the Latin repo, I creep. The extraordinary flexibility
of their bodies is caused by the structure of their vertebra,
each one of which fits into the one behind it by a ball-
and-socket joint, thus allowing freedom of motion in every
direction.

The RATTLE-SNAKE is a native of America. Its name is
derived from the loose bony structure at the extremity of
its tail, called the rattle, and which by the sound of its
movements gives timely intimation of the vicinity of this
terrible reptile. Fortunately, its disposition is exceedingly
sluggish, and it invariably sounds its rattle when irritated
or disturbed. Its bite is inevitably mortal, and death
always ensues within a few hours after the wound has
been inflicted.

The deadly weapons with which the venomous serpents
are armed, are two long curved fangs belonging to the
upper jaw, and moving on a hinge, by which they lie flat
in the mouth when not wanted. An aperture exists in
the point of the fang, by which a poisonous fluid, secreted
in a gland at the base of the tooth, is poured into the
wound, and, mixing with the blood, rapidly carries its
deadly influence throughout the entire system. A short
time since, an American physician was exhibiting a caged
Rattlesnake to his friends; he approached his hand too
near the irritated reptile, who instantaneously inflicted a
wound; and, although every precaution was taken, the
bite proved fatal in a few hours.

The inhabitants of those countries where the Rattle-
THE RATTLE-SNAKE 261

snake lives are not very much afraid of it, as they know
that it will be sure to run away directly it hears the
approach of human footsteps. It appears that when a
man is cutting wood or otherwise engaged in a forest, and
hears a Rattle-snake near him, he has no fear, as long as
he can keep its rattle going, but directly the sound ceases,
the man is rather in dread, not knowing where the animal
may turn up next; so he keeps the snake in a constant
state of alarm, by throwing bits of wood or sticks at the
place where the reptile is lying, and on again hearing the

Unorsornus.—(Gr. Odpd, the tail; Wédos, a noise.)



Durissus (Lat. durus, harsh), the Rattle-snake.

‘sound of the rattle, he continues his work in confidence,
until the snake is silent, when some more missiles are sent
in the same direction.

An American traveller told me that, even when these
snakes are ready for a spring, they can be avoided by smartly
clapping the hands together, or striking the ground with a
stick. The snake has the whole powers of its mind bent
upon its fatal stroke, and, on hearing such an unexpected
sound, it is startled, like a man suddenly waked from sleep,
and falls down in its coil again, giving time for its intended
262 THE PUFF ADDER

victim to escape before it has made up its mind to another
assault.

The length of this snake has seldom been known to
exceed seven feet.

CLoTHo.*—(Gr. proper name.)



Ariétans (Lat. butting like a Ram), the Puff Adder.

The Purr AppER is an inhabitant of Southern Africa.
It is a short, thick, flattish snake, of a most sinister and
malignant aspect. The following alarming adventure
occurred to Mr. Cole, a resident in the Cape.

“Twas going quietly to bed one evening, wearied by a
long day's hunting, when, close to my feet and by my bed-
side, some glittering substance caught my eye. I stooped
to pick it up; but, ere my hand had quite reached it, the
truth flashed across me—it was a snake! Had I followed
my first natural impulse, I should have sprung away, but
not being able clearly to see in what position the reptile
was lying, or which way his head was pointed, I controlled
myself, and remained rooted breathless to the spot. Strain-
ing my eyes, but moving not an inch, I at length clearly
distinguished a huge Puff Adder,—the most deadly snake

* This is the name of one of the three Fates; viz. Clotho, Lachesis, and
Atropos. All three names are used as genera of venomous serpents,
THE COMMON VIPER 263

in the colony, whose bite would have sent me to the other
world in an hour or two. I watched him in silent horror ;
his head was from me; so much the worse—for this
snake, unlike any other, always rises and strikes back.
He did not move, he was asleep. Not daring to shuffle
my feet, lest he should awake and spring upon me, I took
a jump backwards, that would have done honour to a
gymnastic master, and thus darted outside the door of the
room ; with a thick stick I then returned and settled his
worship.”

The same author remarks in his “Five Years’ Residence
in South Africa,” that its (the Puff Adder’s) bite will kill
occasionally within an hour.

It is the more dangerous, because it has a way of flat-
tening itself upon the ground; so that, when it is lying
thus concealed upon the sand, an incautious pedestrian is
very likely to tread upon it.

PELIAs.—(Gr. proper name.)



Berus, the Viper.

The Common Viper, or ADDER, is the only venomous
reptile inhabiting England, nor is its bite nearly so
dangerous in its consequences as has been reported. Seldom
264 THE BOA-CONSTRICTOR “

has the bite of the Viper proved mortal; and in all pro-
bability, had proper precautions been taken, no case would
have been fatal. Viper-catchers employ olive oil as a
remedy against the bite, and, from all accounts, it appears
to be a certain preservative against all evil effects. The
oil should be heated to produce its full efficacy.

It is asserted that, when danger threatens, the female
viper opens her mouth and permits her brood to hide
themselves, but it is by no means an ascertained fact.

Frogs, lizards, mice, and other small animals, form the
food of this reptile, but sometimes it falls a victim to its
own voracity. In the “Magazine of Natural History,” a
Viper is mentioned which had swallowed a lizard nearly
as large as itself, and one of whose legs was protruding
from its side.

In former times, preparations from Vipers, and especially
viper-broth, were in great request as medicines.

Boa.—(Native name.)



Constrictor (Lat. a binder), the Boa.
TEE COBRA DE CAPELLO 265

The Boa-constricror.—The enormous Boa-constrictor
inhabits tropical America. It is not venomous, but it is
not the less dangerous, as the tremendous power of its
muscles enables it to crush its prey in the coils of its huge
body. In order to procure its food, the Boa-constrictor
lies in wait by the side of some river or pool, where
animals of all kinds are likely to come to quench their
thirst. It patiently waits until some animal draws within
reach, when, with one spring, the Boa fixes its teeth in
the creature’s head, coils its body round its victim, and
crushes it to death. After the unfortunate animal has
been reduced almost to a shapeless mass by the pressure
of the snake, its destroyer makes preparations for swallow-
ing it entire, a task which it accomplishes, although the
slaughtered animal is usually very much larger than the
dimensions of the serpent. At last, the snake succeeds in
swallowing its prey, and. then lies torpid for nearly a
month, until its enormous meal is digested, when it again
sallies forth in search of another.

Even the buffalo has been known to fall a victim to this
fearful serpent, whose length frequently exceeds twenty-
five feet.



The Copra DE CapELLo is a native of India. It must
not be confounded with several other hooded snakes, such
as the Haje of Egypt, the snake so frequently depicted on
the hieroglyphical monuments.

The serpent-charmers invariably use this formidable
reptile for their performances. The exhibitors possess
several Cobras shut up in baskets, and when commencing
their performances, the lid of the basket is opened, and
the snake creeps out. Its course is arrested by the sound
of the rude fife that the charmer always carries, and it im-
mediately expands its beautiful though threatening hood,
erects its neck, and commences a series of undulating
movements, which are continued until the sound of the
fife ceases, when the snake instantly drops, and is replaced
in its basket by its master. ‘The charmers appear to be
able to discover snakes, and to induce them to leave their
266 THE COMMON RINGED SNAKE

Nasa.—(Native name. )

BS
WT,
<

=A

(

WE) SS
GANA

ag Hy ae
XK

(l
\

Nii

NS.



retreats. Indeed it is rather a singular fact, that those
travellers who most strongly insist that the snakes thus
caught are tame and divested of their fangs, appear to
forget that even in that case the creatures must have been
previously caught in order to deprive them of their
weapons. The length of this snake is about five or six
feet.

The Common Rincep or Grass SNAKE is a harmless in-
habitant of this country, and may be frequently seen or
heard gliding along the hedge-banks in search of food. It
is easily tamed, and soon learns to know its master. It
lives principally on frogs, mice, young birds, newts, &c.
It is an excellent swimmer, and from the peculiar con-
struction of its lungs, can remain under water for some
THE TORTOISE 267

time. It seems very fond of the water, and is most com-
monly found on marshy land, or in hedges planted over
a wet ditch. The
viper, on the con- Narnrix.—(Lat. a Water Snake.)
trary, prefers dry,
sandy situations.
Several snakes
kept tame at a vil-
lage in Wiltshire
were fed with frogs
and small newts,
which latter ani-
mals the snake was
induced to swallow,
by the simple pro-
cess of opening the
snake’s mouth, and
pushing the newt
down its throat.
This plan, although
apparently rather
rude, appeared to
cause the snakes no



inconvenience. Torquita (Lat. collared), the Ringed
Like all other Snake.
serpents, theRinged

Snake sheds its skin several times during the year. The
entire skin comes off, even the covering of the eyes. A
rent opens in the neck, and the snake, by entangling itself
in the thick grass or bushes, actually creeps out of its
skin, turning it inside out in the effort.

The Tortoisr.—The whole of this order is characterised
by the complete suit of bony armour with which the
animals are protected. The so-called “shell” isin fact a
development of various bones, and not a mere horny
appendage, like the coverings of the armadillo and manis.

8
268 THE COMMON LAND TORTOISE

The upper shield is called the “carapace,” and is united
to the under shield or ‘“ plastron” by certain bones, leav-
ing orifices for the protrusion of the head and limbs,
Most species are able to withdraw their head and limbs
completely within the shell, and in some few the orifices
are closed by a kind of hinge joint. The tortoiseshell of
commerce is a series of horny plates that cover the exte-
rior of the shield, and is in great request, on account of the
beautiful wavy markings that are so familiar to our eyes.

Tgstupo.—(Lat. a Tortoise.)



Greca (Lat. Greek), the Tortoise.

The Tortoises and Turtles possess no teeth, but the sides
‘of their jaws are very hard and sharp, enabling them to
crop vegetable substances, or to inflict a severe bite.

The family is divided into Land Tortoises, Marsh Tor-
toises, River Tortoises, and Marine Tortoises, or Turtles.

The Common Lanp Tortoise is found in abundance in
the south of Europe. It is often kept in captivity in
this country, and is very long-lived, individuals being
known to have exceeded two hundred years. Its move-
ments are very slow, but it can excavate a burrow with
THE COMMON LAND TORTOISE 269

unexpected rapidity. Secure in an impenetrable covering,

it bids defiance to any ordinary enemy, except, as Sydney
Smith wittily observes, “man, and the boa-constrictor.
Man, however, takes him home and roasts him, and the
boa-constrictor swallows -him whole, shell and all, and
consumes him slowly in the interior, as the Court of
Chancery does a great estate.”

I had a common Land Tortoise for a few months, part
of whose life is described in the following passage, which
has already appeared as a note to White’s “Natural
History of Selborne.”

Some time since, a man arrived in Oxford, bringing
with him tortoises for sale. They passed their existence
in a basket, where they were packed close, like so many
bricks, standing on their tails, and their heads looking out
of the basket. When I purchased one of them, the man
emptied out his whole basketful upon the table, and
then turned out the contents of four large pockets, until
a large table was entirely covered with them.

The tortoise which I purchased was a very small one,
and was tolerably lively, walking about the room, and
always settling on the hearthrug. It had a great genius
for climbing, and would sometimes spend nearly an hour
in endeavouring to scale the fender, probably attracted by
the heat. Unfit as the form of the creature may seem for
such a purpose, it did contrive to scramble upon a footstool
which was placed by the fender. Its method of attaining
this elevation was as follows :—First it reared up against
the footstool in the angle formed by it and the fender,
and after several ineffectual attempts, succeeded in hitching ©
the claws of one of its hind feet into the open work of the
fender. On this it raised itself, and held on to the top of
the stool by its fore feet, while it gained another step on
the fender, and so managed to raise itself to such a height,
that it only had to fall flat on the top of the footstool.
When once there, it could hardly be induced to leave the
elevation which it had gained with such difficulty.

Tts food consisted of bread and milk, which it ate

several times a day, drinking the milk by scooping up
270 THE COMMON GREEN TURTLE

some of it in its lower jaw, and then, by throwing its head
back, the milk ran down its throat. Tortoises are generally
long-lived, but this animal died within a few months after
it came into my possession, in all probability because, for
some days, its food was placed in a brass vessel.

Several days before its death it was very restless, and
went about the room mewing like a young kitten, and
made such a noise, that it had to be ejected during
working hours. I could not for some time believe that
the mewing could proceed from the tortoise, as the resem-
blance to that of a kitten was most exact.

CHELONIA.—(Gr. XeA@vn, a tortoise.)















Se
ee

Viridis (Lat. green), the Turtle.

The Common Green Turtis.—The feet of the Marine
Tortoises, or turtles, are modified into fins or flippers,
just as are the feet of the seals, and consequently,
although the turtles are active in the water, on land their
walk is nothing but an awkward shuffle. The flippers,
however, are admirable instruments for scooping out the
sand, in which the eggs are laid, and afterwards covered
THE CROCODILE 271

over. Nearly two hundred eggs are laid in one nest. The
eggs are held in great estimation, but the albumen, or
“ white,” does not become hard by boiling. :

The Common Green Turtle, whose flesh is considered
such a luxury, is common in Jamaica, and most of the
islands of the East and West Indies. The turtles are
captured by turning them on their backs ; for the carapace
is so flat, and their legs are so short, that they are forced
to lie helpless until their captors have leisure to drag them
away. The Green Turtle has been known to reach the
weight of five or six hundred pounds. The tortoiseshell
of commerce is almost entirely obtained from the Hawksbill
Turtle. ,

—_—<——.

The Crocopite.—These animals are separated from the
Lizards on account of the peculiar horny covering with
which they are protected.

The Crocodile is an inhabitant of the Old World, the
Alligator of the New, and the two animals are best dis-
tinguished by the construction of the jaws. In the Cro-
codiles the lower canine teeth fit into a notch in the edge
of the upper jaw, and there is in consequence a contrac-
tion of the muzzle just behind the nostrils. The lower
canine teeth of the Alligators fit into a pit in the edge of
the upper jaw, and in consequence no contraction is
needed. At the back of the throat is a valve completely
shutting out water, but leaving the passage to the nos-
trils free, so that the Crocodile can keep his mouth open
when beneath the surface, without swallowing the water,
or can hold his prey to drown under the water, while he
breathes at ease with his nostrils at the surface. There
is no true tongue.

The Common Crocodile inhabits many African rivers,
and is, probably, the reptile infesting the Ganges, The
Nile, however, is the best known haunt of this terrible
creature.

The Crocodile feeds on fish, floating carrion, and dogs, or
other animals, which it is enabled to surprise as they come
272 THE CROCODILE

to drink at the water’s edge, but man frequently falls a
victim to its voracity. In revenge for this treatment, all
nations persecuted with this pest have devised various
methods of killing it. The negroes of some parts of
Africa are sufficiently bold and skilful to attack the Cro-
codile in his own element. They fearlessly plunge into
the water, and diving beneath the Crocodile, plunge the
dagger with which they are armed into the creature’s

Crocopinus.—(Gr. KpoxddeAos, Crocodile kind. )*





Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Crocodile,

belly, which is not protected by the coat of mail that
guards the other parts of its body. The usual plan is to
lie in wait near the spot where the Crocodile is accus-
tomed to repose. This is usually a sandy bank, and the
hunter digs a hole in the sand, and, armed with a sharp
harpoon, patiently awaits the coming of his expected
prey. The Crocodile comes to its accustomed spot, and

* The word Crocodile literally signifies, ‘one afraid of saffron,”
THE ALLIGATOR, OR CAYMAN 273

is soon asleep, when it is suddenly roused by the harpoon,
which penetrates completely through its scaly covering.
The hunter immediately retreats to a canoe, and hauls at
the line attached to the harpoon until he drags the Croco-
dile to the surface, when he darts a second harpoon. The
struggling animal is soon wearied out, dragged to shore,
and dispatched by dividing the spinal cord. In order to
prevent the infuriated reptile from biting the cord asunder,
it is composed of about thirty small lines, not twisted, but
only bound together at intervals of two feet.

When on land it is not difficult to escape the Crocodile,
as certain projections on the vertebree of the neck prevent
it from turning its head to any great extent.

The eggs of this creature are very small, hardly exceed-
ing those of a goose; numbers are annually destroyed by
birds of prey and quadrupeds, especially the Ichneumon.

The ALuicator, or CayMAN, is an inhabitant of the
New. World, and is unpleasantly common in the rivers of
North America. It pursues fish with exceeding dexterity,
by driving a shoal of them into a creek, and then plung-
ing amid the terrified mass, and devouring its victims at
its pleasure. It also catches pigs, dogs, and other animals
that venture too close to the river. In that case, as the
animal is too large to be swallowed entire, the Alligator
conceals it in some hole in the bank until it begins to
putrefy, when it is dragged out, and devoured under the
concealment of the rank herbage fringing the river.

The usual method of taking this creature is by baiting
a most formidable four-pointed hook, composed of wooden
spikes artistically arranged, and suffering it to float in the
river, When an Alligator has swallowed it, he is hauled
on shore by the rope, and slaughtered.

Like the Crocodile, the Alligator lays its eggs in the
sandy bank of the river. Fortunately, but few of the
young ever reach maturity, as their ranks are thinned by
various birds and beasts of prey before the eggs are
274 THE FROG

ALLIGATOR.—(Spanish, H Lagato, the Lizard.)

tf S.



' Mississipensis (Lat. of the Mississippt), the Alligator.

hatched, and by the attacks of large fishes, and even their
own species, when they have reached the water.

The Froc.—The appearance and habits of the Frog and
the Toad are so familiar as to require but little description.
A short account, however, is necessary of the peculiarities
common to both Frogs and Toads. “

In the early stage of their existence, these animals are
termed tadpoles. They at first appear to be nothing but
head and tail, but after several days have passed, four legs
are observed to become developed. These rapidly increase,
and the little creature closely resembles a small eft. In
due time, however, the tail is lost, and the creature becomes
a perfect frog. Another important change also takes
place. In its tadpole state the creature was essentially a
water animal, but after its change has taken place it is not
THE FROG 275

able to exist under water for any great length of time, and
is forced to come to the surface to breathe.

The tongue of the Frog is curiously fixed almost at the
entrance of the mouth, and when at rest points backwards
down the throat. When, however, the Frog comes within
reach of a slug or insect, the tongue is darted out with
exceeding rapidity, the slug secured, carried to the back of
the throat, and swallowed.

Both frogs and toads hybernate, the former congregating

Rana.—(Lat. a Frog.)



Temporaria (Lat. temporary), the Common Frog.

in multitudes in the mud at the bottom of ponds and
marshes, while the latter choose a hole in the ground, fre-
quently at the roots of a tree, and pass the winter in
solitary dignity. In February 1852 two frogs were dug
_out of the gravelled play-ground of Magdalen School,
Oxford. They were about a foot from the surface of the
ground, and their habitation was quite smooth. Both were
sitting with their mouths pointed upwards, but I could
not ascertain if there had been any communication with
the open air.

The skin of these animals has the property of imbibing
water, so that if an apparently emaciated frog is placed in
a damp place, it will soon look quite plump.
276 THE COMMON TOAD

The Common Frog is a well-known frequenter of marshy
places and the banks of rivers. It is an admirable
swimmer, and from the peculiar construction of its lungs
can remain for some time under water, but is forced periodi-
cally to come to the surface for the purpose of breathing.

The Bull Frog is an inhabitant of North America. It
is very voracious, feeding upon fishes, molluscs, and even
_young fowl. Its powers of leaping are so great, that an
. Indian was not able to overtake an irritated bull-frog after
it had sprung three hops in advance. It is very large,
measuring about seven inches in length.

The Tree Frogs are very peculiar animals. The con-
struction of their feet, something resembling that of the
geckos, enables them to traverse the branches, and even to
hang on the under surface of a pendent leaf, which it
so resembles in colour that the unwary insect passes by and
is instantly seized by the watchful frog. The Green Tree
Frog is the most common, and is plentifully found in
southern Europe and northern Africa. There are several
specimens in the Zoological Gardens, which present a most

F absurd appearance

Buro.—(Lat. a Toad.) as they stick against

the pane of glass

forming the front
of their cage.

The Common
ToaD has had its
full share of mar-
vellous tales. Its
poisonous _proper-
ties are celebrated
in many an ancient
chronicle, as are
also the virtues of
the jewel contained
in its head.

Its skin certainly does secrete an acrid humour, which at
all events defends it from dogs, who can seldom be induced



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Common Toad.
THE NEWTS ‘QUT

to bite a toad a second time; but of course such absurd
notions as the romantic story of a young lady and her lover,
who died in consequence of eating a leaf of a shrub at the
root of which a toad had made its habitation, need no
refutation.

The Toad is easily tamed. A correspondent from the
country has kindly sent an account of a tame toad, that
had lived in the family for several years, and which was
accustomed to sup on a lump of sugar.

The well-known instances of imprisoned toads who must
have spent many years in their narrow habitations, are
apparently explained by the supposition that some aperture
or fissure existed, through which air and minute insects
could pass, suflicient for their nourishment while in a
semi-torpid condition. Certainly those experimented on
by Dr. Buckland in 1825, and from whom all air was cut
off, died before a year’s imprisonment. The Toad casts
its skin at certain times, but we never find the slough as
we do that of the snake, as the toad invariably swallows
its former covering.

The Newrts are separated from the lizards on account of
their changes while young. Like the frogs, they are first
tadpoles, and do not assume their perfect shape until six
weeks after their exclusion from the eggs.

The Common Newt is a beautiful inhabitant of the
ponds, ditches, and still waters. It feeds principally on
tadpoles and worms, which it eats with a peculiar rapid
snap. I have frequently seen it attack the smaller newt
with great perseverance, but I was never fortunate enough
to see it kill its prey.

I kept some Newts for some timo in a large glass vessel,
and noticed that when a new inhabitant was added, it
always cast its skin within two or three days. The skin
came off in pieces, the covering of the feet slipping off
like a glove; but I could never see how the creature con-
trived to pull these glove-like relics off.

It is constantly in the habit of rising to the surface of
the water in order to breathe.
278 THE NEWTS

Many country people have great horror of these beautiful
and harmless little animals. Ina little village in Wiltshire
there is a current anecdote of a girl who was bitten in the
arm by an effet, who spit fire into the wound. The girl
consequently lost her arm. Some of these newts or efts
were placed in a trough where the cows were accustomed
to drink, After a few days a calf died, and nothing
would convince the rustics that the effets were not the
_ cause of the untimely decease of the calf, although it

TriTon.—(Gr. Tpirwy, a Sea-god.)



Cristatus (Lat. crested), the Common Newt.

had never come near the trough, but was safely fastened
in the cow-house. The Newt has received the name of
Cristatus, or crested, on account of the beautiful crimson-
tipped wavy crest of loose skin that extends along the
whole course of the back and tail, and which, together
with the rich orange-coloured belly, makes it a most beau-
tiful creature. The female has a singular habit of laying
her eggs upon long leaves of water-plants, and actually
tying them in the leaf by a regular knot. _
THE PROTEUS 279

The Proteus is an extraordinary animal, which has’
been found in dark subterranean lakes, many hundred
feet below the surface of the earth, where no ray of light
can possibly enter. The eyes of this singular creature are
mere points covered with skin, and useless for vision ;
indeed, when in captivity it always chooses the darkest
parts of the vessel in which it is confined.

Prorrus.—(Proper name. )



Anguinus (Lat. dike a snake), the Proteus.

I have seen seven specimens of this strange creature,
which have lived for several years in a glass vessel covered
with green baize in order to keep them in the dark. They
have not been known to take any nourishmént whatever
during the time of their captivity, except the very trifling
amount of nutrition that might have been obtained by
changing the water.

The Proteus breathes in two ways—by lungs and by
gills, the latter organs appearing in the form of two tufts,
one on each side of the neck, just above the fore limbs.
The circulation of the blood in these branchial tufts can
easily be seen with a microscope of moderate power. These
tufts are of a rather deeper pink tinge than the remainder
of the body, which is of a very pale flesh-colour. Expo-
sure to light darkens the tints both of gills and body. It
bears some resemblance to the young of the newts, which
are furnished with branchial tufts, which they lose upon
attaining maturity, and was therefore for some time
thought to be the young of some unknown reptile. It
280 FISHES

has, however, been proved to be a perfect animal, and has
been found of all sizes.

The blood disks of this animal are exceedingly large ;
so large, indeed, as almost to be distinguished by the
naked eye. When in captivity, its movements are slow
and eel-like, nor does it seem to make much use of its
almost rudimentary limbs.

It has usually been found on the soft mud of a small
lake in the grotto of Maddalena. It is not always present,
and has been conjectured to be the inhabitant of some
unknown subterranean body of water, and to have been
forced through the crevices of the rocks. Besides the
grotto of Maddalena at Adelsburg, they have also been
found at Sittich, thirty miles distant, thrown up from a
subterranean cavity.

FISHES.

As the Fisuus live exclusively in the water, it is neces-
sary that their organs of respiration should be differently
formed from those of the animals breathing atmospheric
air. Instead of the purification of the blood being accom-
plished by the contact of atmospheric air in the apparatus
called lungs, that office is performed by the water, which
passes into the mouth of the fish, and from thence out at
the gill-covers, on its way being strained through the sin-
gular structure called the “ gills.” These gills are able to
extract from the water sufficient oxygen to purify the
blood of the fish. If the oxygen has already been ex-
tracted, the fish instantly dies. The same effect is pro-
duced if the fish be so held as to prevent the water from
flowing in the proper direction, so that it is perfectly
possible to drown a fish, Most anglers are perfectly aware
of the power obtained by keeping the head of a hooked
fish down the stream.
FISHES 281

The elongated form of fishes, and their smooth covering,
affording but little resistance to the water, beautifully
show their perfect adaptation for the element in which
they reside.

Their rapid movements through the water are principally
performed by means of a lateral vibration of the tail, just
as a boat is sculled along by a single oar at the stern, or
by a constant vibration of the rudder. The dead and
mangled carcase of a flensed whale has been frequently
known to swim for a considerable distance by the mere
force of the muscular movements of the tail after death.
The fins serve principally as balancers.

Most fish possess a singular organ called the “swimming-
bladder.” This is a membranous pouch, varying exceed-
ingly in size and shape, situated close under the spine, and
filled by some means with gas, mostly found to be nitrogen,
but in deep-sea fishes an excess of oxygen is discovered to
exist. The fish seems to be able to rise or sink by means
of compressing or expanding this pouch, without being
forced to make use of its tail or fins.

The smooth scaly covering with which most fish are
furnished is admirably fitted both for defence against the
water and for enabling the fish to glide easily through
places where a rough covering would have held it prisoner.
Many valuable characteristics are derived from the shape
of the scales in different fish. There are four principal
varieties, called, 1. Placoid, or flat scales; 2. Ganoid, or
polished scales; 8. Ctenoid, or toothed scales; and 4.
Cycloid, or circular scales. These names are derived from
1. mAaxoue, a flat cake; 2. yarow, I polish; 3. crete, xrevec,
a comb; 4. cvkAoc, a circle. The scales of the (1) Dogfish,
(2) Sturgeon, (3) Perch, and (4) Carp are excellent in-
stances of the four kinds of scales.

The Acanthopterygii are so called from their spinous fin
rays. . The Perch is an excellent example of this order.

The Rep Gurnarp, or Cuckoo GURNARD, as it is some-
times called from the sound it utters when taken out of
the water, is very common on the English coast. It is
989 THE GURNARD

rather a small fish, rarely exceeding fourteen inches in
length. The colours of its body when living are very
beautiful, the upper part being bright red, and the under
parts silvery white.

There are nine species of Gurnard known to frequent
the coasts of England, some, as the Sapphirine and the
Mailed Gurnards, being most extraordinary in form.

TricLa.—(Gr. TpiyaAa, a Mullet.)
Cz — mots



Cucilus (Lat. a Cuckoo), the Gurnard.

The Flying Gurnard is common in the Indian seas.
Its pectoral fins are so much enlarged, that when it springs
out of the water, when pursued by the dolphin or bonito,
the wide quivering fins are able to sustain it in the air for
a limited period.

This fish has often been confounded by voyagers with
the true Flying-fish (Zaocewtus), which belongs to an en-
tirely different order.

The Common Prrcu is well known to anglers both asa
“bold biting fish,’ and as one that does not yield up its
life without endangering the person of its captor; for the
THE COMMON PERCH 283

formidable row of spinous rays belonging to the first. dor-
sal fin have wounded the hands of many an incautious
angler.

It is extremely voracious, so much so that after all the
legitimate bait has been exhausted, it is a common practice
for the fisherman to place on his hook the eyes of the
perch already taken, which are as eagerly bitten at as the
worms were formerly. An anecdote is related of a gentle-
man who struck at a Perch, but unfortunately missed it,
the hook tearing out the eye of the poor creature. He

Perca.—(Gr. Mépen, a Perch.)



Fluviatilis (Lat. of the river), the Perch.

adjusted the eye on the hook, and replaced the line in the
water, where it had hardly been a few minutes before the
float was violently jerked under the surface. Theangler of
course struck, and found he had captured a fine Perch.
This when landed was discovered to be the very fish which
had just been mutilated, and which had actually lost its
life by devouring its own eye. It is quaintly observed by
Izaak Walton, that “if there be twenty or forty in a hole,
they may be at one standing all caught one after another,
they being like the wicked of the world, not afraid though
their fellows and companions perish in their sight.”

The Perch seldom exceeds two pounds and a half in
weight, and a Perch weighing a pound and a half is con-
sidered a very fine fish.

ae
284 THE MACKEREL

The Macxerren.—The elegant shape and resplendent
colours of the Mackerel point it out as one of the most
beautiful fishes known. Nor is it only valuable for its
beauty, as it is highly prized as an article of food in most
parts of the world.

Vast shoals of Mackerel visit our coasts, and myriads
are taken by fishermen both by nets and with lines. The
line of nets frequently exceeds a mile in extent, and of
course the number of fish contained in this enormous net
must be beyond all calculation. On several occasions, the

Scomprr.—(Gr. SxduBpos, a generic name meshes of the net

for the Tunny.) were completely
choked up by fish
hanging by their
gills, and the net
acted likea dredge,
sweeping up my-
riads more fish in a
solidmass. In 1808,
the whole net and
its cargo sunk and

were lost to the too
Scombrus (Latinized form of SxéuBpos), successful __ fisher-
the Mackerel.



aS

men.

The profits of the fishery vary exceedingly ; sometimes
the boats will hardly take a single mackerel, and at other
times, or even in different spots, the draught of fish will
nearly fill the boat. In 1834, one boat sold in one night
nearly one hundred pounds’ worth of mackerel.

The fish require to be used soon after they are taken
out of the water, as the flesh is very tender, and easily
injured by exposure to the air, or by carriage to any great
distance.

When the fishermen employ the line for the capture of
the mackerel, the hook is baited with a strip cut from a
dead mackerel, and is suffered to trail overboard. The
fish bite eagerly at this cannibal kind of bait, and are
frequently taken by baiting the hook with a strip of
scarlet leather or cloth.
THE TUNNY 285

The Tunny is a tolerably large fish, averaging four feet
> in length, and is very common in the Mediterranean.
Large fisheries are established during May and June, at
which season immense shoals of these fish rove along the
coast. The most approved method of fishing is by the
“madrague” or “tonnaro.” A large number of long and
deep nets are placed along the shore, one edge being fixed
to the bottom of the sea by anchors and weights, and the
other edge kept at the surface of the water by corks. A
wall is thus formed, stretching along the coast for nearly a
mile in length. The Tunnies swimming along the coast

THYNNUS.—(Gr. Odvvos, a Tunny.)



Thynnus, the Tunny.

pass into this net, and continue their course until they are
stopped by other nets placed across the principal net, and
dividing it into chambers. From chamber to chamber the
unfortunate fishes are driven through openings permitting
their entrance, but preventing egress, until they arrive
at the last chamber, called significantly the “ chamber
of death,” A strong net, placed horizontally, enables the
fishermen to draw the Tunnies to the surface, when a
shower of blows from poles and similar weapons soon
destroys the entire shoal.

This fish is not unfrequently found on the English
coast. z

The Sworp-risu.—The well-known Sword-fish inhabits
every part of the Mediterranean Sea, and has several times
been seen near the shores of England and Scotland,
286 THE SWORD-FISH

The “sword” for which this fish is so famous, is an
elongation of the upper jaw, of great strength, and capable
of doing considerable injury to any object against which it
directs its attacks, In the British Museum is a portion of
the bottom of a ship, pierced completely through by the
“sword” of one of these fish, Its unfortunate owner
must have instantly perished by the shock, for the sword
was imbedded almost to its base, and broken short off.
In one instance, a Sword-fish attacked a whaling-ship, and
drove its weapon “through the copper sheathing, an inch-
board sheathing, a three-inch plank of hard wood, the

Xipuias.—(Gr. Xipias, shaped like a sword, the Sword-fish.)

N

rd-fish,



solid white oak timber of the ship twelve inches thick,
through another two-and-a-half inch hard oak ceiling
plank, and lastly, perforated the head of an oil-cask, where
it still remained immovably fixed, so that not a single drop
of oil escaped.”

In the Mediterranean, the fishermen eagerly chase the
Sword-fish, The harpoon and line are used, much in the
same manner as in the whale fishery. The Sicilian fisher-
men have a strange superstition that if the Sword-fish
were to hear a word of Italian, it would instantly dive and
escape them. They therefore restrict their vocal sounds
to an unintelligible chant. It is said that the whale is an
object of particular enmity to the Sword-fish, and that
ships are struck by it, being mistaken for whales.

The length of this fish is usually from twelve to fifteen
THE STICKLEBACK 287

feet. It is said to feed principally on tunnies, pursuing
the shoals, and transfixing the fish with its sword.

The StickLEBack.—There are six species of Sticklebacks
known to inhabit England, the habits of all being very
similar. They are most pugnacious little creatures, and
will fight on the smallest provocation, dashing at each
other and endeavouring to tear open their adversary’s side
with the sharp spikes that adorn their sides. The bril-
liant colours with
which they are de- GasrERosritvs.—(Gr. Tacrtp, the belly ;
corated, only belong doréoy, a bone.)
to the males, and
not to them if they
have been vanquish-
ed. In such a case,
the conqueror looks
more brilliant than
before, and sails
about with as much
dignity as can be as-
sumed by an animal
an inch and a half
in length. The un-
fortunate individual
who has been de-
feated sneaks off into
some corner, and Aculedtus (Lat. thorny), the Stickleback.
soon loses his beau-
tiful colouring, his crimson, green, and gold panoply
changing into a very dull matter-of-fact grey.

The courage of the Sticklebacks is not only exerted
against their own species. These little fish are quite
aquatic lemmings, and will boldly attack a stick if it is
placed near their haunts. I have often known them dash
with such violence at a stick which I have presented to
them, that the blow of their head against the wood pro-
duced a sensible jar.


288 THE REMORA, OR SUCKING-FISH

Family, Syngnathide—(Gr. Suv, together ; yvados, the jaw.)
Hiprocampos.—(Gr. ‘Imméxapmos, derived from Yrmos, a Horse ;
kapmn, a joint or a caterpillar,.a Sea-horse. )



Brevirostris (Lat. short-beaked), the Sea-horse.

The singular fish called the Sea-HorsE has often been
found off the southern coasts of England. The habits of
this fish are very singular and interesting. A pair were
kept alive for some time in a glass vessel, and exhibited
considerable activity and intelligence. They swam about
with an undulating kind of movement, and frequently
twined their tails round the weeds placed in their prison.
Their eyes moved independently of each other, like those
of the chameleon, and the changeable tints of the head
closely resemble that animal.

More than once, these curious fish have been seen
curled up in oyster shells.

The singular creatures called Pipe-fish also belong to the
Syngnathide.

The Remora, or SUCKING-FISH, is remarkable for the
peculiar apparatus situated on the upper part of its head.
By this it can adhere to any object so firmly, that it is a
difficult matter to make it loose its hold. It is often
found adhering to large fish or to the bottoms of ships,
probably in both instances for the sake of the fragments
of food rejected by the one, or thrown overboard from
the other.
THE REMORA, OR SUCKING-FISH 289

The older writers on Natural History fully believed that

one Remora had the power of arresting the largest ship in
its course, and fixing it firmly in the same spot, in spite
of spread canvas and swift gale. As the Remora is about
the same size as a herring, our ancestors naturally con-
‘sidered this a very curious circumstance, and wrote no
few poems on the subject. The following true account
of this fish is extracted from Macgillivray’s “ Voyage of the
Rattle-snake” :—

“Small fish appear to abound at this anchorage (the
Calvados group of islands). I had never before seen the
Sucking-fish (Heheneis remora) so plentiful as at that
place; they caused much annoyance to our fishermen by
carrying off baits and hooks, and appeared always on the

Ecurniis.—(Gr. ’Exevnis ; from %xw, I hold ; vais, a ship.)

Se ea en





Remora (Lat. properly, a delay), the Sucking-fish.

alert, darting out in a body of twenty or more from
under the ship’s bottom when any offal was thrown
overboard. Being quite a nuisance, and useless as food,
Jack often treated them as he would a shark, by sprit-
sail yarding,* or some less refined mode of torture. One
day, some of us, while walking the poop, had our atten-
tion directed to a sucking-fish about two and a half feet
in length, which had been made fast by the tail to a
billet of wood by a fathom or so of spun yarn, and so
turned adrift. An immense striped shark, apparently

* “Sprit-sail yarding” is an ingenious torture invented by sailors for the
especial benefit of the shark. It is accomplished by thrusting a small spar
transversely through the poor creature's mouth, so that, being unable to pro-

cure its food on account of the impediment, it dies by degrees from the
combined effects of hunger and pain.
290 THE ANGLER, OR FISHING FROG

about fourteen feet in length, which had been cruising
about the ship all the morning, sailed slowly up, and
turning slightly on one side, attempted to seize the appa-
rently helpless fish, but the sucker with great dexterity
made himself fast in a moment to the shark’s back. Off
darted the monster at full speed, the sucker holding fast
as a limpet to a rock, and the billet towing astern. He
then rolled over and over, tumbling about; when, wearied
with his efforts, he lay quiet for a little. Seeing the
float, the shark got it into his mouth, and disengaging the
sucker by a tug on the line, made a bolt at the fish ; but
his puny antagonist was again too quick, and fixing him-
self close behind the dorsal fin, defied the efforts of the
shark to disengage him, although he rolled over and over,
lashing the water with his tail until it foamed all around.
What the final result was, we could not clearly make
out,”

Lorutus.—(Gr. Adgos, a crest.)



Piscatorius (Lat. fishing), the Angler.

The AnauEr, or Fisuine Frog, as it is more generally
called, is not uncommon in all the European seas. The
peculiar formation of its pectoral fins enables it to crawl
for some distance on land,
THE COMMON CARP 291

On its head are two elongated appendages, curiously
articulated to the skull by a joint formed something like the
links of a chain, and capable of movement in any direction.
The Angler couches close to the bottom of the sea, and by
the movement of its pectoral fins stirs up the sand and
mud, and agitates the bony appendages amid the turbid
cloud produced. The small fishes, observing the muddy
water, and taking the filaments for worms, approach to
seize them, and are instantly engulphed in the capacious
jaws of the crafty Angler.

The voracity of the Angler is so great, that when
caught in a net together with other fish it generally
devours some of its fellow-prisoners—a useless act, for the
. fishermen mostly open its stomach, and recapture the
flounders and other fish found in its interior.

a

The Malacopterygian fishes have their fin membranes
supported by flexible rays. The Abdominal Malacop-
terygii have their ventral fins situated on the belly, with-
out any connexion with the bones of the shoulder.

The Common Carp is a well-known inhabitant of our
ponds, lakes, and sluggish rivers. It is a very shy and
wary fish, rejecting one day a bait which had been
freely taken the day previous. In 1847, while fishing
in a small pond near Oxford, I took in one hour six or
seven carp, weighing from half-a-pound to nearly three
pounds each. A few days afterwards, although the weather
was equally propitious, the carp were not, and the whole
day was spent without even a bite.

It lives to a great age, and when very old its scales
turn grey just as human hairs do. In several places in
France numbers of carp were kept until they attained an
enormous size. These great sluggish fish were accustomed
to come to the water’s edge in order to be fed at the call
of their keeper. Feeding the Carp was almost an hereditary
amusement of the later kings of France.

Very few fish are so tenacious of life as the Carp. It
292 THE GUDGEON

is the custom in Holland to keep these fish in nets filled
with web moss. They are fed with bread and milk, and
are preserved in health by frequent immersion in water,
in order to keep the moss thoroughly wet.

Two or three pounds is the average weight of a good
Carp, but individuals have been known weighing upwards
of eighteen pounds. It is enormously prolific, as the roe of
one female weighing nine pounds was found to contain
six hundred thousand eggs. Of course comparatively few

Cyprinus.—(Gr. Kumpivos, a Carp.)



Carpio (Lat.), the Carp.

of these eggs arrive at maturity, by far the greater number
being eaten by other fish.

The Gupgron.—The ease with which the Gudgeon is
taken has passed into a proverb. This pretty little fish
is usually found in shallow parts of rivers, where the
bottom is gravelly. If the gravel is stirred up, the
Gudgeons immediately flock to the place, and a worm
suspended amid the turbid water is eagerly snapped at by
them. The fishermen usually take them in nets and
keep them alive in well-boats. They are largely pur-
chased as baits for trolling.

The flesh of the Gudgeon is particularly delicate, and
although its length rarely exceeds seven inches, yet from
THE BREAM—THE TENCH 293

the ease with which numbers can be obtained, it forms a
dish by no means to be despised.

Gosto.—(Lat. a Gudgeon. ) '
ABRAMIS.—(Gr. ASpayts, a Bream.)



Fluviatilis (Lat. of the river), the Gudgeon.
Brama (Lat.), the Bream.

The Bream is very common on the Continent, but in
England is only found in certain rivers and lakes, such
as the Medway and Trent, and the lakes of Cumberland
and Westmoreland. It is also found in the lakes of
Ireland.

The breadth of the Bream is greater in proportion to
its length than that of most fishes. It affords excellent
sport to the angler, biting readily and resisting vigorously
when hooked. The most approved method of catching
this fish is by preparing the spot with ground bait for a
day or two previous ; the Bream then assemble in numbers
and bite freely at a bait. In Ireland the Bream taken
were accustomed to be given to the poor, who split and
salted them for winter provision.

Its length rarely exceeds ten or twelve inches, nor is it
of any value for the table.

The Tencu.—The habits of the Tench are not unlike
those of the Carp, excepting that it seems even more
294 THE ROACH

sluggish than that fish. It especially delights in muddy
banks of ponds, where the weeds grow thickly. Roget
gives an account of a Tench that had been taken out of a
pond almost filled up with stones and rubbish, and which
had actually grown into the shape of the hole where it
had been confined, evidently for many years. The weight
of that fish was eleven pounds nine ounces. Four hun-

Trnca,—(Lat. a Tench.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Tench.

dred tench and as many perch were also taken out of the
same pond. This fish is even more tenacious of life than
the carp.

The Roach is very common in most rivers of this
country, and is generally spread over the temperate parts
of Europe. It is by no means a large fish, rarely exceeding
two pounds in weight, and seldom attaining even that size.
These fish usually live in small shoals, and pass from one
part of the river to another. ,

The Roach is not unlike the Dace, but may be easily
distinguished by its bright red ventral fins, those of the
dace being silvery white. It is rather a favourite with
anglers, as it bites or rather nibbles at the bait in such a
dainty and delicate manner, that the disappointed fisher-
man not unfrequently finds the bait gone without the
THE BLEAK—THE LOACH 995

movement of his float betraying the theft. A quick eye
and a dexterous hand are required for this sport. The
float is so balanced as barely to appear above the surface
of the water, for, unlike the perch, that dashes at the bait
and boldly jerks the float at once under water, the Roach
does little more than swim under the bait as far ag it can,

Levciscus.—(Gr, Aeuxioxos) ; from Aevieds, white.



SS
Rutilus (Lat. shining red), the Roach. Leuciscus, the Dace.

and then. just gives a gentle nibble, repeating the process
until the bait has entirely left the hook.

The BuzaK and the Minnow both belong to the genus
Leuciscus. The former fish is remarkable for the use made
of its scales, which when washed in water deposit a
powder much used in the manufacture of artificial pearls.

In some counties the Loach goes by the name of
“Beardie,” in allusion to the little fleshy particles that
hang from its lips. It has also the name of Groundling,
on account of its habit of living close to the bottom of
the water.

It is a common fish, and may be taken in most streams,.
especially if the bait is drawn over the bed of the stream.
The principal peculiarity about the fish is the compara-
tively great breadth of the tail where it joins the spine,
296 THE PIKE

This formation, together with the generally pellucid
appearance of its
Coniris.—(Gr. cwBirns, dim. of xwhrds, body, at once dis-
a Grudgeon.) tinguish it from
any other fish.



The Pixe.—This
fierce and voracious
fish is now common
in most rivers and
lakes in England,
although it was for-
merly so rare as to
beratedatten times
the value of turbot.

It affords much
sport to anglers,
who generally em-

Barbattila (Lat. bearded), the Louch. ploy a method of
fishing called “trol-
ling.” A. gudgeon, roach, or large minnow is so fixed to
a number of formidable hooks, that when drawn through
the water it spins rapidly round, and attracts the notice
of the watchful Pike, who dashes at the glittering bait
with a violence that jars the rod down to the very butt.
Off swims the Pike to his place of concealment, leisurely.
turns the head of the bait downwards, and swallows it.
Now, to swallow the fish is easy enough, but the array of
barbed hooks proves an effectual obstacle to the endea-
vours of the Pike to get rid of the unwelcome morsel as
soon as the angler jerks the line, and gives the Pike to
understand that hooks have points. The deluded Pike
now endeavours to break the line, but a good fisherman
foils all his efforts, and at last lands him, wearied and
bleeding, but ferocious to the last.

The method of fishing for Pike called “trimming” is
hardly worth mention. A line baited with living fish is
fastened to a float, and suffered to lie on the surface of


THE PIKE 297

the water. The Pike, seeing the bait swimming about,
dashes at it, and hooks itself in the effort.

This fish varies in size from two or three pounds’ weight,
to twenty or thirty ; but a Pike weighing fifteen pounds is
considered a very fine fish.

Above that weight they are almost useless for the
table. A Pike weighing less than two pounds is called a
jack. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is a Pike
weighing thirty pounds, that was taken in the lake at
Blenheim Park, Another Pike, weighing twenty-five

Esox.—(Lat. a Pike.)



——————
a | Y
E/E ley pee

ne 7



Lucius (Lat. a Pike), the Pike.

pounds, was caught near Oxford a few months ago, and I
have seen the skin of one that weighed thirty-five pounds
when first caught.

The appetite of this fish is almost insatiable. Mr.
Jesse threw to one Pike of five pounds’ weight, four roach,
each about four inches in length, which it devoured
instantly, and swallowed a fifth within a quarter of an
hour. Moor-hens, ducks, and even swans have been
known to fall a prey to this voracious fish, its long teeth
effectually keeping them prisoners under water until
drowned.
298 THE FLYING-FISH

The Fryrne-FisH.—This fish, so celebrated in most
books of voyages, is found in the warmer latitudes, but
has several times been seen off our coasts. The so-called
“flight” is very similar to that of the flying-squirrels and
dragons, the fish merely springing out of the water with a
violent impetus, and sustaining itself in the air by means
of its enormous pectoral fins. It is not able to alter its
course while in the air, nor to rise a second time without
repeating its course through the water. The reader will

Exocatus.—(Gr. ’Eféxo:ros, sleeping out [of the sea].)*

‘NM









eee

Volitans (Lat. flying), the Flying-jish.



notice the remarkable fact, that individuals of three
wingless classes, the Mammalia, the Reptiles, and the
Fishes, have each the power of sustaining themselves in
the air.

The “flight” of this fish seldom exceeds two hundred
yards. The unfortunate creatures are pursued in the
water by ‘“ Dorados,” erroneously called dolphins, and
other fishes of prey. To escape their finny tyrants, they
spring into the air, and for a while escape. But the gulls

* The ancients believed that this and some other fishes slept on the beach.
THE SALMON 299

and albatrosses are on the watch, and pounce on the Flying-
fish from above, so that the persecuted creatures are toler-
ably sure to fall a prey to one or the other of their foes.

The usual height of flight is about two or three feet
above the surface of the water, but it has frequently been
known to exceed fourteen feet, and in one instance a
Flying-fish came skimming into the ports of a large man-
of-war, nearly twenty feet above the water.

The size of the fish is about the same as that of a
herring. Sailors are always glad to capture it, as its flesh
proves an agreeable change from the eternal salt junk, by
which the power of the sailor’s teeth is woefully tried.

The food of this fish is molluscs and small fishes.

Satmo.—(Lat. a Salmon.)



Salar (Lat. a Salmon), the Salmon.

The SatMon is a migratory fish, annually leaving the
sea, its proper residence, and proceeding for many miles
up rivers, for the purpose of depositing its spawn. This
duty having been accomplished, it returns to the sea in
the spring. The perseverance of this fish in working its
way up the stream is perfectly wonderful. No stream is
rapid enough to daunt it, nor is it even checked by falls.
These it surmounts by springing out of the water, fairly
passing over the fall. Heights of fourteen or fifteen feet

U
300 THE COMMON TROUT

are constantly leaped by this powerful fish, and when it
has arrived at the higher and shallower parts of the river,
it scoops furrows in the gravelly bottom, and there deposits
its spawn. The young, called “fry,” are hatched about
March, and immediately commence their retreat to the
sea. By the end of May the young salmon, now called
“smolts,” have almost entirely deserted the rivers, and in
June not one is to be found in fresh water. Small Salmon
weighing less than two pounds are termed “salmon peel,”
‘all above that weight are called “ grilse.”

The havoc wrought among Salmon by foes of every
description is so enormous, that notwithstanding the great
fecundity of the fish, it is a matter of surprise that so
many: escape destruction; for although the fish are pre-
served from their human foes by many stringent regula-
tions, yet other foes, such as otters who devour the large
fish, and other fish who devour the spawn, have but little
respect for laws and regulations.

While in the rivers, multitudes of Salmon are annually
caught, usually by stake nets, which are capable of con-
fining an immense number of fish at one time. Salmon
spearing is a favourite amusement. This animated and
exciting sport is usually carried on by torch-light. The
torches, when held close to the surface of the water, illu-
mine the depths of the river, and render every fish within
its influence perfectly visible. The watchful spearman,
guided by slight indications bearing no meaning to an
unpractised eye, darts his unerring spear, and brings up
in triumph the glittering captive, writhing in vain among
the barbed points.. In the northern rivers this destruc-
tive pursuit is carried on to a great extent, more thana
hundred salmon being frequently.taken in an evening.
Anglers also find considerable sport in using the fly for
this beautiful and active fish, whose strength makes it no
mean antagonist.

The Common Trout is found in many rivers in this
country, always preferring rapid, shallow, and sparkling
streams, especially if there should be little falls at intervals.
THE COMMON TROUT 301

The Derwent and the Dove are particularly famous for
their trout. The latter river is quite the beaw ideal of a
trout stream. It never seems to know its own mind for
half-a-mile together. Sometimes it is rapid, frisking over
stones, and round trees, and throwing up the sparkling
foam in all directions. Presently it has changed into a
silent, slow, melancholy river, with dark pools of unknown
depth, shaded by overhanging trees, and suggestive of

SALMO,



Fario (Lat. a Trout), the Trout.

murders successfully concealed. Everywhere are the trout.

Lying quietly under the shelter of some large stone, while
the water is leaping round them, are the moderate-sized
trout, darting off like meteors to snatch at a passing fly,

and as quickly returning to their concealment. In the
deeper pools are the larger fish, who are too sagacious to
be deceived by the artfully-made fly of the professed
angler, yet often fall victims to the less scientific but more ‘
successful ploughboy.

Several of my school-boy years were spent near the
banks of the Dove, which river, of course, formed one of
our favourite haunts. We were accustomed to take the
large trout by the rather unsportsmanlike, but very amusing
302 THE HERRING

method of “tickling.” It was excessively amusing to
watch the angry countenances of London anglers, who
came to the Dove bedizened with all the appurtenances of
rods, lines, baskets, é&c., and who, after whipping the water
most perseveringly for the whole morning without a single
bite, while resting their tired arms, saw the country boys
seated on ‘the bank, armed with a long stick, and a line
barely two feet long, adding every minute to the heap of
. glittering fishes at their side.

The usual method of fishing for trout is with a fly, but
trolling with a minnow is often successfully used, nor does
the trout reject a well-selected and properly arranged
worm.

The brilliant speckled tints of this beautiful fish vary
much according to the locality and the time of year.
In May the fish assume their brightest colours and their
most delicate flavour. The size of the fish also varies
exceedingly, being from half-a-pound in weight’ and about
eight inches in length, to ten or fifteen pounds’ weight.

The Smelt belongs to this family, and in its progress to
the sea is destroyed in great quantities in mill-ponds, &c.



The value of the Herring family to man is almost
incalculable. The Pilchard and the Herring are very
similar in appearance, but may be easily known by the
position of the dorsal fin, which in the Pilchard is so
exactly in the centre of the body, that if the fish is held
by it, the body exactly balances ; while in the Herring, the
dorsal fin is placed rather backwards, so that when sus-
pended, the fish hangs with its head downwards.

The Herring makes its annual appearance in the
northern parts of Scotland about June. This most valu-
able fish arrives in enormous shoals, five or six miles in
length, and three or four in breadth. Their advent is
heralded by various sea-birds, such as the gannets and
gulls, which constantly hover over the shoals and commit
unceasing devastations among them. Yet in spite of the
myriads destroyed by birds and fishes, in spite of the
THE HERRING 303

shoals captured by man, in spite of the vast quantity of
spawn devoured by other fishes, their numbers seem quite
undiminished, and each year they are led by the instinct
inculeated in them by Providence, to visit the shore in
incalculable numbers, not only to yield to man-an unfail-
ing supply, but to make the necessary provision for the
increase of their number.

The fishery is conducted by boats and nets, the whole
fitting up of each boat costing little less than £1000.
To add to the expense, the whole apparatus must be
renewed every four or five years, as, independently of the
injuries inflicted by the sea and the weight of fish, the

CLUPEA.



dog-fish, which unremittingly follows the shoals of herrings,
is often entangled in the nets together with its intended
victims, and by its sharp teeth and vigorous struggles
makes sad ravages among the nets.

When taken out of the water, the herring dies almost
immediately, as do all fish that live near the surface of the
water. Those, on the contrary—as the carp, tench, eels, and
the flat fish—who reside at the bottom, are able to sustain
life for a much longer period when taken out of their
native element. It is therefore necessary that the herrings
should be cured as soon as possible. The ‘‘ White Herrings”
are cured in the boats, but the “Red Herrings” are taken
on shore, and suspended in the smoke of a wood fire for
304 THE SPRAT

twenty-four hours, in addition to the salting that both
they and the White Herring undergo.

The well-known Sprar (Clupea Spratius) also belongs to
the genus Clupea, and, like the herring, visits our shores
in large shoals. The Sprat fishery commences in the
beginning of November. Not only are enormous quan-
tities of this small but useful fish used as food, and sent
into all parts of this country, but they are very largely
“used as manure; fish, according to the researches of Sir
H. Davy, being a most powerful manure, retaining its
fertilising influence for a long time. Many thousand tons’
weight of Sprats are annually used for this purpose.

The Whitebait belongs to the same family.

ENGRAULIS.,—(Gr. "Eyypavats. ) The little AncHovY
is a fish of no small
importance, being
very largely used in
various sauces, be-
sides the numbers
that are preserved in
pickle. It is common
in the Mediter-
ranean, and is also
found on our coasts.
The upper jaw of
this fish is longer
than the lower one..
The entire length of the fish is usually from four to five
mene but it has been seen measuring upwards of seven
inches,





Encrasichélus (Gr. “EyxpacitxoAos, mixed
with bitter; the Anchovy, from its taste),
the Anchovy.

The Cop.—In this Sub-order the bones of the ventral
fins are placed wnder, and support the bones of the
shoulder.

The well-known Cod-fish is principally found on the
coasts of Newfoundland, but is taken in great numbers on
our own shores. The hook is generally employed for the
THE COD 305

capture of this fine fish, An immense number of hooks,
each baited with a whelk or limpet and attached to short
lines, are fastened at intervals along a rope, which is
stretched, or shot, as it is termed, across the tide, in order
to prevent the hooks from getting entangled. Such is the
voracity of the fish, that nearly five hundred have been

Morratta.









































































































































Callarias (Gr. KaAAaptas), the Cod.

taken by one man in the course of ten hours. The intense -
cold renders the Cod fishery a service of great hardship.

‘When taken, the fish are placed in a well-boat, through
which the salt water has a free passage, so that the Cod-
fish are brought to Billingsgate still living. Several suc-
cessful experiments have been made to preserve this fish
in salt-water ponds, in which it appears to thrive well.
The fecundity of this fish is almost incredible, the roé of
one fish having been ascertained to contain nine million
eggs. The Whiting belongs to this family.

In the Fuat-FisH we see a most extraordinary instance
806 THE TURBOT—THE COMMON SOLE

of adaptation of structure to peculiar circumstances. We
have all seen Flat-fish, and all know that the upper side
is dark, and the under side nearly white. The word ‘side’
is used advisedly, as these curious fish actually lie on their
side at the bottom of the water while undisturbed, or
merely feeding. When, however, they are alarmed, they
rapidly assume the vertical position, and dart off with
great speed. The dark upper surface serves to protect
them from becoming too visible to enemies above. The
two eyes are also placed on the upper side of the head for
obvious reasons. In fact, the whole fish appears as if it
had been laid on its side, and rolled flat, the head also
being twisted round, and the lower eye removed to the
upper surface,

The Turzor is found on the coasts of most parts of
England, but the fisheries are nearly exclusively confined
to the southern coasts of Ireland.

The fishery is conducted both by nets and lines. The
net, called the haul-net, drags from the bottom not only
turbots but other flat- fish, such as soles and plaice. The
line, used when the bottom of the sea is too deep or rocky
for the net, is armed with many hooks, baited with smelts
and other small fish. The lampern, or river lamprey, was
formerly in very great use as a bait, as its brilliant silvery
appearance, and its great tenacity of life, rendered it
peculiarly fit for the capture of the voracious but dainty
turbot, who, rejecting all stale or discoloured baits, eagerly
devours them if bright coloured and moving. The fisher-
men state that the turbot will not touch a bait that
has been bitten by any other fish. On the English
coats one turbot-line frequently extends for three miles
in length, and is furnished with 2500 hooks, which are
attached’ to the main line by small horse-hair lines, each
twenty-seven inches in length. This enormous line is
“shot” across the current at the turn of the tide.

The Common Sor is too well known to need much
description, This fish is the reverse of the turbot, having
THE EELS 307

the eyes and colour on the right side; although, as in the
turbot, varieties are not rare. It is in season during most
parts of the year, except a few weeks in March or April.

Sontta.—(Lat. the Sole of a shoz.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Sole.

Although it is a marine fish, it seems to thrive well in
river-water, or even in a pond. Mr. Arnold kept several
in a pond in Guernsey, where the soles became twice as
thick in proportion to their length as those living in the
sea.

The Eets form the sub-order of the Apopa, or footless
fish, so called from the absence of ventral fins.

These fish assume a form very similar to the serpents.
Although on a hasty examination they seem to be devoid
of scales, yet when the skin is dried, very minute scales may
be seen through the semi-transparent outer skin, and may
be easily detached by carefully separating the two skins.

Eels inhabit muddy ponds and rivers, and are common
in many canals. They are susceptible of cold, and con-
stantly descend the rivers to deposit their spawn in the
sea, after which, the young, when hatched, work their way
up the rivers, thereby precisely reversing the habits of the
salmon. They are capable of living out of water for a,
308 THE ELECTRIC EEL

long time, and often make voluntary land excursions,
either for the purpose of avoiding an insurmountable fall,
or in search of frogs or worms, on which they feed. In
the winter, while they are lying torpid in the mud, multi-
tudes are taken by eel-spears—many-pronged instruments,

ANGUILLA.—(Lat. a little Eel.)







=——

Acutirostris (Lat. sharp-beaked), the Sharp-nosed Eel.

whose prongs are feathered with recurved barbs, which,
when pushed into the mud, entangle the eels, and effectu-
ally prevent their escape.

There are supposed to be four species of English eel;
namely, the Sharp-nosed, the Broad-nosed, the Snig, and
the Grig.

The Exectric Eet.—This curious fish, which exhibits
the singular phenomenon of voluntary electric power re-
siding in a living animal, is an inhabitant of the fresh-
water rivers and ponds of Surinam, and other parts of
South America, where it was first discovered in the year
1677.

This power of emitting an electric shock, is apparently
given it in order to enable the creature to kill its prey.
Those who have seen the Electric Kel in the Polytechnic
while being fed, will have little doubt of this. The fish
given to it are, directly it becomes aware of their presence,
instantly struck dead, and then devoured. This specimen
_ is unfortunately blind, but it has learned to turn in the
THE SHORT SUN-FISH 309

direction of a paddling in the water, made by the indivi-
dual who feeds it. ‘The fish is scarcely in the water before
a shock from the Gymnotus kills it. The usual length of
the Gymnotus is about three feet.

Humboldt, in his “Views of Nature,” gives a very
animated description of the method employed by the
Indians to take these formidable creatures—a method
equally ingenious and cruel. Knowing from experience
that the powers of the Gymnotus are not adequate to a

Gyunorus.—(Gr. Tupvds, naked ; v@ros, the back.)



Electricus (Lat. electric), the Electric Eel.

constant volley of shocks, they contrive that the shocks
shall be expended on the horses instead of themselves.

Having found a pool containing electric eels, they force
a troop of wild horses to enter the pool. The disturbed
eels immediately attack the intruders, and destroy many
of them by repeated shocks; but by constantly forcing
fresh supplies of horses to invade the pool, the powers of
the gymnoti become exhausted, and they are then dragged
out with impunity.

_

The Sport Sun-rise.—This order derives its name from
the curious structure of the jaws, which are fixed. together
in a very peculiar manner.

The Short Sun-fish has been frequently taken on almost
all parts of our coasts. It is of a most singular shape,
310 THE SHORT SUN-FISH

looking as if three-fourths of a very large fish had been
cut off, leaving only the head and shoulders, something
like a marine Baron Munchausen’s horse.

It attains to a very large size, and has been known to

OnTHAGORIScuS.—(Gr. ’Opayopicxos, a Sucking pig.)

Mola (Lat. @ Aill-stone), the Short Sun-fish.



weigh three hundred pounds, its length being only four
feet five inches.

It lives mostly at the bottom of the sea, but frequently
rises to the surface, and lies, perhaps, asleep, floating with
the tide. Sailors in this case are fond of trying their
skill with a harpoon. When struck, it uses very powerful
but exceedingly awkward efforts to escape. The sailors,
of course, eat it, as they do almost anything.
THE STURGEON 311

The Srurczon.—The remaining fishes belong to the
Cartilaginous sub-class; that is, their skeletons are com-
posed of cartilage, and not of true bone.

The first sub-order possess free gill-covers, like those of
all the preceding fish; but the remainder breathe by
means either of slits, as in the sharks, or holes, as in the
lampreys.

The Sturgeon is remarkable for the rows of bony plates
extending along the body. It is exceedingly common in
the northern parts of Europe, where regular fisheries are
organized for its capture. Almost every part of it is used.
Isinglass is obtained by drying and shredding the air-

AcIPENSER.—(Lat. Acipenser, a Sturgeon.)
° so™,













Sturio, the Sturgeon.

bladder ; caviare is made of the roe of the female, and
the flesh is extensively preserved both by pickling and
salting, besides the large quantities that are consumed
fresh, The flavour of its flesh is said not to be unlike
veal.

It has occasionally been taken on our coasts, usually by
entangling itself in the nets, and although it then does
some injury to the nets by its violent struggles to release
itself, it is otherwise perfectly harmless. Yarrell mentions
that a sturgeon measuring eight feet six inches in length,
and weighing two hundred and three pounds, was taken
in a stake net near Findhon in 1833. A specimen was
once caught in the Esk, weighing four hundred and sixty
pounds. The female always deposits her eggs in fresh
312 THE SHARKS AND RAYS

water, and the young, when hatched, descend to the sea,
and are supposed not to return again until, in their turn,
they seek the fresh water in order to deposit their spawn.



The SHarks and Rays have no gill-covers, but the
water passes through five elongated apertures on each side
of the head.

The Sharks are proverbially ferocious and dangerous
creatures, and are the pest of those seas which they infest.
Their mouths are furnished with several rows of sharp
jagged teeth, which.can be raised or depressed at pleasure,
and which can cut through a limb or even the body of a
man with the greatest ease. The mouth of these fishes is
placed beneath the head, so that a shark cannot seize its
prey at the surface of the water without turning on its
side, which evolution often gives time for its expected prey
to escape.

Soyiiium.—(Gr. Sadar, a Dog-fish.)



Canictila (Lat. @ little Dog), the Little Spotted Dog-fish.

The Lirrte Srotrep Doc-FisH is the most common of
the Sharks that visit our shores. It is principally known
on account of the havoc it makes among the fish during
the seasons of the various ‘fisheries, for which reason it is
most especially detested by the unfortunate fishermen, who
not unfrequently, together with their expected spoil, draw
up a few dog-fish in their nets. The dog-fish, on finding
themselves entangled, immediately commence tearing the
nets to pieces with their sharp and powerful teeth.
THE WHITE SHARK 313

The empty eggs of this fish are often found washed up
on the sea-shore, and called by the name of “ mermaids’
purses.” They are oblong, and furnished at each corner
with a long semi-transparent convoluted tendril, the use of
which is apparently to entangle and fix the egg among the
sea-weed, and thus prevent it from being washed on shore
until the young is hatched.

A considerable quantity of oil can be obtained from the
brain of the dog-fish, and the skin, in common with that
of other cartilaginous fishes, is made into shagreen.



The Wuite Suark is a well-known scourge of the
Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.. This is the
creature so detested by sailors, who, when they have caught
a “shirk,” subject it to every possible indignity.

This voracious creature has been known to swallow an
entire man, and as it is in the habit of lurking about ships

Squatus.—(Lat. a Shark.)



Carcharias (Gr. a Shark; from Képxapos, jagged ; in allusion to its
teeth), the White Shark.

for the sake of the scraps thrown overboard, and almost
invariably swallows whatever is cast over the side, the
contents of its stomach are often of a most heterogeneous
description. .The sailors always amuse themselves by seeing
what the shark has “‘stowed away,” and the substances
thus brought to light have been most curious. The entire
contents of a lady’s work-basket, down to the scissors, were
found in the interior of one shark, and another had actually
314 THE SAWFISH

swallowed an entire bull’s hide—a circumstance which led
the operating sailor to remark that the shark had swallowed
a bull, but could not “ disgest”’ the hide.

The amphibious South Sea Islanders stand in great
dread of the shark, and with good reason, for not a year
elapses without several victims being offered to the rapacity
of this terrific animal. Nearly thirty of the natives of the
Society Islands were destroyed at one time by the sharks.
A storm had so injured the canoe in which they were
passing from one island to another, that they were forced
to take refuge on a raft hastily formed of the fragments of
their canoe. Their weight sunk the raft a foot or two
below the surface of the water, and, dreadful to say, the
sharks surrounded them and dragged them off the raft one
by one, until the lightened raft rose above the water and
preserved the few survivors.



Pristis.—(Gr. Mpioris, the Sawfish.)



Antiquorum (Lat. of the Anctents), the Sawjish.

The SawrisH is found in the greatest perfection in the
tropical seas, although it also inhabits the Mediterranean.
The weapon from which the fish derives its name, is a flat,
long prolongation of the head, on each edge of which are
set hard tooth-like projections, curiously inserted into the
bone. :

This fish has been known to employ its saw in the
attack on the whale, burying the apparently inappropriate
weapon to the very root in the body of the whale; nor are
THE TORPEDO 315

. instances wanting where the saw has been found firmly
imbedded in the hull of a ship. f

The strength of the Sawfish is very great. Captain
Wilson gives an account of the capture of a Sawfish,
measuring twenty-two feet in length, and weighing nearly
five tons. After the fish had been entangled in a net for
several hours, making violent efforts to escape, Captain
Wilson got a rope firmly fixed round its saw, and set
thirty men to haul at the rope. The whole thirty could
not move it one inch, nor was it until one hundred men
had been pulling at the rope for nearly the whole of the
day, that they succeeded in dragging it on shore. Even
then it made such violent strokes with its saw, that they
were forced to fasten strong guy ropes to prevent it from
cutting them to pieces. It was finally disabled by a
Spaniard, who cut through the joint of the tail.



ToRPEDO.~(Lat. Cramp or numbness.)











Scutita (Lat. shielded), the Torpedo.

The TorpEpo may fairly be considered a British fish.
It affords a second instance of the electric power residing
x
316 THE SKATE—THE THORNBACK SKATE

ina fish. The organs that produce the electric shock are
shown externally by two elevations extending from the
eyes about half way down the body.*

Although it has once or twice been caught on our coasts,
it is usually found in the Mediterranean, where its powers
are well known, and held in some awe. The shock that
the Torpedo gives, of course, varies according to the size
of the fish and its state of health, but a tolerably large
fish in good health can, for the time, disable a strong man.
From the effects of its shock, it is in some parts called the
Cramp-fish.

Colonel Montagu notices a Torpedo caught on a turbot
line, at Tucky. It weighed about one hundred pounds,
and completely puzzled the fisherman, who found it hanging
dead on the hooks, and had never seen such a creature
before. Colonel Montagu quaintly remarks, that had it
not been dead, the fisherman would certainly have had a
shock that would have made him remember the species
again,

The Rays are at first sight not unlike the turbot and
sole, but a closer examination will show that the Rays
really swim with their backs upwards, whereas the turbot
swims on its side. The movement of the Ray is very
curious, and is admirably expressed by the word “slud-
dering ”—used by an old fisherman.

The Skate is caught in abundance on our shores, and in
England is in much request as an article of food, although
in Scotland it is used principally for bait.

The TaornBack SKateE derives its name from the spiny
armature of the tail, with which the fish defends itself
most vigorously by bending itself almost into a semicircle
and lashing about with its tail, The female of the
Thornback Skate is termed a Maid. It often attains to a

* Those who would wish to examine the structure of this most singular organ

are referred to the Museum of the College of Surgeons, where is a series of
beautiful wax models, admirably illustrating the entire structures.
THE STING RAY—-THE LAMPREY. 317

large size, the largest known being twelve feet in length,
and nearly ten in width.
-The jaws of the Rays are exceedingly powerful, and

RAIA.























Clavata (Lat. from Clavus, a nail), the Thornback Skate.

enable them to crush with perfect ease the various shell-
fish on which they feed.

The Stine Ray is another species, which is armed with
a serrated bone in its tail, with which it can inflict painful
and even dangerous wounds,

The Lamprey.—These curious fishes, in many respects
the lowest in organization of the vertebrate animals, are
chiefly remarkable for the singular construction of the
mouth, which, formed like that of the leech, enables the
Lampreys to hold firmly to any object by suction. The
breathing apparatus appears externally to consist of four-
teen small: apertures, seven on each side of the neck.
Their progress through the water is accomplished by a
rapid undulating movement.
318 THE LAMPERN, OR RIVER LAMPREY

The Marine Lamprey is found in the Mediterranean,
and in most of the northern European rivers. It has also
been discovered in America. A few are caught in the
Thames almost every year, but the Severn is its usual
haunt. Like many other fishes, it travels for many miles

PETROMYZzON.—(Gr. Ilérpos, a Stone; iw, I suck.)



Marinus (Lat. Marine), the Lamprey.

up rivers for the purpose of depositing its spawn, at which
time it is considered to be in the highest perfection.

The spawn is deposited in furrows, some excavated by
the parent Lampreys, who, by the help of their sucker-
like mouths, rapidly remove even large stones.

Lampetra.—(Gr. AauBdve, I hold; wérpos, a Stone.)



























































































Fluviatilis (Lat. of the river), the Lampern.

_ The Lamprrn, or River Lamprey, is plentifully found
in many rivers of England. It is extremely common at
THE MYXINE 319

Ashbourne in Derbyshire, inhabiting the Dove and its
tributary brooks. Strange to say, the inhabitants of
Ashbourne held it in some abhorrence, and there was only
one individual possessing sufficient strength of mind to
eat them. He found them a most agreeable addition to
his ordinary diet. The Lamperns, or Lampreens as they
were called, used to lie in masses of eighteen or twenty ~
together in a hole, and if disturbed, set off down the stream
with some speed.

It was formerly held in great repute as bait for turbot,
cod, and other fish, but in consequence of the diminished
supply other substances have been employed. Its length
is usually from twelve to fifteen inches. In some counties
it is called Seven-eyes, in allusion to the breathing apertures
in the neck.



The Myxinz, which, although a decided fish, was classed
by Linnzus among the worms, occurs frequently on the
eastern coasts of this country. The fishermen find it
within the bodies of fish attached to the lines. The
Scarborough fishermen call such fish “robbed,” as the
Myxine, in the course of a single tide, will devour the
whole fish, except the skin and bones. It is usually found
in the body of the cod.

Myxine.—(Gr. Mufivos, from gvta, slime.)



Glutinisa (Lat. glutinous), the Myxine, or Glutinous Hag-fish.

It is quite blind, but is supposed to derive considerable
aid from the eight barbules ranged round its mouth. Six
individuals have been found in the body of a single
haddock.

Along the under surface of the body are two rows of
320 THE MOLLUSCA

pores, from which the Myxine is enabled to throw out a
most copious gelatinous secretion, apparently for the
purpose of escape from its enemies. ‘The length of the
Myxine is from twelve to fifteen inches.



MOLLUSCS.

Ocropus.—(Gr. ’Oxrd, eight ; mods, a foot.)



‘Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Cuttle-fish.

The Motiusca have neither spine nor bones, the nerv-
ous system consisting of a number of nervous knobs called
“ ganglia,” which give off filamentous nerves in different
directions.

Few Molluscs possess eyes, but in one or two, as the
snails and slugs, those organs are to be found, and in the
higher Molluscs, such as the Cuttle-fish, we see not only
large and brilliant eyes, but also organs of hearing.

The Cepnatopops, so called from the organs of move-
ment surrounding the head, are divided into naked and
testaceous,* or covered with a shell. ,

* Derived from Lat. testa, a shell.
THE COMMON CUTTLE-FISH 321

The Common CurrLE-FisH is an example of a naked
cephalopodous mollusc. This repulsive-looking creature is
common on our shores, and is, in spite of its unpleasant
appearance, often used for food. Its eight long and flexible
arms are covered with suckers of various sizes, enabling
their owner not only to fix itself firmly to the rocks on
which it dwells, but to seize and retain with the greatest
tenacity any unfortunate fish or shell that may happen to
come within its reach. Its powerful parrot-like beak
enables it not only to devour fishes, but even to crush the
shells and crustacea that are entangled in its deadly em-
braces. In this country, the Cuttle does not grow to any
great size, but in the Indian Seas it is absolutely dangerous,
and the crews of boats are forced to be armed with a
hatchet, to cut off the arms of the cuttle-fish.

There are few who have not heard of the colour called
“sepia.” This is, or ought to be, prepared from a black
pigment, secreted by the Cuttle-fish, and used in order to
escape its foes, by blackening the water with the ink, and
hurrying off under shelter of the dense cloud of its own
creating. Dr. Buckland actually drew a portrait of a fossil
Cuttle-fish with some of its own ink that still remained in
its body.

The substance sold in shops as cuttle-fish bone is a
chalky substance secreted from the mouth of the fish, and
composed of an infinite number of plates, joined by myraids
of little pillars.

The entire body is soft, and encased in a coarse, leather-
like skin, unprotected by any shell.

‘The Arconaut, or Nautinus, is an example of the
testaceous Molluscs. This curious creature, about which so
many marvellous and poetical tales have been told, is very
abundant in the Mediterranean.

It has been clearly proved that the Nautilus does not
urge itself along the surface of the water by the expanded
arms used as sails. These arms are in fact used to cover
the shell, and it is from these that the beautiful shell is
secreted. The Argonaut propels itself through the sea by
322 THE ARGONAUT, OR NAUTILUS

violently ejecting water from the tube with which it, as

well as the cuttle-

ARGonauTa.—(Lat. a sailor in the ship fish, is furnished for

Argo.) that purpose. The

is colours of the living

animal of the Nauti-

lus are exceedingly
beautiful.

The arms of this
creature are furnished
with suckers. Its
shell, when the poulp
(as the living Argo-
naut is called) is still
existing, is flexible
and semi-transparent ;
but when the animal
is taken away, the
shell soon becomes
rather opaque, and is
very fragile.

The fossil Ammon-

_ ites belong to the tes-
taceous Cephalopoda.



Argo (Lat.), the Argonaut or Paper Nautilus.

—_—_——_—

Shells are secreted from a part of the inhabitant called
the “mantle,” and of course, as the shell is always added
round the rim, as may be seen by taking a small snail in
the spring, it naturally follows, that as the animal becomes
larger, so the mantle becomes larger, and secretes a larger
ring of shell.

Many shells, as that of the oyster, are deposited in
layers, a fine membrane interposing between each layer :
they are therefore called membranous shells. Most mem-
branous shells are lined with a brilliant enamelled sub-
stance, called “nacre”; “mother of pearl” is the nacre
of the pearl oyster. That of the fresh-water mussel is a
beautiful azure,
THE GASTEROPODA—THE SLUGS 323

The other structure of shells is called ‘ porcellaneous,”
because they look like porcelain or china. The common
cowrle is a well-known instance of a porcellaneous shell.
Some shells are so transparent as to resemble glass, and
are therefore called “ vitreous.” *

Shells are divided into Univalve, or one-valved shells,
such as the snail ; and Bivalve, or two-valved shells, such
as the oyster. Those of the Univalve Molluscs are capable
of protecting themselves when withdrawn inside the shell
by a horny plate called the “operculum,” + which com-
pletely closes up the aperture, and which may be seen in
the periwinkle. The closing membrane found in the com-
mon snail, if taken in the winter, is called the epiphragma, {
and is supposed to be hardened mucus.



The GasTEROPODA move by means of a fleshy disc or
foot on the under surface of the body, and by the alternate
expansive and contractive movements of this foot, the
creature is enabled to crawl. The Gasteropoda inhabit
both land and water, unlike the bivalves, which are exclu-
sively inhabitants of the latter element.

If the shell of a
Gasteropodous mol-
lusc be broken, it has
the power of repair-
ing the injury by se-
ereting fresh layers
of shell from the
mantle within.

Limax.—(Gr. Aefuat, a Slug.)

The SuLues are
well-known invaders
of our gardens, and,
together with the
snail, the caterpillar, and the mysterious “blight,” are
objects of the gardener’s most intense hatred. The Black



Ater (Lat. black), the Black Slug.

* Derived from Lat. vitrwm, glass. Tt Lat. a cover or lid.
Gr. "Emippayya, a cover.
324 THE COMMON SNAIL

Slug 1s usually found by hedge-banks, and in grassy
meadows. It seldom ventures out by day, especially if
the day be bright ; but at night, when the dew is on the
ground, it may be seen trailing its dark length through the
herbage, or eagerly devouring the leaves. While employed
at night in decoying moths, by means of a fragrant com-
pound of sugar, beer, and rum, spread on the trunks of
trees, I used constantly to find my bait attacked by huge
slugs of all kinds, descending and ascending towards the
sweet but dangerous banquet. The small Grey Slug (Limax
cinerea) ig more common in gardens than the black slug.

The Common Snain.—Several species of Snails inhabit
this country, among








Henix.—(Gv. "Evi, twisted.) which the Edible

aco es Snail (Helis poma-

Ss AYN tia), the Belted snail

\ A /) 7S \\\i (Helix nemoralis), and
“ \\



the common Garden
Snail (Zlelix aspersa),
are the most con-
spicuous. The Edible
Snail was imported
ISS into England by the
Aspersa (Lat. sprinkied), the Common Snail. Romans, who prized

them highly, and fat-
tened them in a building erected for that express purpose,
as indeed is now done in some parts of the Continent.
This snail grows to a large size, nearly attaining the mag-
nitude of an ordinary closed fist.

The eyes of the snail are placed at the extremity of the
tentacula, or ‘‘horns,” as they are usually called.

The common garden snail is so well known that no
description of it is needed. It lays eggs very large in
comparison with the size of the parent; they are about the
size of small peas, round, soft, and semi-transparent. They
are deposited about two inches below the surface of the
earth.

This creature is very tenacious of life. A living snail
THE ROYAL STAIRCASE WENTLETRAP 3825

was exhibited at the Ashmolean Society at Oxford, which
had made a long sea voyage, packed up in cotton wool.
An immersion in water soon brought the inhabitant to
view, and when it was exhibited it was crawling about a
box in perfect health.

ScALARIA.—(Lat. Scala, a Ladder, or stairs.)
Conus.—(Gr. Kévos, a Cone.)



Z

Pretidsa (Lat. valuable), the Royal Staircase Wentletrap. ’
Generilis (Lat. general), the Cone.

The Roya Srarrcasze WeENTLETRAP affords us an excel-
lent and most beautiful example of the Turbinide. It is
a native of the Chinese and Indian seas, and was formerly
so scarce that a specimen two inches in length would sell
for a hundred pounds. Even now, a very fine specimen
cannot be obtained under six or seven pounds. For this
reason, the specific name “ pretiosa”’ was affixed to it by
Lamarck.

As an example of the large family of Conzs, we will
take the common Cone, whose beautiful marbled colour
and elegant shape render it a most attractive shell.

The Money Cowry and the Wuetx.—The Cowries are
not less celebrated for the elegance of their form, and the
beauty of their markings, than for the curious circum-
stance that one species is used as current coin in Guinea
and Bengal, thus being employed for the same purpose by
326 THE BUCCINIDE—THE THORNY WOODCOCK

two entirely distinct races of men, situated in different
quarters of the globe. Their value is of course small in
proportion to gold or silver. At the present time a rupee
in Bengal is worth 3,200 cowries, the value of the rupee
being 2s. 3d. of our money. :

The Bucctnipz are so named from their fancied resem-
blance to a trumpet. The common Whelk is everywhere

Anicta.—(Lat.) Buccinum.—(Lat. Buccina, a Trumpet.)



we SR SAN

Montea,—(Lat. the stamp on money), the Money Cowry.
Undatum (Lat. wavy), the Whelk.

abundant on our. coasts, and is taken in such profusion
that it is largely exported for food, and may be seen on the
street stalls of the metropolis exposed for sale, like the
oyster and periwinkle.

The proboscis of this creature is of a most singular
structure, and by means of the numerous teeth with which
it is armed, it is able rapidly to bore its way through shells,
and then to feed upon the unfortunate inmate. The
hermit crab often takes possession of the empty shells of
the Whelk.

The famous Tyrian purple was obtained from one of the
Buccinide, Purpura imbricata.

The beautiful THorwy Woopcock, sometimes called by
the name of Venus’ Comb, is an excellent example of the
Muricide. This elegant shell is an inhabitant of the
Indian Ocean.
THE LIMPETS

327

The Limpets are spread over every latitude, except the
Arctic regions. The common Limpet is to be found on
every rock and large stone at the sea-side. The mode of

Murex.—(Lat. Murex, the purple shell-fish.) ,



Tribulus (Lat. a Thistle), the Thorny Woodcock,

its attachment to the rocks is very curious, and well repays
a careful examination. Every one who has seen a living

limpet knows how firmly it fixes itself
to the rock. This is done by the in-
habitant creating a vacuum on the
under surface of its body, which causes
the pressure of the atmosphere to keep
it so tightly fixed to the rocks, that a
blade of a strong knife is required to
detach it. Frequently the margin of
the shell adapts itself to the shape of
the substance to which it adheres,
proving that it must remain fixed in
the same spot for a long time, and

PaTELLA.—(Lat. a Por-



Vulgata (Lat. made com-
mon), the Linwpet.

rendering it difficult to imagine from whence it can obtain

sufficient nourishment to support life.

Sometimes a large shell may be picked up covered with
limpets, that adhere firmly to it in spite of the rolling of
the waves, and the tossings about to which it must neces-

sarily be subjected.

-
328 THE BIVALVE MOLLUSCS—THE SCALLOP

We now arrive at the Brvatve Mouuuscs. It has been
already stated that the Bivalves are all aquatic. These
creatures are enabled to kee

Proven.—(Lat, @ Scallop.) tyein shells firmly closed iy
means of a powerful muscle.
Those who have attempted for
the first time to open an oyster,
must be convinced of the strength
of this muscle. The two shells
are united by a powerful and
extremely elastic hinge, which
after the death of the animal
opens the shells widely.

The Bivalves do not enjoy
such powers of locomotion as
the Univalves, yet some, as the
fresh-water mussel, can urge
themselves along by means of a
fleshy organ called the foot; and so powerful in some is
this organ, that by means of it the animal can not only
burrow in the sand, but actually leap out of a boat. The
rapid opening and shutting of the valves is used by some,
as the Scallop, as a means of progression. It is believed
that the Bivalves have no visual organs.

The common Scattop is found along our southern
coasts, and in the seas of Europe. - This shell was formerly
used as the badge of a Pilgrim to the Holy Land.



Jacobus (Lat. from a proper
name *), the Scallop.



a His pilgrim’s staff he bore,
And fixed the Scallop in his hat before.”

‘It is a singular fact, that in the stomach of the common
Scallop is found an earthy deposit, which, when boiled in
‘nitric acid in order to dissolve the animal and other
portions, exhibits under a powerful microscope animalcules
precisely similar to those which, in a fossil state, form the
earth on which the town of Richmond in America is
built.

* Because the pilgrims to the shrine of St. James (Sancti Jacobi), celled by
the Spaniards Santiago, also bore the Scallop.
‘THE COMMON OYSTER 829

The Common OvstER has been for many ages considered
asa delicacy for the table. In the times of the ancient
Romans, we find that our ‘‘ Native Oysters” were exported
to Rome, and there placed in the Lucrine Lake, where
they were fattened.

On our coasts the oysters breed in large beds, to which
vast quantities of young oysters are conveyed by the
fishermen, and suffered to increase without molestation.
Newly-formed beds are untouched for two or three years.

OstriA.—(Gr. “Oorpeoy, an Oyster.)



Edilis (Lat. edidie), the Oyster.

During the months of May, June, and July,* the oysters
breed, and are considered unfit for food. At this time the
young, called “spat,” are deposited in enormous numbers.
They instantly adhere to the substance among which they
fall; and this, whatever it be, is called “cultch,” and is
protected by severe penalties. About May the fishermen
separate the spawn from the cultch, which is then thrown
back into its former place. After May it is felony to dis-

* Most people are acquainted with the proverb that oysters are in season
during the months in which is the letter R.
330 THE SEA MUSSELS—THE BERNICLE

turb the cultch, as, were it removed, mussels and cockles
would rapidly take the place of the oysters.

The oysters are taken in the proper season by the
“dredge,” a kind of small net fastened round an iron
frame-work, which scoops up the oysters and many other
marine animals,

The part of the oyster called the “beard” is in re
the respiratory apparatus.

Myritus.—(Gr. Mutiaos, a Mussel.)
eX



Ediilis (Lat. edible), the Edible Mussel.

The Sea Mussets are usually fixed where the tide leaves
them alternately wet and dry, and it is worthy of notice
that those “shell-fish” which are exposed to variations of
this kind are enabled to close their shells so firmly as to
prevent any evaporation. One species is extensively used
as an article of food.

The river mussels occasionally produce pearls of some
value, The nacre of these mussels is of a beautiful azure
blue.



The Brrnictz.—At first sight, the Bernicle bears a
close resemblance to a mussel-shell fixed to a long stem.
On a closer examination, however, the difference is at once
apparent. The shell is in fact composed of jive pieces, and
through the aperture of the shell are thrust two rows of
arms, or “cirrhi,” as they are more properly called. These
cirrhi serve to entangle the small crustacea or molluscs
THE CRUSTACEA 331

which pass near their sphere of action, and which are then
carried to the mouth and speedily devoured.

The Bernicle is always found adhering to some larger
object, usually floating wood, and is very common on the
hulls of ships. Although the perfect animal is perma-
nently fixed, it has been discovered that the young are
free and capable of locomotion ; nor is it until a week or
two has passed, that they finally settle themselves.

The name Anatifera, or Goose-bearing, has been given to

PENTALASMIS.—(Gr. THevré, five ; Aacyua, a plate.)

G OGG OS
& 4 GE),



this animal on account of the ancient story of the produc-
tion of the Bernicle-goose.



The Crustacea are almost all aquatic animals. They
have no internal skeleton, but their body is covered with
a strong crust, which serves for protection as well as for
strength. Their whole framework consists of a series of
rings fitted to, and working in each other; some forming
limbs, and others developing into the framework support-
ing the different organs. From this reason, they and the
remaining animals, as far as the star-fishes, who have no
limbs at all, are called “articulated” animals.

Their method of growth is very curious. Other animals,
as they increase in size, experience no particular incon-
venience. Not so the crustacea. Their bodies are closely
enveloped in a strong, unyielding mail, which cannot grow

Â¥
332 THE COMMON CRAB

with them. Their armour is therefore cast off every year,
and a fresh coat formed to suit their increased dimensions.
Not only is the armour cast off, but even the covering of
the eyes, the tendons of the claws, and the lining membrane
of the stomach, with its teeth.

They all also possess the curious power of reproducing a
lost or injured limb. Im the former case, a fresh limb

CancrrR.—(Lat. a Crab. Gr. Bpaxus, short ; obpd, a tail.)



Pagiirus (Gr. riyvums, I fix; obpa, a tail), the Crad.

supplies the place of that lost; and in the latter case, the
animal itself shakes off the injured joint, and a new one
soon takes its place. Lobsters, when alarmed, frequently
throw off their claws. i

The Decapods, as their name imports, are the fortunate
possessors of ten legs, five at each side. They also possess
three pairs of jaws, besides the teeth in the stomach. They
breathe by means of branchie or gills, fixed at each side of
the throat or chest, often erroneously called the head.*

The Common Crag belongs to the short-tailed Decapods.

* These animals have no distinct head, that and the thorax being merged into
what naturalists call ‘‘ cephalo-thorax,” or head-thorax,
THE HERMIT GRAB 333

It is abundantly taken on our coasts by fishermen, who
employ for its capture a wicker basket called a “creel” or
. crab-pot. The crab-pots are made each with an aperture
which permits the animal to enter, but forbids its egress—
just like a common wire mouse-trap. A piece of a fish
is fastened at the bottom of the creel, and the whole
apparatus let down to the bottom of the sea, guarded by
a line connected with a float, by means of which the
fishermen draw it up and then remove its contents., Each
float has a peculiar mark, by which the fisherman knows
‘his own. When taken, the crabs are kept alive in well-
boats, until wanted.



The Hermir Crap is not so well protected as most of
his relations, for his tail has no shelly armour. He is
therefore forced to pro-

tect his undefended Pactrus—(Gr. Tnyvyus, to fix;
_ovpd, a tail.)

- tail by putting it into
an empty shell, usually
that of a whelk, and
then walks about, drag-
ging his curious house
after him, Sometimes,
two hermit crabs wish
to obtain possession of
the same shell, and then
there is a battle royal.
When the crab grows
larger, he only has to
change his old shell for
a@ new one, and it is €
very amusing t0 se€ Pemhardus (Lat. proper name),
these creatures slipping the Hermit Crab.
their tails first into one
shell, and then into another, until they have pleased
themselves with a good fit. ;
They are very common on our coasts, and may be found
of all sizes, from the crab that fills a tolerably large whelk


334 THE COMMON LOBSTER

shell, to the little one whose habitation hardly exceeds the
size of a pea.

The Lanp Crass make annual excursions to the sea in
large armies. They go straight forward, and nothing
except a house or such insurmountable barrier can stop
them, Those of Jamaica are particularly celebrated.

The common Logster is found in great abundance on
our-coasts, usually in the clear, rocky waters. The fisher-

Asricus.—(Gr. ’Aoraxds, a Lobster.)



Gammitus (Lat.), the Lobster.

men take great numbers of lobsters in baskets made on
the same principle as those used for the capture of the
crab. The powerful tail of the Lobsters enables them to
spring through a great distance if alarmed, and they
have been seen to pass nearly thirty feet. They direct
their course with wonderful accuracy, and can throw them-
selves through apertures hardly larger than the size of their
bodies: of course, they spring tail foremost.

The grasp of the lobster’s ‘claw is so tight, that to break
off the claws is often the only method of disengaging
its hold.
THE PRAWN AND SHRIMP 335

Although enormous quantities are destroyed: every year,
they are so prolific that the supply never fails.
+ The so-called lady’s fingers of the lobster are its breathing
apparatus.

The Prawn and the Surimp are so familiar to every one
as to need but little description. Both are taken in nets

Crancon.—(Gr. Kpoyyév, a Shrimp.)
PaALaZMon.—(Gr, Madafuwv, a proper name.)



Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Shrimp.
Seratus (Lat. toothed, jagged), the Prawn.

swept along the sandy bottom of the sea. The chief dis-
tinction in the appearance of these two creatures is the
serrated or toothed ridge which runs along the back of
the head, or rather carapace, of the Prawn. When in
their natural state, they are of a brown colour, and only
assume the pinkish hue when boiled. Spirits of wine has
the same effect.

The Fresh-water Shrimp (Gammarus Pulex), and the
Water-flea (Daphnia Pulex), both so common in our rivers
and ponds, are placed among the Crustacez.
336 THE COMMON GARDEN SPIDER

SPIDERS.

The Class Aracunipa, or the Spiders, are by many sup-
posed to be insects. Such, however, is not the case. The
Arachnida possess eight legs, while the true Insects only
have six; they undergo no transformations, they possess
no wings or antenne (the place of the latter organs being
supplied either by two jointed claws, as in the Scorpions,
or by two fangs, as in the Spiders); and their eyes are
simple instead of compound.

Could people divest themselves of the horror felt at the
sight of these creatures, especially of the larger sort, they
would be well repaid by the interesting instinct displayed
by all the Spiders, who do not differ from each other more
in form than in habits. Those of our own country afford
an ample field, which has been as yet but imperfectly
trodden. ‘There are the Gossamer Spiders, who float high
into the air, borne upon an almost invisible thread; the
Water Spiders, who form an air-tight dwelling under the
wave; the Hunting Spiders, that creep stealthily upon
their prey, and then spring on it like lightning; the
beautiful Garden Spiders, who weave from their self-
afforded stores their geometrical nets; the Pirate Spiders,
who skim over the surface of the waters, and snatch up
the drowning and helpless fly ; together with many others,
whose form and habits must be familiar to any observer
of Nature.

On account of the limited space that can be appropriated
to each Class, a short account of some of the principal
species of this Class is all that can be given.

The common Garden, or Geometrical Spider, as it is
called from the mathematical regularity of its net, is an
excellent example of the spiders. The net is formed from
a gummy substance secreted in an apparatus called the
spinneret, through the holes of which the gummy secretion
is drawn, and becomes hard when exposed to the air. Each
thread:is composed of many thousand lines. When the
web is completed, the Spider generally hides itself under a
THE HOUSE SPIDER 337

leaf or other convenient lurking-place, and from thence
pounces upon any unwary fly that has entangled itself
in the slender meshes. Should the fly be a large one, the
Spider rapidly encircles it with fresh threads until it has
bound its wings and legs to the body, and then breaking
off the few threads that held it to the net, bears it
off triumphantly to its hiding-place. Frequently the
Geometrical Spider sits in the centre of the web, appa-
rently enjoying the air, and if disturbed shakes the net so





THE GARDEN SPIDER.

violently that its shape is completely obscured by the
rapidity of the vibrations.

The House Spider makes a thicker and irregular web,
and hides itself at the bottom of a silken tunnel commu-
nicating with the web. An acquaintance of mine had so
far tamed a huge house spider, that it would come and
take a fly out of his hand. He states, that as it sat at
the bottom. of its den, its eyes gleamed like diamonds.

Several endeavours have been made to procure silk from
spiders, but although a suflicient quantity has been obtained
to weave gloves from, yet spiders are so pugnacious that
- they cannot be kept together. The eggs of the Spiders
3838 THE TARANTULA—THE SCORPION

are enclosed in a silken bag, and when hatched, the young
keep closely together, and when dispersed by an alarm,
soon re-assemble.

The Tarantula, whose bite was fabled to produce convul-
sions which could only be appeased by music, is a spider
of considerable size, inhabiting the south of Europe, It
lives in holes about four inches deep in the ground.



The Scorrion.—These formidable creatures inhabit most
of the hotter parts of the globe. They are quite as pug-
nacious as the spiders, and if several are placed in one

Scorrfo.—(Lat. Scorpio, a Scorpion.)



Europeus (Lat. Zuropean), the Scorpion.

box, they will fight until few survive, who immediatel
devour their fallen foes. rs

The maxille of the Scorpion are developed into large
claws, like those of the lobster. With these, the Scorpion
seizes its prey, and while holding it pierces it with its
sting, which is situated at the extremity of its tail. The
tail is composed of six joints, rendering it very flexible.

The sting of this creature is exceedingly painful, and
with some persons dangerous; indeed, the sting of the
large black Scorpion of Ceylon is said to cause death.

noe
THE HARVEST-BUG 339

The Hanrvest-puc.—These creatures are mostly minute,
requiring the aid of a microscope fully to develop their
form ; but some are considerably larger, and their organs

Lrprvus.—(Gr. Aerrds, smail.)



Autumnilis (Lat. belonging to Autumn), the Harvest-bug.

can be distinguished with the naked eye. In this order
are included the common cheese-mite, the harvest-bug, the
water mites, &c.

INSECTS.

The TicER-BEETLE.—The body of an insect is divided
or cut into three parts, called the head, the thorax, and
the abdomen. The body is defended by a horny integu-
ment, divided into rings, and connected by a softer mem-
brane. The legs are six in number. Many insects possess
wings, and in all the rudiments of those organs are per-
ceptible. The eyes are compound, that is, a number of
eyes are massed together at each side of the head; and
so numerous are they, that in the compound eyes of the
ant are 50 lenses, in the house-fly, 8000, in the butterfly,
17,000, and in the hawk-moth, 20,000.
340 THE TIGER-BEETLE

The insects pass through three transformations before
they attain their perfect form. The first state is called
the larva,* because
Crcinpita.—(Lat. properly, a Glowworm.) thefutureinsect is
; masked under that
form; the second
is called the pupa,t
on account of the
shape often assum-
ed ; and the third is
called the tmago,t{
as being the image
of the perfect
creature. Insects
breathe by means
beetle. of air tubes, called
trachez, which pe-
netrate to every part of the body, even to the extremities of.
the limbs, antenne, and wings. The air gains access to the
tubes by means of small apertures called spiracles. The
tubes are prevented from collapsing by a delicate thread
wound spirally between the two membranes of which the
tubes are composed. This wonderful and beautiful arrange-
ment not only prevents the tubes from collapsing, but keeps
them flexible. There are, according to Stephens, whose
arrangement is the one usually followed, fourteen orders of
insects. Examples will be given of each, and their names
explained. The most perfect insects are placed first.

There are two great divisions of insects, namely, those
which bite and eat solid food with jaws, as the beetles,
locusts, bees, dsc., and those which suck liquid food through
a proboscis, as the butterflies, flies, &c. The first order
of insects derives its name from the sheath or covering
with which the wings are deferided.§ This is a very
extensive order, as, exclusive of exotic and other foreign



* From Lat. Larva, a mask. ¢ From Lat. Pupa, a doll.

+ From Lat. Jmago, an image or effigy.

§ This, as well as the general covering of insects, is composed principally of
substance called by chemists, chitine. ei
THE GROUND-BEETLE 341

beetles, it has been discovered that no less than three
thousand five hundred inhabit this country, The first in’
order of the British insects are the Tiger-beetles, so called
from their activity and voracity. The most common of
these is the ordinary Green Tiger-beetle, that may be seen,
any hot summer’s day, glancing in the sun on sandy
banks. The exceeding beauty of this insect is beyond all
description. The upper surface of the body is a deep,
dead green, changing under the microscope to a glossy
gold, shot with red and green; the surface of the abdo-
men covered by the wings, and the entire under surface of
the body, are brilliant emerald green, and when the insect
is on the wing it sparkles in the sun like a flying gem.
Nor is this the last of its attractions, for when handled it
gives forth a scent closely resembling that of the verbena.
It is indeed as beautiful among insects as the tiger is
among beasts, and is, perhaps, the more ferocious of the
two. It runs and flies with great activity, and takes to
its wings as easily as a bee or fly, and is in consequence
rather difficult to capture without a net. Its jaws are long,
sharp, curved like a sickle, and armed with several teeth.
Its eyes are large and prominent, enabling it to see on all
sides. Its length is rather more than half an inch.



CarApus.—(Gr. KépaBos, a Beetle.)



CEB
“ZZ
VEE

Cancellatus (Lat. chequered), the Grownd-beetle.

The GRoUND-BEETLE is one of our largest and most
beautiful beetles. Its general colour is a coppery green,
842 THE STAG-BEETLE

and its wing-cases are ornamented with several rows of
oblong raised spots. Its length is about an inch.

The Lamrtiicorn Brntizs are exceedingly useful to
mankind. Many of them act as scavengers and farmers,
for they not only remove putrefying substances from the
surface of the ground, but bury them beneath.

The Srac-BrerLe is the largest of British insects.
Although so formidably armed, it is quite harmless, and

Lucanus.—(Lat. the Stag-beetle.)
GrorrupEs.—(Gr. 17, the Earth ; rpuraw, to bore.)
MELOLONTHA.—(Gr. MnAoady6n, a Cockchaffer.)



Cervus (Lat. a Stag), the Stag-beetle.
Stercorarius (Lat. Dung), the Dor-beetle.
Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Cockchaffer.

only uses its enormous jaws to break the tender bark of
trees, in order that the sap on which it feeds may
exude. The mouth of this beetle is very small, and is
furnished with a brush, with which it licks up the food.
Several of these beetles lived for some time on moist
sugar. During the winter, it hides in the earth, making
THE DOR-BEETLE—-THE COCKCHAFFER 343

for itself a kind of cave, very smooth inside.* This
beetle is common in the New Forest.

The Dor-BrerLe is a very common English insect.
At the approach of evening it may be seen whirling round
in the air with a dull, humming sound. The country
children call it the Watchman, comparing it to a watchman
going his rounds in the evening. It usually lays its eggs
on a rounded mass of cow-dung, and then buries the
whole mass in the ground. When caught, it pretends to
be dead.

The Dor-beetle is very tenacious of life. I have now in
my cabinet a specimen of this insect, which I took on the
wing. It had lost several legs, one wing-cover, or elytron,
the whole of the contents of the abdomen, and part of the
thorax. I suppose that a bird must have been eating it, and
have been disturbed, for when thrushes, blackbirds, jack-
daws, &e., eat large beetles, they begin by picking off the
wings, limbs, &e. I also took, in May 1852, a cockchaffer
walking along very unconcernedly, who had lost both his
wings and elytra, and all the contents of the abdomen.

The CockcHarrer needs not much description. Its
larva works great mischief during the spring, as it feeds
on the roots of plants, and cuts them off with its sharp,
sickle-like jaws. Where many of these “grubs” have
been, the grass curls up, and dries like hay. One farmer
actually collected eighty bushels of the grubs of the
Cockchaffer on his farm. Fortunately the thrushes, black-
birds, rooks, and many other birds, are inveterate destroyers
of the grubs, and devour myriads of them. It is for this
purpose that these birds pull up the grass, and: not to
spoil or devour the herbage, as is generally supposed.

The huge Hercules and Atlas Beetles, and larger still,
the Goliath Beetle, belong to the Lamellicorns,

The GLowworm may be seen in the warm summer
evenings, shedding its pale green light on grassy banks.
The female insect gives out a much stronger light than the

* In the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, is an excellent specimen of the winter

habitation of this beetle, with the beetle itself enclosed,
844 THE GLOWWORM—THE MUSK-BEETLE

male, and there is some light visible even in the larva.
The light of this insect proceeds from the abdomen. The
light given out by the firefly, another kind of beetle in-
habiting South America, proceeds from three yellow
tubercles placed on the throat. The grub or larva of the

LAMPYRIS.—(Gr. Adu, to shine ; odpd, a tail.)




a

Noctiliica (Lat. night-shining), the Glowworm.

Glowworm is of a singular form, and is furnished with a
brush at the extremity of the tail, with which it cleanses
its body from dust or the slime of the snails on which it
frequently feeds.

Of the two insects represented in the engraving, that on
the left is the male, the female being that on the right.

The Musx-Brette.—The beautiful Beetles of which the
common Musk-beetle is an excellent example, vary con-
siderably in size; some being several inches in length,
while some are hardly one-quarter of an inch long. The
extreme length of their antenne is the most conspicuous
property, and from that peculiarity they are at once
recognised,

The Musk-beetle is a large insect, common in most
parts of England. It is extremely common at Oxford, and
is found in old willow-trees, with which Oxford is sur-
rounded. Its peculiar scent, something resembling that of
roses, often betrays its presence, when its green colour
would have kept it concealed. When touched, it emits a
THE ROVE-BEETLES 345

curious sound, not unlike that of the bat, but more
resembling the faint scratching of a perpendicularly-held

CERAMBYX.—(Gr. KepdéuBvé, the Musk-beetle.)



Moschiatus (Lat. musky), Musk-beetie.

slate pencil. Its larva bores deep holes in the trees, which
are often quite honeycombed by them.

The Rove-BrEties form an exceedingly extensive section.
Some are so small as to require the assistance of the micro-
scope to discover their shape, and others, as those repre-
sented on the next page, are more than an inch in length.
The small species are usually on the wing, and it is very
amusing to see them alight, and with their flexible tails
tuck their long and beautifully shaped wings under the
elytra, run about for a moment, and then again take to
flight. These are the creatures that cause so much annoy-
ance by flying into one’s mouth or eve in the warm
months,

The Great Rove-BEETLE is commonly found upon de-
caying animal substances. It is most formidably armed
with two large, curved, sharp mandibles, the bite of which
is tolerably severe ; and more than once, when the creature
3846 THE ROVE-BEETLE

has been recently feeding upon putrid substances, dangerous
results have followed.

’. CrropHitus.—(Gr. Kpeds, flesh; piAciy, to love.)



Maxillisus (Lat. darge-jawed), the Rove-bectte.

I much regret that want of space has withheld me from
giving accounts of many most interesting beetles, par-
ticularly some of the Carabide, the Silphide, Ptinide, and
the Water-beetles. These last inhabit the water, and swim
with remarkable activity. They occasionally come to the
surface for a fresh supply of air, which they carry down
between the elytra and the upper surface of the abdomen.
They fly very well, but the construction of their limbs
prevents them from walking. They cannot be kept ina
limited space, as they are very fierce and voracious, and in
one case, when a male and female were placed in a jar
filled with water, only one day elapsed before the male was
found dead and half devoured by his disconsolate widow.



The Earwic is placed in an order by itself, called
Dermaptera, from the soft elytra. The wings are large and
exceedingly beautiful, and the method of folding by which
{HE EARWIG—THE LOCUST i 347

they are packed under the very small elytra is very curious.
The use of the forceps seems principally for the purpose of
folding the wings and placing them in their proper position

ForrictLa.—(Lat. dim. of Forfex, a pair of Shears.)



Forcipata (Lat. possessing forceps), the Earwig.

under their cases. Ten species of earwigs inhabit England.
The eggs of the earwigs are hatched, and the young pro-
tected by the parent.

The insect represented is chosen as being rather a rare
species.



Tartarica (Lat. of Tartary), the Locust.

The Locust.—These pests of the warmer countries of
Zz
348 THE LOCUST

the earth belong to the order called Orthoptera, because
the wings are not folded transversely.

They fly in countless myriads, and where they descend,
they devour every particle of green herbage—the trees are
stripped of their leaves, the grass and corn is eaten to the
very ground; for their jaws are so strong as to inflict a
severe wound when the insect is incautiously handled.
Nor does the mischief end with their life, for their dead
bodies often accumulate in such numbers that the air is
even dangerously infected. They infest Africa and Central
Asia, but they annually make incursions to Europe, where
the damage they occasion is much less reparable than in
their native lands; for there the power of vegetation is so
great that a few days repair the injuries caused by them,
but in Europe a whole year is required for that purpose.
The following account of these creatures is extracted from
Mr. Cumming’s “South Africa” :—

“On the following day I had the pleasure of beholding
the first flight of locusts that I had seen since my arrival
in the colony. We were standing in the middle of a
plain of unlimited length, and about five miles across,
when I observed them advancing. On they came like a
snow-storm, flying slow and steady, about a hundred
yards from the ground. I stood looking at them until
the air was darkened with their masses, while the plain
on which we stood became densely covered with them.
Far as my eye could reach, east, west, north, and south,
they stretched in one unbroken cloud; and more than an
hour elapsed before their devastating legions had swept
DY Pee sete
“Locusts afford fattening and wholesome food to man,
birds, and all sorts of beasts; cows and horses, lions,
jackals, hyenas, antelopes, elephants, &c., devour them.
We met a party of Batlapis carrying heavy burdens of
them on their backs. Our hungry dogs made a fine feast
on them. The cold frosty night had rendered them un-
able to take wing until the sun should restore their
powers. As it was difficult to obtain sufficient food for
my dogs, I and Isaac took a large blanket, which we spread


THE HOUSE-CRICKET 349

under a bush, whose branches were bent, to the ground
with the mass of locusts which covered it, and having
shaken the branches, in an instant I had more locusts
than I could carry on my back; these we roasted for
ourselves and our dogs,”

Our common grasshoppers belong to this order, but
require no description.

The Hovuse-Cricxet.—This well-known insect delights
to live in places that are always warm, and consequently
is found swarming about ovens, kitchen fire-places, and
localities of a similar nature. It makes its residence by

Acuira.—(Gr. ’Axéras, a Chirper, 4. ¢. the Grasshopper.)



Domesticus (Lat. domestic), the House Cricket.

cutting away the mortar with its powerful jaws, and so
effectually will it do so, that it sometimes eats completely
through the wall, opening communications between two
or more houses. The manner in which it bears heat is
wonderful, as it will live within afew inches of a fierce
fire.

But the aridity and heat of the atmosphere in which
it lives, render it very liable to thirst, and it consequently
350 THE MOLE-CRICKEYL

seeks every opportunity of quenching its thirst, by gnaw-
ing holes in wet linen, devouring any moist crumbs that
may lie on the floor, or boldly climbing the milk-can, in
which latter case it gets a little too much liquid, and is
generally “found drowned” next morning.

The wings of this insect, as well as those of the Field-
Cricket, are very beautiful, and marked with an elegant
pattern. The Cricket never appears to use them except
at night, when it may be taken on the wing.

The Mozrz-Cricket.—The curious insect called the
Mole-Cricket is not uncommon in England. It inhabits
sandy banks, dig-
GryLLoTALPA.—(Lat. Gryllus, a Cricket ; ging deep holes,and
forming chambers,
in which the eggs
are laid. The fore
legs closely resem-
ble those of the
mole, and are used
for the same pur-
pose. From its not
unmusical ery it
SSS SES is called in some
Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Mole-Cricket. parts of England
the Churr-worm,

and near Oxford the rustics call it “ Croaker.”



The Lzar Insect is an inhabitant of South America.
Not only does it resemble a leaf in shape, but even in
colour, and its legs may easily be mistaken for dry twigs.
Even the ramified veinings of the leaf are preserved on i(s
wings, It is singular that while some insects closely
resemble vegetables, some vegetables, as the Orchidacez,
should as closely resemble insects. Nearly connected with
this insect, is the Praying Mantis, so called from the
curious manner in which it holds its fore legs. It is very
voracious and exceedingly quarrelsome, fighting with the
fore legs, which it uses like a sword. In China the inhabit-
THE COCKROACH 351

ants keep them in cages, and set them to fight, as in
other countries certain barbarians keep cocks for the same
purpose.

PHYLLIA.*—(Gr. bdAAov, a Leaf.)









































Polidita (Lat. ike a leaf), the Leaf Insect.

The CockroacH.—Once upon a time tho-French Aca-
demy were compiling a dictionary. Being determined to

Buatra.—(Lat. Blatta, a Cockroach.)



Orientalis (Lat. Hastern), the Cockroach.

be quite accurate, they submitted each scientific word to
some one skilled in that particular branch. One of these
words was “ Lobster,’ which the academicians defined as

* I have preferred to place these two insects in close proximity, as they both
afford a curious instance of resemblance to another part of creation.
852 THE COCKROACH

a little red fish that runs sideways. The word being
zoological, came under Cuvier’s notice, who, on reading
the definition, observed that it would have been a very
good one, but for three trifling circumstances, the first
being that the lobster is not red until boiled, secondly that
it is not a fish, and thirdly, that it does not run sideways.

In like manner the Cockroach has suffered under the
hands of English housewives, who express their abhor-
rence of it under the name of “black beetle,’ a name
egregiously false, as, in the first place, it is not black, and
in the second place, it is not a beetle.

As is seen from the position of the insect, it belongs to
the order Orthoptera, and its colour is a mahogany red.
But, red or black, beetle or not, it is a very great plague,
and fully deserves all the maledictions heaped upon it,
which are not likely to be decreased by the fact that it is
not even a good old English nuisance, but one of modern
importation. ;

Its unpleasant character has caused innumerable plans
to be laid for its destruction. Among these, strewing the
ground with the peel of cucumber, or with red wafers,
is said to be effectual in destroying Cockroaches, but
perhaps no plan is so successful as the glass pan with
sloping sides, which lets the insects fall in, but prevents
their escape altogether.

The eggs of the Cockroach are deposited, indeed, in
little cases or purses, something like those of the shark,
but without the strings. Down one side a thick toothed
ridge runs, and by this ridge the young escape when
hatched.

The male Cockroach is furnished with very handsome
wings, while the female is entirely destitute of these
organs, and only possesses four little scales to mark their
position. In the engraving, the right-hand figure repre-
sents the male, the left being the female. These figures
were drawn by the aid of the camera lucida, from speci-
mens captured expressly for the purpose.
THE COMMON MAY-FLY 353

The Common May-riy is so well-known an insect that
it needs no long description. It is the fly so familiar to
anglers under the name of the “Drake.” It is to be
found in swarms in the end of May and the beginning of
June, rising and falling in the air in its peculiarly undu-
lating manner.

The May-fly spends the first portion of its existence in
the water, under the shape of a longish grub, with leaf-like
appendages to its tail. About May, the grubs may be
seen to leave the water, and to crawl up the banks or
climb the stems of aquatic plants.’ The skin then splits,
and the May-fiy
creeps out. But it Hrurmina.—(Gr. ephuepos, living for one
cannot immediately day only.)
fly, as its wings are
soft, and like two
split peas. A short
interval of exercise
in the open air soon
loosens them, and
they are gradually
shaken out until
they have attained
their full size, when
the insect flies off.
There is, however,
another change yet. :
In a short time, Vulgiita (Lat. common), the May-fly.
the May-fly again
settles, and sheds the entire skin a second time, even
including the covering of the wings. ‘These cast skins
are often found sticking on the bark of willow-trees by
the side of waters, and are mistaken for dead May-flies.



The Dracoy-riry.—Well do the Dragon-flies deserve
their name. Fierce, voracious, active, and powerful, they
are a scourge to the insects. Few but the Coleoptera can
escape them. They are on the wing nearly the whole
day, seizing and devouring flies, spiders, and various
354 THE DRAGON-FLY

insects; nor can even the broad-winged butterfly escape
them: so voracious are they, that when held in the hand
they will devour flies, &c., if held within their reach, and
they have even been known, when their bodies have been
severed in two, to eat flies, although they had no -stomach
to put them in. I once caught a dragon-fly in my net, .
and while holding it by the wings I presented to it no less
than thirty-seven large flies in rapid succession, all of
which it devoured, together with four long-legged spiders.
Tt would probably have eaten as many more had I not
been tired of catching flies for it.

LrpEtitha.—(Lat, Libellula, a Dragon-fly.)





Depressa (Lat. flattened), the Dragon-fly.

A very great variety of these beautiful insects inhabit
England. Some, the Agrionide, whose head resembles
that of the hammer-headed shark, are of every vivid
colour imaginable, floating in the air like beams of azure,
emerald, and rosy light, while others have their wings
marked with large indigo-coloured spots. The larva of
the Dragon-fly inhabits the water, and is quite as voracious
as in its perfect state. Affixed to its head is a curious set
of organs, called the mask, which it can extend, and use for
the purpose of seizing its prey, and holding it to its mouth.
THE ANT-LION ~855

The Ant-Lion.—This insect in its perfect form, although
it is very elegant, exhibits no peculiarity worthy of notice,
but in its larva state its habits are so extraordinary as to
have excited general attention. As it is slow and awk-
ward in its movements, it has recourse to stratagem for
capturing the agile insects on which it feeds. Choosing a
light sandy soil, it digs for itself a conical pit, at the bottom

MyrMeEtiton.—(Gr. Mépunt, an Ant; Aéwv, a Lion).*



Formicarum (Lat. of ants), the Ant-lion.

of which it conceals itself, leaving only its jaws exposed.
When an unwary insect approaches too near the edge of
the pit, the sand gives way, and down rolls the insect into
the very teeth of the concealed Ant-lion, who instantly
pierces its prey with its calliper-shaped fangs, and sucks
out its juices through the jaws, which are hollow. Should,
however, the Ant-lion miss its prey, and the insect endea-
vour to escape, its captor instantly makes sucha turmoil by
tossing up the sand with its closed jaws, and covering each
side of the pit with the moving grains, that the insect is
tolerably certain to be brought down to the bottom, and
is seized by the Ant-lion, who immediately drags it below
the sand. When the insect is very strong, and struggles
hard to escape,’the Ant-lion shakes it about as a dog does
a rat, and beats it against the ground until it is disabled.

. * The winged Ant-lion is reduced one half in size, and the figure on the right
represents the larva.
356 THE TERMITES, OR WHITE ANTS

The Trermires, or Wuire Ants, as they are very errone-
ously called, belong to the Neuroptera, and are therefore
not ants at all. These insects live in large societies, and
build edifices, sometimes of enormous size, and almost as
hard as stone. Twelve feet in height is quite common, so
that were we to compare our works with theirs, St. Peter’s
in Rome and 8t. Paul’s in London fall infinitely short of
the edifices constructed by these little creatures. The
common Termite inhabits Africa. Not only does it build
these houses, but runs galleries underground, as, curiously
enough, although blind, it always works either at night or
in darkness, In each house or community, there are five

TrrmEs.—(Lat. Termes, properly a twig, also the insect.)



Bellicésus (Lat. warlike).

different kinds of Termites :—1. the single male,-or king,
whose life is very short; 2. the single female or queen:
these are the perfect insects, and have had wings, but have
lost them soon after their admission into their cell; they
also have eyes; 8. the soldiers or fighting men: these
possess large jaws, do no work, but repel adversaries and
watch as sentinels; 4. the pups, who resemble the workers,
except that they possess the rudiments of wings; and 5.
the larvee, or workers. These do all the work, i. e. they
collect food, attend to the queen, and watch over the eggs
and young, and build and repair their castle. These are
more numerous than all the other kinds.

On the approach of the rainy season, the pupex obtain
wings and issue forth in swarms. Few, however, survive.
THE TERMITES, OR WHITE ANTS 357

Myriads are devoured by birds, reptiles, and even by man ;
and many are carried out to sea and perish there. Those
that do escape are speedily found by the labourers, who
inclose a pair in a clay cell from which they never emerge.
The male soon dies, but the female, after rapidly increasing
to nearly three inches in length and one in breadth, con-
tinues to lay eggs unceasingly for a very long time. This



THE WHITE ANT.*

cell becomes the nucleus of the hive, and round it all the
other cells and galleries are built.

These insects are terribly destructive, as they eat through
wooden beams, furniture, &e., leaving only a thin shell,
which is broken down with the least extra weight, and
many are the occasions when an unsuspecting individual,
on seating himself on an apparently sound sofa or chair,

* The upper figure is the Winged or King Termite, and below is represented
one of the houses. In the cut on p. 356, the large figure is that of the femaie or
Queen Termite; the left-hand one is the labourer, and the right-hand figure
represents the soldier,
358 THE CADDIS-FLY

finds himself, like Belzoni in the Pyramid, reposing among
a heap of dust and splinters. "

Mr. Cumming describes the habitations of the Whit
Ant in these terms :—

“Throughout the greater part of the plains frequented
by blesboks, numbers of the sunbaked hills or mounds
of clay formed by the white ants occur. The average
height of the ant-hills in these districts is from two to
three feet. They are generally distant from one another
from one to three hundred yards, being more or less thickly
placed in different parts. These ant-hills are of the greatest
service to the hunter, enabling him with facility to conceal
himself on the otherwise open plain.”

PHRYGANEA.— (Gr. bpdyavov, a dry stick ; alluding to their
habitations. )





The Cappis-riy.—This fly is well known to every
angler both in its larva and in its perfect state. The larva
is a soft white worm, of which fishes are exceedingly
fond, and it therefore requires some means of defence. It
accordingly actually makes for itself a movable house of

* In this cut the cases of the Caddis-worm are of the natural size, but the
insect in the centre is reduced one half.
THE ICHNEUMON-FLY 359

sand, small stones, straws, bits of shells, or even small
living shells, in which it lives in perfect security, and
crawls about in search of food, dragging its house after it.
When it is about to become a pupa, it spins a strong silk
grating over the entrance of its case, so that the water
necessary for its respiration can pass through, but at the
same time all enemies are kept out. When the time for
its change has arrived, the pupa bites through the grating,
rises to the surface, and crawls out of the reach of the
water, which would soon be fatal to it. The skin then
splits down the back, and the perfect insect emerges.

The order is called Trichoptera, because the wings,
instead of being covered with scales as are those of butter-
flies, are clothed with hairs.—There are many species of
Caddis-flies.

—<—

The IcHnEumoN-FLy.—We have now reached a most
important and interesting order. In it are contained
the bees, wasps, ants, &e. This is the only order where
the insects possess stings. The wings are four in number,
with certain veinings upon them, the shape and number
of which in many cases distinguish the species.

The Icuneumons form a very large section. They are
most useful to mankind, as one ichneumon will destroy
more caterpillars than a man could kill in his lifetime.
They do not, as most. other insects, deposit their eggs
upon vegetable or dead animal substances, but they actu-
ally bore holes in other insects, while they are still in the
larva state, and leave the eggs to hatch in their living
receptacle. The most common ichneumon (mécrogaster
glomeratus) is a very small insect, not so large as an
ordinary gnat. This little creature may be seen searching
for caterpillars. It generally selects the common cabbage
caterpillar, and sitting upon it, pierces with its sting,
or ovipositor as it is called, the skin of the caterpillar, and
deposits an egg. After repeating this operation many
times it flies off, and the caterpillar proceeds as before in
the great business of its life, that is, eating, and continues
360 THE ICHNEUMON-FLY

in apparently perfect health until the time for its change
into the chrysalis state occurs. The good condition of it,
however, is merely deceptive, for the offspring of the little
ichneumon have all this while been silently increasing in
size, and feeding on the fat, &c., of the caterpillar, but
cautiously avoiding any vital part, so that the plump
appearance of the caterpillar is merely produced by the
young ichneumons lying snugly under the skin. Just as
the caterpillar commences its change, out come all the

PrpLa.—(Gr. Miuranut, to fill.)



Manifestator (Lat. « pointer out,) the Ichneumon- fly.

ichneumons, looking like little white maggots, and imme-
diately each spins for itself a yellow oval case, frequently
enveloping the form of the now emaciated caterpillar. In
a few days a little lid on the top of each case is pushed
open, and the perfect flies issue forth, and immediately
commence their own work of destruction.

I have examined hundreds of caterpillars in the course
of dissection, and have seldom found them free from
ichneumons. I took out of one small goat caterpillar 137
of these insidious destroyers, I found them useful auxi-
liaries in dissection, as they had usually consumed all the
fat, leaving the important organs ready cleared.



The remaining Hymenoptera are furnished with true
stings, that is, with stings to which is attached a poison
apparatus, like that belonging to the teeth of venomous
snakes,
THE WOOD ANT 361

The Woop Awnr is the largest of our British species.
It is found principally in woods, and builds a large nest,
which looks like a hillock of sand and earth, intermixed
with bits of stick, leaves, &c. The interior of this hill is
chambered out into
a variety of apart- Formica.—(Lat. an Ant.)
ments, and is tra-
versed by passages.
The so-called ants’
eggs are not eggs at
all, but the pups
cases of the insect,
and if opened, the
perfect insect is seen
curled up inside. In
the autumn, the ants
burst forth by thou-
sands, and may be
seen hovering in clouds above the nest. Their beautiful
wings do not last long, for when a female ant escapes, and
founds an infant colony, her wings are soon lost, just as a
highly-accomplished young lady gives up her velvet paint-
ing and cross-stitchery when she marries and has a large
family. Few do escape, as the birds find these living
clouds a most agreeable and plentiful repast.

Ants do not, as has been so frequently said, lay up
stores of corn for the winter, for they are in a state of
torpidity during the cold months, and require no food.
Moreover, an ant would find as much difficulty in eating
or digesting a grain of corn as we should in devouring a
truss of straw.

In each nest are three kinds of ants,—males, females,
and neuters, or workers.



The Wasrs.—Let us honour the Wasps as the first
paper-makers, for of that material is the nest composed.
The paper is rough and coarse, certainly, but it is still
paper. The Wasp, in order to make this paper, rasps off
fibres of decayed wood, which it afterwards mashes with
362 THE WASPS

its teeth into a pulp, and then spreads the pulp in layers,
when it hardens and forms coarse paper.

The dreaded Hornur is usually found in woods, where
it builds its nest in the hollows of trees. A deserted hut
is a favourite spot, and when occupied by a full nest of
hornets is not particularly safe to enter, as the sting of
this insect is peculiarly severe. In 1847, while on an
entomological excursion in Bagley Wood, I saw five
hornets sitting in a row, gnawing a dead branch. I was

Vuspa.—(Lat. a Wasp.)

fo



Crabro (Lat. a Hornet), the Hornet.
Vulgaris (Lat. common), the Wasp.

rather fearful of disturbing them, but at the same time
_they were much wanted for a museum. They were all
‘secured by tapping each in succession with a twig, and
receiving it into my net as it flew off. Each bit a hole in
the net, which had to be repaired before it could be used
again with safety.

It feeds upon other insects, and even attacks and devours
the formidable wasp.

The Common Wasp builds its nest in the ground, usually
in banks. The comb is laid horizontally, and not vertically
like those of the bee. As the cells are made of paper,
they will not hold honey, nor does the wasp endeavour to
THE BEE 363

collect honey, although it is very fond of it, and never
loses an opportunity of robbing a bee-hive, although its
natural food is flies or other animal substances. Nor does
it despise sugar, as every grocer’s window testifies. Very
few wasps survive the winter, and those who do, imme-
diately set about forming a new nest. Only a few cells
are made at first, but the number rapidly increases, until
the nest is furnished with about sixteen thousand cells.

Some wasps build nests upon the branches of trees, and
others suspend them from the branches.



The Bsz.—This useful little creature is so well known
that a lengthened description of it would be useless. A
merely general sketch will be quite sufficient.

The cells of the bee are, as is well known, made of wax.
This wax is secreted in the form of scales under six little
flaps situated on the under side of the insect. It is then
pulled out by the bee, and moulded with other scales until
a tenacious piece of wax is formed. The yellow substance
on the legs of the bees is the pollen of flowers. This is
kneaded up by the bees, and is called bee-bread.

The cells are six-sided, a form which gives the greatest
space and strength with the least amount of material, but
the method employed by the bees to give the cells that
shape is not known. The cells in which the drone or
male bees are hatched, are much larger than those of the
ordinary or worker bee. The edges of the cells are
strengthened with a substance called propolis, which is a
gummy material procured from the buds of various trees.
This propolis is also used to stop up crevices and to mix
with wax when the comb has to be strengthened.

The royal cells are much larger than any others, and are
of an oval shape. When a worker larva is placed in a
royal cell, and fed in a royal manner, it imbibes the prin-
ciples of royalty, and becomes a queen accordingly. This
practice is adopted if the queen bee should die, and there
be no other queen to take her place.

The Queen Bee is lady paramount in her own hive, and
suffers no other queen to divide rule with her. Should a

AA
364 THE BEE

strange queen gain admittance, there is a battle at once,
which ceases not until one has been destroyed.

At the swarming time, the old queen is sadly put out
by the encroachments of various young queens, who each
wish for the throne, and at last is so agitated that she
rushes out of the hive, attended by a large body of sub-
jects, and thus the first swarm is formed. In seven or
eight days, the queen next in age also departs, taking
with her another supply of subjects. When all the
swarms have left the original hive, the remaining queens
fight until one gains the throne.

Family, Apidw.—(Lat. Apis, a Bee.)
APIS.



Mellifica (Lat. Afel, honey ; facere, to make), the Honey Bee.*

The old method of destroying bees for the sake of the
honey was not only cruel but wasteful, as by burning some
dry “puff-ball” the bees are stupefied, and shortly return
to consciousness. The employment of a ‘‘cap” on the
hive is an excellent plan, as the bees deposit honey alone
in these caps, without any admixture of grubs or bee-

* In the cut, the upper figure is the Queen Bee; that on the left the Worker,
and that on the right the Drone.
THE SWALLOW-TAILED BUTTERFLY 365

bread. Extra hives at the side, with a communication
from the original hive, are also useful.

The queen bee lays about eighteen thousand eggs. Of
these about eight hundred are males or drones, and four
or five queens, the remainder being workers.

en

The SwaLLow-TAILED BuTTeRFLy.—We now arrive at
the Haustellate Insects, so called because they suck liquid
food through an apparatus resembling the proboscis of an
elephant. The first order of haustellate insects is the
LEPIDOPTERA, containing the butterflies and moths. The
butterflies always fly by day, from which circumstance
they are sometimes called Diurnal Lepidoptera. Most of
the moths fly by night, and are called Nocturnal Lepidop-
tera. This is not a rule, however, as many moths fly by
day, and some butterflies come out in the evening.

Butterflies are usually lighter in the body than moths,
from which insects they are easily distinguished by the
shape of the antennz, which in the butterflies are slender,
and terminate in a small knob, but in the moths terminate
in a point, and are often beautifully fringed.

The name Lepidoptera is given to these insects because
their wings are covered with myriads of minute scales, by
which the beautiful colouring of the wings is produced.
These scales vary in size and shape, according to the spe-
cies or the part of the wing from which they are taken.
Under the microscope they are most exquisite objects, and
well repay a long and careful examination.

The Lepidoptera pass through three distinct changes
before assuming their perfect form. They first exist in the
larva state, in which state they are called caterpillars.
They then pass to the pupa state, when they are known
by the name of “aurelias”* or “chrysalides,” t both
words being derived from words signifying gold, from the
golden lustre of the pupa of certain butterflies. When
they have remained in the pupa state during a time vary-
ing from a few days to two years, they burst their shells

* Lat. Aurwm, gold. t Gr. Xpvgos, gold.
366 THE SWALLOW-TAILED BUTTERFLY

and issue forth in their full and perfect beauty. This
transformation has for many ages been used as an illustra-
tion of the resurrection after death.

The beautiful insect represented below is not very un-
common in some parts of England, especially in the
fenny parts of Cambridgeshire.*

Papitio.—(A Butterfly.)



Machiion (Gr. a proper Oy the Swallow-tatled Butterfly.

It flies with exceeding rapidity, nearly in a straight line,
and is very difficult to capture.

The colour of the wings is black, variegated most beauti-
fully with yellow markings, and near the extremity of each
hinder wing is a circular red spot, surmounted by a crescent
of blue, and the whole surrounded by a black ring.

The FRITILLARIES are well deserving of notice for the
delicacy of their colouring, and the beauty of their mark-
ings. The Silver-spotted “Pritillary is remarkable for the
peculiar appearance presented by the under surface of the
wings, which look as if they had been studded with pieces
of burnished silver leaf. It is found mostly on thistles in
woods, and is very common in Bagley Wood, near Oxford,
about the end of June, or during July.

*T once saw it in the water-meadows near Oxford.
+ This figure is about one-third smaller than the insect,
THE SILVER-SPOTTED FRITILLARY 367

VANESSA.—(Lat. @ proper name.) ARGYNNIS.—(Gr. a proper name.)



Adippe (proper name), the Silver-spotted Fritillary.
Atalanta (proper name), the Red Admiral.

The Rep ADMIRAL is one of the most gorgeous of our
butterflies. The colour of the wings is a deep black,
relieved by a broad band of scarlet across each, and a
series of semicircular blue marks edge each wing. It is
usually found in woods and lanes, where there are nettles,
as the larva feeds upon that plant. It appears about the
middle of August.

The Dzatn’s-zEaD Motu.—This family is called
Sphingide on account of the sphinx-like attitude that
the caterpillars of some species assume. The larva of the
Puss-moth (Cerda viniila) is particularly celebrated for
this position. It holds the plants on which it feeds with
its hinder feet, and raises the fore part of its body, just as
the sphinx is represented. When in this position, it seems
so remarkably self-satisfied, that the gardener of Rosel, a
famous naturalist, was quite disconcerted, affirming that he
never saw insects hold their heads so high.

The Death’s-head Moth is the largest of the British
Lepidoptera, as it not unfrequently measures nearly six
inches across the wings. Its rather ominous name is
368 THE DEATH’S-HEAD MOTI

derived from the singular marking in the thorax, which
does not require much imagination to represent a skull
and cross-bones.

Some naturalists have asserted that this moth makes its
way into bee-hives, and robs the inhabitants of their
honey, disarming their resentment by a curious squeaking
noise which it has the power of producing.

AcHERONTIA.—(Gr. ’Axepdytios, belonging to Acheron. )



Atrdpos (Gr. proper name ; one of the Fates), the Death’s-head Moth.

The uneducated rustics have a great horror of this
insect, and consider its appearance as a most disastrous
omen, In a small village removed from the influence of
railways, on one Sunday morning, as the inhabitants were
going through the churchyard, a Death’shead Moth
appeared on the path. Every one recoiled in dismay,
and no one dared approach the dreaded object. Sundry
heads were shaken at the evil omen, and various prophetic
remarks made. At last, the blacksmith summoned up
courage, and with a great jump, came down on the unfor-
tunate moth, and happily destroyed it. The people were
in blissful ignorance that, as there were several fields near
planted with potatoes, on which vegetable the caterpillar
THE HUMMING-BIRD MOTH 369

generally feeds, there were probably a few hundred of
Death’s-head Moths in the vicinity.

I have this specimen now in my possession; it is of
course mashed quite flat. It -is a very singular fact, that
those who, living so much in the open fields, would be
supposed to have correct knowledge of natural phenomena,
are really profoundly ignorant of facts that pass daily
before their eyes. I have already mentioned the popular
superstitions regarding efts.

In common with many other nocturnal insects, the eyes
of the Death’s-head Moth shine at night like two stars,
which adds considerably to the terror inspired by its
appearance.

. The Hummine-sirp Motu.—This curious insect is called
the Humming-bird Moth, because its appearance when on
the wing exactly resem-
bles that of a humming-
bird. It feeds on the
wing as the bird does,
hovering before each
flower and sucking out
the honey by means of
its very long proboscis.
It is very shy, and darts
off if the slightest move-
ment is made; but if the
spectator remains per-
fectly quiet, the moth Stellatarum, the Humming-bird Moth.
sees no danger, and will

continue its meal within a yard of him. The moth appears ©
to gain confidence if it is not disturbed, and in a few days
will become almost tame, permitting the spectator to
whom it is accustomed, to approach quite closely without
appearing alarmed.

MacrocLossa.—(Gr. Maxpés, long;
yAGooa, the tongue.)



The Tigzr Morn.—This common but beautiful moth is
found in the beginning of autumn. It runs on the ground
with such swiftness as to be often mistaken for | mouse.
370 THE TIGER MOTH

I have more than once seen a kitten chasing a Tiger Moth
among the flowers in a garden, evidently deceived by its
resemblance to a mouse. The larva is popularly called
“the woolly bear.” It is rather large, and is surrounded
with tufts of long elastic hairs of a reddish-brown colour,
which serve as a defence against many enemies. When
disturbed, it rolls itself round, just as a hedgehog does, and
if on a branch, suffers itself to fall to the ground, when

Family, Arctiidie.—(Gr. “Aperos, a Bear; in allusion to the popular
name of the larva.)
AROTIA.



Caja (Lat. proper name), the Tiger Moth.

the long hairy covering defends it from being injured by
the fall. When the caterpillar is about to change into a
pupa, it spinsa kind of hammock, and lies there until it
comes forth as a moth.

The colour and markings of this moth vary considerably.
The usual tints are, the thorax brown, the body red, striped
with black. The two anterior wings are cream colour,
marked with bold patches of a deep brown: the posterior
wings are bright red, spotted with bluish black.

The larvee of the GEoMErRIpa move ina very singular
SWALLOW-TAILED MOTH 37 1

inanner. When preparing to make a step, they hold firmly
by their hinder legs to the substance on which they are
moving, and then stretch out their body to the fullest
extent, as if measuring their distance. After these pre-
liminaries, they take a firm hold with the fore feet, and
draw the hinder feet up to them, forming their body into
an arch or loop. When at rest, the caterpillars often
deceive an observer by their close resemblance to twigs,
as they stretch themselves out motionless from the branch.

OurArritnyx.— (Gr. Odpd, a tail; wrépov, a wing.)
Atucira.—(Linnean name.)



Sambucaria (Lat. Sambucus, the Elder-tree), the Swadlow-tailed Moth.
Hexadactyla (Gr. "Eé, six; Sderuados, a finger), the Many-plumed Moth.

The family is very large, and contains many interesting
species, but want of space compels me to omit all but the
insect represented above, the Swattow-raitep Morn.
The caterpillar of this moth feeds principally on the elder,
willow, and lime, and the moth appears in June and July.
It is one of the largest of the British Geometride, as the
spread of the wing considerably exceeds two inches. Its
colour is a pale yellow, and the lines across the wings are
deep yellow. It derives its name from the shape of the
hinder wings.
372 THE GAD-FLY

The Many-pLumep Morn is found towards the close of
autumn, usually running about windows. It is very small,
measuring barely half-an-inch across the wings. The
structure of the wings is very curious, each of the two an-
terior wings being divided into eight beautiful feather-like
rays, and each of the posterior into four rays. Nearly
allied to this are the common Feather Moths, the most
common of which is the White-plumed Moth, whose wings
measure nearly an inch across, and are divided into five
feathered rays.



Diprera.—The insects of this order possess but two
wings, the place of the others being supplied by two little
organs something like drum-sticks, called ‘‘balancers.”
Without these the insect seems to be unable to direct its
flight.

CuLEx.—(Lat. @ Gnas.) Cistrus (Gr. Olotpos, the Gad-fly.)



Bovis (Lat. of the Ox), the Gad-jly.

All are familiar with the Common Gnat. This pretty
tormentor passes its larval existence in the water, in which
state thousands may be seen in any uncovered water-butt,
wriggling about with the most untiring energy, or reposing
head downwards, only leaving the end of the tail at the
surface. The reason for this is very curious. This larva
breathes through its tail, and is moreover enabled by means
of a fringe of hairs to carry air down with it.

It is a singular circumstance, that although the larva
lives in the water, yet were either the eggs or the perfect
THE HUMBLE-BEE FLY 373

insect to be submerged, they would be destroyed. The
instinct of the Gnat in order to fulfil all three conditions
is very beautiful. When the Gnat wishes to deposit its
eggs, it rests on a leaf or twig on the surface of the water ;
it then takes each egg separately, and fastens them side by
side in such a manner that they actually form a little boat,
which will neither fill with water nor upset, however the
water may beagitated. In a few days the eggs are hatched,
when a little lid opens in the under end of each egg, and
down tumbles the larva into the water.

After remaining in the water for some days it assumes
the pupa form. In this state it floats at the surface with
the back of the thorax uppermost. Soon this splits, and
the insect emerges, standing on its own cast skin, which
forms a raft for it until its wings are fully dry, when it
takes to flight, leaving behind it the empty shell floating
on the water. This change may be witnessed any warm
day in summer.

The Gap-FLy has from the most ancient times been
known as the terror of the herd. At the sound of its
approach the cattle are driven almost mad with terror.
The young Gad-flies are nourished under the skin, where
they remain until they are fit to pass into the pupa state,
when they bury themselves in the ground, and after a few
days spent under the earth, issue forth in their perfect state.

The Humsie-Brr rty.—This very
curious insect is found in the early
days of spring, and may be seen
hovering over the primroses and
other spring flowers. It feeds in
the same manner as the Humming-
bird Moth, and much resembles
that insect in many of its habits.

Bompytius.—(Gr. BouBd-
Awos, &@ Humble Bee.)

—_——



The Frra.—The strength and
agility of this curious but annoying
little insect are perfectly wonderful.
Many of my readers have doubtless seen the exhibition of

Medius (Lat. ¢2 the midst),
the Humble-Bee fly.
374 THE FLEA

the Industrious Fleas, who drew little carriages, and carried
comparatively heavy weights with the greatest ease. The
apparatus with which it extracts the blood of its victims
is very curious, and forms a beautiful object under a micro-
scope of low power. Its leap is tremendous in proportion
to its size. ~This property ib enjoys in common with many
other insects, among which the Common Grasshopper, the
Frog-hopper, and the Halticas or Turnip-flies are conspi-
cuous. In all these insects the hinder pair of legs are very
long and powerful.
_ Punex.—(Lat. @ Flea.)



= Sy
Irritans (Lat. irritating), the Flea.

Tam here most reluctantly compelled to close this little
work. Most willingly would I have entered into a sketch
of the remaining Classes. These, however, are so nume-
rous, and their habits are so different from those of the
creatures whom we have already examined, that even a
very slight description would consume too much space and
time.

Here, then, I take my leave of the reader, with a sincere
hope that the perusal of this volumo will not only have
proved interesting, but will also have given him some
insight into the beautiful order of the anunated world.


ABRAMIS, 293
Accipiter, 142
Acherontia, 368
Acheta, 349
Acipenser, 311
Adder, Puff, 262
Adippe, 367
Admiral, Red, 367
Alauda, 194
Albatros, Wandering, 250
Alcedo, 156
Alces, 108
Alligator, 274
Anas, 245
Anchovy, 304
Angler, 290
Anguilla, 308
Anguis, 256

Ant, Wood, 361
Ant-Eater, 125
Ant-Lion, 355
— White, 357
Apis, 364
Apteryx, 225
Aquila, 136
Arctia, 370
Arctiidae, 370
Ardea, 231
Argonaut, 322
Argonauta, 322
Argynnis, 367
Aricia, 326
Armadillo, 124
Arvicola, 77
Asinus, 111
Ass, 111
Astacus, 334
Ateles, 17
Avocet, 238



Babyroussa, 117
Badger, 50

Balena, 67
Balenidie, 67

Bat, Long-eared, 23
—— Vampire, 21
Bear, 52

— Grizzly, 53
—— Polar, 54
Beaver, 78

INDEX

Bee, Honey, 3864
Beetle, Dor, 342
— Ground, 341
—— Musk, 345
— Rove, 346
— Stag, 342
— Tiger, 340
Bernicle, 331
Bison, 88
Bittern, 233
Blackbird, 171
Blatta, 351
Blindworm, 256
Bloodhound, 41
Boa, 264
Boar, 116
Bombylius, 373
Bos, 86
Botaurus, 233
Bradypus, 122
Bream, 293
Bubalus, 87
Bubo, 146
Buecinum, 326
Buceros, 197
Bufo, 276
Buffalo, Cape, 87
Bulldog, 44
Bullfineh, 196
Bull-frog, 276
Bunting, Yellow, 194
Bustard, Great, 228
Buteo, 187
Butterfly, Fritilary, 307
Swallow-tailed,
366
Buzzard, 137



Cacatua, 202
Cachalot, 70
Caddis-fly, 358
Camel, 101
Bactrian, 102
Camelopardalis, 99
Camelus, 101, 102
Canary, 192
Cancer, 382

Canis, 40

Capra, 96
Caprimulgus, 149



Capybara, 81
Carabus, 341
Carduelis, 192
Carp, 292
Cassowary, 222
Castor, 78
Casuarius, 222
Cat, 34
—— Civet, 38
— Tiger, 33
Catoblepas, 92
Cerambyx, 345
Certhia, 160
Cervus, 105
Chaffinch, 190
Chameleon, 259
Chamois, 95
Chelidon, 153
Chelonia, 270
Chenopis, 244
Chetah, 36
Chicken, Mother
249
Chimpansee, 10
Chough, 185
Cicindela, 340
Ciconia, 235
Civet Cat, 38
Clotho, 262
Clupea, 303
Coaita, Spider
17

Cary’s,

Monkey,

Cobitis, 276

Cobra de Capello, 266

Coccothraustes, 189

Cockatoo, Great Sulphur,
202

Cockchaffer, 342

Cockroach, 351

Cod, 305

Columba, 207

Colymbus, 246

Condor, 132

Cone, 325

Conus, 325

Coracia, 185

Cormorant, 253

Cornerake, 240

Corvus, 179, 182, 183, 184

Cotile, 153
376

Coturnix, 215
Cowry, 326
Crab, 332

— Hermit, 333
Cracticornis, 237
Crane, 230
Crangon, 335
Creeper, 160
Creophilus, 346
Cricket, House, 349
Mole, 350
Crocodile, 272
Crocodilus, 272
Crow, 184
Cuckoo, 205
Cuculus, 205
Culex, 372
Culicidee, 435
Curlew, 257
Cuttle-fish, 320
Cygnus, 243
Cynocephalus, 15
Cyprinus, 292
Cypselus, 150



Dace, 295
Dama, 106
Dasypus, 124

Death’s-head Moth, 868

Deer, Fallow, 106

—— Rein, 107

Delphinus, 71

Didelphys, 63

Didus, 226

Diomedea, 250

Dipper, 169

Dipus, 83

Diver, Great Northern,
246

Dodo, 226

Dog, Bull, 44

—— Newfoundland, 40

—— Shepherd’s, 45

Dog-fish, Spotted, 311

Dolphin, 71

Dormouse, 84

Dove, Ring, 207

Draco, 258 :

Dragon, Flying, 258

Dragon-fly, 354

Dromaius, 224

Duck, Wild, 245

Eagle, Golden, 136
Earwig, 347
Echencis, 289

Eel, Electric, 309
—— Sharp-nosed, 308
Elephant, Indian, 112
Elephas, 112

Elk, 108

Emberiza, 194

Emu, 224

INDEX

Engraulis, 304
Ephemera, 353
Equus, 110
Erinaceus, 60
Erythacus, 165
Tsox, 297
Exoccetus, 298

Falco, 140

Falcon, Peregrine, 140
Felis, 34

Fishing-frog, 290
Flamingo, 342

Flea, 374

Fly-catcher, Spotted, 173
Flying-fish, 298
Forficula, 347
Formica, 361

Fowl, Domestic, 212
Fox, 47

Foxhound, 42
Fratercula, 248
Fringilla, 190, 191, 192

Fritillary, Silver-spoticd,
367

Frog, 275

—— Bul, 276

_— Tree, 276

Gad-fly, 872
Gallinula, 240
Gallus, 213
Garrulus, 176
Gasterosteus, 287
Gazella, 94
Gazelle, 94
Geotrupes, 342
Gibbon, Agile, 14
Giraffe, 99
Glow-worm, 344
Gnat, 372

Gnoo, 92

Gnu, 92

Goat, 97
Goat-sucker, 149 .
Gobio, 293
Goldfinch, 191
Greyhound, 46
Grouse, Black, 216
Grus, 230
Grylotalpa, 350
Gudgeon, 293
Gueparda, 86
Guinea-pig, 81
Gull, Black-backed, 252
Gurnard, 282
Gymnotus, 209
Gypaétus, 128
Gyps, 134

Hag-fish, Glutinous, 319
Hare, 82
Harvest-bug, 339

Hawfinch, 189
Hedgehog, 60
Helix, 324
Hen, Water, 240
Heron, 231
Herpestes, 39
Herring, 303 .
Hippocampus, 288
Hippopotamus, 120
Hirnndo, 152
Homo, 1
Hoopoe, 157
Hornbill, Rhinoceros, 197
Hornet, 360
Horse, 110
Sea, 288
Hound, Blood, 41
Fox, 42
Grey, 46
Howler, Ursine, 18
Humble Bee-fly, 393
Humming-bird, Bar-tailed,
159
- Cora, 159
Double - crested,
159
Gould’s, 159
Moth, 369
Ruby - throated,
158
Hydrobata, 169
Hydrocheerus, 81
Hyena, 37
Hylobates, 14
Hystrix, 80

Ibex, 96

Ibis, Sacred, 236
Ichneumon, 39
Ichneumon-fly, 360
Icterus, 187
Iguana, 257

















Jacchus, 19
Jackdaw, 183
Jaguar, 31
Jay, 176
Jerboa, 83

Kahan, 15
Kangaroo, 72

~ Kestrel, 141

Kingfisher, 156
Kite, 139
Koodoo, 93

Lagopus, 216
Liimmergeyer, 128
Lampern, 318
Lampetra, 318
Lamprey, 318
Lampyris, 344
Landrail, 240
Lanius, 174
Lapwing, 229
Lark, Sky, 194
Larus, 252

Leaf, Insect, 351
Lemur, 19

Leo, 26
Leopard, 30
— Hunting, 36
Leopardus, 80, 31, 32, 33
Leptus, 329
Lepus, 82, 83
Leuciseus, 295
Libellula, 354
Limax, 323
Limpet, 327
Linnet, 192
Lion, 26

Lizard, 256
Llama, 104
Loach, 296
Lobster, 334
Locust, 347
Lophius, 290
Loris, 20
Lucanus, 342
Luscinia, 162
Lutra, 51

Lynx, 35

Macaco, 19

Macaw, Blue and Yellow,
200

Mackerel, 284

Macrocereus, 200

Macroglossa, 369

Macropus, 62

Magpie, 177

Mallard, 245

Man, 1

Mandrill, 15

Manis, 123

Martin, 153

Chimney, 152

Sand, 153

Marmoset, 19

Marten, Pine, 48

Martes, 48

Mastiff, 44

May-fly, 353

Megapode, Mound-making,
217

Megapodius, 217

Meleagris, 213

Meles, 50

Mellivora, 57

Melolontha, 342

Micromys, 77

Milvus, 189

Mocking-Bird, 172

Mole, 36

Monkey, Proboscis, 15

Spider, 17







INDEX

Monodon, 73
Morrhua, 305
Morse, 65
Motacilla, 168

Moth, Deati’s-head, 368
Humining-bird,



369







Tiger, 370
Mouse, 76

Harvest, 77
Mullingong, 127
Murex, 327

Mus, 75, 76
Muscicapa, 173 -
Mussel, Edible, 330
Mustela, 49
Mycetes, 18
Myoxus, 84
Myrmecophaga, 125
Myrmeleon, 355
Mytilus, 330
Myxine, 319

Naja, 266

Narwhal, 73

Natvrix, 267
Nautilus, Paper, 322
Newt, 278
Nightingale, 162
Numenius, 239
Nyctea, 144



Occlot, 33
Octopus, 320
Castrus, 372
Opossum, 63
Orang Outan, 12

Oriole, Baltimore, 187

Ornismya, 159

Ornithorhynchus, 126

Orpheus, 172

-Orthagoriscus, 310

Ortygometra, 240
Ostrea, 320
Ostrich, 219
Otter, 51

Otus, 228
Ourapteryx, 3871
Ouzel, Water, 168
Ovis, 98

Owl, Barn, 147,
— Great-earedj "146
—— Snowy, lit
Ox, 86

Oyster, 329

Pagurus, 333
Paleemon, 335
Paleornis, 201
Pangolin, 122
Panther, 30

Many-plumed, 371
Swallow-tailed, 371

377

Papilio, 366
Paradise,
of, 186
Paradisea, 186
Parrakeet, Ringed, 201
Partridge, 214
Parus, 166
Passer, 193
Patella, 327
Pavo, 209
Peacock, 209
Pecten, 328
Peewit, 229
Pelecanus, 254
Pelias, 263
Pelican, White, 254
Penguin, Cape, 249
Pentalasmis, 331
Perea, 283
Perch, 283
Perdix, 214
Petrel, Stormy, 249
Petromyzon, 318
Phalacrocorax, 252
Phasianus, 211
Pheasant, 211
Phoca, 65
Phoceena, 72
Pheenicopteros, 240
Phryganea, 358
Phyllia, 351
Physeter, 70
Pica, 177 —
Picus, 203
Pigeon, Domestic, 208
Pike, 207
Pimpla, 360
Platalea, 234
Plecotus, 28
Poephagus, 91
Pointer, 43
Poreupine, 80
Porpoise, 72
Pouter, 207
Poultry, 212
Prawn, 335
Presbytes, 15
Pristis, 214
Proeyon, 55
Proteus, 279
Ptarmigan, 216
Pull Adder, 262
Puffin, 248
Pulex, 374
Puma, 32
Pyrrhula, 196

Emerald Bird



Quail, 215

Rabbit, 83
Racoon, 55
Raia, 217
Ram, 98
378

Ramphastos, 198
Rana, 275
Rangifer, 107
Rat, 75

—— Water, 77
Rattle-snake, 261
Raven, 179
Recurvirostra, 238
Red Admiral, 367
Redbreast, 165
Regulus, 164
Reindeer, 107
Remora, 289
Rhinoceros, 118
Rhinoceros Hornbill, 196
Ring-dove, 207
Roach, 295

Rook, 182
Rove-beetle, 340
Rupicapra, 95

Salmo, 299, 301
Salmon, 299
Sarcorhamphos, 132
Saw-fish, 214
Scalaria, 325
Scallop, 328
Sciurus, 95
Scolopax, 238
Scomber, 284
Scorpio, 338
Scorpion, 338
Scyllium, 312
Sea-horse, 288
Seal, 65

Secretary Bird, 142
Serpentarius, 143
Shark, White, 313
Sheep, 98

Shrew Mouse, 59
Shrike, Great Grey, 174
Shrimp, 335

Simla, 12

Skate, Thornhback, 317
Skylark, 194
Sloth, 122
Slow-worm, 256
Slug, 323

Snail, 324

Snake, Rattle, 261
Ringed, 267
Snipe, 239

Sole, 307

Solea, 307

Sorex, 59



INDEX

Sparrow, Hawk, 142
— House, 193
Spheniscus, 249
Spider, Garden, 337
Spoonbill, White, 23+
Squalus, 313
Squirrel, 85

Stag, 105

Stag Beetle, 342
Starling, 1S8
Steinbok, 96
Sterna, 252
Stickleback, 287
Stoat, 49

Stork, 235
Strepsiceros, 93
Strix, 147

Struthio, 219
Sturgeon, 311
Sturnus, 188
Sucking-fish, 289
Sun-fish, 310

Sus, 116, 117
Swallow, Esculent, 154
Swan, Black, 244
Mute, 243
Swift, 150
Sword-fish, 286
Sylvia, 163



Talpa, 56

Tapir, 115

Tapirus, 115
Tarantula, 338
Tench, 294
Termes, 356

Tern, Common, 252
Terrier, English, 45
Testudo, 268
Tetrao, 216
Thalarctos, 54
Thalassidroma, 249
Thrush, Song, 170
Thynnus, 285
Tiger, 28

Tiger Beetle, 340
Moth, 370
Tigris, 28

Tinea, 204
Tinnunculus, 141
Titmouse, Blue, 166
Toad, 276

Torpedo, 315
Tortoise, 268
Toucan, Toco, 198



Trichicus, 65
Trigla, 282
Triton, 278
Trochilus, 15S
Troglodytes, 161
Trogon, 155
Trout, 301
Tumbler, 207
‘Tunny, 285
Turdus, 170, 171
Turkey, 213
Turtle, 270

Upupa, 157
Uropsophus, 261

Vampire Bat, 21
Vampirus, 21
Vanellus, 229
Vanessa, 367

Vespa, 362

Viper, 263

Viverra, 3S

Vulpes, 47

Vulture, Griffon, 134

Wagtail, Pied, 167

Walrus, or Morse, 65

Warbler, Blackeap, 163

Wasp, 362

Water-hen, 240

Weasel, 49

Wentletrap, Royal Stair-
case, 325 $

Whale, 67

Spermaceti, 70

Wheatear, 210

Whelk, 326

Wood Ant, 361

Woodcock, 238

Woodcock, Thorny, 327

Woodlark, 249

Woodpecker, Green, 203

Wren, 161

Golden-crested, 164

Wryneck, 204





Xiphias, 286

Yak, 91
Yunx, 204

Zola, 111
Zootoca, 256

Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, London & Bungay,





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