Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00115
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: July 1, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00115
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text



U S. .Dept. of Agri.. FL0 RID A o 'c

Library Period Div., JUL D A_<


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume V
$2.0n a Yea r rus Growers Clearing House Association, JULY 1, 1933 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Number 19
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879.

Citrus Industry Must Keep Step With Nation

Administrator Appointed to Direct Marketing Policies;

Citrus Producing States Called Upon to Work Out Codes

The citrus season 1933-'84,
which will be known as the
Recovery Year, in retrospect
doubtless will appear in a far
different light than it does in an-
ticipation. Not that there are
indications that the coming sea-
son will be a bad one-on the
contrary it should be a comparatively good
year-but with the Federal government tight-
ening the reins and reaching for the whip, we
cannot help but realize that the coining months
may mark some radical departures in our
methods of working.
Florida's citrus industry will have its full
share in the national recovery program and
like most other industries will be compelled
to adjust itself to whatever new conditions are
created to the end that the country as a whole
can get back upon a saner basis of living. Na-
tional recovery will not be a gesture nor will it
be an effort for the benefit of a few. No citi-
zen, humble nor great, rich man, poor man,
beggar man, (yes, and even the racketeers)
will escape feeling the effect of the nation's
march to normal activity. All will have their
shoulder to the wheel. Getting closer home,
the national recovery program will affect every
1Fl nida citrus grower just as much as it will-
every citizen of the United States. The pro-
gram for Florida will have to be just as com-
prehensive and all-inclusive as the national
Broadly speaking, the policy of the govern-
ment has been to work out a plan whereby the
individual producer will be able to reap a profit
from his investment. The Agricultural Adjust-
ment Act is aimed to do this very thing-the
producer is to be protected from factors he
can control as well as from factors he cannot
control. The sweat of his brow is to mean
money in his pocket. This policy of the admin-
istration, however, is not a narrow one for the
ultimate consumer is to be protected just as
fully as is the producer. The Administration
is telling the farmer to boost the price on his
product (and is going to help him work out a
Method of so doing) but the Administration
also is telling the farmer that he may not boost
his price to an unreasonable level.
There will be no war-time profiteering, but

neither will there be any discouragement of
individual initiative or individual energy.
Just what Florida will have to do to come
within the governments idea as to fair busi-
ness practice, remains to be developed. Un-
like the cotton growers we probably will not
be called ,upon to tear up every third row of
citrus trees, but we may possibly be called
upon to leave some of our fruit at home. It

Grower Meeting Postponed

Until Later in Summer
The annual meeting of the Clearing
House, which will be held in Winter
Haven, July 11, will confine itself to the
routine business of the organization, the
reports of its various officers and em-
ployees and such other business matters
as may rightfully be presented at the an-
nual meeting of the growers. No general
program is planned for this meeting, it
being the purpose of the Clearing House
to have a general growers' meeting later
in the summer, at which time the grow-
ers will be given full information per-
taining to Federal Agricultural legisla-
tion and its effect o the Florida citrus
The Clearing House has been earnestly
at work for several weeks to secure for
the Florida citrus growers all the bene-
fits that may be possible 4inder the Agri-
cultural Adjustment Act. The Board of
Directors feel that the growers will ap-
preciate a full explanation of this Act in
its relation to the interests of the pro-
ducers of citrus fruit, and this will be
given at a meeting which will be called
just as soon as full knowledge is had of
the Secretary of Agriculture's plans for
the direction of the industry in Florida.

may be that we will be directed to cultivate
more markets and to spread our fruit over a
larger area. If there are habits and character-
istics of our marketing methods that make it
impossible to fulfill the government's plans,
then we will have to change them regardless
of any veneration which age may have given

them. About all we know, as a matter of fact,
is that we are going to become-if we are not
now-a more business-like and efficient in-
The Clearing House has been taking the lead
for the industry in the matter of helping the
industry to meet the ideas of the Federal Gov-
ernment. Up until about a week ago the Fed-
eral Government had not appointed an Admin-
istrator under whose direction would come the
control of a Florida citrus marketing code. On
June 22, however, H. R. Tolley, Director of the
Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Eco-
nomics in the University of California, and a
nationally known economist, was appointed
Chief of the Section of Special Crops. The cit-
rus industry not only of Florida but of Cali-
fornia, Texas and Arizona will come under the
direction of Administrator Tolley.
Mr. Tolley, who was formerly an assistant
chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
of the U. S. D. A. prior to going to California
in 1930, lost no time in outlining in broad
terms what the attitude of the government will
be toward the Florida citrus industry. ...Mr....
Tolley has in fact asked that each of the citrus
producing states get their leaders together and
formulate practical plans to improve-indnstry. -
conditions. Such plans necessarily would have
to be tentative and would be subject to his
approval. Also, such plans would have to be
agreed upon by the various citrus producing
states, although this would not mean that cer-
tain changes could not be made in the market-
ing methods of the citrus states individually.
Because of the practical difficulties in the
way of mass action by growers, the Adminis-
tration in all likelihood will look to the market-
ing agencies to outline a program that will
really coordinate the industry and be helpful
to the producers. Administrator Tolley has let
it be known that there will be a general Regu-
lating Body covering citrus for all states and
supervising local regulations that are set up
for the individual producing areas.

Unmistakable Symptoms
"I'm afraid I'm getting old."
"Oh, nonsense."
"I really am. When I was young, I longed
for things to happen. Now I hope they won't.




Committee of Fifty Department

(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

Where the Dime Becomes a Quarter
The members of the Committee of Fifty, almost
without exception, have earnestly and constantly ad-
vocated standardization rules for citrus fruits in Flor-
ida whereby only those fruits which reach definite
standards of quality would be permitted shipment to
market. This would give the consumer of Florida
citrus fruit a protection which is his by right. It is
an accepted principle in modern business that the
purchaser of any article is justly entitled to receive
from the producer an assurance of the quality of the
article purchased, and this in citrus fruits would mean
a guarantee that the fruit bought is properly ma-
tured, juicy, and delicious in quality, that it has been
carefully packed and handled, and that every possi-
ble precaution has been used to maintain its keeping
quality and prevent its deterioration or decay.
The good reputation of the citrus fruits of Florida
is an asset to the state and to every grower, and there-
fore must be maintained. This can be done only by
careful grading and handling our fruit, in order to
insure as far as is humanly possible the marketing of
only such fruit as will give satisfaction and yield tes-
timony to our oft-repeated claim that Florida pro-
duces the best citrus fruit produced anywhere in the
world. This reputation for quality cannot long be
continued if we ship out of Florida fruit of low grade
quality or fruit that has been carelessly handled.
Therefore, there exists a need for effective standardi-
zation requirements, in order that the good reputa-
tion of Florida citrus fruit may not be lost.
The Committee of Fifty also advocates strict and
effective standardization in order that adequate re-
turns may be received for the fruit produced. The
shipment of low grade citrus fruits in bulk has not
added anything to the total returns received by the
growers of the state; but on the contrary has.brought
prices to a lower level. Much of the fruit of low grade
that was shipped this year brought nothing to the
grower, but simply provided labor in some instances
for packing house employees and freight for trucks,
steamships, and railroads, and its presence in the mar-
ket reduced the price for the better grades of fruit,
out of which the growers might have received suf-
ficient returns to reasonably compensate them for
Their time, labor, and investment. In many cases, the
low grade fruit sent to market this year brought much
less than the cost of putting it there and the deficit
had to be taken from the price received for the better
grade fruits, in addition to which the price received
for the better grade fruits was much lower than it
would have been had the markets not been over-
crowded with fruit of lower quality.
Texas recently passed a standardization act

thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)
which will effectively guarantee the shipment of only
quality fruit in and from that state. A similar act was
introduced in the Florida State Legislature this year,
but failed to pass. Intelligent growers must give care-
ful thought and consideration to this subject and do
all in their power to insure the passage of a standardi-
zation act in Florida at the next meeting of the State
The day of the public be damned attitude in busi-
ness is past, and Florida citrus growers must realize
that the success of their business largely depends
upon their ability to produce good fruit and the care
used in shipping only such fruit as will give satisfac-
tion to those who buy.
Standardization is inevitable in Florida, and it
may be forced upon us this coming season by federal
compulsion under the Agricultural Adjustment Act,
and because of this every wide-awake grower should
carefully protect himself by judicious investment in
producing fruit of desirable quality.
It costs money to grow good quality fruit, but it
pays well in market returns. Money saved in grove
practice often results in lower grades and is lost twice
over when the fruit goes to market. Any grower can
prove this for himself by checking his returns for the
past few years and noting the difference in price
received for fruit grading one, two, or three.

A Reminder to You---If This Means You
The Committee of Fifty calls the attention of every
citrus grower to the need of maintaining the grower
foundation of the Clearing House. While it is true
that under present federal legislation the Anti-Trust
Laws have been temporarily set aside, the fact re-
mains that when this emergency period is passed and
the Trust Laws again become effective, we will. then
need the protection given to us by the Capper-Vol-
stead Act, which protection can only be had by bona-
fide producers of agricultural products who are
banded together for joint action and mutual protec-
So, therefore, the grower membership of the
Clearing House must be maintained in order that the
citrus industry of Florida may continue to have pro-
tection from the Anti-Trust Laws. New grower con-
tracts have been mailed to everyone of you but some
of you have been careless or dilatory in signing these
and returning them, and the Committee of Fifty is
especially anxious that the grower membership of the
Clearing House may be maintained full strength. So
if you are one of those who so far has neglected send-
ing in your new grower agreement, please sign at
once and return to the office at Winter Haven or to
any member of the Committee of Fifty in your district.

Page 2

July 1, 1933

July 1. 1933

Eternal Vigilance Required

for Control of Rust Mites
J. R. WATSON, Entomologist
State Agricultural Experiment Station
The control of rust mites is not an expen-
sive proceeding if conducted with vigilance and
prompt action. It is not necessary to spray
every two or three weeks as many growers do
without paying any particular attention to the
amount of rust mites on the fruit. The eco-
nomical method of fighting rust mites is to
provide oneself with a good glass and inspect
the fruit frequently, particularly during warm
dry weather. Of course, one cannot examine
every fruit in the grove but on the other hand
do not go into your grove, look at a few of the
trees near the gate and then get in your car
and drive off with a feeling that you have
given it adequate inspection. Rust mites may
be scare in one part of the grove and very
abundant in another. Therefore, visit all parts
of your grove, inspecting a few fruits on trees
in all parts of the grove.
Rust mites usually appear, particularly on
a small tree, first on the southeast corner of
the tree where the morning sun hits them. On
a fruit fully exposed out in the bright sun look
on the shady side for rust mites, i.e., on the
inside of the fruit. On the other hand, fruit
which is shaded by leaves, look on the outside
of the fruit. Rust mites want a good supply
of light but usually avoid the direct rays of
the midday sun.
The grower should provide himself with a
good hand lens magnifying at least ten times
and not over fifteen, as the higher magnifica-
tions do not give one a large enough field for
rapid work. With such a lens inspect your
trees carefully and if you find an average of
three or four rust mites in every field, it is
time to take measures against them. By a
"field" we mean that part of the orange that
you can see under a glass without moving it.
Even if you find few on the fruit but find them
numerous on the tender twigs, one should in-
stitute control measures. With a little prac-
tice one will learn to detect with the naked
eye young fruit that has a heavy infestation
of rust mites. It will have a mealy appearance
as if covered with road dust. This color is due
to cast-off skins of rust mites, but only when
the infestation becomes heavy is this notice-
There is a fungus disease which attacks rust
mites and does very effective work during
damp, hot, humid weather such as we usually
have during the summer time, but from May
until some time in July it is not safe to depend
upon this fungus. After the middle of July it
usually controls rust mites and until the rainy
season is over in September, but even during
the months of August and September, if we
happen to have an unusually dry spell, the rust
mites may appear. On trees which have been
sprayed with bordeaux, one must be particu-
larly watchful for rust mites, as the bordeaux
has a tendency to kill out the fungus which
attacks the rust mites.
As for control measures, this calls for the
application of sulfur in some form. This may
be put on as a spray in the form of lime-sulfur


or put on as a dust in the form of flowers of
sulfur. Flowers of sulfur are often mixed with
a few pounds of lime to make the dust lighter
so that it will go through the dusting machine
better. The lime has no direct effect in con-
trolling rust mites. Whether one should spray
with lime-sulfur or dust with sulfur will de-
pend much upon the size of his grove and his
equipment. The large grower can hardly get
along without a dusting machine since it would
ordinarily take him too long to cover his grove
with a spraying machine. Rust mites multiply
with great rapidity when weather conditions
are right. They may have a generation in 11
days, and over a period of two weeks the adult
rust mites may lay as many as 500 eggs. This
means that when rust mites appear on the
young fruit in the grove in numbers the entire
grove should be treated inside of a week to
forestall excessive multiplication and much
russeting of the fruit. If the grower cannot
cover his grove with the spray machine avail-
able inside of a week, he should provide him-
self with a power duster. On the other hand,
the small grower who must have access to a
spray machine to control whitefly and purple
scale and perhaps other insects and fungus dis-
eases would perhaps hardly be justified in go-
ing to the expense of buying an extra dusting
machine for the control of rust mites. On
young trees, however, one can do very good
work with a hand duster. One costing in the
neighborhood of $15.00 or $20.00. The bel-
lows type of hand duster is better as it will
throw the dust to a greater height and is more
handy for intermittent dusting like that of
trees than the crank dusters which give a
steady flow.
A common mistake in dusting is to not use
enough dust. A good sized tree should receive
at least a half pound of sulfur. Sulfur is
cheap. Do not be stingy with it.
There are other advantages of spraying with
lime-sulfur. Lime-sulfur used at a strength
of 1 to 40, or even somewhat weaker, will kill
all crawlers of all scales hit, and has a ten-
dency to delay an infestation of scale insects,
both purple scale and Florida red scale. It also
seems to have a beneficial effect upon the tex-
ture of the rind. During cold weather it will
ordinarily give a better kill than will a dust
and during rainy weather, because it sticks
better than a dust, will usually result in a bet-
ter kill. Neither lime-sulfur spray nor dust
will kill the eggs, and in order that the young
mites that hatch out from these eggs can be
killed, the sulfur must remain on the trees for
at least three days, as it takes three or four
days for the rust mite eggs to hatch. A heavy
rain during this interval will wash off most
of the sulfur dust from the trees, but the lime-
sulfur solution will stick better. A pound of
iron sulfate added to 50 gallons will make the
lime-sulfur stick even better. On the other
hand, one must be careful about spraying dur-
ing excessively hot weather. When the tem-
perature reaches 90 degrees, particularly if
the air is humid and evaporation slow, spray-
ing had better be discontinued, otherwise the
fruit may be burned or shadowed. During ex-
tremely hot weather also it will be safer to use
the lime-sulfur at a greater dilution, 1 to 50,
for instance; 1 to 65 even will give a good con-
trol of rust mites during hot weather.

Whales Found on Keys

Are Used for Fertilizer
A citrus grower fertilized a portion of his
grove recently with four tons of whale meat.
It happened like this: Three huge blackfish or
whales, each measuring more than 15 feet in
length and each weighing more than two tons,
foundered recently on the shoals of Anclote
Key. Local fishermen hauled them ashore. One
is being stuffed by a local curio dealer and the
other two were chopped up for fertilizer by
the enterprising grove owner, who hopes to
produce a "whale" of a crop this season.-Pro-
duce News.

He Went!
A dull, uninteresting young man was call-
ing on the town's popular young lady, and she
had reached the point where she was getting
mighty bored with his attentions. Picking up
a piece of paper, she wrote
and handing this to him with a pencil, said:
"Now, Clarence, draw a straight line down-
ward from the right side of the first, fifth
and tenth ciphers. Now, draw a straight line
upward from the right side of the fourth,
seventh and eighth ciphers. Then follow the
Within three minutes-He Went!

NAIL that Rust on grove heaters,
irrigation pipe, galvanized roof-
ing and equipment of all kinds
One coat does it. Applied like
Southeastern Distributor
Winter Haven, Fla.

When you visit-


You Are Invited to Live at


The City's Largest All-Year Hotel,
Centrally Located
Single. . . . . ... $2 to $4
Double . . . . . .$3 to $6
L. B. SKINNER, Owner
C. J. JACKSON, Manager


Page 4 FL




T. G. HALLINAN . . . . . Editor
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.


.Ft. Ogden
.Winter Park
Babson Park
Crescent City

Freight Rates Cut

to Mid-west

The Growers and Shippers League
of Florida has hung up another hard
earned laurel, the victory being reduc-
tion in citrus freight rates into middle
western territory. Late last month the
Interstate Commerce Commission an-
nounced its approval for a reduction in
rates on the Frisco line, destinations in
Missouri, Oklahoma and Kansas being
involved in the action. The rates,
which go into effect July 5, apply by
water from Tampa to Pensacola and
from Pensacola to various destinations
on the Frisco Line. The reductions
range from 17c to 34c per box. J. Cur-
tis Robinson, Secretary and Executive
Vice President of the League, declared
that much credit is due the Frisco Rail-
way for helping the Florida interests
in the fight for the rate reduction.
As a matter of fact, the rates were
initially published by the Frisco road
to become effective last January. The
Florida rail lines as well as several
Texas lines promptly filed protests
with the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission. The League appeared before
the Suspension Board of the Commis-
sion in support of the rates but the
Commission decided that the rates
would not be permitted until after a
hearing. At the hearing Florida citrus
interests were represented by the
Growers and Shippers League, by Man-
ager A. M. Pratt of the Clearing House


and by Messrs. Dow and Scott of the
Florida Citrus Exchange. Officials of
the Frisco Railway also participated in
the hearing and fought shoulder to
shoulder with the Florida representa-
tives for the reduction.
The reductions per box are approxi-
mately as follows:
To Memphis, 19c; to St. Louis, 20c;
to Kansas City, 23c; to Springfield,
Mo., 24c; to Joplin, Mo., 26c; to Ar-
kansas City, Kans., 27c; to Witchita,
Kans., 27c; to Ellsworth, Kans., 34c;
to Muskogee, Okla., 21c; to Tulsa,
Okla., 21c; and to Enid, Okla., 27c.

While the reduction is made effec-
tive too late for this season, it will be
available for next season.

Officers and Directors

Have Tough Job

No Board of Directors of the Clear-
ing House, since the formation of this
organization more than five years ago,
has ever faced as critical and difficult
a year as confronts the new Board.
Despite the fact that none of the five
seasons, during which the Clearing
House has operated, has been what
might be called a fair test of the organ-
ization's worth, the coming season
promises to be the most important one
that the Florida ctirus grower has ever
At no time in the past has the Clear-
ing House faced or gone through an
ordinary season. It has been a period
of coping with trials wholly foreign or
new to the problem of marketing cit-
rus-Mediterrean fruit fly, bumper
crop, national depression, over-night
growth of the canning industry, and
the use of boats and motor trucks for
transporting our citrus-all have con-
tributed to impose unexpected respon-
sibilities upon the Clearing House.
To lead the way out through the
coming season, the newly-elected Di-
rectors have again chosen Dr. E. C. Au-
rin to serve as President of the Clearing
House; James C. Morton as Vice-Presi-
dent and have named John D. Clark
the Secretary-Treasurer. Dr. Aurin,
with Messrs. R. B. Woolfolk and J. C.
Chase, has served continuously as a
Clearing House Director, while Messrs.
Morton and Clark are now entering
their second season of service after
having been members of the Commit-
tee of Fifty since its creation five years
ago. On the shoulders of these men,
and the other Directors, has fallen the
responsibility of guiding the Clearing
House through the next year, and the
job isn't likely to be a soft snap either.

July 1. 1933

The Grower's Voice

Homestead, Fla.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I noticed in your last issue that a Govern-
ment "Czar" was wanted by some faction or
We do not need any Czar or absolute mon-
arch. But what we need is, in connection with
our regular eighty pound shipping orange box,
a one bushel box. Then ask the United States
Government to take over the distribution and
sale of Florida citrus for a period of ten years,
establishing selling places in every town and
city of the United States with a population of
ten thousand or more. The Government could
take out selling costs. Sell only in original
shipping box. The larger the purchase the
lower the price. This would protect large buy-
ers as well as accommodate the people and
small purchaser. All growers and associations
could ship through this channel if they wished.
If this is not done I believe we are all going
to ruin within the next two or three years. We
cannot keep up borrowing money and the fruit
rotting in the groves.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) DAN M. ROBERTS.

Springfield, Ill.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
One or two issues ago I read a communica-
tion written you by Mr. Ashley, of Chicago.
Allow me to add a fervid "Amen" to his epistle
and tell you why.
A few evenings ago I went to my favorite
fruit store to buy my Florida grapefruit. The
salesman said, "Doctor, why don't you take
home some of these fine California oranges?
They are fine." Whereupon I told him I ate
only Florida oranges whenever it was possible
to buy them, and then asked him why he didn't
handle Florida oranges. His reply needs no
commenting upon because he hit the nail on
the head when he replied, "Well, why don't you
Florida growers get good Florida oranges on
the market? I'll handle them. We never see
nor hear of them around here!"
Whether or not he spoke the truth, I do not
know. I do know that fully 99 15/16ths per-
cent of the inhabitants of this city of 75,000:
people probably haven't seen a decent Florida
orange on our local market. Since the mind of
man runneth not to the contrary. Further your
affiant saith not.
(Signed) J. G. MEYER, M.D.

Such Is Justice
Visitor in county jail: "What terrible crime
has this man committed?"
Warden: "He didn't commit any crime at all.
He was going down the street a few days ago
and saw one man shoot another, and he is held
as a material witness."
Visitor: "And where is the man who commit-
ted the murder?"
Warden: "Oh, he's out on bail."


Mealybug Control Needs

Spray of High Pressure
J. R. WATSON, Entomologist
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Mealybugs belong to the family of scale in-
sects, but unlike the armored scales they do
not form a thick, horny covering over their
bodies, but instead secrete only a multitude of
small, waxy flakes. It is these flakes that give
the insect the name of "mealybug." Unlike
the armored scales, also, the female can move
around most of her life. But, like other scale
insects, they are sucking insects and withdraw
large quantities of sap from the plants. So
large is the amount of sap they withdraw that
if mealybugs are abundant they will cause the
fruit to drop. They also give off large quanti-
ties of honey dew in which a very compious
crop of sooty mold develops, thoroughly black-
ening the fruit or other parts of the tree.
Fruit attacked by mealybugs, even if it does
not fall, is apt to be spotted in its development.
The portion attacked by the mealybugs is likely
to be rough and bumpy and colors more slowly
than the remainder of the fruit, thus lowering
its grade.
Mealybugs usually are more abundant and
more injurious to grapefruit than they are to
other citrus. They like to crawl into crannies
and other protected situations; a bunch of
grapefruit makes a favorite hiding place. They
also get into the crotches of limbs. A favorite
place early in the season is underneath the
calyx of the young fruit. Half a dozen of them
in this situation usually will cause the fruit to
drop. There they are thoroughly hidden and
are commonly overlooked by the citrus grow-
ers, with the result mealybugs are responsible
for more dropping of young grapefruit than
most growers appreciate. If one will examine
an empty calyx or cup from which a young
grapefruit has recently dropped, he will often
find mealybugs still lingering in the cup. Of
course, when this cup finally turns yellow the
mealybugs will move on.
Mealybugs are hard to combat with a spray
largely because of their habit of getting into
protected places where it is difficult to reach
them. Furthermore, their waxy covering
makes them hard to wet, particularly when
they gather in large bunches. For these rea-
sons the important thing in spraying for mealy-
bugs is pressure. Use all the pressure you can
get and up to the limit you think the plants
will stand. This is, of course, to force the
liquid into the cracks and crevices where the
mealybugs congregate. Indeed, spraying with
plain water gives fairly good control of mealy-
bugs if one can get sufficient pressure. A
mealybug washed off onto the ground, particu-
larly in a cultivated grove, will hardly ever be
able to reach the tree again even if it is not
killed by the impact of the pray on the ground.
Some of the oil emulsions can also be used for
mealybugs, the same ones ordinarily employed
for scale insects and whitefly, but pressure is
the important thing here also. The lighter oils
penerate the waxy coverings better. The
kerosene emulsion is fairly effective. This is
made by dissolving a pound and a half of soap
in three gallons of hot water, then adding three
gallons of kerosene and mixing it by focing it
through a spray pump several times. The soapy

water should be taken a distance away from
fire before the kerosene is added. The above
proportions will make 50 gallons of diluted
spray. If one has a spray machine with a good
agitator he may use a simple mixture of oil
and water; in other words, a tank mix. Five
gallons of kerosene to 50 gallon of water is
about the right proportion. However, *dodnot
try this unless you have an excellent agitator,
as burning may result from an insufficient
A good spray, though rather expensive on a
grove basis, is a pint of nicotine sulphate and
a gallon of "Penetrol" in 100 gallons of water.
A cheaper spray is made by dissolving three
pints of crude carbolic acid and three pounds
of fish oil soap in 100 gallons of water. One
can use an oil emulsion instead of soap. Even
more effective would be one of the pyrethrum
compounds with one-half of one percent "Pen-
etrol," but this makes a very expensive spray.
These mealybugs live on a large number of
plants. They are even more destructive on
some ornamentals than they are on citrus, and
these ornamentals in and about a grove are
often a source of infestation to citrus and
should be carefully watched. Among such
plants are acalphya, coleus, oleanders, roots of
royal palms and lantanas. Mealybugs are often
very common too on the roots of ragweed.
Mealybugs have many natural enemies which
usually keep down the infestation. One of the
most common is a scale-eating caterpillar,
Laetilia by name. This is a reddish brown
caterpillar which gets to be one-half inch long.
During warm, humid weather a fungus dis-
ease is frequently very effective. Mealybugs
infested with this disease are covered with a
dark, slate-gray, woolly growth or covering.
So effective is this fungus during damp humid
weather that mealybugs do not ordinarily give
much trouble late in the season. They are es-
sentially pests of hot, dry weather. Ladybeetles
are also enemies of mealybugs. Particularly
effective is one originally imported from Aus-
tralia, Cryptolaemus, often called "Crypt" for
short. The Experiment Station imported this
ladybeetle into Florida in 1930, and sent out
many colonies throughout different parts of
the state. During the past two years, how-
ever, the Experiment Station has not been
raising these beetles but a commercial concern
has been doing so.
We spoke above of the copious production
of honey-dew by mealybugs and the resultant
heavy growth of the sooty mold. Ants are very
fond of this honey-dew as they are of that from
aphids. Often the first sign of the presence of
mealybugs that a grower will notice are num-
bers of excited ants running up and down the
sides of the tree. These ants protect the mealy-
bugs from many of their enemies, attacking
ladybeetles and other predators and driving
them off. Furthermore, they carry mealybugs
around from one plant to another. By eating
the honey-dew, the ants keep the colony in a
more sanitary condition. Like most scale in-
sects, a generation of the mealybug occupies
about three months, longer in the winter time.
The eggs hatch in from eight to ten days in
the summer, twice as long in the winter. The
larvae consume from six to ten weeks in their

growth, reaching a length of about one-fourth
of an inch. A female mealybug lays during the
course of her life from 350 to 400 eggs.
Mealybugs often are confused with the cot-
tony cushion scale by our growers. Indeed, the
young of the two look very much alike, but the
cottony cushion scale when crushed gives off
a reddish juice, mealybugs a yellowish juice.
The young of the cottony cushion scale show
considerable red, whereas the mealybugs are
always yellow. The full grown insects are very
easily distinguished. The fluted cottony mass
of the cottony cushion scale differs greatly in
appearance from mealybugs.

Who Got the Job?
A business man advertised in a recent even-
ing paper for an office boy. The next morning,
on his arrival at the office, he found at least
fifty boys in line.
Just as he was about to start examining the
applicants, his stenographer handed him a
card, on which was scrawled:
"Don't do anything until you see me. I'm
the last kid in the line, but, I'm telling you,
I'm there with the goods."

The Mark of a

Good Product

The Brogdex trade mark on a
box of fruit has come to mean a
new standard of appearance and
keeping ability. This reputation
in the market has been establish-
ed by a decade of performance.
Buyers recognize the Brogdex ad-
vantages and are willing to pay
more for them.
Appearance, better keeping
qualities and being able to ship
with less refrigeration are factors
that greatly influence the grow-
er's net return. Get these settled
right and you will be surprised
what a difference they will make
in another season's operations.
There is a Brogdex packer near
you-it is to his interest to get
you more money for your fruit
and he will do it, too, if you pack
your fruit the Brogdex way.

Florida Brogdex
Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida

Page 5


Here's How Citrus Helps,

So Pass the Facts Along
Editor's Note-As nearly every school-
boy knows, a rock may be worn away by
the continuous dropping of water upon it,
and by the same token the people of this
country can be taught the value of citrus
fruit-of Florida citrus fruit particular-
ly. If we, in our letters to friends and rela-
tives in the North, persist in urging them
to use Florida citrus and tell them WHY,
we are going to see our fruit gradually
achieve wider and wider distribution and
Dr. F. C. Blanck, principal chemist in
charge of the food research division of the
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. D. A.,
recently summarized some of the informa-
tion obtained by federal researchers as
to the health value of our citrus. What
he has to say makes good reading and is
excellent ammunition to fire at our friends
in the North. Read what Dr. Blanck says
below-read it several times if necessary
-and then make yourself a walking ad-
vertisment of all Florida citrus fruit.

In order to satisfactorily meet all nutritional
requirements a food must supply material in
sufficient quantity and satisfactory quality to
provide for the growth and maintenance of
body tissues, the normal functioning of all
physiological processes, and the necessary
energy for the activities of life. As far as
known, these requirements are provided by
protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral salts and
About 20 years ago the discovery of the first
of a new group of accessory food substances,
known as vitamins, completely revolutionized
our views on nutritional requirements. These
substances, present in small amounts, have for
the most part defied the skill of the chemist in
determining their exact chemical nature, and
yet experiment after experiment has abso-
lutely and conclusively proven that, in their ab-
sence, proper growth will not take place, the
body resistance is lowered and man becomes
susceptible to attack by a number of diseases.
These mysterious substances are named after
six letters of the alphabet and are known as
vitamins A, B, C, D, E and G. Each one of
these is specific in its action and differs from
the other in the role which it plays in our life
activity. Fruits and vegetables are among the
best natural sources of vitamins.
Prominent among these are the citrus fruits.
Although oranges and grapefruit contain vita-
mins A and B, their chief value lies in their
high vitamin C content. This vitamin, also
known as the antiscorbutic vitamin, is active
in the cure and prevention of scurvy and also
plays a part in bone and teeth development.
From many points of view, orange juice is the
most valuable antiscorbutic. It has the highest
vitamin C content of any of our fruits, it is
easily and conveniently prepared, and is high-
ly palatable. Furthermore oranges are rela-
tively cheap and plentiful and so this fruit is
of great importance in clinical medicine. Vita-
min C is contained mostly in the juice, the
orange containing somewhat more than the
grapefruit. Infants fed many of the artificial
food mixtures are likely to develop scurvy. The
addition of orange juice to avert this difficulty
is quite generally practiced. One-half ounce

daily of orange jSice is considered the anti-
scorbutic dose.
A number of investigators have studied the
influence of vitamin C on teeth and it is gen-
erally agreed that the antiscorbutic vitamin
has a definite influence on the structure and
preservation of teeth.
Vitamin A is present in significant quantities
in oranges, both in the peel and in the juice.
Grapefruit contains practically no vitamin A
in the juice or in the rind. Both the orange and
grapefruit contain considerable amounts of
vitamin B.
Fruits contribute to the diet significant quan-
tities of mineral elements which are necessary
for the growth of the skeletal parts of the body.
Mineral elements also play an important role in
the proper physiological functioning of many
of the body tissues and organs.
Another important though less appreciated
dietetic value of oranges and grapefruit, con-
sists in their content of basic mineral elements.
In health the tissue of the body are slightly
alkaline, and a condition of what is called alka-
line reserve is maintained. A slight departure
from this condition to the acid side causes seri-
ous consequences. Although oranges and grape-
fruit taste sour and contain certain organic
acids, they yield products when burned in the
body which are strongly alkaline and are
therefore, alkali-forming foods. This is be-
cause they contain certain basic mineral ele-
ments such as potassium, magnesium and cal-
cium in excess over the acid-forming elements.
Oranges are particularly valuable as an
alkali-forming food, both because they possess
a preponderance of alkali-forming over acid-
forming constituents and also because of their
availability at all seasons, their palatability and
their tolerance by persons having weak diges-
tive powers. For these reasons orange juice is
frequently prescribed for infants and invalids
when the need of increased alkalinity in the
system is indicated.
Both science and human experience have
proven the dietetic value of citrus fruits. Let
us continue to profit from this lesson and en-
joy in full measure Nature's bountiful and
delightful gift, the orange and grapefruit.

A Job for Men
The Clearing House was organized to help
the industry, but it can do only what YOU
want it to do. That is, the Clearing House can
represent your interests and can work for your
welfare only if and while you support it. Mar-
keting citrus fruit is not a recreation-it's a
job for men. To make our groves pay, we must
run our business in a business-like way.

Rastus-"Here am a telegram from de mas-
ter in Africa which says he am sending us some
lions' tails."
Circus Owner's Wife-"Lions' tails, Rastus?
What are you talking about?"
Rastus-"Well, read it yoself. It says, 'Jes'
captured two lions; sending de-tails by mail.' "

Nervous Passenger (on maiden flight with
nephew)-"H-here, t-t-tell me when you're go-
ing to loop-the-loop again."
Nephew-"Well, I don't always know."-
Tatler (London).




Get a binder for your back
copies of the __


Clearing House


Keep every number of the
News. There isn't an issue
that doesn't contain some in-
formation you will want to
refer to, some of these days.



Just fill in the coupon below and mail
it in to the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association at Winter
Haven. together with dollar bill, check
or money order and the binder will be
forwarded to you.

Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back
copies of the Florida Clearing House
News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out
of the U. S.) currency, check, money

Name -------------......... ....._ ... ..

Street.-----------------------......_ .....

Town. -- -- --..... ------------.. ....

Page 6

July 1, 1933

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