Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00113
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: June 1, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00113
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

u. s. Dept Ag 3-24
WashingtoL C.LA LtIQUSE

Representing more than 10,000
Growers o'f Oranges and Grapefruit


]I DO9 Flic ial Publication of the

$2.00 a Year
10 Cento a Copy

Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven. Fla.

JUNE 1, 1933

Entered as second-class matter August 81,
1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
Florida. under the Act of March 8. 1R79.

Value of Brand in Marketing Citrus Fruit

Manager of Clearing House Explains How Label on Box
Reflects Quality of Fruit and Shipper's Reliability

What is a brand for and
why are there so many brands,
are q u e s ti o n s frequently
heard when citrus growers
get together. We all know
)generally that a brand is an
identification mark but be-
yond that most of us haven't
probed. Manager A. M. Pratt
of the Clearing House an-
swered these questions in detail at the
meeting of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society in Lake Wales, the substance
of his talk showing a very real need for
brands in the marketing of our fruit. The
following discussion on the subject was
prepared for delivery at the Society's
meeting and is reprinted here for the
benefit of those who did not attend the
The brand or label on the end of a box of
citrus may be merely a pretty picture re-
quired more or less by trade custom or it may
really stand for something. It is hard to esti-
mate how many different citrus brands there
are in Florida. The Clearing House compiled
this year an alphabetical list of 550 brands.
We would estimate at least 1000 different
brands for citrus in Florida. In California
the list of brands belonging only to the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange itself totals
1175. Between the two states we can estimate
a minimum of 2500, possibly 3000 different
brands covering citrus.
With such a conglomeration of different
brands, the question naturally arises, what is
the good of a brand in marketing? Isn't it a
foolish custom where the lithograph companies
are the only ones that profit? Why are there
so many brands?
Answering the last question first, I expect
the chief reason there are so many brands is
pride of ownership. There are very few pack-
ers who do not have real pride and enthusiasm;
at least at the beginning when they carefully
select their brand name and work out the de-
sign and finally secure their lithographed label.
It is quite right that every packing house man-
ager or shipper should take a genuine pride in
the brands he has selected. He intends to
make them stand for something worthwhile.
He hopes to get certain customers that will
show a preference for his brands. He deter-
mines to build a reputation for those brands,
at least in certain markets.

'The financial value of a brand depends not
only on the grade, quality and pack that the
brand identifies, but also upon the volume or
continuity of supplies. The smaller the vol-
ume the more concentrated distribution should
be as to customers if the brand is to mean any-
thing to those customers. Repeat orders are
necessary to make any brand of value outside
of being decorative and complying with trade
Taking the business as a whole, I expect we
would have to admit that brands do not count
for much except to identify that product as a
U. S. No. 1 or a U. S. No. 2 grade, or whatever
the shipper has announced his particular
brands represent. In the general marketing
problem there is an opportunity to make
brands stand for more than they do. A ship-
per has a real asset in a brand providing he
can get carlot customers to adopt his brand
as the special brand they are going to push.
To accomplish this, a shipper not only has to
satisfy his carlot customer as to quality and
pack but satisfy him also that he can give him
regular supplies throughout the season and at
a fair market price.
If you have visited the various markets, I
think you have been disappointed, as I have,
to see how little real salesmanship is applied.
A man comes to the carlot customer and deals
with a clerk on the sidewalk, looks at the
oranges or grapefruit, and asks the price. Most
of the talk is price and how cheap the price is.
Very seldom do you hear any line of salesman-
ship given out showing why this particular
brand is especially good. This is true because
when we get down to it most brands are not
especially good. There is nothing special to
talk about.
If, however, there has been built up in the
minds of the carlot customers a pride of own-
ership or control of that particular brand, you
then will hear arguments advanced with real
enthusiasm as to keeping qualities, as to the
fruit always being the same as to eating quality
as well as appearance.
The asset of a brand means much when it
has reached that point where the customer is
enthusiastic enough not only to circularize his
trade with a mimeographed price list, including

specific- mentioning of the brand, but where he
also announces on his letterhead that he is
exclusive sales agent for that brand and pos-
sibly shows a reproduction of that brand on
his letterhead and envelope. Our distribution
problem would begin to work itself out better
if there were a greater number of close rela-
tionships of this kind established between the
buyer and seller.
Because of the multiplicity of brands and
the desirability of having some master brand
idea to cover certain brands, the trademark
idea of a master brand such as Sunkist, Seald-
sweet, Blue Goose, etc., for the first grades,
and Red Ball, Morjuce, Gander, etc., for the
second grades has been worked out. The pur-
pose of such a step is to classify under some
one name or trade-mark a sufficient volume
of fruit as will not only make advertising more
practical by talking about one name but also
will tend to classify in the minds of the trade
the labels identified with this trade-mark.
Under this master brand idea there exists the
advantage of volume. There is, however, the
disadvantage of lack of uniformity caused by
nature producing various types of fruit in
different districts. There also are various
types of managers. Some managers of pack-
ing houses have much lower grade ideas than
others. There is a wide range of variance
between the minimum requirements, for in-
stance in U. S. No. 1, and the maximum pos-
sible where a packing house manager takes
pride in making his brand better than neces-
sary. Those opposed to the master brand or
trade-mark idea usually are operators espe-
cially fortunate in having a far better type of
fruit than the average to work with. For that
reason they question the advantage of having
their label identified with the master seal or
trade-mark, thereby possibly bringing their
brand down to the common level. Generally
they prefer to have their brand stand on its
own merit without this additional seal of ap-
proval. A packing house manager is deprived
of incentive to make his special brand out-
standing and dependable if those directing
sales tend to substitute without good reason
some other brand bearing the same trade-mark
for the individual brand a buyer has asked for.
(Continued on Page Five)

Volume V
Number 17


Committee of Fifty Department

(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

Team Work in the Clearing House

The foundation principle of the Clearing House is team
work. Growers on the one hand; shippers on the other,
have here a common agency through which all can work
to advance the interests of the whole industry. But unless
they see eye to eye and are in accord on the measures to
be taken there can be no real progress.
It is therefore important that a frequent check-up be
made to determine whether or not the two groups are
working together toward the same objectives. This being
the Growers' Page, a grower takes the opportunity to ap-
praise the motives and present objectives of the shipper-
members of the Clearing House, as indicated at the recent
annual meeting of shipper-members in Winter Haven.
Since the Clearing House was organized there has
been a good deal of straying away from its main purposes:
1. Standardization of grade and pack.
2. Advertising.
3. Controlled distribution.
In this the shipper-members have been no more at
fault than the growers, but both groups are finding from
bitter experience that the further the industry gets away
from these basic requirements for success, the more dis-
astrous our marketing results become. So what?
Endorse Standardization Move
We now find our shipper-members unanimously en-
dorsing the standardization bill now before the State Leg-
islature, which would insure that only such Florida
oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines as had been uniformly
graded in accordance with U. S. Standard Grades, would
be on sale in the markets of the country. This would en-
able us to better meet the competition from other well or-
ganized citrus producing areas.
It would require all fruit containers to be marked with
the grade of the contents, and would discourage shipment
of unwashed and ungraded fruit in bulk by requiring the
individual marking of such fruit as "Unclassified."
Through a system of inspection certificates it would
also make possible the apprehension and conviction of
fruit thieves, who are becoming a real menace to the
It would in no way hamper the movement of fruit by
truck as cheap containers of wood, pressed fiber, or jute
bags would be of real assistance to truck operators in
decreasing decay en route and in handling the product at
Fruit moving to canneries or for local sale would be
exempted from the provisions of this act.
Grower-members have long recognized the desirabil-
ity of such legislation to eliminate the unfair competition
of bulk fruit and thus maintain the reputation of Florida's
chief product. Part of the industry cannot accomplish this
by cooperation when the piratical element outside tears
down faster than the builders of fruit reputation can re-
pair. It is heartening to the growers to see unanimous
recognition of this need by their shipper team mates.
State-wide Advertising Program
We all recognize the value and necessity of advertis-
ing.. The main stumbling block to successful cooperation
for industry advertising in the past has been the refusal of
both growers and shippers outside the Clearing House to
join in their pro-rata share of the expense, and the conse-
quent reluctance of members to spend their money to help
advertise outsiders' .fruit.
The shipper-members at their recent annual meeting
passed a resolution advocating legislation to levy a com-

pulsory assessment of not over 3c per box (or its equivalent
quantity in other containers) for the purpose of advertis-
ing Florida citrus fruit-thus extending the markets and
building up greater consumer demand.
This is a long step in the right direction. First, stan-
dardize the product; then advertise it. After that control
the distribution and the resulting inflow of money will
again bring prosperity to Florida.
The results of the joint advertising campaign spon-
sored by the Clearing House this year, with only Ic per
box to finance the effort, were hard to check in view of
the extremely low markets, and many a grower heaved a
sigh of relief when this advertising was discontinued in
February. He figured he had saved that much expense
anyway. From the day the advertising stopped the mar-
kets have steadily slipped into lower ground. It is now
apparent to all that the cent a box that looked like a sav-
ing has turned out to be the cause of a considerably greater
The Clearing House shippers did not stop with their
endorsement of the standardization bill and their advo- /
cacy of a state-wide advertising law. They also strongly
endorsed the compulsory allotment or pro-ration bill now
before the Legislature.
This bill provides in a broad way for controlled dis-
tribution whenever 75 percent or more of the industry
(measured by volume of output) requests the exercise of
such powers because of an emergency such as has con-
fronted the industry during most of this season.
It has been demonstrated (not once, but many times)
that a grouping of even as high as 85 percent of the in-
dustry for the purpose of prorating shipments and con-
trolling volume moved to points already glutted, fails of
success because those outside the agreement seek to take
advantage of the lighter shipments to move a dispropor-
tionate amount of their own fruit.
Only through legislation can such a minority of oper-
ators be prevented from upsetting the apple-cart, and for
the good of the industry this should be done. Here again
the shipper-members of the Clearing House have shown
that they are working hand in hand with the grower-
members for solution of the primary problems of the
Obsolete Freight Structure
The vexing problem of an archaic railroad freight rate
structure, with rates so high they have forced upon the
industry the even more vexing problem of bulk fruit
movement by truck and disproportionately heavy boat
shipments to the Eastern auction markets, is also engag-
ing the best thought of our shipper-members. They are
making every possible effort to bring the railroads to see
the wisdom of making a general drastic downward revis-
ion of their rates before they lose all of Florida's citrus
Manager A. M. Pratt, with J. Curtis Robinson of the
Florida Growers and Shippers League, and a representa-
tive from the Citrus Exchange, recently appeared before
the Interstate Commerce Commerce Commission and sub-
mitted figures showing that so far this year the Florida
railroads have lost over $5,000,000 in freight charges to
the boat lines.
Growers and shippers a r e working shoulder to
shoulder on this major problem of securing a more equit-
able freight rate structure for Florida's citrus fruits. Team:
work by all factors in the industry is all that is needed to
set Florida citrus on its feet again.

June 1, 1933

June 1, 1933 FLO

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending June 3, 1933)

Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
June3,'33 May27,'33 June4,'32

Fla. Org's Shpd..-... 709
Total ..------- ..- 24310
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 317
Total.__----__- 15500
Fla. Tang. Shpd..--. -
Total...................... 3018
Fla Mixed Shpd. __ 92
Total -----_------- 8063
Texas Gft. Shpd..... -
Total...................... 2675
Cal. Org's Shpd..--.. 1217






Fla. Org's Auc.------ 438 586 227
Average_- -- $2.50 $2.05 $3.55
Fla. Gft. Auc.__... 277 386 123
Average .._...__ ..... $1.55 $1.65 $3.80
Cal. Org's Auc...-... 287 335 234
Average ....------. $3.05 $3.00 $3.10

(Commencing Sunday)
VAL. ORGS. No. 1 VAL. ORGS. No. 2
SWeek Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
May 27-... 35 22 $1.61 56 19 $1.24
June 3
(5 days)__ 43 12 $1.84 70 19 $1.34
SJune 4
last year 32 3 $3.05 36 5 $2.88

REG. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
May 27-. 8 -
June 3
(5 days)- 1 -
June 4
last year -
M. S. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
May 27-... 35 8 $1.35
June 3
(5 days)- 8 4 $1.20
June 4

REG. GRFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.
61 4 $ .85

M. S. GFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.
91 24 $1.12

20 4 $1.06

last year 14 8 $3.53 17 -

Florida Oranges
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending : Year Year 31 30 29 28
May 27__- 586 324 600 4 678 29
June 3_. -*709 173 375 2 354 7
June 10___ ...__*800 100 294 356 4

California Oranges
Week This Last
Ending Year Year 1931 1930 1929 1928
May 27.... 1241 1520 901 1022 1344 1005
June 3 *__1217 1308 1135 1002 1683 734
June 10 _*1550 1195 1344 759 2039 732
Florida Grapefruit
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
May 27.... 530 116 425 2 308 169
June 3......*317 68 378 2 136 102
.June 10 .--- *400 29 189 87 60

Week This
SEnding Year
May 27 --- 131
June 3 .-_* 9;
June 10 ... 91

Florida Mixed
Last 1930- 1929-
Year 31 30
3 48 79 -
2 33 54 -
0 19 33 -



Next week's shipments certainly call for
Sforesight. The valencia market this week (end-
'ing June 3) jumped 45c a box, showing a gen-


eral average of $2.50 as against last week's
auction average of $2.05 delivered. The result
is a strong tendency toward over-shipment
next week. Estimates from our own shippers
indicate a movement of 25% higher than this
week, and this week's shipments climbed 100
cars over last week's. Shippers and the trade
were figuring that shipments this week would
be lighter than they are. Should next week's
shipments be 20 percent heavier, we will be
again successful (?) in effectively killing the
advance that has been realized on Florida
The valencia market this week advanced,
first, because shipments of the prior week were
200 cars less than the week before. The
greater precautions exercised in coloring and
in shipping as much as possible without color-
ing and in grading more severely have resulted
in better keeping quality. We have had rains
which have freshened up the valencias and
moderately cool weather, all of which have
helped. On top of this, everyone has been fig-
uring that the valencia crop is pretty well
through, and doubtless the trade have con-
fidence that certainly no excessive valencia
shipments will occur from now on. But we are
right at the breaking point now, with ship-
ments having increased 100 cars over last
week. If they increase another 100 or 150
cars they are bound to break the confidence
of the trade, and this is all so unnecessary.
It looks as if we will have to raise our esti-
mate again on valencias. If we had only the
number of cars of valencias left that were pre-
viously estimated they would all be shipped
this coming week. The tendency toward still
heavier shipments and reports from various
operators that have been recently going over
the state indicate from 1400 to 1800 cars of
valencias left. My guess is that 1600 cars of
valencias will be shipped from June 4 on, and
unless our own shippers as well as the Ex-
change and other operators see the desirability
and necessity of cutting down next week's ship-
ments and doing so quickly, half of the remain-
ing valencias will be shipped next week. I
hope I am wrong, but you will notice I have
estimated next week's orange shipments at
800 cars. It should be cut to 600 at most. If
800 cars are shipped next week, that would
leave, say, only 500 cars for the week ending
June 17 and 300 cars for the balance of the
season. Again, I say, why go out in next week's
anticipated excessive shipments when a week
or two longer holding of valencias has so much
greater chance of realizing better money?
True, the valencias are not getting any better
by holding on the trees, but prospective sup-
plies certainly would seem to indicate that it
is good judgment to hold back.
California wires estimating 1550 cars of
oranges for next week. This is 300 cars heav-
ier than this week and the two weeks previous.
California has been figuring that we are about
For the week ending May 27 California
shipments composed about:
450 Navels,
520 Southern Calif. Valencias,
280 Central Calif. Valencias.

Page 3

Shipments for this week, according to ad-
vice received, will be about as follows:
60 Navels and Miscellaneous,
720 Southern Calif. Valencias,
440 Central Calif. Valencias.
1220 Total
This estimated 60 cars winds up navels and
odd varieties.
Grapefruit left on the trees is variously esti-
mated from 2000 to 3000 cars. We are making
a guess that there will be 1400 cars of grape-
fruit shipped from this time on, of which prob-
ably not over 800 cars are Marsh Seedless.
Most everybody agrees there are more regular
grapefruit left than Marsh Seedless, but it
would seem as if it would be quite difficult to
market more than 600 cars of regular grape-
fruit from this time on.
Grapefruit shipments this week will not be
over 325 cars, which is over 200 cars short of
the prior two weeks. With such a decided drop
in shipments, it would seem as if it would be
sensible to anticipate some advance on next
week's shipments in grapefruit and that next
week's shipments probably will be around 400
cars, possibly 450. Our shippers' estimates for
next week would indicate lighter shipments
than for this week, but with the amount of
grapefruit left to ship and with cantaloupes ar-
riving in heavy quantities from the middle of
June on, it would seem as if shipments should
probably increase this coming week, notwith-
standing the fact that the grapefruit auction
average this week of $1.55 delivered is a dime
less than the week previous. The market, how-
ever, was showing a tendency to rise during
the latter part of the week.
A letter of May 29 from Porto Rico advises
that the new crop is going to be light and late.
Excerpts from this letter follow:
"I have talked with numerous growers and
I have seen many of the groves and I be-
lieve that as near an estimate as can be made
at the present time is that it appears that we
will have about sixty percent of the crop
which we had on the trees last fall. This
would indicate that there is at present
around 800,000 boxes.' I do not think that
this many will be shipped as there is a con-
siderable amount of scab and melanose in
some of the groves where finances could not
be obtained for the purpose of spraying.
"Our crop will be late also this season
which will affect the amount which will be
(Continued on Page Six)

NAIL that Rust on grove heaters,
irrigation pipe, galvanized roof-
ing and equipment of all kinds
One coat does it. Applied like
Southeastern Distributor
Winter Haven, Fla.

Page 4 FL




T. G. HALLINAN . . . . .. Editor
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.



Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
. Crescent City
S Treasurer

When the Consumer

Begins to Spend
"If, and when, commodity prices
begin to climb the buying public will
be compelled to increase its purchases
so as to obtain desired luxuries and
necessities before their dollar shrinks
too much in value. Aware,of this nat-
ural result those who have something
to sell to the public are going to use
every means at hand to encourage the
buying public to purchase their prod-
ucts. Advertising on a broader and
more intensive scale will be the instru-
ment used to accomplish this purpose."
The above prediction was made re-
cently by Judge Allen E. Walker, cit-
rus grower of Winter Haven and the
first president of the Clearing House.
In analyzing the Government's effort
to bring prosperity back to the country
Judge Walker expressed himself as
above, and pointed out that in his
opinion Florida growers will be com-
pelled to advertise during the coming
season if they expect to maintain or
increase the present demand for Flor-
ida citrus.
There is no question but that this
analysis is correct. Our citrus fruit
will have to be supported next season
by an adequate advertising campaign
if we are to receive any semblance of
a fair price for our crop. Advertising
Florida citrus upon a state-wide scale
admittedly has some very practical
and even disconcerting problems con-
fronting it. The most difficult problem
for solution is that of finding a common
medium through which a state-wide
advertising campaign can be carried
on. Every box of fruit produced in
the state and moved into the north
should bear its proportionate cost for


a state-wide advertising campaign for
Florida citrus; no grower has a right
to ask other growers to help him sell
his fruit. There was hope that the
Legislature, which has just adjourned,
might be able to be of help in doing
this very thing, and should there be a
special session called it may yet be
possible to inaugurate a state-wide ad-
vertising campaign.
Regardless, however, of this pos-
sibility the Clearing House still re-
mains in the field as the most influen-
tial piece of machinery to perform an
industry operation. Not all of us are
Democrats, and not all of us are Re-
publicans; we differ in politics, but we
all continue to support our Govern-
ment. The Clearing House, in the
Florida citrus field, occupies a similar
place-it is here to do a job for the
industry and regardless of minor dif-
ferences of opinion as to operation
methods the Clearing House should be
and must be supported by the growers
of the state.
In the matter of advertising alone,
Florida growers have in the Clearing
House a weapon at hand with which
they can meet the ever-present com-
petition from California and the
gro w i n g competition from Texas.
Someone remarked the other day,
"We'll be seeing you, Texas, in the
eastern markets next season." That,
Mr. Grower, is something to think
about! Texas during the past two sea-
sons has cut a wide swath in those mid-
dle western markets which we have
enjoyed for so long. Texas' proximity
to the middle western markets, aided
by a small amount of concentrated ad-
vertising, coupled with the fact that
Florida was doing comparatively little
grapefruit advertising in those mar-
kets, turned the trick and cost this
state those markets. The Texas grape-
fruit appears to have found ready
consumer acceptance, which means
that their product is good. When Tex-
as reaches out more ambitiously
toward the eastern markets-and they
unquestionably will do so this coming
season-Florida's back will be pushed
to the wall if we do nothing to meet
the competition. Comprehensive ad-
vertising will do much to beat back
this competition on grapefruit and to
maintain our present strength with
oranges. With a consuming public in
a mood to spend money it is hopeless
to think that Florida citrus can hold
its place unless attention is attracted
to it.
Leaders in the Florida citrus indus-
try today are admitting that abandon-
ment. of the advertising program en-
tered into jointly this season by the
Clearing House, the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, and two or three independent
marketing organizations, was far more
costly than its continuation would have
been. The price for both oranges and
grapefruit when the advertising was
discontinued, while not as high as we

June 1, 1933

would have liked to have had it, was compara-
tively satisfactory. Today, as every grower
in the state knows, our prices for both oranges
and grapefruit have slipped to probably new
low levels. Had we continued this advertis-
ing, a great many feel, the price level of that
time might very readily have been maintained.
The lesson has been a bitter one and should
be sufficiently bitter to prevent our ever mak-
ing the mistake again.

Operating Committee for
Next Year Is Nominated
Despite the fact that shipments of this sea-
son's crop are still rolling to market, the work
of planning next year's Clearing House ac-
tivities has already begun. Shippers affiliated
with the Clearing House held their annual
meeting in Winter Haven May 24, and put
into motion the machinery to be used for
carrying on to what is hoped will be a vastly
better fruit year.
Nomination of a new Operating Committee,
review of the results accomplished by the emer-
gency grapefruit control effort, endorsement,
of legislation pertaining to citrus pending at'
that time in the State Legislature, and a dis-
cussion of the past year's work and of plans /
for the future, constituted the program of the
meeting. Last but not least, it was at this'
same meeting that an eleventh hour effort was
made to provide for a state-wide advertising
campaign by means of law. The present
status of the advertising bill as outlined at
the meeting, and which was introduced in both /
houses near the close of the session, is touched
on elsewhere in this issue of the News.
The nominations for the new Operating
Committee to serve during next season include
the following
J. R. Bynum ...................... Ft. Myers
Randall Chase ...................... Sanford ,
R. D. Keene ............................ Eustis
L. P. Kirkland .............. Auburndale
G. Maxcy .............................. Sebring
L. Maxcy .-----.......-....... Frostproof
W. H. Mouser ...................... Orlando
H. A. Ward .............-... Winter Park
J. A. Watkins .................. Davenport
C. N. Williams ..---............ Orlando
R. B. Woolfolk .................... Orlando
The above nominations will be presented to
the new Board of Directors for approval at
the Directors' organization meeting which will /
be held June 9. Following action on the names
by the Board the members of the Operating r
Committee will elect their chairman and vice-


Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal Cast Iron Pipe


The Cameron & Barkley Co.
67 Years of Service


Ladybeetles Save Millions for State

In Controlling
(By Dr. E. W. Berger, Entomologist, State Plant Board)
Whereas Florida is fortunate in many re-
spects, the fruit grower and horticulturist are
doubly fortunate in the fact that some of their
most injurious insect pests are either wholly
- or at least partly controlled by natural enemies
such as ladybeetles, syrphid flies, minute wasp-
-like parasites, and a group of fungus parasites,
Sthe latter also spoken of as the friendly fungi.
Ladybeetles, as most people know, are small
--or medium-sized beetles nearly round or slight-
ly oblong and thick, that is, more or less hem-
ispherical in shape. Some are no more than
about 1-16 inch in length, while the largest
probably do not exceed 5-16 of an inch. They
are generally red or yellow with black spots
or black with white, red, or yellow spots.
The larvae, or grubs, as well as the adult
ladybeetles, with one or two exceptions, feed
on other insects, and as the insects on which
they feed are almost invariably injurious in-
sects, ladybeetles and their young are highly
beneficial. The exceptions to this rule are the
Mexican Bean Beetle and its closest relative,
Sthe Squash Ladybeetle, which feed on beans
and squashes respectively, this being plant-
feeders and themselves highly injurious.
The Vedaha, or Australian Ladybeetle, is
perhaps the most outstandingly useful and ef-
fective in the control of an injurious insect
among ladybeetles. It is the natural enemy of
cottony-cushion scale and at times completely
eradicates infestations of this pest.
The Vedalia is a rather small beetle, meas-
uring about 1-8 inch in length; it is dark red
with black spots. Its young stages, or grubs,
are spindle-shaped, maroon-colored or gray-
ish and vary in length, according to age, from
perhaps 1-32 to more than 1-8 inch in length.
Both Adult beetles and grubs feed on all stages
of cottony-cushion scale but appear to prefer
the eggs.
While the Vedalia is capable of maintaining
itself for years or een indefinitely in some
Localities, there are times and places when it
becomes exterminated, presumably due to the
fact that it has, itself, exterminated the cot-
tony-cushion scale, on which alone does it ap-
pear to be able to multiply. For this reason
it has been found necessary to occasionally re-
colonize the Vedalia at the reappearance of
cottony-cushion scale in any locality or prop-
erty. The Entomological Department of the
Plant Board has now been supplying colonies
of this useful beetle to those who request them
since about 1916, and supplies between 200
and 250 colonies of 10 each annually. A mod-
erate charge of one dollar per colony has been
;eeatablished by the Plant Board to in part re-
- imburse itself for the cost of this service, there
Being no state appropriation for the purpose.
"Directions are included.
It has been calculated that if, on an average,
Stthe 200 or 250 colonies of the Vedalia sup-
plied save one spraying annually on account
of cottony-cushion scale to the owners of the
I 300,000 acres of citrus in Florida, allowing
that it costs $5 to spray an acre, the useful-

Various Citrus Pests
ness of the Vedalia has a money value to the
state of at least $1,500,000.
Another most outstandingly useful lady-
beetle is the Mealybug Destroyer, Cryptolae-
mus montrouzieri, called Crypt for short. This
is another introduction from Australia, first
into California and from there into Florida.
In California the production of these beetles
is centralized in large county insectaries in
which they are raised in millions on mealybugs
propagated on potato sprouts. Unlike the Ve-
dalia and some other ladybeetles the Crypts
are unable to establish themselves permanent-
ly, but need to be colonized anew, when mealy-
bugs appear. An introduction of something
like 10 beetles per tree has been recommended.
Several years ago, the Entomological De-
partment of the Experiment Station started
the propagation and introduction of these
beetles but due to the budget cutting of 1931,
this work had to be discontinued. Following
this, one of the young men who had assisted
in the work at the Experiment Station, under
the direction of Professor J. R. Watson, under-
took the propagation of these beetles as a com-
mercial venture with apparent success.
Another very promising introduction, also
by the entomologists of the Experiment Sta-
tion, is the Chinese Aphid-Eating Ladybeetle.
Originally an introduction from China into
California, considerable number of these bee-
tles were successfully reared at the Experi-
ment Station and colonized in a number of
localities in Florida, where the Green Citrus
Aphid (Aphis spiraecola) was in considerable
To date, it appears that these beetles have
successfully established themselves only in one
locality, namely the Sand Lake area in Orange
County, although a recent report from the
northwestern part of Pinellas County indicates
that they have also maintained themselves
there for about a year.
Those who desire additional information
about the useful ladybeetles, friendly para-
sites, etc., are requested to obtain, a copy of
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Bulletin 67, Citrus Insects and Their Control.
Copies of this bulletin may be obtained by ad-
dressing the Extension Service, Gainesville,

Value of Brand in Marketing

Citrus Fruit
(Continued from Page One)
There is no necessity for this incentive to be
killed if those handling the various brands
under this same trade-mark see the need of
encouraging this incentive rather than destroy-
ing it by ignoring the particular merits of any
effort behind the individual label.
From the final consumer's standpoint the
brand means practically nothing. The con-
sumer seldom sees the box label. They occa-
sionally see the wrap, but if the fruit itself is
identified then the brand or trade-mark on the
fruit begins to mean something to the con-

Page 5

summer. The desirability of identifying the
individual fruit through to the consumer was
recognized many years ago.
A large grower in California by the name of
W. N. Moore and myself were, I believe, the
first ones to work out a practical means of
identifying through to the consumer. We
were the first ones to put a tag on an orange
by such means as to make it stick there re-
gardless of moisture or oil on the skin. A
little gold and green embossed tag the size of
a dime and showing a picture of an elephant
was stuck to the skin of each orange near the
blossom end. It was all done by hand and the
cost ranged from eight to ten cents a box. The
idea of identifying the fruit was followed by
electrically marking the skin itself with the
brand or trade-mark name. The California
Fruit Growers Exchange generally adopted
this device several years ago for their Sunkist
and more recently have applied it somewhat
generally to their second grade master brand
known as Red Ball. The Mutual Orange Dis-
tributbrs similarly are using Pire Gold as
their trade-mark on their oranges for first
grade, and you are all familiar with similar
steps taken in Sealdsweet, Blue Goose, and
other brands that are using this electrical de-
vice for marking the brands on the fruit itself.
This, in itself, is good advertising to the con-
sumer providing the product satisfies the con-
Individual brands or labels probably will
continue to increase. Even if it were not for
pride of ownership and sectional jealousies, it
is doubtless usually wise to have a separate
brand or separate set of brands for each pack-
ing house, as the human equation necessarily
enters into the character of the fruit that goes
out under any set of brands. There are those
who do not take any special pride in their
brands and who often are compelled to change
their brands because of getting into disrepute
with the trade. Always the brand itself is
going to count with the trade in measuring
the dependability of the fruit and depend-
ability as to supplies that can be had if the
customer decides to push a certain brand.
At auction, where 45 to 50 percent of the
citrus fruits are sold, there is no question but
what the brand plays an important part. The
bidders at auction soon learn that certain
brands are coming to auction regularly. Their
inspection before the sale and their experience
with the brand after the purchase determines
their confidence in the brands in which they
become interested. An untried brand on the
auction market very seldom sells for as much
money as those brands that have been coming
regularly and that the trade have learned are
dependable for uniformity in grade and keep-
ing qualities. Anyone watching the auction
markets knows that size for size and grade
for grade certain a brand will sell at a premium
even though that brand may have the same
master trade-mark that other brands do, that
sell for considerably less at the same sale.
Therefore, in the problem of marketing
citrus fruits at auction or in the private sale
markets, the shipper who has earned a reputa-
tion for a particular brand unquestionably has
a strong asset. It is not easy to establish that
reputation. It is very easy to lose it. Char-
acter is just as essential to a brand as it is
to an individual.

Page 6 FL

Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
shipped. Our bloom was late, most of it
coming in March and the first part of April.
Some of the groves which are equipped for
irrigation are forcing the fruit rapidly
through the use of ample amounts of water
and applications of fertilizer, and these
groves will probably have fruit available
about the first or middle of September, but
I am very much afraid that the majority of
our crop will not be suitable for shipment
until the first part of October."
The effect of lighter arrivals of oranges by
boat in New York was reflected in New York's
advance of 40c per box over last week, this
week's average being $2.60. It is interesting
to note that this advance took place with New
York selling 270 cars this week as compared
to 281 last week. Unfortunately, 171 cars of
oranges will be available by boat for next
Monday's offerings as compared with 115 this
week and 155 the prior week. Grapefruit ar-
rivals by boat for next Monday are 74 cars
compared with 100 cars this week and 82 the
week prior.
Never before has the citrus industry been
generally so completely in accord as to citrus
bills that they wished passed, and never before
was so little done by the legislature. Nothing
has been settled. The fate of the bills, briefly
stated, is as follows:
Maturity Bill.-Passed Senate but did not
get on the floor of the House.
New Arsenic Law, prohibiting use on oranges
and tangerines passed Senate. Companion bill
repealing former arsenic law was lost in the
Senate. New bill amending present arsenic
law to exempt grapefruit from its restrictions
was introduced in the House, was tied up in
the Rules Committee and never got to the
Standardization Bill was introduced into

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both houses, came to the floor of the Senate
and upon being amended exempting bulk was
withdrawn. An effort to get it on the floor
of the House failed.
Prorating Bill introduced into both Houses
but no action taken.
Advertising Bill introduced both Houses on
Wednesday but no action taken.
Replevin of Field Box Bill met opposition
and passed only when amended to apply to
counties of 100,000 population or over. (This
leaves out Polk and most other citrus counties
with the exception of Dade.)
Another Session? The Governor says no,
but many are anticipating another session.

June 1, 1933
Not So Dumb
In a small town in the South, there was a lad
who had the reputation of not being very
bright. People there had fun with him several
times a day by placing a dime and a nickel on
the open palm of his hand, and telling him to
take his pick of the two. In each case the.lad
would pick the nickel, and then the crowd
would laugh and guffaw.
A kind-hearted woman asked him one day,
"Don't you know the difference between a dime
and a nickel? Don't you know the dime,
though smaller, is worth more?"
"Sure, I know it," he answered, "but they
wouldn't try me out on it any more if I ever
took the dime."


Citrus Nursery Trees


on rough lemon and sour orange stocks, one-year buds
on four-year roots-
As low as 20c each

GRAPEFRUIT TREES-One Inch and Larger-Early, late
and Pinks, vigorous, husky two and three-year buds on
five and six-year roots, fine for either resets or new
On rough lemon 35C each

On sour orange 25C each
These Low Prices are in Effect for June and July Only. Indications Point to
a Material Advance in Prices Early Next Fall.

1. A big saving in the cost of trees.
2. An entire growing season gained in time.

All trees included in this sale are of our own growing. They are
healthy, vigorous stock of the usual fine Glen Saint Mary quality,
and are not to be confused with shoddy, old and poorly grown
stock sometimes offered elsewhere at so-called bargain prices.

Write for folder showing in detail the prices, varieties, conditions of sale, etc.

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Company
Winter Haven, Florida

June 1. 1933

Spraying for Whitefly and

Scale Should Be Done Now
(By J. R. Watson, Head, Entomology Department,
Florida Experiment Station)
The present is a good time to spray citrus
for the purpose of cleaning up an infestation
of scale insects and whitefly. In fact, it is
About the second best time of the year, the
best and most important spraying being the
fall cleanup in late September or early Oc-
tober. The trees at the present time are very
dormant. The spring flush of growth has
hardened up and the June flush of growth has
not started in most groves, but with the rains
we are now having it will not be long before
the June flush of growth starts, after which
it is not safe to spray. If the trees are heavily
infested with whitefly or scale insects at this
time, so heavily infested that the grower does
not feel that they can safely be left until the
fall cleanup spray, this is a very good time to
Sdo the spraying.
In most of the state the weather has been
dry and the entomogenous fungi which kill so
anany scale insects and whitefly during .hot,
moist, weather have not been working much,
with the result that scale insects and whitefly
have been able to increase quite markedly dur-
ing the past few weeks.
The best materials for a thorough cleanup
of these insects on citrus trees is one of the
oil emulsions. These can be made by emulsi-
fying lubricating oils with soap, but most grow-
ers prefer to buy the emulsion already made.
There are many different brands on the mar-
ket, differing somewhat in their composition
and therefore in the proportion to which they
should be diluted with water, but this is de-
termined by following the directions on the
container. The diluted spray should contain
one percent of oil as most of the emulsions
contain from forty to sixty percent of oil-
the dilutions will vary from one gallon of the
emulsion to forty gallons of water.
In general these oil emulsions can be divided
into two classes, those made from so-called
white oils and those from the red oils. The
white oils have had some of the more danger-
ous ingredients removed and are therefore less
liable to burn tender foliage or fruit, but of
course are more expensive than the red oils.
In spraying at this time certain precautions
are necessary. The trees should not be sprayed
when the temperature is above ninety degrees
as under those circumstances the young fruit
is liable to be burned or shadowed. Very small
fruit also should not be sprayed. The fruit
should be approaching an inch in diameter.
Needless to say the spraying should be thor-
ough; both sides of the leaves and the twigs
should be sprayed as well as the fruit. If the
larger limbs of the trees are also infested with
the scales, these too should receive a thorough
application. If whitefly is the main thing one
is spraying for, it is particularly important to
cover the undersides of the leaves. It is here
that the larvae of the whitefly are exclusively
During the past two years Mr. Thompson
at our Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Al-
fred has been conducting experiments looking


to the possibility of holding scale insects in
check by frequent applications of lime-sulfur,
and at the same time controlling rust mites
and red spiders. These sprays were timed to
begin when a large number of crawlers were
observed on the trees and were repeated at
intervals of a month in some cases and others
at intervals of six weeks or two months. Tlese
experiments were quite successful in checking
the development of the purple scale and at the
same time controlling rust mites. Where three
or more applications were applied between
May and September there was usually little
or no increase in the amount of purple scale
on the trees.
We do not recommend the substitution of
lime-sulfur for an oil emulsion in the case of
a heavy infestation of scale insects, nor espe-
cially in the case of whitefly, but when the
infestation is not heavy it is possible to hold
down the development of scale insects by a
few applications of lime-sulfur, possibly until
the rainy season has gotten well under way
and the entomogenous fungi have come to the
assistance of the grower and perhaps will hold
down the infestation until the time of the fall
cleanup. Lime-sulfur will kill only the crawl-
ers and first stages of the scales, but by kill-
ing these with a frequent application of lime-
sulfur it is possible to hold down or delay the
infestation of the scale insects. In these experi-
ments lime-sulfur was used at the strength of
one to forty of water.
The same precautions about spraying when
temperature is above ninety degrees applies
to a lime-sulfur spray as well as an oil emulsion
but there is less danger of burning the young
fruit or tender foliage with a lime-sulfur spray
than with an oil emulsion. The chief value of
the lime-sulfur spray is that it is a combina-
tion spray for controlling rust mites as well.
The addition of a pound of iron sulfate to each
fifty gallons of lime-sulfur will greatly in-
crease the sticking properties of the lime-sul-
fur. It will cause it to remain on the trees
very much longer and will therefore be ef-
fective over a longer time, especially for the
control of rust mites. Iron sulfate will change
the color of the lime-sulfur to a dirty gray but
apparently does not interfere with its effici-
ency. It is cheap material and will be worth
adding to the lime-sulfur spray.

Texas Growers Enact New

Standardization Measure
Grapefruit growers of Texas appear to
have taken Florida as their guide in handling
the affairs of their industry. Most recent ac-
tion by the Rio Grande growers has been the
enactment of a citrus standardization law
which is similar to, although possibly more
severe than, the standardization bill which was
introduced in the Florida Legislature.
Some of the more important provisions of

Detailed Soil Analysis
And Interpretations
Get Instructions for Taking Soil Samples
SOIL LABORATORY Frostproof, Fla.

Page 7

the Texas standardization law are as follows:

Grading certificates are issued instead of
stamps, the cost to be not over one cent per
box, grades to be determined by the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture working with the
Commissioner of Agriculture.
The term "unclassified" will not be per-
mitted. Such fruit will be required to be
marked culls.
All fruit must be shipped in a container.
Each container must contain fruit uniformly
sized. No bulk shipments allowed. No
brands or trade-marks would be eligible for
registration which do not meet the minimum
requirements of at least U. S. No. 2.
No citrus fruit will be allowed sold in Texas
from other states that does not conform to
these regulations.

Census Taker: "Would you mind telling me
if there is any insanity in your family, lady?"
Wife: "Well, no, not exactly. Only my hus-
band thinks he's boss here at home."

The Mark of a

Good Product

The Brogdex trade mark on a
box of fruit has come to mean a
new standard of appearance and
keeping ability. This reputation
in the market has been establish-
ed by a decade of performance.
Buyers recognize the Brogdex ad-
vantages and are willing to pay
more for them.
Appearance, b e t t e r keeping
qualities and being able to ship
with less refrigeration are factors
that greatly influence the grow-
er's net return. Get these settled
right and you will be surprised
what a difference they will make
in another season's operations.
There is a Brogdex packer near
you-it is to his interest to get
you more money for your fruit
and he will do it, too, if you pack
your fruit the Brogdex way.

Florida Brogdex
Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida


More of the Genuine

June 1, 1933




To supply the constantly increasing demand by Florida
growers for Genuine Peruvian Bird Guano we are pleased
to announce the arrival of another cargo from Peru. More
than 2,000 tons of Genuine Peruvian Bird Guano is now
being unloaded from the Steamship "GARD" into our
factory here in Jacksonville. Inspectors from the Don
Martin Islands, off the coast of Peru, report that this ship-
ment represents one of the finest grades of Genuine Peru-
vian Bird Guano they have ever loaded. You can get
this extra value in your fertilizer today at no extra cost.
Genuine Peruvian Bird Guano is liberally used in com-

bination with other fertilizer materials of highest quality
in the manufacture of IDEAL FERTILIZERS for citrus
trees and vegetable crops.
By demanding IDEAL FERTILIZERS you are insuring
your trees and crops of a complete feeding during the hot
summer months. Correct blending and proportioning of
high quality materials, including Genuine Peruvian Bird
Guano, in IDEAL FERTILIZERS insures quick action
combined with slow feeding qualities over a long period.
Talk with our representative regarding your requirements.

There is no substitute for



Give You




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