Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00111
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: May 1, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00111
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

Library-Perio"' Div. L ORIDA ....
Zi Washington, D '


Representing more than 10,000
Growers o'f Oranges and Grapefruit



Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by theFlorida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume V
rus Growers Clearing House Association, MAY 1, 1933 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Number 15
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879.

Canning ofOrangeJuice Makin Headway
U. S. Chemists Achieve Improvement in Its VE Y
and Unearth Factors Affecting Keeping Qualsa s ,.

S Oranges don't live in glass
houses but research chemists
who have pried into their pri-
vate lives have unveiled some of
the intimate secrets of Florida
citrus that sooner or later may
add many dollars to the revenue
from our annual crops.
Sixteen months ago work at the U. S. Re-
search Laboratory in Winter Haven was start-
ed in earnest. Florida's citrus industry had re-
quested research help from the federal gov-
ernment, for out in California such work was
proving of immense value to the western fruit
growers, and if research in Florida would open
new avenues of citrus revenue, Florida growers
wanted to explore them, Uncle Sam was told.
Any citrus canner will tell you that the pro-
cessing of citrus fruit or juice is no bed of
roses. The processing of grapefruit hearts and
grapefruit juice has become fairly successful,
although much remains for development there,
but with oranges the obstacles are many and
mountainous. This may sound a bit exagge-
rated to many of us, but take a look at the six
problems listed below:
Retention of the flavor and aroma so
that the canned juice will be palatable.
Resistance of the canned juice to deteri-
oration over a period of time.
Resistance of the juice to deterioration
in storage at various temperatures.
Prevention of discoloration.
Prevention of "settling" or separating.
These last two items are particularly ob-
jectionable when the juice is put up in
glass containers.
Determining the proper stage of ma-
turity of the fruit for canning purposes.
When it is realized that none of these prob-
lems have been solved to a wholly satisfactory
degree it may readily be seen that the industry
knew what it was doing when it prevailed upon
Uncle Sam to undertake this work.
Much progress has been made on some of
these problems. Work even has been done
under actual commercial cannery conditions,
processing of juice being carried on in Florida
commercial canning plants. Research work is
slow, tedious, and frequently discouraging, but

these Federal men have plugged determinedly this year at temperatures of thirty-five, sixty-
away taking their reward in the joy of remov- four, and seventy degree.
ing obstacle after obstacle. They are rather. & e gos 0 0 ean Ib reached regarding
reticent about their accomplishments to date, discoloration of the juice. Generally speaking,
but examination of their work indicates that processed orange juice beconfes dark when
material progress has been made. Take the stored in glass containers under high tempera-
first problem: retention of the flavor of orange ture-ninety degrees to one hundred degrees
juice. Satisfactory retention of flavor appears -but when stored in cans the discoloration is
to hinge upon the questions of length of stor- not so great. So far the chemists have been
age and temperature during storage, unable to prevent the settling or separating of
Juice which has been canned for a compar- the canned juice. This settling and separating
atively short time has been so well processed means that the heavier particles in the juice
at the laboratory and in commercial canneries settle to the bottom of the container and
that it is almost impossible to tell it from the whether accompanied or not by discoloration
fresh fruit juice. Experimental storage for make the product decidedly unappetizing in
nine months indicates that a temperature as appearance when processed in glass containers.
low as forty degrees Fahrenheit will yield a Obviously from a merchandising standpoint



comparatively satisfactory product, but that a
temperature of ninety degrees (which might
readily prevail in a grocery store or in a home
in the north during the summer) would cause
the juice to spoil. During last year the Federal
laboratory did not have facilities for storage
at temperatures between forty degrees and
ninety degrees, but work is being carried on

this is a serious drawback. Further study is
needed too, the chemists state, on the proper
stage of maturity of the fruit for canning pur-
Although greater success has attended the
canning of grapefruit juice and hearts, than
has been attained with oranges, the Federal
(Continued on Page FQor)

May 1, 1933

Committee of Fifty Department

(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

The Future for Grapefruit
With the present grapefruit crop almost out of the
way, it Would seem to be the proper time to be giving
some thought to the coming crop. We haven't much
to show for our efforts with this crop, but we do have
some very valuable experience.
This season's crop was perhaps the poorest crop
this state has ever produced. That is generally
acknowledged. Such a late bloom, and a prolonged
drought during the growing season are not likely to
occur again in many years. I believe most of you will
agree that grapefruit has not been good to eat until
just recently. Most of the fruit we have been expect-
ing the trade to take at fair prices was not up to the
standards of past years. We have been trying to sell
an inferior fruit at good prices with a greatly reduced
purchasing power in all the markets. Naturally it did
not go into consumption as easily or as rapidly as fruit
the consumer had acquired a taste for. Low prices
were almost inevitable. We have had a disastrous
season, especially in grapefruit, caused mostly by fac-
tors that were beyond our control. Most of us realize
that and are getting to work on the new crop, and the
new problems it will present. The old spray rig is
more in evidence this spring than it has been for many
years. Growers seem to realize the difference be-
tween first and second grade fruit more than they
have in the past. That is a good sign of grower-
Lowering the cost of production will not solve our
grapefruit problem. Some feel that it will be the sur-
vival of the fittest. I think that is a selfish view
from an industry standpoint. We all are interested
in producing good fruit as cheaply as possible. That
is common sense and good business. Raising it cheaper
means raising more of it. We are doing that quite suc-
cessfully. Not only are we raising more, but Texas
is raising more. In fact all the producing areas seem
to be making a success of raising more grapefruit.
Apparently that is not the problem.
Florida's problem is to increase the demand for
grapefruit. I think we began to realize that about the
middle of last season. When the returns began to
come back in red ink, we got together and formu-
lated an advertising campaign for grapefruit. The
season was about half over and many growers had
shipped their grapefruit before the advertising
started. Those who had grapefruit left to ship were
well satisfied with the results. My Marsh Seedless
netted me $1.85 on the tree, and I was well satisfied
with my small investment in advertising.
Some, who are opposed to an advertising program,
said those prices were not due entirely to the adver-
tising. They argued that the wind we had last spring
blew off some of the crop. No doubt that had some-
thing to do with it. However, shortening the crop did
not increase the demand. Advertising increased the
demand and when the crop was shortened the demand
increased the price. Demand always increases the
price, and advertising is the cheapest and best way of
increasing the demand for any product.
In keeping with the advertising, the product should
be all that it is advertised to be. We cannot advertise
"good" grapefruit and expect the advertising to make
it good. I believe we made that mistake this year. We
advertised good grapefruit in January. It was not as
good as we advertised it to be. The demand did not
increase as we had expected. Many growers and some

thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

shippers said the advertising had failed. The adver-
tising did not fail. We failed.
Mr. James C. Morton has told how California has
advertised the glass of orange juice, and Florida has
filled the glass. Most of us realize the truth of that.
We have been going thru the door on the other fel-
low's push on oranges. Having no one to push for us
on grapefruit, we have been standing on the outside
and depending on the elements. An occasional cold
spell, hurricane, or flu epidemic has made the crop fit
the demand. Let's do something for ourselves! They
say the Lord helps those who help themselves, but we
haven't helped ourselves much up to now. Let's try
to build the demand for grapefruit in keeping with
the supplies we expect to market. Advertising intelli-
gently, is not an experiment! There is ample proof of
that in every newspaper and magazine you read. If
you and I expect to get our share of the consumer's
dollar, we must plan intelligently to keep our com-
modity before him. There is only one way. TELL

A Real Code of Ethics
There is one other thing I should like to talk about
while I have this opportunity. Just a word about a
code of ETHICS for this citrus industry. Will Rogers
recently said that one seldom hears the term Demo-
crat and Republican these days. They are working
together for the common good. It seems to me that
we should be arriving at that point in the citrus indus-
try. About a month ago, growers and shippers repre-
senting eighty-five percent of the state production
gathered in Winter Haven to discuss the grapefruit
About a month prior to this meeting, a joint grow-
ers' committee from the Committee of Fifty and the
Exchange Presidents Association, had met and recom-
mended that a committee of three, one from the Ex-
change, one from the Clearing House, and one from
the outside independents, be appointed from their
respective groups to handle the proration of the bal-
ance of the grapefruit crop, with one grower from
each group to sit with this prorating committee as
grower observers without power to vote.
Mr. C. C. Commander representing the Florida
Citrus Exchange recommended to the assembly at
Winter Haven that a committee of five shippers be ap-
pointed to prorate the balance of the grapefruit crop,
and that all shippers join the Clearing House for the
balance of the season for the handling of grapefruit
only. The plan enlisted the support of eighty-five per-
cent of the shippers and growers. A. ray of hope
gleamed and brought with it a chance for intelligent
proration of supplies.
Just ordinary decency, common fairness, by the fif-
teen percent that refused to contribute support would
have made the plan workable. All shippers, including
those who had refused to sign up, were notified of
their allotments by the prorating committee of five.
The fifteen percent who had stayed out shipped forty
percent of the fruit going out of the state in one week!
It is your duty as growers to find out who those ship-
pers are. The list is one file in the Clearing House
office. It was published in some of the newspapers.
Get acquainted with your industry! See who is not
cooperating, and tell your neighbor about it. Let's
have a Fair Deal at least!-Fred T. Henderson, Sec.

Page .. ..



Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending April 29, 1933)


Week Week
Ending Ending
Apr. 29,'33 Apr.22,'33
Fla. Org's Shpd......-. 855 757
Total......................20333 19478
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 543 589
Total......................-------13119 12576
Fla. Tang. Shpd....... 1 3
Total..------------ 3018 3017
Fla. Mixed Shpd..... 135 198
Total-------..................... 7369 7234
Texas Gft. Shpd..... --
Total--.. -----................. 2675 2675
Cal. Org's Shpd...... 1056 986
Fla. Org's Auc......... 532 506
Average.................. $2.30 $2.20
Fla. Gft. Auc....---....... 368 389
Average................ $1.70 $1.70
Fla. Tang. Auc.... -- 4
Average.....-----. $ -- $2.30
Cal. Org's Auc......... 346 382
Average.....-----... $2.40 $2.35

Apr.28, '32


$ -

(Commencing Sunday)
M.S. ORGS. No. 1 M.S. ORGS No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Apr. 22.... 7 1 $1.50 12 1 $1.40
Apr. 29
(5 days).. 3 -
Apr. 28
last year.. - -
VAL. ORGS. No. 1 VAL. ORGS. No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Apr. 22-... 79 33 $1.79 79 15 $1.43
Apr. 29
(5 days).. 67 21 $1.76 74 10 $1.31
Apr. 28
last year.. 81 19 $3.06 64 14 $2.81

REG. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Apr. 22.... 60 9 $1.15
Apr. 29
(5 days).- 37 6 $1.09
Apr. 28
last year.. 3 4 $2.20
M. S. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Apr. 22.... 63 22 $1.57
Apr. 29
(5 days).. 47 8 $1.49
Apr. 28

Shpd Sold Avg.
169 15 $ .90

68 17 $ .84

11 8 $1.93
M. S. GFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.
116 38 $1.28

111 37 $1.21

last year.. 87 32 $2.39 104 37 $2.13

Florida Oranges
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Apr. 22...... 757 554 862 10 1247 221
Apr. 29......*850 514 1147 7 1046 150
May 6......*850 425 950 789 126
California Oranges
Week This Last
Ending Year Year 1931 1930 1929 1928
Apr. 22...... 986 1435 1149 1422 1701 1176
Apr. 29....*1000 1078 1263 1175 1958 902
May 6....*1050 1305 2069 812 1776 1182
Florida Grapefruit
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Apr. 22...... 589 566 983 23 796 379
Apr. 29......*525 468 893 24 717 404
May 6......*500 482 976 17 687 256

Week This
Ending Year
Apr. 22...... 191
Apr. 29......*121
May 6......*121

Florida Mixed
Last 1930- 1929-
Year 31 30
3 144 240 28
5 142 257 8
5 87 256 12



Everybody is asking this question. An-
other question is: why are California navels
outselling our valencias? This is contrary to
custom. Let's analyze this thing and see what's
up. Florida never sold such an excess heavy
proportion of her supplies in the various auc-
tions as has occurred during the last'niie
weeks, and particularly in the last three weeks
when nearly two-thirds of our entire output in
oranges sold at auction. On the face of it, it
would seem as if this is obviously a contribut-
ing factor to such unusually low prices in val-
encias. California, on the other hand, in these
same nine weeks has sold an average of only
30.7 percent of her total shipments at auction.
In making an analysis of this situation I drew
up the following tabulated figures for compari-
son. It is well worth your detail attention as
it is something that should be corrected.
Such heavy supplies at auction work in a
vicious circle. With oranges selling so low at
auction, customers who were usually buying
Florida oranges in carload lots are cautious and
are drawing their supplies from the auction
markets when they can't get direct shipments
on a parity with auction prices, and in many
instances are trucking their supplies some dis-
tance, selecting just the sizes and grades that
they want. In my humble opinion we should
reverse what we are doing and if necessary, for
a week or two, take the chance of taking lower
prices on our f.o.b. sales than to put such ex-
cess supplies in the public auctions. If a com-
bined effort were made along this line I am con-
fident we would see our auction price pull up
to a proper level. This would also pull up our
f.o.b. price and we would put a stop to the dis-
heartening returns that are coming in on valen-
cias. Note the following analysis week by week
and realize what we are doing in our distribu-
tion compared to California. Florida's percent
at auction shows 53.4 percent of total ship-
ments against California's 30.7, a difference of
22.7 percent of our entire shipments. This dif-
ference is 70 percent excess over California's
percent at auction. Think of it! Then we ask
why California is outselling us.

takes a long time to change long established
customs of trade. The trade in the private sale
markets, as well as the other auction markets,
know that New York has received and doubt-
less will receive the best. Therefore, when New
York drops, as it has this year, from occupying
a premium position, averaging 41c a box higher
than other markets, the attitude of mind in the
private sale markets as well as the other mar-
kets naturally drops by custom in proportion.
This in itself has been a serious contributing
factor to Florida's low price levels in oranges
as well as grapefruit for this season. The heavy
boat arrivals, which amount to 70 percent of
the total number of cars sold at New York, has
been a new and striking feature of this year's
business and it has had this striking and de-
pressing effect. No industry can disproportion-
ately flood as important a market as New York
without paying the price. There is, on the other
hand, probably no question but what the aver-
age net returns from those cars that have been
sold in New York have been as high and doubt-
less higher than the average returns from other
markets. For this reason, it is not an indi-
vidual problem that would correct itself but is
strictly an industry problem which must be met
by combined action either on the part of all
shippers reducing in proportion their supplies
to New York or hoping that the Interstate
Commerce Commission can be persuaded to
order a real reduction in freight rates to all
markets so as to put a stop to the disequili-
brium existing today.
The estimate received from our members for
oranges next week (ending May 6) is almost
identical with that received for this week,
namely 240 cars for next as against 242 for
this. In grapefruit the estimate is 585 cars for
next week as against 611 estimated from our
members for this week. We are, therefore, esti-
mating next week's shipments at 850 cars of
oranges, 500 cars of grapefruit and 125 mixed.
California wires estimating 1050 oranges for
next week.
It looks as if California will get together the
necessary volume to make prorating effective


M ar. 4................
M ar. 11..........
M ar. 18----------
M ar. 25..........
Apr. 1..........
Apr. 8...........
Apr. 15..........
Apr. 22..........
Apr. 29................


Cars Avg.
540 $2.25
319 2.45
510 2.50
592 2.35
661 2.10
602 2.20
515 2.15
506 2.20
532 2.30


Fla. Org.
Prior Week


During the past seven years New York City
has been looked up to as the nation's barometer,
particularly for the better type of fruit. Dur-
ing the past seven years New York has aver-
aged 47c per box higher than the balance of
the auctoin markets combined. Due to dispro-
portionately heavy supplies to New York, par-
ticularly by boat, New York has been brought
down this year from its outstanding position of
leadership to a common level where it shows no
premium over the season's operation, the aver-
age being $2.51 in New York on all oranges
and $2.51 in the balance of the markets. It



California Shipments
Auctioned Prior Week
Cars Avg. Cars
300 $2.50 863
243 2.50 942
282 2.50 675
271 2.55 933
294 2.60 1134
324 2.55 1171
376 2.45 1235
382 2.35 1231
346 2.40 986

2818 9170



on valencias, but they have not got enough to-
gether to reduce, as they would like, the total
supplies of navels from California. A bulletin
received from the California Fruit Growers
Exchange, dated April 25, says:
"Exchange shippers last week in an attempt
to check the disastrous decline in the market
reduced orange shipments 304 cars, or 32 per-
cent, below the preceding week, and 297 cars
below the comparable week last year. Orange
shipments by other California shippers, how-
ever, were only 10 cars less than the preceding
week, and 50 cars more than the comparable
week a year ago."
Shipments for this week dropped down to
(Continued on Page Five)

May 1, 1933

Page 3 '

Page 4 FL




T. G. HALLINAN .. . . . .. Editor
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.


Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
. Crescent City

Assets or


An attitude of, "What the hell do we
care?" may be of some relief to the
soul, but it doesn't get us very many
dollars. Most of us have taken a tough
licking on our crop this year; in fact,
the season to date has been one of the
lowest price seasons in many years.
The "don't care" attitude, however,
will get us nothing-if we live to fight
another year we have got to keep our
heads up, keep them clear, and do
every blamed thing we can to insure a
satisfactory season next year.
If the American government's effort
to raise commodity prices is successful,
then no doubt the price level for our
fruit next season will be appreciably
higher than it has been this season. We
cannot count, however, upon any im-
mediate return to boomtime conditions.
Most economists agree that the return
to normal business conditions will be
quite slow. This means then that the
buying power of the northern citrus
fruit consumer will be increased but
slowly. The answer lies with us: Are
we going to make every effort to pro-
duce high grade fruit for next season?
Are we going to-for lack of a better
word-cooperate with our fellow-
growers? There certainly is no reason
for us to assume that business methods
and business ability are not essential if
our groves are to be profitable invest-


A Winter Haven grower, H. C. Frier-
son by name, recently tabulated his im-
pression of the assets and liabilities in-
herent in Florida's citrus industry. The
News presents them here, with a few
changes, to be viewed as an "audit" of
many individual growers as well as us
growers as a whole. In the left hand
column are listed the assets and op-
posite the assets are listed our liabili-
ties. The "audit," as this grower terms
it, is not personal as such, but repre-
sents a cross-section of many of us-
both good and bad. But here's the
Healthy competition ...... Throat cutting
Ethics .......... . .... Greed
Clear thinking ......... Mental laziness
Wisdom .............. Ignorance
Understanding ....... Muddling through
Knowledge ............ Guess work
Responsibility ........ Passing the buck
Harmony ............. . Discord
Constructive criticism . . Harmful flattery
Perseverance . . . . ... Spinelessness
Honor . . . . .... Contract violation
Ambition . . . . ... Discouragement
Vision . . . . ... Immediate dollar
Public spirit . . . . . ... Aloofness
Enthusiasm . . . . ... Indifference
Cooperation . . . . . ... Sefishness
Efficiency . . . . .... Lost motion
Economy. . . . . . . ... Waste
Encouragement . . . . . ... Gossip
Intelligent loyalty. . . . ... Disloyalty
Confidence . . . . . ... Suspicion
Integrity. . . . . . ... Crookedness
Initiative .............. Indolence
Most of us would fight in a minute if
anyone implied that we did not have
these assets, but instead had the liabili-
ties or most of them. It is natural for
man to think he is more, rather than
less, virtuous, but if we as individuals,
and possibly as organizations, will ex-
amine this audit honestly there is a
strong likelihood of our admitting that
we have some liabilities occupying
space which should be held by the
Getting down to brass tacks, we will
be winding up the present season with-
in a few weeks, and whether we want
to or not we are going to have to give a
thought to plans for next season. As
growers, we will be giving a thought
to the marketing of our fruit, that is, to
the organization through whom or to
whom we will sell. We must give a
thought to the Clearing House; how
it may be strengthened by the addition
of more growers and shippers to its
ranks. The new Clearing House direc-
tors will assume office June 1. They
will need the support of every grower
in the Clearing House, for without it
they cannot help us.

May 1, 1933

Canning of Orange Juice

Making Headway
(Continued from Page One)
men have conducted their work with this fruit
as well. Differences in flavor and aroma of
various lots of canned grapefruit have led the
chemists to the opinion that variety of fruit
is probably a factor. The flash pasteurization
method of processing grapefruit juice, the
chemists found, gives a better product than
the exhausting-closing-sterilizing or vacuum
pack methods.
Paralleling the work on the processing of
juice is the by-product phase. Essential oils,
used principally for flavoring, have been ob-
tained from the peel of both the orange and
grapefruit. Work has been done also on con-
centrated orange juice. Concentrates and es-
sential oils are used largely in the manufacture
of soft drinks. In view of the possibility that
canned orange juice will be used for flavoring,
as well as for a beverage, the chemists have
endeavored, and with some success, to fortify
the characteristic flavor of the orange. This
has been done by adding to the juice certain
amounts of the oil which is obtained from the
Orange peel. Untreated this orange peel oil has
a decidedly bitter taste. This bitterness is due
to the turpenes in the oil, the taste of which is
quite similar to turpentine. By removing the
turpenes from the oil and adding the detur-
penated oil to the juice the flavor of the juice
is greatly strengthened. Removing the turpenes
adds also to the keeping quality of the oil, thus
making it that much more valuable commer-
Seed from the grapefruit has surrendered
an edible oil, which the housewife can use in
the kitchen as she does vegetable or salad oil.
The chemists hope also to find other uses for
grapefruit seed oil which may prove of value
to our industry. And, believe it or not, a sub-
stitute for rubber and a basis for artificial silk
are possible as other by-products from citrus
fruit seeds. Some work has been done on ob-
taining cattle food from dried orange and
grapefruit peel, but lack of funds has limited
this work somewhat.
Various marmalades, jellies, candied peels,
and kindred products have been given atten-
tion by the chemists-and well they may too in
view of the fact that oranges from Spain are
furnishing a large proportion of America's pop-
ulation with what appears to be a very delicious
and popular marmalade! Like the squeal of
the pig the fragrance of the citrus fruit ap-
pears to be the only property which has not yet
been used! Even the lowly "rag" has come in
for observation to determine whether or not
there is any medicinal value in hesperidin (ob-
tained from the orange), or in naringin (ob-
tained from the grapefruit rag and peel).
There is not sufficient space here to go into
the question of the economics of citrus by-pro-
ducts work. It might be pointed out, however,
that if the growers of Florida owned and oper-
ated their own canning and by-products plants
that they could very readily control the output
and prevent any semblance of creating compe-
tition between the fresh fruit and the canned
fruit or other by-products.


Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
525 straight cars of grapefruit. With the mar-
ket down to $1.40 delivered on common grape-
fruit and $1.80 on Marsh Seedless it would not
seem necessary to caution anyone as to the dan-
ger of shipping heavily. The committee said
there would be no prorating for next week.
The general auction average this week is $1.70
on 368 cars, which is the same average as last
week on 389 cars of grapefruit.
F.O.B. sales on regular grapefruit this week
have averaged $1.09 per box on No. Is as com-
pared to $1.15 last week and $2.20 for this
same week a year ago; No. 2 regular grapefruit
averaged 84c a box as compared to 90c last
week and $1.93 a year ago. Marsh Seedless
grapefruit shows an average of $1.49 against
$1.57 last week and $2.39 a year ago for No.
Is; No._2 Marsh Seedless averaged $1.21 as
compared to $1.28 last week and $2.13 a year
Our members have indicated that they ex-
pect to ship next week 583 cars of grapefruit,
235 of which are common grapefruit. This
anticipated movement compares with an esti-
mated movement compiled a week ago from
our members of 611 cars. Considering the dan-
ger of red ink and looking at the relative esti-
mates for the two weeks, we are estimating
that the state movement will be 500 cars of
straight grapefruit for next week. Certainly
there is nothing in the market situation to war-
rant a heavier movement than this.
So far as we know, for the first time Cali-
fornia is making heavy exports of grapefruit
to England. Practically 18,000 boxes went for-
ward the week ending April 15th, 7,000 the
week ending April 22nd, and we are advised
that 8,000 went forward this week. We have
advice indicating an estimated movement of
about 25,000 boxes during the next two weeks.
The distribution of this California grapefruit
to the markets is as follows:
Export Cal. Gft.
London ...................................... 7.970
Liverpool ..................................... 3,400
Hull .................................... .......... ..... 4,500
Glasgow ............. ........................... 2,100
Southampton .......................................... 3,400
Manchester ........................................ 500
London .......... .................................. 2,500
Liverpool ..................................... 600
Total ....................................... ........... 8,000

Nitrose actually welds itself, through
rust, right down into the bare metal. It
defeats the corrosive action of heat, rust,
gas, grease, acid fumes, chemicals, brine,
ammonia and alkalis. We venture to say
that there are but few corrosive problems
that Nitrose has not already successfully
Southeastern Distributor
Winter Haven, Fla.


y conserving te

energy in your soil

Remember, Mr. Florida Grower you
have real cash money invested in your
grove and truck farm. If your invest-
ment is to yield dividends in the years to
come it must be carefully guarded. It
will pay you to maintain the fertility of
your soil. Improper fertilization practices have de-
pleted the soil of many groves and farms to such an
extent that it will be next to impossible for them to
yield a satisfactory crop for years to come. Many
fertilizers fail to return to the soil all the plant foods
that are taken out by growing crops. In fact, certain
combinations of materials cause reactions that are
actually harmful reactions that leach away essen-
tial elements, leaving the soil sterile and unproduc-
tive ",burned out! That's why we say,
"Play Safe With Gulf Brands"
Gulf Brands are formulated and blended for specific
crop purposes. Rich in long-lasting, natural organic
they assure safe, uniform crop nutritution. They
are never cheapened through the substitution of low-
priced, water-soluble synthetics. You can depend
on Gulf Brands -. Always.

Gulf BRANS Fertilizer

The Gulf Fertilizer Company


Page 5

May 1. 1933


Volume Appears to Be Governing Factor

in Packing House Costs, Study Reveals

There may be some growers not interested in
packing house costs, but the great majority are
at least indirectly interested and in some cases
have a direct hand in their regulation. A sur-
vey of Florida citrus packing houses was made
last season by Professor H. G. Hamilton, asso-
ciate professor of marketing for the Univer-
sity of Florida, and his analysis is rather en-
The survey was made in 114 houses ranging
in volume packed from less than 25,000 boxes
to more than 300,000 boxes. The average of
per box costs, for the smallest houses to the
largest houses, ranged from 81c to 70c. The
table below gives the average costs for the
various groups of packing houses classified as
to volume for the items of labor and manage-
ment, office, fixed investment, light, water, and
power, packing materials, other costs, and pick-
ing and hauling.

The range of difference in the various items,
it will be noted, was largest in labor and man-
agement, office, fixed investment, and picking
and hauling. Obviously, the greater the volume
the lower the costs, although the detailed an-
alysis reveals a great many cases in variance
with this statement. The detailed analysis
which is not published here shows that the labor
and management cost, for instance, of one
house handling more than 300,000 boxes of
fruit was a fraction over 16c per box, while
the same item for several houses handling con-
siderably less fruit had a cost of less than 14c
per box. Similar variations are observed in
other cost items, indicating possibly better
management on the part of the smaller houses
or an unusual labor situation which differs
from the average.
The summary of Professor Hamilton's de-
tailed analysis follows:

Office.................................... 020 .022 .030 .031 .046 .030
boo o 0c e bO W '
0000oicaO 033NO ,00 3),3
Labor and Management.--....- .170 .182 .197 .225 .262 .207
Office- -----------------.--.---. .020 .022 .030 .031 .046 .030
Fixed Investment ............--- .076 .103 .117 .142 .156 .119
Light, Water and Power-..... .009 .011 .012 .013 .014 .012
Packing Materials ..-----......... .275 .274 .279 .275 .294 .279
Other Costs ................------......... .020 .025 .026 .020 .025 .023
Picking and Hauling...........- .130 .132 .139 .147 .153 .140
Total-----.....................---............. .700 .749 .800 .853 .950 .810

South Carolina Speaks On

Florida's Trucked Fruit
Friends of Florida in South Carolina?
You tell 'em!
Florida citrus growers who have had
particular reason to be interested in, and
supporters of, the auto truck as a means
of transportation and a market for their
fruit, should cast an eye at the following
editorial observation which appeared re-
cently in the Spartanburg (S. C.) Herald
and the comment upon it by the Tampa
Daily Times. When a South Carolina
newspaper goes to the trouble to comment
upon something Florida, it can be safely
assumed that the comment was born in
sincerity. But here it is:
'Florida citrus fruit growers who wel-
comed the trucks are beginning to find that
there are good and bad truckers. Complaint is
made that fruit is stolen by the bad and that
they buy culls, drops and unwashed fruit, and
hurry away to distant markets which are glut-
ted by oranges and grapefruit that do not rep-
resent Florida quality.
'Leading growers see a menace to the in-
dustry in the operation of such trucks. It is
not the careful truckman against whom these
critisims are aimed but the peddler who has
no regard for quality and violates the laws
passed to give the public in other states the
best fruit Florida can produce.
'Much of this fruit of low grade has been
sold in Spartanburg this season. Oranges that
rot within a day or two of delivery have been

bought by every housewife in the city. Small
oranges, unwashed, often dirty, have been sold
from the trucks. It is true that the price per
dozen is low, but the quality is missing, the
oranges do not possess that fine flavor that has
made Florida fruit famous, and the loss by de-
cay makes the low price high compared to that
of the selected crop which has been harvested
and shipped in past years.'
"The foregoing, caption and all, is from the
editorial page of the Spartanburg (S. C.)
Herald. It deserves being read and re-read by
Florida citrus growers, for it touches some-
thing of vital importance to them and their
"There is no taking of sides between the
railroads and the truckers in their many angled
dispute over the transportation of Florida fruit
involved in this. What is involved is the im-
portance of putting only first class fruit on the
market-whether it is carried to market by
train or truck. It is easy for anyone not hope-
lessly moronic to see how the marketing of
'small oranges, unwashed, often dirty,' with
'quality missing,' not possessing 'that fine flavor
that has made Florida fruit famous' and that
quickly decays and is unfit for use, is calcu-
lated to destroy markets for our citrus. Having
direct evidence that this sort of fruit has been
on the Spartanburg market we may be sure
that it has also been put on hundreds, maybe
thousands, of other markets. Carried far
enough, this will ultimately mean no markets
for Florida citrus.
"Transported in railroad cars or in motor
vehicles, none but good fruit should be sent to
market-unless we are willing to risk ruining
the reputation of all our fruit. This is one of

the most important lessons remaining for Flor-
ida citrus growers to learn.
"It may not be amiss to say that the editor {
of the Spartanburg Herald once lived in Flor-
ida-in Tampa-and knows Florida citrus for
what it is when good Florida citrus is to be
had, as well as that, personally and as an editor
of an influential paper in another state, he is
very friendly to Florida. This should make
what he says of marketing inferior fruit all the
more impressive."-Tampa Daily Times.

Charity Begins at Home
"Father, will you give me ten cents for a
poor man who is outside crying?"
"Yes, son, here it is. You are a charitable
boy. What is he crying about?"
"He's crying, 'Fresh roasted peanuts, five
cents a bag!' "

In the


Florida fruit is going into markets
where Brogdex is pretty well thought of.
With plenty of fruit to choose from this
market preference is certain to mean that
Brogdexed brands will always be first
choice and that there will be plenty of
buyers for them.
With the warm weather coming on de-
cay and shrinkage are increasing and it
becomes more and more necessary to
ship un-Brogdexed fruit under refrigera-
tion to protect it as much as possible.
These are problems that seldom worry
the Brogdex shipper. He ships standard
vent and makes sound delivery through-
out the season. Ice is seldom used.
Buyers like standard vent shipments-
the fruit opens up so much better. There
is no sweating when the fruit is taken
from refrigeration, the wraps are dry and
the original shine has not been dulled by
Then the more attractive appearance
characteristic of Brogdexed fruit and its
well known better keeping qualities make
possible the higher prices usually re-
ceived. These are advantages worth
thinking about.
What these mean to the Brogdex
grower are best shown in the New York
auction market this season. Here are the
prices paid for Brogdexed and un-Brog-
dexed fruit.

Nov. avg.............
Dec. avg. ---.......
Jan. avg..............
Feb. avg~........
Mar. avg --...........

Nov. avg ............
Dec. avg..........-
Jan. avg .............
Feb. avg.........
Mar. avg............ --

Brog. Non-Brog.
$3.53 $3.04
2.83 2.23
2.60 2.10
2.35 2.02
2.15 1.74
3.32 3.15
3.26 2.78
3.22 2.63
2.71 2.23
2.52 2.30

$ .49


Florida Brogdex
Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida

Page 6

May 1, 1933

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