Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00097
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: October 1, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00097
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

SU. S' 0 f Agri.,
LibrarY-Perio Div
WashilgtOtn, D.C



RL1~ RY Publication e the
Repre renting more than 10.000 RE 0 11 ca u bic ation of the
Groers o'f Oranges and Grapefruit C I A CITRUS GROWER t

$2.00 a Year
10 Cents a Copy

Published Semi-monthly by theFloridaCit-
rus Growers Clearing 'House Association.
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla.

'" rTnBER 1, 1932 LO 3, Ste ssev on -class matter August 81,
-rBERa un 1, 1932 er e t. e, 18aven.
Florida, under %1ehftbjQW 3, 187-9.

yrolume 5
-- Number 1

Freight Rates to Southeast Markets to Be Cut

Proposed Reduction Is Railroads' Effort to Get Bark

Tonnage Which Has Been Captured by Truckers

h.. e j-_ first shot in the war between the raiy- road -efficials were Senator J. -J. Parrish, Titus-
roads and the motor trucks, the prize being the ville, chairman; R. B. Woolfolk and W. H.
business of hauling Florida citrus into the Mouser, of the Clearing House; and Messrs. C.
southeastern territory, was fired late last month C. Commander, W. M. Edwards and John Snive-
by the railroads. More to the point, the shot ly, of the Florida Citrus Exchange. This com-
was the announcement of a probable reduction mittee presented information to the carriers
of from 25 percent to 35 percent to southern'-showing the tremendous tonnage that has been
destinations with a reduction in the minimum hauled in-the past to the southeastern territory
carload of more than one hundred boxes. by truck with consequent demoralization of
Official notification of the proposed redue, market prices in many instances where truck
Stions has not as yet been made, but it is under- volume had been dumped blindly into areas al-
stood that the new rates will go into effect ready supplied. The importance of a lower car-
probably Nov. 1st. According to present plans, load minimum likewise was stressed by the
the proposed reduction applies only to ventila- committee, and a tentative agreement reached
Store box cars owned by the railroads concerned in which the minimum load to the reduced rate
and will expire Jan. 31st. Technically, the areas will be two hundred and fifty boxes. This
rates are known as experimental truck competi- lower minimum is imperative in that the south-
tive rates. eastern markets generally cannot absorb the
CLEARING HOUSE PLAYS A PART standard load of three hundred and sixty boxes,
especiallyunder competitive conditions brought
Although the proposed reduction unques- about by the trucks.
tionably will attract more citrus tonnage to the The proposed rate reductions apply in two
railroads than would have been the case had areas in the southeastern states. These areas
areas in the southeastern states. These areas

the present rates been maintained, the action
was not taken until railroad officials had been
.approached by a committee from the Clearing
House and the Florida Citrus Exchange outlin-
ing the benefits that would accrue to both the
railroads and the citrus industry. Leaders in
r the citrus industry of Florida have always rec-
ognized the inevitable chaos resulting from
truck shipments. The trade generally have rec-
iognized this same fact. It was self-evident that
the high minimum loads required to the near-
by truck territory and the freight rates charged
led to severe competition that trucks offered.
' There is reason to believe that competition
which has arisen during the past two years be-
tween the trucks and the railroads has resulted
6in a decrease in the volume of fruit normally
fV consumed in this so-called truck area. Develop-
k'ment of the truck business in the southeastern
!territory has had a more far-reaching effect
'than merely the effect on rates to Florida grow-

to expect in the way of supplies, because the
,trucks pour fruit into their markets in erratic
I fashion, became fearful of over-buying. The
Result has been that the volume consumed in
These markets has been considerably less than
the normal rail movement without truck com-
~petition would have been.
On the committee which conferred with rail-

are indicated on the map shown on this page.
Area No. 1 carries a reduction of 35 percent,
this area including the southern corner of South
Carolina, a large part of Georgia, and the south-
eastern corner of Alabama. A reduction of 25
percent will be made in the Group 2 area, which
it will be seen includes a large part of North
Carolina, the northern part of South Carolina
and Georgia, the southeastern part of Tennes-
see, that part of Alabama above the Group No.
1 area, and a small section along the eastern
part of Mississippi. A detailed description of
the two areas follows:
South of the line of the Seaboard Air Line
railway from Georgetown, S. C. to Lanes; At-
lantic Coast Line railroad from Lanes to Co-
lumbia through Sumter; Southern railway from
Columbia to Augusta, Ga.; Georgia railroad to.
Atlanta and on and east of A. & W. P., Western
Railway of Alabama to Montgomery, Ala., and
(Continued on Page ThreS)

Here's Where Railroads Plan Freight Rate Cut

.- -- ...... ^ ^,- sw -

- 5O-----O P NO2.
. ....."M o owE



October 1, 1932

Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower e mbers of the Clearing House and to report their
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to hem The Clearing House Directors and Manage
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no respo ability for what appears in this department)


How shall the grower of citrus obtain the greatest
\ net return for his produce? The satisfactory solution
i this problem is one of the principal factors in the
per nent prosperity of Florida.
When' rida oranges and grapefruit bring fair re-
turns to the owwer, a flood of new money goes to
work in all the activiies of the state, for the dollars'
that return to Florida in exchange for our golden fruit
are new dollars. They have not been in Florida before.
With them the grower pays his bills for local labor,
fertilizer, spray materials, his taxes, and the many
items that go into the cost of producing his crop and
maintaining his grove. If returns are good he buys
additional acreage and plants more grove. He pays
off the mortgage, buys a needed truck or tractor and
some new grove equipment. He trades in the old
fliver and puts money in the bank to meet the coming
season's operating expenses. Every business activity
in Florida shares, directly or indirectly, in these new
The problem of how the grower may obtain the
greatest net return for his product becomes, therefore,
the direct concern of the entire business structure of
the state, and any method that gives reasonable cer-
tainty of satisfactory solution deserves the active sup-
port of everyone interested in the welfare of Florida.
The problem of economical production of good
quality oranges and grapefruit is well on the way to
successful solution, with its resultant decrease in the
per box cost.
The problem of handling the crop economically
from the tree to the consumer, with its related ques-
tions of packing house costs, higher transportation
rates, and inequitable selling charges, offers a wide
field for improvement, and progress is being made.
But the major problem, after all, is to encourage
liberal consumption of Florida fruit at maximum
prices consistent with the law of supply and demand.
And the solution must be in terms of the entire crop,
since a small percentage of the output, if marketed
unintelligently, or on'a "dumping" basis to embarras
competitors, affects the entire price structure
Experience through the years of marketing effort
has demonstrated three basic essentials to success:
Every producer of an article requiring a nation-
wide market, whether it be Rocky Ford cantaloupes,
Yakima Valley apples or Pepsodent tooth paste, has

long ago realized the product must be so standardized
that the public will buy with confidence, knowing they
will not-befooled as to quality. That is the first essen-
tiarglsuccessful selling.
Next, the distribution of the product to the nation's
markets (particularly when the product is perishable)
must be intelligently controlled in order to avoid an
excess supply in one market and an insufficient quan-
tity in another.
And last, but not least, the product must be intelli-
gently and consistently advertised.
There is an agency in Florida, within the citrus in-
dustry, set up with the cooperation and endorsement
of the United States Department of Agriculture,
through which the growers of the state (be they inde-
pendents, members of a cooperative marketing
agency, or marketing agency owners) can pool their
efforts for successful marketing without loss of indi-
vidual identity or initiative. A truly American insti-
tution, born with much travail four years ago (after
a particularly disastrous season) the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association offers the indus-
try-wide service necessary to accomplish these three
essentials of intelligent and successful marketing.
Review for a moment its accomplishments and possi-
First, it secured the adoption of United States stand-
ard grades throughout the industry, and undertook
the inspection necessary to maintain them.
Second, through daily exchange of information by
all shipper-members as to both shipments and prices,
it makes possible a consistent and orderly distribu-
tion of the crop and a reasonably sustained price level
in line with variations in quality, and
Third, through membership of the great majority
of growers throughout the state, it can sponsor and
carry through those consistent, year-after-year na-
tional advertising campaigns in the interest of Florida
oranges and grapefruit, that are essential to the main-
tenance and enlargement of the popular demand for
our fruit.
This year the Clearing House is concentrating on
the advertising effort, and the recent splendid meet-
ing at the Franklin Arms Hotel is an instance of the
fine educational effort being made by this great body
of growers to better the condition of the whole indus-
try. Floridians especiallyy those who are active in
business and professional life) need to become "citrus
conscious." Such industry-wide efforts deserve our
active support.-By H. C. Case, Second Vice-Chair-
man, Committee of Fifty.

Pa eo 9

P 2



Marketing Agencies Greatly Helped

by Operations of Clearing House
By DR. E. C. AURIN, President
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association

"With only thirty-five or forty percent
of the crop how can the Clearing House
serve the Industry?"
The above question, recently asked me by a
grower, evidently in all sincerity, is so perti-
nent that it justifies a rather full and detailed
answer, especially as other growers no doubt,
have asked themselves the same question.
Of course, it goes without saying that an
organization controlling only thirty-five or
forty percent of the tonnage (to use my corre-
spondent's figures) cannot accomplish as much
tas one controlling twice that volume. In fact,
anything less than one hundred percent control
leaves something to be wished for. But to fore-
go the advantages accruing from even a partial
control simply because it means something less
,than perfect performance, would be the height
of folly. And that there are advantages that
'mean dollars to the growers from even such
control as the Clearing House has, any fair
study of the situation will demonstrate.
r The mere fact that a group of shippers,
representing marketing agencies operating
%throughout the state, periodically meet for the
purpose of discussing their common problems,
ris of inestimable value to their grower clients.
It is obviously impossible to mention all the
advantages arising from such contacts, but let's
Just consider a few. Take the question of price
cutting, always a sore spot in the past. How
-much have you heard of it lately? In my opin-
ion, ninety percent of the price cutting in the
'past was due to lack of information, lack of
information regarding crop conditions through-
out the state, lack of information regarding
market conditions, lack of information as to
what their competitors were doing, and the
'prices they were asking and getting. Without
some interchange of information among the
"shippers it was all too easy for unscrupulous
buyers or agents in the north to play one ship-
per against another. But even granting that in
the intense spirit of competitive selling, price
cutting, not based on lack of information, was
#sometimes resorted to, it is easy to understand
that the very fact of coming in close contact
'with one's competitor acts as a powerful deter-
rent to any unethical practice.
But, you may ask, just what information of
value can the Clearing House give its shipper-
members that is not otherwise available? To
'begin with, let's take crop estimates: I do not
,believe that there is any surer way to secure a
reasonably accurate crop estimate than by tak-
uing a cross section of the opinion of the men
who are actually engaged in marketing the
crop. But an estimate to be of real value must
take into consideration something besides the
'total number of boxes. Size, quality, date of
,,maturity, etc., are factors at least equally as
important and there can, of necessity, be no
.better judges of these factors than a group of
shippers located all over the citrus belt. Nor
can any proper marketing plans be made with-
out taking into consideration crop conditions
in the West Indies, Texas and California, as
well as information regarding such deciduous
fruits as enter into competition with citrus.

Even though each shipper might conceivably
secure this information for himself, it could
only be done at a much greater expense as it
would necessarily cost each one as much to as-
semble it as it now costs the entire group.
But no matter how accurate such informa-
tion might be at the beginning of the season, it
is equally as essential to have the entire picture
kept up to date as the season progresses.
Every week during the shipping season the
Clearing House gives its shippers a complete
analysis of the situation, together with a com-
parison of conditions during the same period in
previous years.
In addition, each shipper receives a daily re-
port of shipments leaving the state, passing at
diversion points, arrivals at key markets, prob-
able shipments for the coming week, not only
from Florida but from other citrus areas as
well, offerings at auction and prices received,
prices received at private sales, f. o. b. sales
and prices asked and received.
Nor must the fact be overlooked that while
there is no official connection with any other
organization, yet unofficially there is an almost
daily interchange of information with other
groups not only in Florida but in Texas and
In this way our shippers obtain a complete
and concise picture of the markets that would
be impossible to secure without some organiza-
tion to assemble and tabulate the figures. Ship-
pers who necessarily hesitate to give certain
information direct to their competitors, do not
hesitate to give it to the Clearing House, know-
ing that it will be kept confidential and releas-
ed only in a composite form.
But let's take a hasty view of some other
advantages. That Florida fruit must be adver-
tised not only to broaden our markets but to
hold what markets we have, is an undisputed
fact. For this reason the Clearing House and
the Florida Citrus Exchange are working out
a joint advertising program that will mean the
expenditure of probably a quarter of a million
dollars to tell the public something of the
merits of Florida fruit. Needless to say such a
joint program would be impossible unless a
large group of the independent shippers were
organized so as to be in position to take united
There are many new problems confronting
the industry that can be solved only by con-
certed action. The problems resulting from
the constantly increasing use of trucks and
water transportation as well as the shipping in
bulk; freight and refrigeration rates; green
fruit and other laws to come before the next
session of the Legislature; as well as emergen-
cies that are constantly arising.
These problems can only be solved by united
action, and it is only through the Clearing
House or some similar organization that such
unity of action can be secured.
In conclusion let me say this: the Clearing
House today is in many ways stronger than
ever before. Many shippers who were luke-
warm a year ago are its enthusiastic boosters
today. Discord and distrust have given way to

Page 3

harmony and mutual confidence. All are work-
ing for the good of the industry simply because
they realize that they cannot hope to prosper
unless the industry prospers. And if this striv-
ing to serve the industry by concerted action
were the only advantage that the Clearing
House could show, it would still be worth all it

Freight Rates to Be Cut
(Continued from Page One)
Louisville & Nashville railroad to Mobile, the
rates to be 35 percent lower than present car-
load rates. This territory is designated as
-Group One.
The present rates on carload lots, and the
new rates, respectively, to representative cities
in Group No. 1 (in each case for each 100
pounds) from Winter Haven are: Atlanta, 68
cents and 44 cents; Birmingham, 74 cents and
48 cents; Charleston, 72 cents and 54 cents,
and Montgomery, 68 cents and 44 cents.
To the territory north and west of Group
One and on the south of the line of Atlantic
Coast Line railroad from Washington, N. C.,
through Hobgood and Rocky Mount to Wilson
Norfolk Southern railroad to Raleigh Seaboard
Air Line to Henderson Southern railway
through Oxford, Durham, Greensboro, Win-
ston-Salem, Statesville, Hickory, Marion, Ashe-
ville, Norristown, Tenn., and Knoxville to Har-
riman; Tennessee Central to Nashville railroad
to Sheffield, Ala., Southern railway to Corinth,
Miss.; M. & O. to Meridian, N. O. & N. E. to
New Orleans, the rates to be made 25 percent
lower than the present carload rates. This ter-
ritory is designated as Group Two.
Representative cities in that group, together
with present and new rates from Winter Haven
are: Charlotte, 72 cents and 54 cents; Mobile,
86 cents and 64.5 cents; New Orleans, 83 cents
and 62 cents, and Raleigh, 78 cents and 58.5

Porto Rico's Grapefruit

Crop Destroyed by Storm
Porto Rico's grapefruit crop was practically
wiped out by the hurricane of Sept. 26 which
did such terrific damage to some of the West
Indian islands. Advices from the Federal Gov-
ernment at Washington state that A. S. Mason,
bureau inspector at San Juan, Porto Rico,
cabled that the hurricane completely destroyed
the fruit on the trees. He said that approxi-
mately 40,000 boxes were picked or packed at
that time for shipment.
In response to a request for information,
which the Clearing House made of the Porto
Rico Fruit Exchange in New York City, the
following telegram was received: "According
to reliable information 90 percent to 95 per-
cent of the grapefruit was destroyed. Approxi-
mately 50,000 boxes available for shipment
over period of two or three weeks. Packing
houses here seriously damaged and some were
It is estimated that prior to the hurricane
Porto Rico had a crop of at least half a million
boxes of grapefruit on the trees, which prob-
ably would have been sold largely in eastern
markets in competition with Florida grapefruit.

Pare 4




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON .Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS .. Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. O. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

Why Grow Fruit for

Fruit Thieves?
J. H. Hannah, his son, Joseph Hannah,
R. E. Mosely and Dalgo Garrison, a negro
truck driver, Frostproof men, charged with
receiving fruit stolen from the J. W. Keen
groves at Frostproof, were convicted in
criminal court yesterday. The elder Han-
nah, severely reprimanded by Judge Mark
O'Quin as being responsible for the fruit
stealing activities of the others, was sen-
tenced to three years at hard labor in the
state penitentiary. The other three receiv-
ed sentences of one year each.
Two other members of the same group,
Packard and Woodrow Coleman, who had
already pleaded guilty, were used as
state's witnesses, and will be sentenced
next week.
State's testimony showed that Hannah
had been trucking the stolen fruit to Quit-
man, Ga., where he operated a fruit stand.
It also showed that the fruit had been
gathered from the owner's grove at night
and placed in the Coleman grove. It was
removed from there by Hannah's trucks in
daylight. Cull fruit purchased from Frost-
proof packing houses was placed over the
stolen fruit to conceal it when it was mov-
ed in bulk lots by truck.

The above dispatch carried in the
Tampa Times of Sept. 29 is unique in
that similar dispatches are seldom seen
in the press of the state. This is not due
to any lack of enterprise in news gath-
ering, but is due primarily to the fact
that seldom are citrus fruit thieves con-
victed. Arrest of thieves or suspected
thieves there are aplenty in all parts
of Florida's citrus belt, but the law
makes it necessary that a thief, to be
convicted, must be caught in the act

Page 4


with the stolen fruit in his possession.
This, as almost any grower knows, is
practically a law of protection for the
Until some better legal means can be
evolved which will make conviction
much easier and thus discourage fruit
stealing, the grower has only the choice
of throwing some sort of a guard
around his property or suffering the
loss of a crop and see the thieves given
their liberty because of lack of evi-
dence. There are grove patrols in many
citrus producing communities, and
these have largely proven satisfactory.
There is little question, however, but
that even more rigid guarding of groves
is desirable, but until a grower has had
some of his fruit stolen he frequently
regards the expense of a grove patrol
as practically useless. This, of course,
is just as shortsighted as taking out fire
insurance after the barn is burned. The
amount of thieving done is largely de-
pendent upon the size of the crop, or at
least the returns being received. As
prices frequently rise during the late
spring months, fruit stealing increases
proportionately. The problem is no
small one, and every grower in the state
living in a community which has not as
yet adopted some sort of grove patrol
system should interest his neighbors in
such a plan and protect the groves from
the slippery thief.

Does Advertising Pay?
Every time I hear this question I want
to fight. Certainly advertising pays!
If it didn't, do you really believe that
hard-boiled business men would con-
tinue to spend millions for it every
Without advertising, where would
Ivory Soap be today? Or Wrigley's
Gum? Or Arrow Collars? Or any of a
thousand articles that are by-words
throughout the world? Ask any of
these advertisers if they think advertis-
ing pays, and see what will happen.
They'll either burst into uncontrollable
laughter or signal a secretary to call
the wagon.
Without advertising, you wouldn't
have had a chance to buy that cranky
little dingus called a cigarette lighter.
Without advertising, your home would
lack a radio; you wouldn't have a sup-
ply of canned foods on your pantry
Advertising does pay. And the more
you know about it, the more you'll un-
derstand it; the more of it you do, the
better off you'll be.
Equally exasperating is the fellow
who aims his nose at the sky and sniffs,
"I don't believe in advertising."
He's the twin brother of the man who
is always asking, "Does advertising
pay?" Ninety-nine times out of a hun-
dred if you'll pin him down to it he can't
give a single logical reason for his fatu-
ous belief.-Patton's Monthly.

October 1, 1932

Mulching and Cover Crops

Are Beneficial to Citru
E. F. DeBUSK, Citriculturist, Fla. Agri. Ext. Ser.
From a grove management standpoint ou
cover-crops are considered in two gener
groups-legumes such as crotalaria, begga
weed, cowpeas and velvet beans, and non-l
gumes, grasses, weeds, etc. They require di
ferent methods of handling for best result
While the cowpeas and velvet beans may pr
duce very satisfactory yields in organic matt
on some of the heavy soils, the yield on t
lighter soils is usually very light and disa
pointing as a source of organic matter. A lig
crop of cowpeas, however, may be used to sti
ulate a supplementary grass crop late in t
fall if mowed in August or early Septemb
and allowed to decay on the ground. The
velopment of pumpkin bugs may be anot
good reason for mowing cowpeas early. Whe
crotalaria striata or beggarweed is growing
a cover-crop in bearing groves the developmg
of the pumpkin bug will determine largely
procedure in handling the crop. When a la
number of the young bugs appear on the b
garweed or on the pods of the crotalaria
should be mowed, and thereby destroy the bu
This mowing is often necessary in August
early September. In non-bearing groves th
crops may be allowed to grow until they h
reached maximum yield and matured a crop
seed, unless the young grove is adjacent t
bearing grove. Where crotalaria spectabili
grown this mowing procedure in pumpkin
control is not necessary as very few bugs
velop on this plant.
Maximum yield in organic matter of ei
of the crotalarias or the beggarweed is obta
ed by allowing the crop to grow to maturity
fore mowing it. If the crop becomes too he
to mow, it may be reduced to a very desire
condition by cutting with a disc or rotary c
ter. The plants never grow too large or t
crop too heavy for the latter implement.
On the lowlands of both the east and
coast, as well as on large areas of hammock
semi-hammock in the interior of the state
great variety of grasses and weeds grow 1
uriantly as cover-crops. Where these crops
kept mowed as they reach the seeding st
new crops come in return, being fertilize
the decaying mowed crop, so that the
problem, as the grower sees it, consists in ke
ing the grass and weeds mowed down. I
under these conditions that the best fruit
the state is produced, and the abundance of
ganic matter produced by these natural co
crops undoubtedly plays a very important p
in this production.
On the higher lands of the citrus belt, n
grass predominates. This grass is rapidly gs
ing in popularity as a cover-crop, as grow
learn better methods of handling it. Appare
ly the total annual yields of this grass
greatly increasing by mowing it as often as
comes into full bloom and by making an ex
application of soluble nitrogen in July or
gust or even early September. Where you
crotalaria is struggling in a crop of natal gr
along in August or September the grass sho
be mowed and thus give it a better chance
grow. This has been known to more t
double the yield of the crotalaria.
Looking at the cover-crop situation a

October 1. 1932

whole, this has not been a very successful year.
The unusually dry summer was largely respon-
sible for the poor stand of crotalaria and the
light grass crops, on the dryer soils. Under ex-
isting conditions, it behooves growers to make
the best possible use of the cover-crop ma-
terial produced. The greatest benefit from this
bulky organic matter can be obtained by leav-
ing it as near the surface of the soil as con-
sistant with safe grove management practice.
Of course the fire risk must be considered.
Under certain conditions, mulching citrus
trees with the cover-crop material is a good
practice and is found to be economical. Hoeing
of young trees can often be eliminated by
mulching, which also provides more favorable
conditions for tree growth. Frenched trees and
trees showing symptoms of dieback usually re-
act very favorably to a mulch. In fact, all ages
and varieties of citrus respond favorably to
mulching. This is undoubtedly due to the fact
that the mulch of decaying vegetation provides
a uniform supply of organic matter to the bene-
ficial soil organism in the area of highest tree
root concentrations, conserves moisture; and
maintains a lower temperature of the soil dur-
ing the hot season, thereby enabling the roots
to occupy the soil up to the surface and per-
haps function over a longer growing season. It
has been found that there is no tree root
growth under a soil temperature above 98F.
The temperature in our soils when unprotected
by a covering often runs above 98F. A mulch
of grass has been found to reduce the tempera-
ture as much as 7 degrees. The loss of moisture
by direct evaporation from the soil has been re-
duced about 50 percent by covering the soil
with a light mulch of grass.
In mulching young trees, the mulch material
should be applied from within a few inches of
the trunk of the trees back far enough and of
sufficient depth to keep the grass and weeds
smothered out so that hoeing shall not be neces-
sary. Where trees are planted 15 to 18 feet
apart in the row, the mulching should be in a
continuous strip along the tree row and should
be extended in width as the trees spread. This
can be done very economically by mowing the
middles and raking the material to the tree row
by means of a side delivery rake or by dump-
ing it in the tree row with an ordinary rake and
throwing it to the trees with a fork. Material
may be hauled into the grove from other lands
and used to a great advantage in mulching trees
of all ages where heavy cover-crops cannot be
produced in the grove. Groves need two to four
tons of dry organic material per acre annually.
The average grass cover-crop grown in the
ridge section is less than a ton per acre. The
great need of citrus groves in this section is
bulky organic matter.
Where any system of grove mulching is prac-
ticed the greatest of care should be exercised
in providing ample fire guards around the grove
and at intervals through the grove both ways.
Fertilizer may be applied on the mulch and
need not be worked into the soil. The mulch
serves as a buffer and reduces the danger of
root injury from over fertilizing or improper
When the grass or other non-legume cover-
crop receives its final mowing or is disced into
the soil in the fall, the equivalent produced, of
100 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre, or to
each ton of dry organic material produced,
should be applied broadcast to supply nitrogen

October 1, 1932


Building Interior Markets
Here is a prominent Philadelphia house that has built up a re-
markably large trade with interior markets by the use of Brogdexed
fruit. Its better keeping qualities gives more time for slower
movement without danger of excessive shrinkage losses.

A. Z*


......... COMPANY
PHILoDE I * Acugust 22, 1932.

Florida Brogdex Distributors Inc
Dunedin, Florida.

regarding Replying further to n nu
inre ang Brogdexed Ci rt Your rec
An ~ly recomen rus fruits we d nqut h es
Brogdexed-h fruimt ending pyo r 0s e no hes ty
For many years e nee it acWe h
smaller Pe awe "e t f s c ve handled
ret nns enjoying u on the marke
Of rt I sylvan's. interior usual where in the
rt s slow Ompared to m s where disps on
Usually Y hu yourd to terminal oo Sucposition
usually carries Your Uependable aucton
commercial ies the fruit to dd process which
besides y SOund and s aestin s t least
more attre find less s cases Perfnl at least
re t active. hinkage and appearance osoundit
Aftesmaller r our satisfactory exf frut
te auoton markbtis handling per ence on these
the auctionke egan handling BrOgdexex fruit at
Pre Ur nh e tamhe uccess although it
a premium or time to convi the Caes se h
Sover unbodxed fruit. rade before paying

Yours very truly,
AZ/r A. z RM ompaY

Many other big operators are having "unusual success" in building
a satisfactory and profitable trade with interior markets by using
Brogdexed fruits. You will get more money every time if your fruit
is Brogdexed-the Zimmermann preference is typical of the
market everywhere.


B. C. Skinner, President





to the micro-organisms while they are decom-
posing the cover-crop material. If this is done
the yellowing of foliage which commonly oc-
curs when a crop of natal grass is dished in or
plowed under should be prevented.
Proper use of the cover-crop will not only
enable the grower to save on his fertilizer bill,
but will make possible the production of beter
quality of fruit, more vigorous trees, and will

Page 5
result in a saving in the disease and insect con-
trol program.

Clearing House growers: Remember that the
firms advertising in the Clearing House News
are putting money back into your pockets.
Patronize them-they are 100 percent friends
of yours!


Essentials of Economic Citrus Fertilizing
R. W. RUPRECHT, Chemist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

At the present time no subject in connection
with the culture of citrus demands as much at-
tention as the one dealing with more economi-
cal production. Among the various items that
make up production costs the fertilizer item is
perhaps the largest and for this reason has at-
tracted the most attention. I feel safe in stat-
ing that the past two years have seen more new
and novel fertilizer schemes develop than dur-
ing any other period since the establishment of
the fertilizer industry. Some of these schemes
have been based on experimental data, some
on the need or desire to sell a product, while
others have been based solely on a cost basis.
There are undoubtedly a great many ways
of fertilizing citrus trees successfully. I do not
believe that anyone can point out the one best
way of fertilizing all citrus trees. Our citrus
trees are grown on too many different soil
types and under too many different conditions
to expect the same results in all cases from one
system of fertilization. A system giving good
results in one case may be entirely unsuccess-
ful in another. True, this institution has re-
cently put out what is termed Citrus Fertilizer
Programs. However, I do not believe that any
one of us who had anything to do with the
drawnig up of these programs had any idea that
these programs were the last word in citrus
fertilization or were superior to any other pro-
gram now being used by the growers. Many of
you may have just as good, or for your con-
ditions an even better program than the ones
we have outlined. These programs were in-
tended merely as a safe guide, especially to the
newcomer in citrus culture. As we state in the
beginning these programs should be changed
to meet local conditions. They are based on the
latest available experimental data and on prac-
tices that we knew had given good results.
Therefore, we feel that anyone following these
programs will, under average normal condi-
tions, get satisfactory results. Remember, how-
ever, that we do not claim that there are no
better programs. Furthermore, if you follow
any of the programs outlined, follow them com-
pletely unless you have some good reason for
omitting some part of them. There is nothing
wrong with the programs just because you do
not get the results you expected if you do not
follow the program exactly.
Permit me at this time to voice a note of cau-
tion to growers who want to follow some novel
fertilizer system because it has given good re-
sults for some other grower. Before following
such a system be sure that your conditions are
the same as those where it has given good re-
sults. This applies especially to the organic
matter content of the soil, moisture conditions
and root stocks. Next be sure that you are do-
ing everything that the other grower did. Too
often a grower will think he is following the
same system when in reality he has omitted
one of the important details, which is essential
for the proper functioning of the entire sys-
tem. So be careful and thoroughly investigate
any new short-cut in fertilizing your trees. In-
stead of being a short-cut to success it may cut
short your crop.
As I see it the essentials of economical fer-

tilization are an adequate supply of all neces-
sary nutrients for normal tree growth and fruit
production at as low a cost as is consistent with
the quality of the fertilizer. That is what I be-
lieve all of you are striving for, and not simply
enough nutrients to keep the tree going or an
unbalanced supply which, while it keeps the
trees looking well, will eventually cause a poor
condition of the tree and no fruit production.
One fact we may as well face at the beginning
is that all of our citrus trees need what is called
a complete fertilizer; namely, nitrogen or am-
monia, phosphoric acid and potash and pos-
sibly calcium, and some of the lesser elements
in order to produce normal growth and fruit
crops. How much, when, and from what source
the trees should receive these elements will
vary and depend upon individual conditions. In
some cases it will undoubtedly be entirely safe
to omit phosphoric acid for an application or
two, while in other cases it would be inadvis-
able. The same applies to potash although for
this element I would not advise its omission on
bearing trees.
A good many growers seem to have some dif-
ficulty in figuring how much plant food they
should add to their trees to equal the amount
that they have been adding in the usual mixed
fertilizers. This figuring is not very difficult
if you will remember that percent means
pounds in a hundred. For example: 5 percent
ammonia means that in every hundred pounds
of this material there are 5 pounds of ammonia.
Let us figure out an example which I believe
will show just how it is done. Suppose you have
been giving your trees 10 pounds of a 4-8-4
fertilizer. Expressed in actual pounds of plant
food this would mean .4 pound of ammonia; .8
pound of phosphoric acid and .4 pound of pot-
ash. Now let us suppose you are going to use
sulfate of ammonia as the source of ammonia
in the next application. If you will look on the
tag on a bag of sulfate of ammonia you will
see that it contains 25 percent of ammonia. In
other words, one hundred pounds will contain
25 pounds of ammonia, or .25 pound in every
pound. As we only want .4 of a pound we di-
vide .4 by .25 which gives us 1.6 pounds. So in
order to supply .4 of a pound of ammonia we
will have to use 1.6 pounds of sulfate of am-
monia. For our phosphoric acid we will use 18
percent superphosphate. This means that there
are 18 pounds of available phosphoric acid in
every 100 pounds, or .18 pound in every pound.
Thus, we devide .8, the amount of phosphoric
acid that we need, by .18, the amount in one
pound of superphosphate, and get 4.5. This is
the number of pounds of 18 percent superphos-
phate that it will take to supply the same
amount of phosphoric acid as was supplied by
ten pounds of 8 percent fertilizer. As a source
of potash we will use the high grade sulfate of
potash. This, as the tag will show, contains 48
percent of potash, or 48 pounds in 100 pounds
and .48 pound in one pound. As we want to
give the tree .4 pound we divide .4 by 48
which gives about 8. Thus it will take .8
pound of sulfate of potash to give us the
amount we have been giving the tree in
the 10 pounds of 4 percent potash fertilizer.

Therefore, in order that the tree may get the
same amount of plant food as it received in
10 pounds of a 4-8-4 fertilizer we will have to
take 1.6 pounds of sulfate of ammonia, 4.5
pounds of superphosphate and .8 pound of sul-
fate of potash, or a total of 6.9 pounds.
We could have used other materials just as
well as those mentioned and their use in this
example in no way means that they are the
best or only ones to use. In buying fertilizer
the buyer should pay more attention to the unit
price per pound of plant food rather than the
ton price. Some growers seem to lose sight of
the fact that of two materials, one containing
25 percent of plant food and costing $25 per
ton, and another containing the same plant
food but only 20 percent and costing $22 per
ton, that the higher priced one is really the
cheapest one to buy.

Tune in Every Monday for

Talks on Citrus Culture
Using state radio station WRUF, the Col-
lege of Agriculture and Experiment Station
will present their leading citrus specialists in
special citrus radio broadcasts each Monday at
noon beginning October 3. They will delve deep
into the basic principles of citriculture as well
as give the latest research findings and develop-
ments over the state. The talks will come from
12:15 to 12:45 each Monday.
The speakers will be such specialists as J. R.
Watson, Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Dr. A. F. Camp,
H. Harold Hume, Dr. R. M. Barnette, W. E.
Stokes, and others of the Experiment Station;
Prof. E. L. Lord, Dr. 0. C. Bryan, Major W. L.
Floyd, and others of the College teaching staff;
E. F. DeBusk, H. G. Clayton, county agents,
and others of Agricultural Extension Service.
The October schedule follows:
Oct. 3-Handling Citrus to Prevent Loss in
Transit, E. F. DeBusk. Spraying for Whitefly
and Scale, J. R. Watson.
Oct. 10-Rejuvenating Citrus Groves in Or-
ange County, K. C. Moore. Trends of Econom-
ical Production in Osceola County, June Gunn.
Citrus Club Work in Lake County, Cliffor
Hiatt. The Citrus Program in Polk County,
Frank L. Holland.
Oct. 17-Citrus Trends on the Ridge Sec-
tion, H. G. Clayton. Fall Irrigation of Citrus,
E. F. DeBusk.
Oct. 24-The Control of Pumpkin Bugs, J.
R. Watson. Safe Economical Citrus Fertiliza-
tion, R. W. Ruprecht.
Oct. 31-The Production of Limes in Flor-
ida, Dr. A. F. Camp.

Resists rust, gas, smoke, rain, heat, acids, alkalis.
sun and salt spray. It will solve your corrosive
problem for all time.
Save with
The Liquid Armor that spreads like paint.
Peoria, Illinois.
Southeastern Distributor
Winter Haven, Fla.

Page 6

October 1, 1932

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