Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00095
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 1, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00095
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
U. S. DeDt of -;I-*. '
LibrarY-Po L D vRAy U.S. Postage
Washing tQn F I ARARy c. Paid
SIRECE IV Winter Haven, Fla.
L/i R I A V D Permit No. 1
SEP i o t&


tApresenting more than 10,000
growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by theFloridaCit- Entered as second-class matter August 1, Volume IV
10 Cent a Copy ru Growers Clearing House Association, SEPTEMBER 1, 1932 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Number 23
Dena opy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3 1879. Number 23

Clearing House Ready To Share In Advertising

Every Grower In State Is Urged To Give Financial
Support To Campaign To Make It An Effective Job

Growers and shippers affiliated with the
j Clearing House have signified their readiness
to do their part in the proposed advertising
campaign for Florida citrus this season. The
proposed plan calls for a joint effort between
the Clearing House, the Florida Citrus Ex-
, change, and such other marketing organiza-
tions as may be willing to help in the move.
. Although details of the campaign remain to be
worked out the announcement which has just
-been made that the Clearing House is ready
to go ahead indicates that Florida citrus fruit
will make a definite bid this season for con-
,sumer preference.
Every grower in the state, whether he is a
member or not of either the Clearing House
or the Exchange, and who has not as yet sig-
nified his willingness to support the advertis-
ing campaign financially, is urged to join in
this movement. The cost of the advertising
campaign is to be be borne by a per box assess-
"ment of 2c on oranges and grapefruit, and 5c
on tangerines.
The plan for an adequate advertising pro-

When this year's crop of Florida oranges be-
gins to move, which probably will be as late as,
or later than it was last year, there will still be
'about 5,000 to 6,000 cars of California valen-
cias yet to roll. A wire just received from the
'iCalifornia Fruit Growers Exchange estimates
!12,500 cars of valencias to be moved from
that state during September and October. This
12,500 figure is about 2500 cars more than Cal-
iifornia shipped after September 1 last year.
Last season the Westerners moved a little more
,than 9,000 cars during September and Octo-
ber, 5,000 of which were moved during the last
named month. The preceding year the Cali-
fornians moved 3,900 cars, more than half of
which went in September. This gave Florida
,ka comparatively free field during October, the
opening month of our season.
4 California valencias have not been bringing
an attractive price this season, auction reports
during the last two weeks show that the West-

gram behind Florida citrus was initiated last
May by the Committee of Fifty and shipper
members of the Clearing House. The shipper
members, at a meeting that same month went
on record enthusiastically approving such a
campaign provided the growers themselves
were willing to give it financial support, and
invited the Exchange and its members and
other marketing agencies to join in the move-
ment. The Exchange agreed to cooperate with
the Clearing House in the effort, announced its
willingness to put up from $100,000 to $250,-
000 toward a joint advertising fund, and ap-
pointed a committee to work with a commit-
tee from the Clearing House and other mar-
keting agencies on details of the plan.
Throughout the summer the Clearing House
has been engaged in sounding out the attitude
of growers generally. Various civic clubs and
organizations throughout the state were ad-
dressed during the past two months by Mr.
James C. Morton, vice-president of the Clear-
ing House. At these meetings definite facts
and figures were presented showing the in-

erners have been averaging only about $3 a
box delivered. Last year California valencias
were averaging about $3.50, the rise coming
the latter part of September and showing fair-
ly good during October. California's weekly
auction averages for last year from August 14
through August 23 are as follows:
Week Ending Cars Avg.
Aug. 14...................................... 563 $3.72
Aug. 21...................................... 536 3.59
Aug. 28.................................... 481 3.62
Sept. 4...................................... 476 3.50
Sept. 11...................................... 422 3.62
Sept. 18...................................... 522 3.62
Sept. 25...................................... 496 3.80
Oct. 1.........................--------............ 506 4.12
Oct. 8...................................... 488 4.34
Oct. 16...................................... 507 4.46
Oct. 23...................................... 574 4.38
In order to see what Florida has done in the
(Continued on Page Five)

creased returns which might be expected from
an investment in an adequate advertising pro-
gram behind Florida oranges, grapefruit, and
This part of the campaign was brought to a
close late in August by the issuance by the
Clearing House of questionnaires to the grow-
ers. These questionnaires asked the growers to
signify their approval or disapproval of the
proposed advertising campaign and asked them
also for a pledge of two cents per box on or-
anges and grapefruit and five cents per box on
Replies to the questionnaires are still coming
in to the Clearing House Office. More than 91
percent of those who have sent in replies voted
in favor of advertising and pledged themselves
to pay the assessment of two cents a box on
oranges and grapefruit and five cents a box on
This will be the fifth consecutive season dur-
ing which the Clearing House has contributed
toward a national advertising fund for Florida
citrus. During the season just closed adver-
tising by the Clearing House was confined to
an emergency campaign for Florida during the
month of March. This campaign was spon-
sored jointly by the Clearing House and the
Exchange, each organization contributing $20,-
000. There probably is no grower in Florida
today who is not aware of the fact that the
emergency grapefruit campaign was a tre-
mendous factor in lifting the grapefruit mar-.
ket out of red ink and into the profit class. In
campaigns during the three years prior to last
season the advertising done by the Clearing,
House has paved the way for ready acceptance
by the northern consumer of Florida citrus.
With an adequate campaign behind the state's
crop this season Florida should be able to give
both California and Texas a real run for their
Officials of the Clearing House are greatly
pleased at the decision to go ahead with the
campaign. It was pointed out that Florida al-
ready enjoys recognition throughout the north
and for that reason it will be comparatively
easy for us to capitalize on the advertising al-
ready done and on the advertising value inher-
ent in our state's name. Vice-President Mor-
(Continued on Page Four)

Balance of California Valencia Crop

Is 2,5oo Cars Larger Than Last Year


Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

We'll Work for What We Get ---A Useless Middleman

With our feet on the threshold of another mar-
keting season, discussion is heard on all sides regard-
ing the probable size and quality of the crop and the
prospect of good or bad prices throughout the season.
As always, the usual number of wild and diver-
gent guesses are being made regarding the size of the
crop, guesses in many instances made without proper
investigation and by persons lacking in both training
and opportunity to know. We are not pessimists but
optimists, but feel that optimism should not be fool-
ish but should be practical, and that optimistic state-
ments regarding the returns expected from the mar-
keting of this crop should be based not on hopes that
we would like to have realized, but upon a practical
study of existing conditions.
The trend of the market and the purchasing power
of the consuming public may be ascertained by a study
of the prices now being received for agricultural com-
modities, both fruits and vegetables, and our optim-
ism is somewhat tempered by the prices now being
paid for California oranges, which for the last few
weeks have been averaging 50 cents per box less than
they did for the same period a year ago. This state-
ment is being made with no intention of painting any
black picture, but for the purpose of acquainting
every citrus grower with facts in order that he may
not be misled by annual prophetical outbursts that
paint in glowing colors and golden tones the pros-
pects for the coming season. Growers should accept
these prophecies with great hesitancy, remembering
that similar utterances from the same source in pre-
vious years have proved erroneous and distinctly
Conditions throughout the marketing territory are
very similar to those of a year ago. Many businesses
have paid no dividends. Salaries have been cut and
unemployment is still general and the wise citrus
grower will not be induced by rosy and unwarranted
predictions of high prices to spend his money before
he receives it. The wise citrus grower of this year will
wait until his returns are received before spending
them and will so budget his expenditures that his
grove operations will be amply provided for. When
the wheels of industry and commerce begin to revolve
again and prosperity returns to the world, prices for
citrus fruit as all other commodity prices will rise and
only that grower whose grove has been properly cared

for and amply fertilized during those difficult times
will be ready to reap the harvest when prosperity
comes. So the wise grower will not expend his returns
foolishly but will place the care of his grove first on
his budget and even sacrifice other needs in order
that the grove may be kept in first-class condition.

A new citrus pest has been discovered in Florida,
born of these times of economical stress, it is of the
genus homo, out of employment, suave, smooth ton-
gued and persuasive, lacking in both financial stabil-
ity and marketing knowledge and grows and thrives
on money taken directly or indirectly from the grower.
This new citrus parasite names himself the grow-
ers' buying and selling agent. His avowed purpose is
to introduce the grower to a buyer of citrus crops, col-
lecting for himself a commission for this service from
either grower or shipper or both. He is an unneces-
sary middle man and expense to the industry, and
directly or indirectly his earnings come from the pro-
ceeds of the producers of the citrus fruit. He poses
as the grower's friend and in some instances claims
that he collects nothing from the grower but gets his
entire commission from the buyer of the fruit.
This seems quite plausible but the fact remains
that any money paid to this parasite by the buyer of
the fruit is just that much less than the buyer can af-
ford to pay to the producer.
He is not needed because the buyer of any crop of
fruit must of necessity visit the grove and estimate the
size and quality of the crop before making the pur-
chase, and at that time he and the grower come in
contact and can carry on their negotiations without
the expense of any middle or self-called sales service
man. The wise grower will not permit himself to be
beguiled by the blandishments of this group, into sup-
porting a bunch of leaches that have no legitimate
place in the industry; and many cases are pending in
the courts today, where growers are asking for legal
redress after having been gypped out of part of the
returns of their last season's crop by some of these
unnecessary middle men.
Growers in these times should exercise consider-
able care in the selection of their marketing agency
or buyer for their crop so as to avoid being robbed of
their legitimate earnings by fly-by-night operators and
buyers who have no worthy place in the industry.

September 1, 1932

September 1, 1932 FL

Cottony Cushion Kills

Trees If Uncontrolled
Entomologist, Florida Experiment Station
The cottony cushion scale receives its name
from the fluted white, cottony, egg sac of the
female. It is a native of Australia from whence
,it was introduced into California in 1868. By
1880 it had spread into the orange sections of
r Southern California, where it seriously threat-
ened the entire citrus industry. It was finally
conquered by a ladybeetle, an insect enemy
introduced from Australia.
The scale was imported from California into
,Florida near Clearwater in 1897. While it has
never been as serious a menace here as in Cal-
ifornia, it caused a great deal of damage until
the Australian ladybeetle also was brought to
Until found by the writer in Tampa in Jan-
uary, 1912, it had not been reported outside of
'Pinellas County. Since that time it has been
spreading rapidly, and is now found in all sec-
tions of the state but not in all groves.
In view of the history of the pest, it is urged
that the grower who finds it in his trees take
energetic measures to control it. If unchecked,
it is capable of killing the trees outright.
The cottony cushion scale itself is brown and
.has somewhat the appearance of a soft scale.
When the egg-laying period arrives, the female
'forms a large mass of cottony material which
elevates the posterior portion of her body until
she almost stands on her head. This soft cot-
tony cushion, in which from 500 to 800 eggs
are laid, may reach a length of nearly half an
,inch, and is ridged lengthwise. The adults are
usually found on the bark of the trunk, limbs
or twigs; but the young frequent the leaves,
especially along the sides of the midrib. The
young look much like those of the mealybug,
but when crushed they leave a red stain. Both
young and old have the mealybug habit of hid-
ing in the crevices and forks of twigs.
Besides citrus, the insects are partial to roses
and Pittosporum. The careless shipping of cut-
tings about the state is probably responsible
for the rapid spread of the insect. It is abun-
dant also on pecans, croton, mulberry, worm-
wood and other weeds and ornamentals.
SThe cottony cushion scale can be controlled
by spraying, especially if one first rubs off all
mature females. The eggs and young crawlers
in the masses of cotton are protected from
sprays, but if these are rubbed off and the
trees then sprayed the insect will be tempor-
arily checked. But the only permanent and
,satisfactory method of controlling this scale in
a large grove is by the introduction of the
Australian ladybeetle (Vedalia). This insect
,is famous as the most effective instance of
combating one insect with another. It was im-
,ported into California in 1888 and quickly sub-
dued the scale. In 1898 it was brought to
[Clearwater, Florida, by the Experiment Sta-
tion. It has lived there ever since and has
'been introduced from there into many other
localities in Florida.
Vedalia is much smaller than most native
ladybeetles, being only an eighth of an inch in
length. It is of a cardinal-red color, spotted
~nd fringed 'ith black. The larva, which also
feeds on the cottony cushion scale, is likewise


Vedalias are being supplied to growers at
cost by the State Plant Board. If cottony
cushion scale is found in a grove and there is
no Vedalia present, the grower should write to
the State Plant Board, Gainesville, FJosida.
The native twice-stabbed ladybeetle does
good work against this as well as other scales,
but it cannot be depended upon to control the
cottony cushion scale as does Vedalia.
Vedalia is already present in many groves,
and is often found in the colonies of cottony
cushion scale. Under these circumstances it
will not be necessary to introduce more Veda-
lia, as they will ultimately bring the scale
under control. If in doubt as to the presence
of the Vedalia in a grove, send a good sized
box of the scale to the State Plant Board for
examination. If the Vedalia is present it will
probably be included with the scale.

Page 3

Citrus Whitefly Fungus

Should Be Applied Now
Citrus growers are cautioned that the rainy
season may end abruptly about the middle of
September and that facilitating the spread of
the red whitefly fungus now may lessen if not
eliminate the need for spraying with oil emul-
sion. This advice comes from Dr. E. W. Ber-
ger, entomologist with the State Plant Board.
He says that the Plant Board still has several
hundred cultures of this fungus available for
distribution at cost, or $1 per culture. A cul-
ture is sufficient for treating an acre of trees.
Growers who do not have a good stand of white-
fly fungus on their trees are urged to apply
some now before it is too late.


Here are two piles of oranges, each treated to control decay and
shrinkage. The pile at the left was treated with a competitive treat-
ment claimed to be "just as good" as Brogdex. The pile at the right
was treated with the genuine Brogdex treatment. These oranges
were originally the same size, picked and packed the same day and
came from the same district. Fruit was kept at room temperature
and checked for decay at various intervals. The record shows:
In 7 days Brogdex decay i of 1 % Competitive 34 %
14 days Brogdex decay 2 h % 62% %
21 days Brogdex decay 5 % 774 %
Market buyers know that Brogdexed fruit will keep and that fruit
given substitute treatments will not. They have learned this from
experience. That is why they watch for Brogdexed brands and pay
more for them.
When you go into a store and ask for a standard article and the
clerk offers you something else which he claims is "just as good"
you are at once suspicious, and rightly so, in most cases. No one
bothers to imitate something that is no good-it is the article with
a reputation that is copied. The substitute is rarely as good as the
There are many substitutes being used for Brogdex and all are
claimed to be "just as good" but when tested side by side with the
genuine Brogdex treatment the best of them are found to be of little
There is a Brogdex house near you. Brogdex invites an impartial


B. C. Skinner, President


------ -





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET. Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. 0. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

Clearing House Is Answer

To Industry's Needs
Shipper members of the Clearing
House, by the very nature of their busi-
ness, have been compelled to give care-
ful study to the Clearing House from a
cold-blooded money standpoint. Serv-
ing largely as a direct medium of con-
tact with the Clearing House for their
grower clients, the shippers to a man
have been in a position to see for them-
selves that in this organization the in-
dustry has a vehicle upon which all can
ride-regardless of the individual
problems confronting marketing agen-
cies generally.
Mr. L. P. Kirkland, Auburndale ship-
per and member of the Clearing House
Board of Directors and the Operating
Committee, recently summed up the re-
lationship of the Clearing House to the
Florida citrus industry. Mr. Kirkland
at the time was addressing other ship-
per members, who were having one of
their frequent get-together meetings at
Winter Haven, on some of the activities
of the organization and part of his talk
is reproduced herewith in that it repre-
sents a business viewpoint of one of the
industry's business men.
"I have been asked recently why I
am interested in seeing the Clearing
House continue," Mr. Kirkland said.
"In answering this, I am making my
statement as a grower-not as a
packer. I am interested in holding the
Clearing House together because I be-
lieve it is established on the right and
proper basis. I believe that with Flor-
ida citrus interests being owned as they
are there is no other organization or
set-up that we can get that can serve
the diversified interests that we have in

the industry. If we had 80 percent of
the citrus fruit in Florida in this organi-
zation, and with that amount forget-
ting self and honestly putting the in-
dustry first, we could bring to pass
everything that has been discussed
here tonight. We have enough men
here tonight to put this thing over as it
should be. There is the heaviest duty
imposed on this body of men of any
body I know. If we will take hold and
do the progressive things that are nec-
essary I believe that twelve months
from today we can look back and say,
well done. If we fail, I am going to
make a prophecy,-there are men in
this room tonight in business who will
not be in business twelve months from
"Why is it any man can come into
this state today with nothing behind
him and set up a business and operate
without a dollar invested? Because of
dissatisfaction with our present system
of doing business. I have seen quite a
change in the feeling among operators
since the Clearing House came into ex-
istence, and changes in operation. We
are not only in business to make our
own business more profitable but to
secure more profit for the growers. Un-
less the growers are making a profit we
will automatically go out of business.
We must have growers producing the
commodity to market.
"We have given considerable
thought and time and have tried in
every way we know to get the growers
themselves to sign contracts in a state-
wide comprehensive endeavor. We
have failed. It has been tried by the
Florida Citrus Exchange, the coopera-
tive, and they have failed. The Clear-
ing House has recently sent out a ques-
tionnaire in regard to advertising. The
growers are largely in favor of adver-
tising. In every case where we are mar-
keting a grower's fruit, this question-
naire has been returned to us with the
grower's statement, 'We will do what
you say,' and I think that is the mind of
practically all of the growers of Flor-
ida. Who is it says the problem of the
buyer is different from the problem of
the grower-shipper? I tell you the man
who produces the fruit has his invest-
ment in his trees. The duty of the pur-
chaser is just as strong to try to put over
this advertising as the man who is a
grower-shipper. Advertising increases
demand and brings better prices back
to the grower.
"There is a duty to be performed and
if the men in the Clearing House don't
accept that duty there will be a new.
set-up next year. I don't know what
that set-up will be, but there is unrest
from every angle. We are facing one
of the hardest problems we have ever
"A recent observation of dining car
orders showed three glasses of tomato
juice ordered for every one of all other
fruits combined. We are gradually los-
ing the hold citrus has had on the pub-
lic because we are failing to put it be-

fore them. The public is being advised over
the radio to drink tomato juice, and much ad-
vertising is being done by competitors of citrus.
"Advertising is the only solution to get the
public back to consuming orange and grape-
fruit juice so that we can market our crop on
a basis profitable to the producer."

Make It Known
When the cave man started drawing
On his little bits of bone
He was telling someone something
He was making something known.
And it's rather more than likely
He was trying to arrange
To dispose of, say a stone axe
And get something in exchange.
When the next man started writing
On his little bits of clay
He was putting out his story
In a different kind of way.
And it's rather more than likely
He was trying to describe
The healthfulness of grapefruit
To the members of his tribe.
These were elementary people
With an elementary plan
But they make a good example
For the modern citrus man
And it's rather more than likely
As we imitate their ways
Tomorrow's grapefruit market
Will be higher than today's.
-Apologies to author unknown.

Clearing House Ready

To Share In Advertising
(Continued from Page One)
ton, who has been actively engaged throughout
the summer in awakening interest in the cam-
paign, declared that advertising is essential if
Florida's citrus returns are to be maintained at
a reasonable price level. "This joint advertis-
ing of Florida citrus," Mr. Morton said, "will
supplement and strengthen the splendid brand
advertising that has been done and will con-
tinue to be done by a great many of the mar-
keting agencies of the state. Those who spend
additional money in advertising their particu-
lar brands will receive the greatest amount of
benefit from the all-state advertising program.
The advertising of Florida citrus fruit does
not lessen the value but supplements all brand
advertising, making it more profitable. The
all-state advertising will maintain or raise the
price level of the whole industry, and brand
advertising, in addition to that, will be decid-
ly beneficial and helpful to the fruit so ad-


Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal (bolted joint) Case
Iron Pipe
67 Years of Service.

The Cameron & Barkley Co.

September 1, 1932


Detailed Grove Records Prove Helpful;

Extension Service Is Furnishing Books
By W. R. BRIGGS 80 percent Valencia with some grapefruit and
(Broadcast Over Station WRUF, Gainesville) tangerines. The high cost grove was all orange
Citrus growers are intensely interested in -early, mid-season, and late.
citrus production costs and the net returns left The average per acre yield for the 43 groves
, for the grower after these costs have beep met. was 204 boxes with a cost of about $90 and a
The rest of you would, no doubt, also be inter- net of $87.
ested in a study of these problems conducted B d t
by the Agricultural Extension Service. By dividing the groves into thirds as to net
returns per acre, we find that: the low third
The purpose of this study is to get citrus averaged 150 boxes at a cost of $80 and a net
growers to make a careful analysis of their pro- loss of $2.50; while the high third produced
duction costs, receipts, and net returns and to 275 boxes at a cost of $106 with a net return
* assist them insofar as possible in determining of about $200. There was little difference in
those management practices which influence the average age of these groups.
most favorably the net returns.
most favorably the net returns. By dividing into thirds on a basis of yield
The Agricultural Extension Service fur- we find that the lower third produced an aver-
nishes interested growers with a record book age of 104 boxes at a cost of $67 with a net of
in which to keep costs, receipts, and data on $24 while the higher third produced 316 boxes
grove management. Each record is kept in per acre at a cost of $114 with a net of $134.
Duplicate and reports sent in monthly for tabu- The low yield group averaged about 12 years
lation and use in making summaries and com- old and the high yield group about 15 years.
prisons with other grove records. These re- AGE AND VARIETY BIG FACTORS
ports are strictly confidential and are not re-
leased in such a way as to divulge any personal Age and variety were big factors in deter-
information. When the records for the fiscal mining yield, cost and net returns. Dollars
year are completed, each grower is furnished spent and dollars received do not appear to be
with a summary of his own grove record and the best guides in determining net returns. As
general summaries which should aid him in a a rule, those growers who spent a moderate
more detailed study of his grove record. amount wisely had the best net returns.
To get more information on the relation of
fertilizer in its effect on yield, a study was
During the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1931, made of 65 groves on which we had the tonnage
records were completed on 118 groves in Lake, and analysis of fertilizer used during the fiscal
SOrange, Polk, Highlands and Manatee counties. year of 1929-30, and the yield of 1930-31.
Cooperation of these growers was secured Twenty of these groves received an average
through the efforts of the county agents who of 255 pounds of plant food in the form of am-
also rendered valuable service in collecting the monia, phosphoric acid and potash, and pro-
reports each month. duced 125 boxes of fruit per acre.
These records have been summarized by Thirty-two of the groves received an aver-
counties for three of the counties and a co- age of 45 pounds of plant food and produced
plete summary will soon be available for dis- 215 boxes of fruit per acre, whereas the 13
tribution to cooperating growers, and, upon groves which received an average of 660
request, to others who may be interested in pounds of plant food produced an average of
the study. 275 boxes of fruit. Apparently, liberal use of
In considering the data, we would like to call plant food is a paying proposition.
your attention to the fact that at present the Further study of these 65 records indicated
findings are based on one year's record only. that for this period at least, total poundage of
Therefore, they should be considered as an in- ammonia and potash had more effect on yield
dication of facts rather than as facts fully sub- than total poundage of ammonia, phosphoric
Sstantiated. As the study progresses, each ad- acid, and potash. This may be due to accumu-
ditional year's records should add to the value nation of phosphate in the older groves.
of the data and give a more dependable guide Consideration of the fertilizer cost of these
for making the grove profitable. 65 groves brought out the fact that for this
A study of the costs, without interest, ver- period, those growers who used fertilizer ma-
sus receipts of these 118 groves has been in- trials or high analysis mixtures had an aver-
tensely interesting. Before calling attention to age fertilizer cost per box of approximately
a few of the most interesting points, let me one-half the average cost for those grower.3
again say that the costs and receipts are for the who used the regular mixed goods. It is quite
fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1931. likely that at least part of this saving was due
COMPARISON OF EXTREMES to buying efficiency. Where fertilizer ma-
As the various groupings in Orange County trials or high analysis mixtures were used, the
had approximately the same average age, let average yield was as good as where regular
us consider a few of the data from the 43 grove mixed goods were used.
records in that county. The reported costs It is our purpose to continue this study in as
from about $30 to $190 per acre, with the high much detail as possible and to release addi-
cost .grove slightly younger than the low cost tional reports as promptly as possible.
grove. The low cost grove had a per acre yield During the current fiscal year, 350 record
of 230 boxes while the high cost grove had a books have been furnished growers in sixteen
330 box yield. The per acre net return after counties.
deducting production costs was $106 for the Record books for use this coming year will
low cost grove as compared with $72 for the be available for distribution to interested
High cost grove. The low cost grove was about growers.

California Valencia Crop

Larger Than Last Year
(Continued from Page One)
past in the way of shipping her oranges the
table below gives the weekly orange shipments
for the past five seasons and the average for
the past eight years. Two years ago Califor-
nia orange prices at auction from the middle
of August to October 23 were from $2 to $3 a
box higher than they were last season:

Week Last 1930-
Ending Year 31
Sept. 12.. -
Sept. 19.... 3
Sept. 26... 5
Oct. 3...... 3
Oct. 10...... 1 42
Oct. 17...... 11 297
Oct. 24...... 92 749
Oct. 31...... 196 860

1929- 1928- 1927- 8-Yr.
30 29 28 Avg.

- 4 9 3
4 45 60 16
13 154 120 63
47 193 206 141
91 136 369 272
178 682 314 455

An analysis of the grapefruit shipments, just
released by the Clearing House, likewise shows
the competitive situation during the opening
period for Florida grapefruit.
Porto Rico grapefruit prices during the last
three weeks may be of interest, showing as
Week Ending Boxes Avg.
Aug. 16............................--------........ 5075 $4.47
Aug. 23...........--------........ 5860 4.05
Aug. 30 ................................... 8095 3.33
A year ago commencing with the week end-
ing Sept. 14 and ending Oct. 27, Porto Rico
grapefruit averages in New York compared
with year before last are as follows:

Sept. 14----..............
Sept. 22..............
Sept. 29..............
Oct. 6 ---..............
Oct. 13----..............
Oct. 20---..............
Oct. 27..............

Season 31-32
Boxes Avg.
17010 $3.09
18435 3.37
20438 3.82
30910 3.31
31280 2.80
25706 2.03
12510 2.00

Season 30-31
Boxes Avg.
6570 $3.64
4693 2.84
7730 2.68
4725 3.04
2300 3.02
3120 3.07
3995 3.02

A year ago and two years ago for the weeks
ending Sept. 11 through Oct. 30, Florida's
weekly auction averages on grapefruit are as

Sept. 11---..............
Sept. 18----..............
Sept. 25..............
Oct. 2---..............
Oct. 9..............
Oct. 16----..............
Oct. 23 ---............
Oct. 30 ---..............

Season 31-32
Boxes Avg.
10 4.36
26 4.69
81 3.95
147 3.47
240 3.02
326 2.47

Season 30-31
Boxes Avg.-.
20 $4.35
102 3.75
125 3.65
187 3.35
180 3.60
264 3.20
223 3.20
218 3.50

The following tabulated figures give the car-
lot shipments of Florida grapefruit for the past
five seasons, together with the average for the
past eight seasons, for the periods beginning
Sept. 12 and ending Oct. 31:

Sept. 12....
Sept. 19....
Sept. 26....
Oct. 3......
Oct. 10......
Oct. 17......
Oct. 24......
Oct. 31......






September 1, 1932

Page 5

Page 6 FL

Truck Disturbing Grades,

Eastern Survey Indicates
Like the weather, much is being said or writ-
ten these days-although little is being done-
about the motor truck and its effect upon agri-
cultural marketing problems. It probably is
necessary, however, to first study its effects and
then determine what should be done, if any-
thing, to control the movement of produce via
gasoline motor.
Through the courtesy of the American Insti-
tute of Co-operation an address given by Mr.
F. P. Weaver, of the Pennsylvania State Col-
lege, on the subject of "The Effect of Truck
Transportation on Fruit Grades and Stand-
ards," has been made available to the Florida
Clearing House News. Mr. Weaver in his talk
brought out the point that motor truck trans-
portation is having a manifest effect upon
grading standards and practices. Although his
address was primarily an analysis of conditions
in the East, part of his remarks are of imme-
diate interest to the Florida citrus industry
and for that reason are reproduced herewith
as follows:
"Interviews with wholesalers and jobbers of
fruits and vegetables in 18 cities indicate that
the growth of motor truck transportation has
increased the amount of poor quality produce
offered in these cities. This increase has been
due largely to lower transportation costs,
which in numerous instances are less than ac-
tual costs of operation. The competition for
truck business is intense, and in many cases the
truck owners figure only on the basis of actual
cash outlay and do not consider depreciation
and other factors of expense. This may change ',
when the depression is over and other oppor-
tunities open up.
"The low expense of hauling produce from
the farm under these conditions has enabled
growers to market crops which would not bring
enough in the city markets to pay freight or
express charges. These opinions support the
data previously cited from the survey of potato
"This tendency toward shipping larger quan-
tities of poor quality and low grade produce by
truck is also to be seen in those markets in
which a large volume of produce is handled on
the consignment basis. This is a serious prob-
lem for the commission man since he may have
his store filled with such produce and the hand-
ling charges he receives are not large enough
to carry the expense of handling it.
"One of the criticisms mentioned most fre-
quently by wholesalers was that 'truckers'
bought stock of poor quality at a low price and
sold it to retail dealers at a low price. These
goods were not fresh, and while the retailer was
getting a bargain price he often found that the
goods deteriorated very rapidly and the wast-
age was large. This referred chiefly to truck-
ers who.handle shipped-in produce.
"The general consensus of opinion as ex-
pressed by the wholesale trade interviewed was
that while the development of truck transpor-
tation had resulted in the shipment from the
farm of larger quantities of poor produce, that
in the majority of cases the condition of the
produce on arrival was superior to that of rail


receipts. The factor of better condition was
especially mentioned in the smaller cities which
formerly received their supplies in mixed car-
loads re-shipped from larger terminal markets
such as Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. A major-
ity of fruit and vegetable dealers in these cities
stated that in general they found that the pro-
duce received by truck held up better in their
stores and was fresher to the extent of more
than offsetting any lowering in grade.
"The criticism that it was the motor truck
alone which resulted in larger quantities of
produce of poor grade and quality being ship-
ped to market is not entirely justified since
there are other conditions which enter into this
situation. There were dealers that stated that
lowered purchasing power has increased the
demand for cheaper grades of produce. There
is considerable evidence to show that many con-
sumers are looking for less expensive produce
and that lower quality, as long as the product
is sound and does not involve excsesive waste
in preparation, is not a serious objection.
"Of the wholesalers that were interviewed
54.4 percent stated that the truck has resulted
in larger amounts of poor quality produce,
17.73 percent stated that it had no effect on
quality, 7.59 percent stated that the quality of
produce received by truck was 'good,' 1.26
percent stated that it was improving and 18.9
percent stated that the 'condition' of the pro-
duce on arrival was superior to that of rail
"In almost every city there was agitation on
the part of the wholesalers to enact municipal
or state legislation that would prevent these
truckers from operating in their cities. It is
clear that this difficulty arises not from grow-
ers or growers' organizations shipping by truck,
but rather from the practice on the part of car-
lot receivers in primary markets of unloading
inferior rail receipts upon a trucker who dis-
poses of them in a smaller city.
"With these accusations in mind the retailers
were interviewed to learn whether they con-
sidered the 'trucker' was as bad as painted by
the wholesaler. Numerous instances were dis-
covered which substantiated the wholesaler's
complaints, but in general the retailers were
not at all unanimous in opinion that the 'truck-
er' should be regulated out of business. Some
of the larger and more progressive retailers
stated that there were just as many kinds of
truckers as there are of wholesalers; some
good, some bad and some indifferent. They
said that they benefited by the chance to see
the goods before they purchased, and in some
cases had been able to make a considerable sav-
ing by buying from 'truckers.'
"It was learned that some classes of 'truck-
ers' specialized in lower grades of produce, but
on the other hand there were those that were
building up a reputation for high grade pro-
duce and were working toward the establish-
ment of a permanent business based on quality
and good will.
Of the retailers interviewed to date 80 per-
cent answered that trucked produce compared
favorably with that shipped by rail, 15 percent
stated that there was no difference and 5 per-
cent gave no definite answer. They were also
asked whether this difference between rail and

September 1, 1932

truck shipments was a matter of grade and
pack, or whether it was freshness and longer
life. Eighty-eight percent stated that it was a
matter of freshness and longer life, or in other
words 'it stood up better.' Only four percent
stated that rail receipts were superior to truck
as far as grade and pack were concerned and
eight percent stated that the grade and pack
were equal to that of rail receipts."

The Growers' Voice
Under this heading will be published communications
from grower members of the Clearing House Associa-
tion, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of gen-
eral interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association
cannot assume responsibility for opinions expressed in
these letters, but believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if willing to assume
the responsibility. Communications should be as brief
as possible-preferably not more than 250 words in
length-and MUST be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for publication).

Sorrento, Florida.
Florida Clearing House News,
DeWitt Taylor Building,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Dear Sirs:
There has been much discussion about the
lifting of the quarantine on California oranges
and lemons. It seems, by what Dr. Newell
says in various citrus papers of the state, that
the Plant Board went to a great deal of trouble
and expense to find out there was little danger
of bringing brown rot into the state on Cali-
fornia fruit.
I, for one, think that it would be well for the
State Plant Board to spend a little more time
investigating our quarantines. There is a rul-
ing that all citrus nursery stock must be de-
foliated before it can be moved, which destroys
all your friendly fungus and puts.you to no
end of trouble to start it again.
There is a possibility of Florida doing a good
business, raising kumquat and calamondin
trees for the northern florist. A friend of mine
(florist) was here last winter and was much
taken with the calamondin. Said he could get
me a good price for them in twelve inch pots,
but the Plant Board says they cannot be ship-
ped without removing all leaves and fruit.
This ruling went into effect in 1916-17, when
we had citrus canker. We have had no canker
in over five years, still the quarantine has not
been removed. We know canker attacked the
fruit as well as the leaves, but we have been
shipping oranges right on. The canker is not
dangerous to states that raise no citrus. Still
we are not allowed to ship, even to the extreme
north, without defoliation.



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