Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00092
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: July 15, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00092
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
R EC( I VED U. S. Postage
U. S. Dept. of Agri.. | JUL ic. Paid
Library Period Div., I JUL 1932 Winter Haven, Fla.
Washington, D. C Permit No. 1


OUi 4S E

resenting more than 10,000
wers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

!.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume IV
Cents a Copy ru Growers Clearing House Association, JULY 15, 1932 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Number 20
a y DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 20

Clearing House Holds Annual Meeting

Several Hundred Growers Hear Discussions on Vital
Elements Governing Successful Marketing Policies

Several hundred citrus growers who attend-
the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Clearing
)use, held in Winter Haven, July 12, were
ien a few pertinent facts concerning some
the different aspects of Florida's citrus mar-
ting problems. They were gratified also to
ar from the officers of the Clearing House
ho spoke during the two-hour program that
is organization's prospects are brighter than
er before; that as an industry Florida's cit-
s is in far better shape than the majority of
ricultural producers of the country; and that
D Clearing House is still working stubbornly
its job of industry improvement.
The question of advertising Florida citrus in
s North received probably most of the dis-
ssion on the program. James C. Morton, vice-
ssident of the Clearing House, spoke at some
Lgth on the need for a consistent advertising
3gram, declaring in conclusion that: "If we
orida citrus growers refuse to advertise our
inges, grapefruit, and tangerines so that we
vy increase the northern consumers' demand
: them, we will be compelled to dig down
;o our pockets and pay for an advertising
npaign anyway in the lower returns which
r fruit will bring."
The meeting which was held in the morning
s followed in the afternoon by the monthly
dieting of the Committee of Fifty. At the
;ernoon meeting Committee members and
ier growers heard Dr. Wilmon Newell, Com-
ssioner of the State Plant Board, review the
sons why the Board had deemed it safe to
the quarantine against California oranges.
SNewell's appearance was in answer to a
luest made of the State Plant Board a month
by the Committee of Fifty to the effect
it the State Plant Board rescind its action.
) Committee at that time cited in a resolu-
i that despite precautions taken in the ship-
ig of California citrus into Florida that there
is some danger of infesting Florida citrus
h the brown rot disease which is so pre-
ent in California during certain seasons of
year. A detailed account of the Commit-
of Fifty meeting appears elsewhere in this
ie of the News.
R. E. C. AURIN, Ft. Ogden, President of

the Clearing House, in opening the Annual
Meeting declared that he feels more encour-
aged at the prospects facing the Clearing
House than he ever has felt before. "You can't
unite three or four thousand citrus growers in
one effort," Dr. Aurin said, "and produce a
wrong or misguided organization."
W. H. MOUSER, chairman of the Clearing
House Operating Committee, paid a tribute to
the growers and shippers who have consistently
supported the Clearing House throughout the
past four years and who are continuing to give
it their support. "I see no reason," Mr. Mouser
said, "why every grower and shipper in the
state should not join the Clearing House. The
Clearing House is a machine set up solely to
benefit the industry which means that t is a
benefit to every individual grower and shipper
connected with the production or marketing of
our annual crop." Referring to the fact that
the Florida Citrus Exchange no longer is a
member of the Clearing House, Mr. Mouser
said that he could see no reason why the Clear-
ing House and the Exchange cannot work to-
gether to some extent such as on the proposed

joint advertising campaign which the two or-
ganizations already have taken steps to bring
The Committee of Fifty, boasting of nothing
spectacular in its accomplishments in the past
year, has done such a good job of merely plug-
ging along that a few wedges have been driven
which will enable the Clearing House to work
still more effectively for the industry than it
has in the past. This was the opinion pre-
sented by NORMAN H. VISSERING, Chair-
man of the Committee of Fifty, who briefly
outlined some of the work the Committee
has done during the past season.
GEORGE R. HILTY, Miami, Public Rela-
tions Counsel for the Florida Power and Light
Company, touched on the value of the word
"Florida" as a key-note for all advertising of
Florida products or resources, pointing out to
his hearers that this state is within twelve hun-
dred miles of a potential market of ninety-six
(Continued on Page Three)

Newell Explains Why Plant Board Felt

It Safe To Admit California's Citrus

Committee of Fifty members, attending
their monthly meeting held July 12 in Winter
Haven, were given first hand information on
the much-discussed question of opening our
doors to California oranges and lemons. Dr.
Wilmon Newell, Commissioner of the State
Plant Board, appeared before the Committee
in response to the Committee's invitation and
presented a comprehensive review of the en-
tire question. At the Committee of Fifty's
meeting in Cocoa a month ago the Committee
passed a resolution calling upon the State
Plant Board to rescind its action and to replace
the quarantine on California citrus. The State
Plant Board at a meeting held in Jacksonville
July 11 gave formal consideration to the Com-
mittee's resolution and through Commissioner
Newell explained why the Plant Board cannot
accede to the request in that no change has
developed in conditions which originally moved

the Plant Board to lift the 17-year old quaran-
The talk by Dr. Newell followed by a brief
period of questions and answers on quarantine
matters was the principal item of business for
the day. A report was heard from the Legisla-
tive Committee on the matter of a standard
field box. Definite decision was made to hold
the August meeting in Ocala.
In outlining the position taken by the State
Plant Board, Dr. Newell first briefly reviewed
the precautions adopted by California in pre-
paring oranges and lemons for shipment into
Florida. These preparations include picking
during a limited time in the case of oranges
plus sterilization by heat and a curing process.
Upon arrival in Florida the fruit is inspected
by State Plant Board representatives before
being merchandised.
(Continued on Page Four)

Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report th
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Mana
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

All Things Are Subject
To Change
Do you change your ideas and keep step with the
times or do you have to be dragged along?
Believe it or not, there were at one time laws on
the statute books of some of our New England states
that limited the use of the bath tub to certain seasons
of the year, claiming that excessive bathing in cold
weather was a menace to public health. One Presi-
dent of the United States, entering the White House
after his inauguration, found that the previous occu-
pant had had installed a painted sheet metal bath
tub, and, believing it undemocratic for the leader of
the people to have a bath tub, had it taken out.
Strange as it may seem to modern minds, there
were sections of the United States where laws were
passed prohibiting railroads from being built into the
territory because, as they took it, a railroad train was
an invention and device of Satan.
These things happened not so many years ago in
American history, and because everything is subject
to change one of the most valuable attributes in hu-
man character is the ability to determine whether
changes contemplated are progressive and beneficial
and if so to be ready and willing to adjust oneself to
the changes.
Changes are apparent in our methods of mar-
keting citrus fruit. New means of transportation by
truck and boat are becoming very decided factors in
our marketing effort, and it would appear that the
industry must adapt itself to those changes and seek
to utilize their benefits without being influenced by
any harmful features of the new transportation. One
of the greatest dangers of the truck and bulk move-
ment of citrus fruit is the possible damage to the fruit
itself in transportation, internal damage which may
not be apparent to the purchaser but which tends to-
wards speedy loss of quality in the fruit. Then again
there is the menace of shipping lower grade qualities
of fruit, damaging to Florida's splendid citrus reputa-
tion, and which should never be permitted to leave
the state and if not utilized for by-products should be
profitably consigned to the dump heap.
Truck, bulk and water transportation may be
argued against but it seems quite apparent that they
are here to stay, and the industry must adjust itself
to these new factors and seek to so control them that
they may be beneficial and not permitted to be harm-
Such control can only be exercised by united
action, and united action of this industry finds its only
possible and effective instrument in the Clearing
House Association where all factors in the industry,
both grower and shipper, may without injury to them-
selves come together for undivided support of such
measures as are of mutual interest and benefit. And
the present changes being thrust upon the old time
marketing practices of the industry make it more and
more imperative that the Clearing House be given
wholehearted support.

Nationally Advertised
It is a very common boast among merchants, "We
sell only nationally advertised products." The con-
suming public accepts the theory that those products
behind which there is a national advertising expendi-
ture maintain a standard of quality that proves the
truth of their advertising and gives assurance of a
satisfied customer who will buy again. Every one of
us could cite from his or her own personal purchasing
experience numerous instances when in doubt in the
choice between two makes of the same article we
have selected the one which was best known because
nationally advertised, and have even paid a higher
price for it, rather than take the gamble of purchas-
ing a cheaper article of perhaps equal value that did
not carry with it the assurance of quality to the con-
sumer that national advertising conveys.
Only recently the manufacturer of a nationally
advertised article, whose name because of his adver-
tising has become a household word, determined to
prove for himself whether his advertising expendi-
ture paid him. Large displays of the articles he pro-
duced were made in large department stores from
coast to coast, the displays being divided and that
portion of the display carrying his name being priced
much higher than the same article of his that did not
carry his name. It was found that the buyers bought
from two to nine times as many of the higher priced
named article than they did of the same article at a
much lower price but not bearing the name. This
clearly proved that much of our preference for arti-
cles used is established by the advertising which has
forced them upon our attention.
National advertising breaks down sales resist-
ance and merchants prefer to handle nationally ad-
vertised products because the advertising has already
created consumer preference which makes the article
much more easily sold; and so it is that a national
advertising program behind Florida citrus fruit as
"Florida" fruit, creating consumer demand, would
induce more grocery stores and fruit stands to carry
and push the sales of Florida fruit.
The merchant who sells Florida fruit is our
friend. He is our avenue for disposal of.our crop and
is entitled to every aid that we can give him to enable
him to sell more of our products. This can best be
done by convincing the housewife through advertis-
ing that citrus fruit is superior to all other fruits and
that Florida citrus fruit is best. By this means we
would induce every merchant handling fruit to be-
come a live and active salesman of Florida oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines.
This is just one more reason why the citrus grow-
ers of Florida without exception should immediately
express their willingness to lend their support and
contribute a small sum per box with which to ade-
quately create consumer preference for the fruit
grown in Florida sunshine.

July 15, 19

Page 2




Committee of 5o Has Driven Several

Wedges Into Job of Aiding Industry
By NORMAN H. VISSERING, Chairman, Committee of Fifty
(At Annual Meeting)

I have been asked this morning to tell you a
little bit about what the Committee of Fifty
has done the past year. We have been called
by some the back seat drivers of the Clearing
House and by others the debating team. It is
Aa little difficult at some times to tell you what
,the Committee of Fifty has done. I wish I
could come to you this morning and tell you
owe have done a whole lot of big things. We
have done nothing spectacular the whole year.
'Our work this year has been just plugging
along. We had our hopes up a lot of times and
down lots of times, but gradually we drove in
,a few wedges and I think we accomplished a
few things.
SOur Chairman referred to the Clearing
House today and a year ago. When I was made
Chairman of the Committee of Fifty a year ago,
the Exchange had just withdrawn and every-
thing was black, and it wasn't a job I wanted
to take. But I am glad to say it looks a lot
better today. Instead of a lot of dissatisfaction
and people wondering what we are going to do,
the shippers and the growers seem to be satis-
'fied. They are not only satisfied but they have
a plan. Today we have the idea in our minds
that we are going to make the Clearing House
Sdo more for the growers than it ever has. This
time last year we had to let one thing go and
Then another thing go to get this man and that
man to stay in and be willing to go on. This
year they are willing to stay in and are willing
to go on. I think the organization is going on.
I just want to cover a few high spots of the
Committee of Fifty's work last year. One thing
we did was to prepare a set of resolutions an-
swering the Exchange's resolution as to why
they withdrew and I believe if you read those
,resolutions you know that we answered their
reasons pretty well. Later on we recommend-
ted that the Board send a committee from the
,Clearing House to the Farm Board to try to
get them to work with us.
A lot of these things we tried to do didn't
work out very well, but I want you to know
,what we tried to do. Later we worked with the
Board of Directors on establishing a budget.
We had lost a lot of our tonnage and had to
,cut out a lot of things we would like to have
,, Then we in the Committee of Fifty origi-
nated the idea of an educational campaign,
which was so well conducted by Mr. Karl Leh-
mann-you probably attended some of those
tneetings-and which built up lost morale and
,created new enthusiasm in the Clearing House.
Along at the first of the shipping season the
.Committee of Fifty met in Tampa. The grape-
fruit market had gone to pot. It looked like it
Avas going to be a bad season. We asked that
the Citrus Exchange, the Clearing House, and
he Fruitmen's Club get together and do some-
Ihing about that grapefruit market; forget
that they had had difficulties, had called each
tther names, and get down to business. The
next day, through coincidence, the Fruitmen's
Club joined the Clearing House and things be-
ian to brighten up a little, but still we didn't

have the grapefruit conference we hoped for.
On December 9th, we extended an invitation
to the Exchange to meet with the Clearing
House in a joint meeting to help grapefruit,
and to see if they couldn't do something about
the market. The market was not only bad, but
it kept getting worse and something had to be
done about it. About a month later the Ex-
change accepted our invitation. The result
was the temporary advertising campaign which
came up and, in my opinion, did much to bring
about the strong grapefruit market we had at
the end of the season.
Among other things, we had appointed a
committee to study our present green fruit
law. We had a committee composed of men
from each section, and they have been study-
ing and compiling information by tests, seeing
if there are any recommendations we can make
when the Legislature meets next time.
We also have a committee studying this bulk
fruit situation, trying to see whether there is
any way that it can be controlled legally. An-
other thing, you remember, we tried to stabi-
lize the price of cannery grapefruit at 40c.
We have been backing Dr. Phillips' tange-
rine plan. We are for anything that is con-
structive for the industry. We should like to
see Dr. Phillips in the Clearing House, but if
there is anything we can do to work out this
tangerine deal we are going to do it.
Another thing we have done which I believe
has been an accomplishment is the Committee
of Fifty page in the Clearing House News. We
asked for it and it was granted us by the
Board of Directors last year. If you want to
read something worthwhile, if you haven't al-
ready read it, read that page in the last issue
on the advertising campaign. I think you will
find it worthwhile. If there is one thing on the
horizon today it is the possibility of putting
over an advertising campaign for next season.
There is criticism that the Clearing House is
a shippers' organization. If it comes to be a
shippers' organization, it is your fault and
mine because we don't pay enough attention
to getting that grower to sign, that neighbor
of ours to sign. It is up to you and me as to
who we are going to put on the Board of Direc-
tors and the Committee of Fifty. It is up to
you and me to make it a growers' organization.
It is up to the growers to keep it a growers'

Clearing House Holds

Annual Meeting
(Continued from Page One)
million persons. He declared also that the state
has not been awake to the market for citrus
within its own boundary lines, saying that hun-
dreds of thousands of wealthy tourists come
into the state every year but are unable to buy
our own Florida oranges and grapefruit.
Huge charts were used by MR. MORTON in
his talk on the necessity of Florida growers
and shippers getting together on a concerted
advertising effort. He prefaced his talk by re-

minding the growers present that advertising
of Florida citrus was one of the chief objec-
tives in the organization of the Clearing House
four years ago. He pointed out that prior to
the organization of the Clearing House the
Exchange had for many years complained be-
cause that organization was forced to bear the
advertising burden for the entire state. "When
the Clearing House was formed," Mr. Morton
said, "this burden was shifted from some 30
percent of the state crop to about 80 percent
of the crop. Two years later, however, the Ex-
change insisted that the Clearing House retain
be reduced, the result of which was that the
national advertising program launched by the
Clearing House was greatly curtailed."
Mr. Morton then with the aid of large charts
told how the retail grocers in the north are
giving Florida citrus growers free publicity by
using the word Florida in their newspaper ad-
vertising of citrus fruit. The use of the word
Florida, Mr. Morton said, appears to be more
general with reference to oranges than it does
in the case of grapefruit, which point in it-
self, he said, is significant warning that Flor-
ida must take steps to acquaint the dealers in
the north with the advantage of mentioning
Florida grapefruit in their advertising rather
than merely calling attention to grapefruit.
The point brought out by Mr. Morton was that
Florida citrus growers already enjoy an ad-
vantage in the use of the word Florida in con-
nection with the sale of citrus fruit and that
the ultimate consumer is far more familiar
with the word "Florida" oranges or "Florida"
grapefruit than he or she would be with the
registered brand or trademark of one of the
many brands under which Florida's citrus is
sold to the wholesale trade.
Mr. Morton concluded his talk with a brief
explanation of what the emergency grapefruit
advertising campaign did last spring. With the
aid of the chart (which is printed on another
page) he showed that during the ten weeks
preceding the launching of the advertising
campaign the first of March the state shipped
2,500,000 boxes of grapefruit, the average de-
livered price at the auctions during that period
being $2.05. During the ten weeks following
the advertising campaign the state shipped
practically an equal volume of grapefruit at
an average delivered price at auction of $2.67.
This was an average gain in price, of 62c per
box, or a total for the 2,500,000 boxes moved
after the advertising was started of over $1,-

July 15, 1932

Page 3

Page 4

Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
. C.C CHASE Winter Park
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
AMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. 0. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

Paying the Other Man's

Advertising Bill

Believe it or not, a Florida citrus
grower sauntered into an automobile
agency the other day, having in mind
the purchase of a new car (one in the
$1,500 class, incidentally). While he
talked with the automobile salesman,
a grower friend dropped in and joined
the discussion. When the question of
the price of the car arose, some good
natured joshing began between the
two growers as to their fruit returns,
the auto prospect evincing some dis-
gust at the money his fruit brought
while his friend told him bluntly that
he had gotten probably far more than
he deserved.
"Why do you say I got more than I
deserved?" demanded the auto pros-
"Because," replied his friend, "I
happen to know that you didn't do any-
thing to help better your returns."
"I don't know what you mean," said
the prospect, a bit nettled at the re-
"Yes you do too," his friend grinned.
"You told me last fall that when you
sold your crop you told your shipper
that you weren't going to contribute a
red dime to Clearing House advertis-
ing or any other advertising, that it was
just a waste of money and that you
couldn't afford to pay out a penny
more than you were."
"Well, I told him the truth," said the
prospect. "My crop was light and what
with the depression and all I figured it
was up to me to get every danged dol-
lar I could. I'll bet you did the same,
too. As far as advertising's concerned,





everybody in the country is cutting it
out; you can see that by looking at the
newspapers or the magazines in your
own home."
"Why are you interested in this auto
you're looking at this morning?" asked
his friend.
"Because I think it's the best car for
the money."
"Why do you think so?" persisted
his friend.
"Well, er, oh, I know what you're
driving at," said the prospect, grinning
in spite of himself. "I'll admit I'm in-
terested in this car because I've seen it
advertised so often, but as far as that
"That isn't what I mean," his friend
interrupted. "The point I am driving
at is this: you are interested in this
particular car; you think it's a good
buy and you are willing to pay the
price asked. Is this right?"
"Sure, of course."
"All right then, has it occurred to
you that the price you are being asked
to pay includes the manufacturer's ad-
vertising costs?"
"I hadn't particularly thought of it,
but I suppose it does," the grower ad-
"Yet you stand here and tell me that
you don't want to spend a couple of
cents advertising your own business
but when it comes to buying somebody
else's product you dig down into your
pocket without a whimper and pay
that person's advertising cost for him.
Don't you think that the folks in the
north who buy your oranges and your
grapefruit and my oranges and my
grapefruit will pay our advertising
costs for us just as you are paying the
advertising costs on this car?"
And in the above conversation
there's plenty of food for thought for
everyone of us!

In the observation above relative to
the decrease in advertising it is inter-
esting to note that certain aggressive
advertisers in the country have taken
advantage of this very situation. In
other words the publications of the
country do show a material reduction
in the volume of advertising they now
are carrying. This fact obviously gives
those advertisers, who continue to buy
space, much greater value for their ad-
vertising dollar because the publica-
tion used contains fewer advertise-
ments and those which it does have are
seen much more readily by the reader.
The fewer the advertisements, the
greater is their visibility.
An article in a recent issue of Print-
ers' Ink Monthly has to do specifically
with this very phase of advertising,
that is, the added value of advertising
while one's competitors or others are
curtailing their expenditures and leav-
ing the field open to more alert con-

Newell Explains Why i

Fruit Admitted
(Continued from Page One)
Reasons for removing the quarantine includ-
ed several phases of the Plant Board's work
which are not generally known. Dr. Newell
first explained that there has been an in-t
creased knowledge as to the control of brown-
rot. Sanitary methods in California packing
houses have improved in recent years and the
precautions adopted in the handling of ship
ments for Florida are considered sufficient to'
satisfy any court or authority in the matter of
safety to Florida's citrus industry. An embargo:'
placed upon California citrus merely for the
sake of creating a monopoly within Florida of
Florida citrus would, Dr. Newell stated, be ipn
restraint of interstate commerce, an act which
would be a violation of law. Another reason
lies in the fact that California lemons are be-:
ing bootlegged into Florida in increasing vol-4
ume because the quarantine has tended to com-
pell Floridians to pay a premium for the Ital-
ian and Sicilian lemons which are freely ad-,
mitted into this country. The Plant Board
deemed it better to admit California lemons'!
which are sterilized than to run the risk of ad- ,
mitting brown rot infestation by bootlegged
and unsterilized lemons from the western
Brown rot is known to be prevalent in ItalyJ
and Sicily, Dr. Newell said, and, in the opinion
of the Plant Board, if sterilized lemons from
California are substituted for the foreign pro-
duct which always is potentially dangerous,
that an additional safety factor thus would be
created for Florida. The federal government's'
admittance of Italian and Sicilian lemons-
makes it impossible for Florida to bar them.
Answering the claim that entry of California
oranges and lemons would restrict marketing
of Florida-grown lemons and summer oranges, -
Dr. Newell pointed out that our production of
lemons is placed by the census bureau at less
than 35,000 boxes while our annual consump-f
tion is some 200,000 boxes. Likewise the avail- '
ability of summer Florida oranges is nowhere
near the volume which could be consumed, he1
said. Up to July 6, the Commissioner stated,
only three cars of California oranges have.

The dimensions for the standard field
box as governed by Florida law are con-
sidered only when the box is used in the
sale of fruit. The field box used merely
as a container in hauling the fruit from
grove to packing house or from packing
house to packing house may be of any
size agreeable to those interested.
The standard field box measurements
govern the inside size and are 12 inches
wide, 13 inches deep, and 15 inches long
for each compartment. In other words, if
one inch material is used in making the
ends and the center partition of the box,
the outside measurement in length will
be 33 inches.

been received into this state and between sixty'
and seventy cars of lemons. .4
Following Dr. Newell's talk, it was moved by

July 15, 1932


Mr. H. M. Papworth, seconded, and carried,
that a sincere thanks be extended to Dr. Newell
and the Plant Board for the able manner in
which they had answered the Committee's re-
quest and for the valuable information Dr.
Newell presented to the meeting. A copy of
this action is to be sent to the State Plant
On the strength of considerable discussion
concerning the absence of sanitary handling
methods characteristic of Italian and Sicilian
lemon packing houses the Committee went on
record requesting through the State Plant
Board the Federal Department of Agriculture
to restrict the shipment into Florida of Euro-
pean and Sicilian lemons. Consideration of the
possibility of California reciprocating in the
lifting of her quarantine against Florida citrus
led the Committee to request the Florida Ex-
perimental Station and State Plant Board to
study the possibility of federalizing fruit so as
to meet the requirements of the California
Plant Board and thus induce the Pacific Coast
State to lift its embargo against our citrus.

"Honestly, that husband of mine is so exas-
perating! He asked me to meet him here with
the car and I've been waiting ever since six
o'clock-it's seven now!"
"What time were you supposed to meet
"At five o'clock."

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Treasurer's Report
By A. R. TRAFFORD, Retiring Treasurer
As Treasurer of your Association during the past season, I take pleasure in sub-
mitting herewith my report covering the financial operations of the Association for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1932, and the financial condition of the Association at that
During the past year the income of the Association was as follows:
Assessment .................---------............-...-........-- ---------------------....------$128,321.90
Subscriptions and Advertising-Clearing House News ......-----... .-----------. 938.94
Interest Received (Net) ................................... ... .. ......... ....... 1,124.30
Total Income ..... ....... ................ ...... ........................$130,385.14
The expenses for the year were as follows:
Advertising .......................... .. .. ... ................................. $ 20,302.43
Inspection ..... ----..................-......... ----------------- 7,992.92
General Operations:
Office and Administration.....-.......------------$42,374.55
Membership Campaign......................------------------..... 18,101.37
Bulletin and Wires to Shippers...................... ......---------------- 13,542.26
Clearing House News...--. .........----------------.- 6,833.49
Computation Property Rights-........---.........--...--------............ ------- 4,437.40
Uncollectible Items Charged Off -------------.................. ................... 4,314.91
Committee of Fifty.........-................. ----------------. 2,472.97
Depreciation ......................... ..---- ------............ 1,495.55
Grove Census.................................. .................... 1,134.75
Election --.........................---------.---. ----. 1,055.60
Crop Estimate ................-........--------------- 724.26
Loss on Trading Equipment.....................................--...............--.... 665.84
Growers' Bulletin.........................------------------- 529.58 97,682.53
Industry Activities:
Growers and Shippers League of Florida ------ ---................................ 8,576.50
Federal Research Laboratory............................... .................. 1,361.54 9,938.04
Expense of the year exceeded the income by the amount of------..........................$ 5,530.78
Based on the number of boxes assessed the expense per package is as follows:
Advertising................ -------------............ .00259
Inspection..........-----......... --..... ......... .00102
General Operations ..----------............................... .01247
Industry Activities------------.............................. .00127
Despite the reduction of assessment rate, the total operating loss for the year was
only $5,530.78. This reflects the many economies effected by the management during
the season.
The surplus of the Association, however, was greatly reduced by items not charge-
able to Operating costs. These are as follows:
Property Rights Paid ----..............................-------........------ .......$59,000.00
Property Rights Reserved for payment ----------................................. 19,324.03 $78,324.03
Accounts of past seasons charged off as uncollectible ................ 7,691.42
Adjustment of Furniture and Equipment Value ........................ 4,090.44
Deduct Dividends Received from Defunct Banks........................ 2,040.06
Add:-Loss from season's operations------....................... ----...5,530.78
Net Loss to Surplus............------------..................-- $93,596.61
You will note the total amount of Property Rights paid and unpaid to resigned
Grower members of the Association is $78,324.03. Since the Association in previous
seasons did not pay or set aside the Property Rights equities of the resigned members,
this figure, therefore, represents the total Property Rights for the first three seasons of
A summary of the adjustment in the financial condition of the Clearing House the
last year is as follows:
Surplus .-....---.................---- ............--.--. $147,903.65
Less Capital and Operating Losses of the year........ 93,596.61
Surplus June 30, 1932....................................$ 54,307.04
Assets and Liabilities of the Clearing House June 30, 1932, were as follows:
Cash on Hand and in Banks-----............. ------------...................... 11,196.86
U. S. Government Obligations..-------...................... ---. 45,200.00
Assessment Accounts and Notes (Net)-------------....................................... 13,418.28
Advertising Accounts Receivable...........----............. --------- 163.83
Advances and Postage Deposits-----........................ ------------ 260.42
Prepaid and Accrued Items--------------................... ............. 891.68
Furniture, Equipment, Automobile............................................. 2,500.00 73,631.07
Property Rights Payable -------........................ ---------- ...............------- 19,324.03
The books and records of the Association have been audited by A. Gilbert Lester
& Co., Certified Public Accountants, of Winter Haven. This audit report contains a
certified schedule of the receipts and disbursements of the Association.
Copies of the audit are in the hands of the management and may be reviewed at
any time by members of the Association.

July 15. 1932

Page 5


Failure To Advertise Means That We'll

Pay For Advertising in Lower Returns
By JAMES C. MORTQN, Vice-President, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association
(At Annual Meeting)

In the absence of Mr. Pratt, I am going to
make a few remarks and give some figures on
last year's crop. Clearing House members
shipped, figuring only carloads sent by boat
and rail, but not truck shipments or fruit to
canneries, 38.6 percent of the state's total of
carload shipments. Prices differed 'from the
year before in this respect, checking from auc-
tion markets, oranges averaged 1c per box
less this year than they did last. Grapefruit
brought 8c per box less than last year. Tange-
rines averaged 9c per box less than last year.
But I want to call your attention to this fact-
that picking, hauling, packing, selling, and
freight rates were lower this year than last, so
that on the average growers received just as
much and possibly more per box this season
than they did last. However, the crop was
One of the previous speakers has told you
that this year the citrus growers of Florida
were the most successful agricultural group in
the country. Florida citrus growers do not
have much reason for discouragement when
you think of other agricultural groups, for all
have been in serious trouble while really we
have done fairly well, considering the prob-
lems we have been up against due to economic
conditions in this country and throughout the
world. Think of the wheat, cotton, corn, and
tobacco, farmers selling their crops for much
less than production cost, and you will realize
that in spite of our whining, we are the most
successful of the major agricultural groups of
the country.
For the first time in twelve months I am rep-
resenting the Clearing House and the Florida
Citrus Exchange, inasmuch as those two are
working together in an effort for an industry
advertising campaign, and I am here today to
try to sell you as growers and business men
on the idea of advertising Florida citrus fruit,
not by minor brand names, but as Florida fruit.
You will remember that four years ago when
the Clearing House was created, one of the
major objectives was to advertise Florida cit-
rus fruit. This was done during the first two
years of the Clearing House. When the Clear-
ing House started in 1928-29, it was a gen-
erally accepted fact that California oranges
brought more per box than Florida oranges
did. We started advertising that first season,
spending 2c per box, and during the first year
the gap between California and Florida prices
was materially narrowed. At the end of the
second year it closed entirely, and the third
year and this year Florida orange growers have
received more per box for their fruit than
have our friends in California. Why? Because
we have superior eating quality in Florida
A few weeks ago I met one of the leaders of
the California industry. He said, "California
has pictured glasses of orange juice on the
back pages of magazines, but Florida has filled
the glasses." It is true that Florida oranges
contain much more juice than California or-

anges. Nevertheless, we owe a debt to Cali-
fornia because of her consistent advertising of
oranges, so effective that many people are
afraid to go to bed at night unless they have
had their quota of orange juice! Florida fruit
fills glasses better than California fruit, but a
considerable part of our success on oranges we
owe to the advertising which has been done by
our California friends.
Unfortunately, at the end of the 1930-31
season, the Florida Citrus Exchange believed
that it could not go along on a joint advertising
campaign with the balance of the industry-
just why I don't know. As an Exchange grower,
prior to the existence of the Clearing House, I
and every other Exchange grower was clamor-
ing that every box of fruit in the State of
Florida bear its proper share of the advertis-
ing. As the case was the burden was then be-
ing borne largely by the Florida Citrus Ex-
change and a few other marketing agencies.
I felt, as did every other Exchange grower,
that it was not fair that any one group should
bear the burden of advertising the whole Flor-
ida citrus crop. When the Clearing House
was brought into being, it corrected this. The
burden of advertising, previously borne by a
few, was placed on the shoulders of 80 percent
of the industry.
Just why the Exchange decided to go back
to brand advertising and leave industry adver-
tising I have no way of knowing. I know I was
in a meeting until 2 o'clock one morning de-
bating the question. One of the members of
the Exchange Committee with quivering voice
and tear-dimmed eyes told of some poor grow-
ers in his neighborhood who were driving 1915
Fords and said they could not afford to pay for
Clearing House advertising. I wrote the reso-
lution that killed the advertising program in
order to keep the Exchange in the Clearing
House and I deeply regret it. It is one of the
major mistakes of my career and the abolish-
ment of industry advertising at that hour has
cost the citrus growers unestimated millions.
But believe it or not, the Exchange, without
asking those growers who, it was claimed, could
not afford Clearing House advertising and
without a word about it, assessed them an ad-
ditional 3c for advertising, making a total of
7c. I know that is true because I was one of
the growers who paid it.
Texas this season planted more citrus trees
than in any other season in her history with
the exception of one. Today there are more
grapefruit trees in Texas than in the whole of
the State of Florida. Texas has taken from
Florida her western markets and today they
are negotiating for boat rates from Texas to
New York, which will enable them to put
Texas grapefruit refrigerated on the dock at
New York for 50c per box. When that happens
it means that Texas is entering in a market
that is at the present time almost exclusively
What does this mean? It means that Flor-

ida growers must wake up and do something
about it or else Texas will take our market and
our fruit will lose its present value in that
market. Our job is to convince the housewife
that Florida produces the finest grapefruit.
We must increase Florida sales instead of per-
mitting Texas to increase hers in our markets.
This can only be done by the growers investing
in an advertising campaign behind Florida
grapefruit. It will be much cheaper for Flor-
ida growers to keep Texas out of the markets
now than to put her out later.
Somebody questions whether advertising
pays. Look at your newspapers. Why are all
those advertisements there? Why are mer-
chants spending their money for them? The
answer is, because those advertisements pay.
Look at the magazines that you carry home
from the news stand. The greater bulk is ad-
vertising. Why? Because advertising pays.
Look at those large and expensive billboards
that disgrace our highways. Why are they
there? Because advertising pays.
Every business organization that has suc-
ceeded in building up its output during this
depression has been a large advertiser. One of
the speakers mentioned Coca-Cola. The man
in Avon Park who bottles Coca-Cola told me
the other day that this year Coca-Cola is spend-
ing $9,000,000 in advertising. $9,000,000 be-
hind a nickle drink. (180,000,000 nickle
drinks.) If a lot of you citrus growers were on
that board of directors you would have said,
"Everybody knows about Coca-Cola. Every-
body is drinking it. There is no use wasting
our money during these hard times doing more
advertising." Yet those hard-headed men are
spending $9,000,000 to advertise Coca-Cola.
What does this say to you? It tells you this,
that if Florida goes into an advertising cam-
paign for Florida fruit it must be continuous.
You can't advertise this year and drop it next
year and expect to get results. Bruce Barton
recently said, "Advertising must be continu-
ous. Why? Because in advertising you are
not talking to a mass meeting, you are talking
to a parade." If we put on an advertising cam-
paign (and we know we are going to do it) it
must be not only for next season's crop, it must
be continuous.
Does advertising pay? Mr. Kellogg, who
sells those wonderful breakfast foods, increas-
ed his advertising appropriation this year over
last and his sales in January, February and
March increased so much that he got in touch
with his advertising agency and said, "Put an-
other million dollars into my advertising."
Does advertising pay? Mr. Kellogg certainly
thought it did when he put that extra million
dollars on advertising.
Will advertising pay the Florida grower? It
Someone says, "I don't believe in commod-
ity advertising." I am not asking you to be-
lieve in it. If so, I would ask you to advertise
grapefruit, oranges, and tangerines, because
that would be saying they are superior to every
other fruit and you may get them no matter
wherever they are grown. I am not asking you
to subscribe to commodity advertising, but to
Florida advertising, which would say to you,
"Oranges, grapefruit and tangerines are su-
perior to any other fruit, and Florida produces

July 15, 1932

July 15, 1932


the best oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
produced anywhere in the world. Therefore,
you ought to ask for Florida oranges, grape-
fruit and tangerines."
Then, too, I have every reason to think that
if we put money behind our fruit it will pay.
For weeks I have been telling that it has paid.
A few days ago my statement was challenged
and I was asked for evidence. I want to say
for Mr. Vissering, chairman of the Committee
of Fifty, that he realized in December the need
of grapefruit advertising and it was due to his
insistence that on March 3rd the Clearing
House and the Exchange started an advertis-
ing campaign, each group putting $20,000 be-
hind the grapefruit that remained.
There was $40,000 spent in advertising
grapefruit. There was 3c per box paid by those
who participated in the grapefruit advertising.
Had the whole industry joined in the effort,
the cost would have been only 1c per box,
and 1 c spent in advertising grapefruit netted
the grower 62c per box. Need I ask you whether
advertising paid? Then again you want to re-
member this takes in only ten weeks. Had I
taken the entire balance of the year after ad-
vertising was started, I would have said the
gain was 82- per box. Somebody said, "You
haven't proved anything, because at that sea-
son of the year grapefruit comes up anyway. I
find last year that grapefruit gained 8c per box
comparing the same ten week periods. Unfor-
tunately, due to the supposed Mediterranean
fruit fly situation, the two previous years could
not be checked because conditions did not
match. Last year the gain was 8c, this year,
it was 62c.
This gain of $1,538,599 went into the pock-
ets of the growers. There was no additional
charge on picking, hauling, packing, or freight,
so the growers who invested $40,000 gained
AT LEAST $6.50 TO $1.00
"That's taking too much for granted," says
someone. "You don't know that the gain is
entirely due to advertising." Let's admit that.
One and a half million dollars means a $38 re-
turn for every dollar of investment. But knock
off the half million and call it a million dollars
invested. Or take off the million and leave me
the half million, and I find you are getting $13
return for every dollar invested. Or leave me
only a quarter of a million, and it means $6.50
return for every dollar invested in that grape-
fruit advertising. Does grapefruit advertising
pay? Of course it pays.
Had Clearing House advertising not been
killed two years ago the growers of the State
of Florida would have been untold millions
ahead of where they are today!
I am asking you to get behind advertising,
not for a few weeks in late spring to try to
catch up the season's loss, but an advertising
campaign behind every orange, grapefruit and
tangerine that leaves the state, in order that
the whole season may be benefitted.
I don't know what we will be up against next
year. It may be conditions will be still worse
than they have been, and if an advertising
campaign next year doesn't show a gain over
prices this year don't tell me it failed; but if
advertising behind next season's crop keeps the
prices from going to a lower level it has paid
you for every cent you put in it. Somebody
may say, "We didn't get any money this year,
we can't afford advertising." My good friend


Continued Support of Clearing House

Page 7

Is Vital Factor In Industry Welfare
By W. H. MPUSER, Chairman Operating Committee
(At Annual Meeting)
I have no set speech to make today, but I Citrus Growers Clearing House Association.
want to pay tribute to the growers who have At the same time if the cooperative organiza-
supported the Clearing House from the begin- tion of the state does not see fit to belong to
ning and who still support it. I want to pay the Clearing House, all the more reason why
tribute also to the shipper members who have the independent shippers of the state should
supported the Clearing House, and who are belong to the Clearing House and maintain the
going to continue right along to support the Clearing House in existence.
Clearing House. We have here an organization With the Clearing House functioning and
which permits the organizing of the Florida the Exchange functioning, the cooperative
citrus industry. I see no reason why any growers in the Exchange, the independent
grower, cooperative or independent, or what growers in the Clearing House we have the
not, marketing jointly, cooperatively or inde- state organized. We have the state much bet-
pendently, should not belong to the Florida (Continued on Page Eight)

John Clark says you can't afford to be without
advertising and that you are going to pay for
an advertising campaign whether you have an
advertising campaign or not, because you will
pay for it in lessened returns that come to you.
But if you advertise, the northern markets will
pay for it in increased prices paid to you for
your fruit.
Advertising is an investment. You all know
articles that are nationally advertised. If you
go to the merchants in your community and
ask them which products they prefer to handle
they will immediately tell you, the ones that
are nationally advertised, because the national
advertising reduces sales resistance and makes
it easier to sell the advertised article, even at
a higher price. If you growers put advertising
behind your crop, every grocer will be seeking
to have Florida fruit on his shelves to meet the
demand that will be created. You will just
make it that much easier.
So I am coming to you as a neighbor grower,

asking that you give your support to an adver-
tising campaign behind next season's crop.
This advertising program behind Florida citrus
will through the industry benefit the state, but
it will indirectly benefit the state, as everybody
seeing our advertisements during the cold win-
ter time in the north, with the word "Florida,"
will immediately begin to think of sunshine,
singing birds, bathing beaches.
Advertising will do the state inestimable
benefit. It would pay the state to advertise our
fruit just for this benefit. But we are not ask-
ing the state to pay for our advertising. We
are going to advertise our own fruit. I have
come to ask you for the sake of the fruit you
are producing, for the benefit of your busi-
ness, for the value of your own property, for
the community in which you live, for the State
of Florida as a whole, to lend your unqualified
support to an adequate advertising campaign
behind next season's crop and the crop of every
succeeding season.

$40,000 Spent Advertising Grapefruit

And the Results

Total Grapefruit shipments in the ten weeks preceding the
advertising -. -. ..----------------
Average delivered price at auction---- --------
Total Grapefruit shipments in the ten weeks following the
advertising -----..----------- --- ---- -----
Average delivered price at auction__ ------
Average gain in price ----- ---.----- ----..------------------
Total gain in ten weeks shipments-2,481,612 boxes at 62c

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Support of Clearing House President E. C. Aurin Sees Reason For

Is Vital Factor
(Continued from Page Seven)
ter organized than any other state in the union,
regardless of whether that state produces fruit
or anything else. I see no reason why every
independent grower in the state should not be-
long to the Clearing House. The grower be-
longing to the Clearing House can ship his fruit
through a large marketing organization if he
wishes or through a small marketing organi-
zation; he can sell his fruit on the tree or dis-
pose of it in any way he sees fit. The only ob-
ligation is that the grower do business with
a shipper of the Clearing House and there are
a sufficient number of shipper members of the
Clearing House so that the grower may make
his own choice.
If we can continue whole-heartedly support-
ing the Clearing House, I see no reason why
the Clearing House and Exchange, even if the
Exchange is not in the Clearing House, cannot
work together on matters of general import-
ance to the industry. As far as I am personally
concerned I would like to see the Exchange in
the Clearing House. I think it would make an
ideal setup for the citrus industry but I am
willing to work along with the Exchange in
every way possible for the good of the indus-
try. I see no reason, if the Exchange remains
out of the Clearing House, why we should let
any competitive ideas prevent the two organi-
zations from working together in a friendly
way for the good of the industry.
We are trying to do that on advertising. We
are negotiating now, the Clearing House and
the Exchange committees, to try to promote
an industry advertising plan for citrus the
coming season. We are getting along all right.
Educational material is being put out now to
try to interest the growers. Next month it is
planned to put out a questionnaire to the grow-
ers, no matter whether they belong to the Ex-
change, the Clearing House, or neither, to get
a direct expression from them as to their views
on advertising for Florida citrus fruit. I hope
that everyone of you here will talk to every
grower you meet, not only to growers but to
business men, bankers, professional men, with
reference to what good can be done to the Flor-
ida citrus industry by advertising .
I spent a few days in the north recently and
the fruit trade is rather low. The consumer
feels sick, the producers feel sick over the re-
sults they are getting for their fruit. The pur-
chasing power of the public is greatly reduced.
There is going to be plenty of fruit pro-
duced in the country. It is going to be a fight
for the consumer's money. It is going to be a
fight between the producers of Florida citrus
fruit and producers of other products through-
out the country.
If one man owned the entire citrus crop in
Florida and was arranging his marketing plans
for the coming crop one of the first things he
would do would be to figure his advertising
budget. Now, there is no question about that-
absolutely none. We citrus growers of Florida
should do the same. We should advertise to
the consumer the merits of Florida citrus fruit;
not of a brand but of the merits of the fruit.
We have a good article, an article that will re-

Encouragement in Industry's Progress
By DR. E. C. AURIN, President, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association
(At Annual Meeting)

There are two phases of any organization or
movement-first, the stage of enthusiasm, and
second, the stage of slow climbing-that dead-
ly routine that requires the stimulation of the
knowledge that back of you are standing the
men who put the thing over, that they are still
back of you and will stay back of you. But as

peat. I mean by that an article that will please
the consumer.
Part of the marketing of a product is adver-
tising. You are going to be told much about
advertising later. I am not presenting today
any figures on advertising. Mr. Pratt is out of
the state and I don't know whether he left a
report or not but I presume he did. I simply
want to call this one thing to your attention.
People may ask: "What has the Clearing
House done?" Prices, a large part of last sea-
son, were low. We know prices were low on
everything produced in the country. I don't
believe there is another producing industry in
the country that can show a record equal to
the Florida citrus industry. Certainly the Cal-
ifornia citrus deal cannot. A recent U. S. D.
A. report refers to commodity prices as being
the lowest in twenty years. Naturally we can-
not expect to have a boom on our products in
this time of depression.
But I do maintain that, after the records of
the Clearing House this year and last year, I
have more confidence in the Florida citrus in-
dustry than I ever had before. I have more
confidence in a man or industry who comes
through in comparatively good shape during
times of adversity and under conditions which
require an effort than I have for a man or in-
dustry who can succeed only in times of pros-
The Florida citrus industry has a record the
past year which cannot be qualled by any in-
dustry in the country. It is easy to point out a
concrete example, for instance wheat. Sup-
pose we had a clearing house for wheat and
instead of selling wheat at 60c sold it at 70c a
bushel. The wheat producers with their clear-
ing house would say that we have a clearing
house and our wheat only sold at 70c a bushel.
There would be no way of showing that if the
clearing house had not existed the price would
have been only 60c, so we cannot prove in con-
crete figures what would have been the results
last year if we hadn't had the Clearing House.
I am satisfied in my mind however and I think
most people who have been keeping up with
things and know also are satisfied that if we
hadn't had the Clearing House the past year
results would have averaged much lower than
they did. I am strong for the Clearing House.
I devote considerable time to the Clearing
House without any direct compensation. I do
it because I want to help the industry in which
I have invested everything I have. I want to
see it prosper. I do it from that sense and
from a selfish sense because if the citrus indus-
try prospers I will prosper and I feel I can do
my small part in helping the Clearing House
to continue in existence and to function.

Kipling said, "When the shouting and tumult
cease, you need every bit of encouragement
you can possibly get."
Last year I felt that everyone down in his
heart was somewhat discouraged. The fact re-
mained that we had lost practically fifty per-
cent of our tonnage at one blow, and I believe
there was a question of whether the organiza-
tion would go on. But when a proposition is
right it is hard to down. Though our hearts
were low we decided we would fight it through.
Today I feel one hundred percent more en-
couraged over the future of the Clearing
House than I did last year on this same occa-
Everything that has occurred since the last
annual meeting has tended to show stronger
and stronger the fact that we were right. I
don't believe you could get something like
three thousand growers, who united when we
put this organization over, and have them all
wrong. There is some truth to the saying that
the voice of the people is the voice of God. The
mass of the people is invariably right. They
were right in this case. After our last annual
meeting the Exchange put on a drive saying,
"Give us control; we will standardize, we will
advertise, and we will distribute,"-the very
three fundamentals on which this Clearing
House was organized.
I think this Clearing House must be drawn
out from the depth of the chaotic marketing
that exists, but I think I have confidence
enough in the good sense of the institutions of
the state to believe that they will pull it out
of the slough of despondency without compul-
sory cooperation.
It does give us a great deal of courage, a
great deal of confidence, to see you people out,
especially the old guard that has stuck with us
from the beginning. The independent shippers
have proven that they are the best cooperatives
in the State of Florida. A lot of earnest en-
deavor, plugging along, gradually drove in a
few wedges, and accomplished a few things.
What we need is a little less wishbone and
a whole lot more backbone. On this advertis-
ing, don't merely say, "I approve of it." Go to
your shipper and say, "We demand that you
get into this advertising and we will back it."
They will be glad to do it.
I wish to mention Mr. Pratt, the Clearing
House manager, who has worked steadily for
two years without vacation, has taken a reduc-
tion of $8,000 from his original salary. I have
recently been elected president of the Clearing
House with the definite understanding that
there will be no salary connected with my work.

"Billie," said the man's wife, who was giving
a children's party, "won't you eat some more
"I can't; I'm full!" sighed Billie.
"Well, then, put some in your pockets."
"I can't. They're full, too!"

July 15. 1932

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