Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00087
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: May 1, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00087
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

SDpt. of Agri., 3-2 O R I
irary Period Div., F LR
;hington, D. C.


Presenting more than 10,000
ers of Oranges and Grapefruit



U. S. Postage

SA 4-4
|A ^WinteP 1a.
P^, ^*7 I


Official Publication of he

30 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31 Volume IV
t a Cy rus Growers Clearing House Association. MAY, 1, 1932 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Number 15
ents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven, Fla. Florida. under the Act of March 3. 1879. umer

Chance To Cash In On Our State Name

Study of Grocery Advertisements Shows "Florida"
Is Leading Brand Used to Induce Consumers to Buy

he final salesman for Florida's oranges
grapefruit is the successful grocer. For
reason some successful grocers have been
e the subject of a comprehensive survey
q. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., the advertising
icy which has prepared. the Clearing
se advertising during the past three sea-
. The survey made by the advertising
icy was, briefly, a study of the advertis-
done by several hundred successful gro-
in the north during January, February,
March. The study of the various adver-
nents revealed the fact that the word
irida," used in connection with oranges
grapefruit in advertisements, unques-
ably carries the greatest weight.
excerpts from the agency's survey include
two charts shown elsewhere in this issue
he News, also the following:
It has been our privilege for the past three
s to serve the Florida Citrus Growers
ring House Association as advertising

agent. This contact and the other contacts it
has afforded has given us an intimate in-
sight into the citrus set-up in Florida. Equally
important, this business association has made
it necessary for us to make a number of
national and sectional investigations in the
interest of Florida citrus, and the results of
these surveys are at our disposal.
"By the very nature of its set-up, it has
been necessary for the Clearing House to do
advertising under the State name. Repre-
senting many brands, it has advertised the
superior qualities of Florida citrus generally;
and, under conditions that have existed and
over which we had no control, we feel that
an unusually effective job has been done.
"Because of the effort the Clearing House
is making to secure a larger net return for
growers of Florida citrus fruits we know you
will be interested in the results of a study of
retail grocery advertising in the territory

alifornia Accepting Clearing House

Method to Solve Distribution Problems

'he clearing house plan, as a medium for
iiig cbinfeting interests'together on mu-
I problems, is finding its way into the
ifornia citrus situation, according to re-
ts from the Pacific Coast. An effort is
ig made there at the present time by
iing factors in the industry to have the
ifornia Fruit Growers Exchange, the
tual Orange Distributors, the American
lit Growers, C. M. Brown, and other inde-
dents, get together on a state shipment
rating program.
n detail, the plan calls for creation of a
it distribution committee-four to repre-
t the Exchange, two the M. O. D., and not
re than four the independent shippers. It
understood that the M. O. D. and some of
independent shippers have already signed.
agreement, which incidentally is to be
ective only if the total volume represents
percent of the estimated crop.
.f the plan is carried through prorating will

be quite drastic. One of the objectives is to
keep the extremely small sizes off the fresh
fruit market, and in fact consideration is
being given to holding back from 20 percent
to 25 percent of the entire crop. The Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange hopes to sal-
vage a portion of this fresh fruit surplus in
its own by-product factories. At present the
situation reveals some hesitancy on the part
of the other agencies interested in the plan
to bind themselves to an agreement to elimi-
nate such a large percentage of fresh fruit
from their shipments. They feel that they
likewise should be permitted to use a propor-
tionate part of the surplus in by-products
channels. In short, the spirit existing in the
plan there seems to indicate a willingness to
get together providing equal privileges are
granted to all.
A very similar situation has confronted the
Clearing House. At one time the members of
Sthe Clearing House considered entirely
eliminating off sizes and off grades. After
(Continued on Page Seven)

where the greatest sales opportunities lie for
Florida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines.
"This study covers advertisements of re-
tail grocers which appeared in leading news-
papers in the following cities, during the
months of January, February and March,
1932: Boston, Buffalo, New York, Philadel-
phia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Chicago, Mil-
waukee, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Baltimore,
Washington, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Indian-
apolis, Richmond, Nashville, Memphis, At-
lanta, and New Orleans.
"In addition to the cities listed above, we
included in this study a number of advertise-
ments that appeared in cities west of the
Mississippi River-also a number that ap-
peared in small cities in the territory repre-
sented by the above list.
"To avoid duplication we selected only one
newspaper in each city, with the exception of
Pittsburgh and Boston. In each case, the
newspaper selected was the one that carries
the most local grocery store advertising. From
these papers, every grocery advertisement in
which citrus fruits were mentioned was
clipped and added to this study and exhibit.
"Probably the most interesting feature of
retail grocery advertising in daily news-
papers has been its rapid expansion. While
certain outstanding independent grocers were
the pioneers in this field, the chain store has
played a dominant part in its development.
Today, if you pick up any newspaper on a
market-basket day, you will find large space
advertisements of the principal chain grocers
operating in that city, and competing for
consumers' attention in large and small space
you will find a number of independent
"The choice of newspaper space for gro-
cers' advertisements is a logical one, because
-regardless of whether a family takes any
periodical or not, whether they live in the
central district of a metropolis or in a small
town or on a farm, whether they go to the
moving picture or not, whether they have a
radio set or not-there is no intelligent fam-
ily in the United States which does not rely
upon its local newspaper as a source of edu-
(Continued on Page Three)


Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report ti
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Mane
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the meant accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

Wasted Advertising
An open letter to the growers who have paid and are pay-
ing for "Seald-Sweet" advertising, and who, had the Ex-
change remained in the Clearing House, would have shared
with the entire industry in the greater benefits to them-
selves and all other citrus growers to be derived from the
more effective advertising of "Florida citrus fruits."

The Committee of Fifty has never, in its four years
of service to the citrus industry, failed to stress the
need and value of advertising in the sale of Florida
citrus fruits. The law of supply and demand cannot
be repealed, and the value of any article, mined, man-
ufactured, or grown, is governed by the relation of
the supply to the demand. When supply exceeds de-
mand prices are low. When demand exceeds supply
prices are high.--
Because of extensive new acreage, supplies of cit-
rus fruits are rapidly increasing and low prices neces-
sarily will continue until a successful, united effort
makes demand balance supply. How can this be
done? By an adequate advertising program to create
new markets, both domestic and foreign, and to in-
crease the consumption of citrus fruit in every home.
The Committee continues to urge that every box of
fruit leaving Florida bear its proportionate share of
this investment in higher returns. This can be done
only by reviving the Clearing House program of ad-
vertising Florida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines,
and proving the truth of the advertising by a quality
product under mandatory standardization of grading
and packing.
The Committee has always contended that adver-
tising brands was a waste of the growers' money, and
the truth of this is clearly proven by the charts shown
on page five of this issue of the "News."
Out of 751 grocers spending their own money in an
effort to sell oranges in the cities mentioned you will
note that
103 advertised "oranges"
306 advertised "Florida oranges"
8 advertised "Seald-Sweet oranges"
We have always believed that the magic name of
Florida had more consumer appeal than any trade or
brand name, no matter how artfully conceived or
euphoniously expressed. This is clearly shown in the
above figures, when competent fruit salesmen, seek-
ing to get the greatest value out of every advertising
dollar, said "Florida oranges" 306 times and "Seald-
Sweet oranges" 8 times-a veritable landslide vote of
38 to 1 in favor of the Committee of Fifty's belief in
advertising, not brands, but Florida citrus fruits.
In grapefruit the advertisements show that
148 advertised "Florida grapefruit"
13 advertised "Seald-Sweet grapefruit"
The case of brand advertising versus advertising of
Florida citrus fruit is thus decided, not by a committee
of Florida growers, but by a competent jury of hard-
headed business men, fully convinced that the name
Florida, with its suggestions of sunshine, flowers, and
cloudless skies of blue, has greater sales appeal than
any lauded brand or trade name and is worth millions
to the citrus industry if and when we learn to use it

Dr. James Harris-"Dean"
On January 28, 1928, a meeting of citrus growers
was held in Winter Haven during the Orange Festival
to discuss the marketing situation and consider the
feasibility of a state-wide growers' organization. It
was the sense of this meeting that the time was ripe,
that the need for action on the part of citrus growers
was urgent, and that a later meeting should be held
with wider representation. This later meeting, to
which citrus growers from all sections of the State
were invited, was held in the Williamson Theatre,
Winter Haven, February 14, and went on record that
marketing was the major prob-
lem confronting Florida citrus
growers. On motion the chair-
man appointed a committee of
five from the floor to select a
committee of twenty growers,
which in turn enlarged itself to
a committee of fifty growers by
the addition of members select-
ed in meetings of growers held
all over the citrus belt.
This Committee of Fifty when
formed accepted the mandate
of the Winter Haven meeting
that it "proceed to the forma-
tion of a state-wide growers' as-
sociation looking towards the
solution of the marketing prob-
lem on some plan that will have
the full approval of the United
States Department of Agricul-
Dr. James Harris ture."
This original Committee of Fifty developed the
Clearing House Plan. No better plan has been sug-
gested and no servicable substitute has been offered.
This original plan stands and functions today as the
only practical and workable program available under
present conditions for the immediate betterment of
the marketing and distribution needs of the industry.
In the four years since 1928 many changes have oc-
curred in the personnel of the Committee, and because
of the recent election of two members to the Board of
Directors, Dr. James Harris, of Lakeland, will be the
only remaining member of the original twenty who
has served continuously. Dr. Harris has been an out-
standing member of the Committee, an earnest
worker for the welfare of the citrus producer, for
whose interests he has at all times been ready to fight,
effectively using as his weapons, reason, fact, logic,
and courtesy. Although within a few short weeks of
"three score and ten," the Doctor has never missed a
meeting of the Committee nor failed to answer the roll
call of any sub-committee, a record unparalleled in
the Committee annals. He has brought to every
meeting the enthusiasm of youth and the wisdom
gained in the rich experience of years spent in profes-
sion and business. Loved by every member of the
Committee, the Doctor's name has become a synonym
for candor and an antonym for anything that savors
of camouflage or bunk.
Straight-forward, earnest, clear-thinking, Dr. Har-
ris never permits his lips to play traitor to his thought.
He straddles no fences. Direct, fearless, and untram-
meled in his defense of right against wrong, this gray-
haired Dean of the Committee will prove valuable
as chart and compass in its continued service to the


Page 3

4 adds. featured "Texas Sweet Grapefruit."
1 add. featured "Mor-Juce Grapefruit."
1 add. 'featured "Atwood Grapefruit."
"After a careful analysis of the figures for
the individual cities and the total shown above,
we arrive at three definite and important con-
"1. People are less 'brand' or 'name' con-
scious with respect to grapefruit than is true of
oranges. 311 out of 633 successful advertis-
ers found it necessary only to mention "Grape-
fruit" to attract consumers' attention and con-
"2. Florida is the best known name in grape-
fruit in the territory east of the Mississippi
"3. Texas is making remarkable progress in
(Continued on Page Five)

.embers of the Waverly Citrus Growers'
)ciation snapped at their annual meeting
near Waverly on May 3rd.
he above picture has been reduced consider-
from the original large photograph, but
iat it is possible to note the smiles on the
s of the members of this unusual organi-
)n. The Waverly Association is regarded
Most unique because of the high degree of
Ity and cooperation manifested by its mem-
. It was the Waverly Association, it will
called, that signed up with the Clearing
se a year ago as a shipper-member despite
fact that its parent body, the Florida Cit-
Exchange, had withdrawn from the Clear-
he program for the annual meeting was, as
d, an interesting one. Association business,
hiding the annual election of directors, the
ager's report, and other matters were sup-
lented by brief talks from guest speakers.
fessor E. L. Lord, College of Agriculture,
lesville, gave a short talk on developments
tricultural practices; Judge Allen E. Wal-
Winter Haven, first president of the Clear-
House, spoke briefly, complimenting the
>ciation members on their organization ac-
plishments; and Mr. Howard Selby, Vero

chance to Cash In On Our

State Name
(Continued from Page One)
on, information and amusement, whether
e news or the sale of merchandise.
The use of newspaper advertising by chain
large independent grocers is growing
muse they have had profitable returns
a it. Any analysis of grocers' newspaper
irtisements will disclose two characteris-
which are common to practically every
of them:
1. A large number of items are included
[ach advertisement. (This is important
huse of the high cost of the space and the
11 margin of profit to the grocer on the
is he sells.)
2. The direct appeal is to the shopping
rnct of readers, prices being featured on
i staples and specialties.
because of the above limitations, there is
creasing tendency on the part of grocer
,rtisers to feature brands of proved con-
er acceptance. Reference to the adver-
nents of an A & P Store will illustrate.
i the big display of "Kellogg's" nationally
,rtised brand of corn flakes-of "Pills-
r" and "Gold Medal" flour-"Canada
" ginger ale, "Heinz" ketchup, "Good
k" margerine, and "Ovaltine."

Beach, told the growers something of how co-
operation is preached and practiced in Den-
mark, which is known the world over as "the
birthplace of cooperation."
Members of the organization evinced con-
siderable interest at announcement of plans
contemplated, although not effective until Sep-
tember 1, to have the Association sever its
affiliation with the Florida Citrus Exchange
and enter the marketing field as a full-fledged
marketing organization.
Members of the Clearing House, who attend-
ed the meeting as guests of the Association,
were pleased to hear many expressions of ap-
proval of the work the Clearing House has been
doing for the industry. Officials of the Waver-
ly Association, and members as well, severally
declared that the Clearing House appears to
be a necessary medium in Florida's citrus in-
dustry at the present time to do some of the
things for the industry that are so greatly
needed. The point was reiterated that in view
of the fact that the industry is comprised of a
large number of marketing organizations, a
get-together medium such as the Clearing
House is vital to the successful merchandising
of Florida's annual orange and grapefruit crop.
"Because of the limited space for each
item, grocers use "copy" that they know from
experience will register the product in the
reader's mind as one with which she is fa-
miliar and in which she has confidence.
"In the case of nationally advertised pro-
ducts such as we noted in the A & P adver-
tisement, the description is limited to mention
of advertised brands-capitalizing the accept-
ance built up for them by the manufacturer's
"In this same advertisement a number of
A & P private brands are mentioned. Here
the store is cashing in on the confidence
built up by its service . and many chain
store brands receive as much advertising,
through such mentions, as is secured from
the national advertising of other products and
brands-A & P coffees, "Red Circle,"
"Bokar" and "Eight O'Clock" are outstanding
"In the territory outlined by the list of cities
given above the following totals show how gro-
cers mention grapefruit:
311 adds. featured "Grapefruit."
148 adds. featured "Florida Grapefruit."
114 adds. featured "Texas and Texas Seedless
30 adds. featured "Seedless Grapefruit."
13 adds. featured "Seald-Sweet Grapefruit."
11 adds. featured "Indian River Grapefruit."

Helps the Dealer

From the standpoint of increas-
ed profits, the dealer finds Brog-
dexed fruit very satisfactory. The
fact that they keep well enables
him to handle on a smaller mar-
gin of profit and still make more.
He does not find it necessary to fix
his selling price sufficiently high
to provide a sort of "sinking fund"
to take care of the usual shrinkage
An Indian River packer says he
uses Brogdex because it makes his
fruit stand up in the hands of the
dealer. He considers the dealer
the most important factor in the
present method of distribution.
Get the dealer sold on your brands
and your troubles are over.
Brogdex brands are keeping
brands. They have snap and life
and stay sound and fresh looking
long enough for the dealer to sell
out a display stock with little if
any replacements necessary.
Give the market this kind of
fruit and it will not be long before
you will be doing a bigger, better
and more profitable citrus busi-

Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.

Pare 4




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN . . . . . Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE . . . ... Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER ....... Lake Placid
L. P. KIRKLAND . . . .. .Auburndale
J. H. LETTON ......... Valrico
E. C. McLEAN . . ...... Palmetto
M. 0. OVERSTREET . . . .... Orlando
S. J. SLIGH ........... Orlando
A. M. TILDEN . . ... Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD. . . . ... Cocoa
E. H. WILLIAMS. . . .. .Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK . . ... Orlando

The Emergency Advertising
There are few if any citrus growers
in Florida who do not know that our
grapefruit market did an about-face a
month ago, climbed rapidly out of red
ink (or near red ink) and began paying
growers a pleasing profit. That the
grapefruit market has been a low one
most of the season has of course been
unfortunate for growers who moved
their crop prior to the market's ad-
vance. Those with Marsh Seedless or
mid-season grapefruit are however en-
joying the upward trend and are be-
ginning to ponder seriously the reason
When in February the Committee of
Fifty asked representatives of the
Clearing House and the Exchange to
launch a joint emergency advertising
campaign for grapefruit, action was
started that almost overnight changed
the market from a disastrous level to a
profitable one. The advertising pro-
gram was put into effect within two or
three weeks, extending for more than
a month, the leading auction cities be-
ing blanketed under an insistent urge
to "buy and eat Florida grapefruit!"
Auction prices, when the advertising
campaign was started, were averaging
less than $2.00 delivered. First grade
fruit, of favorable sizes, was just man-
aging to squeeze out a return over and
above marketing costs. Second and
third grade fruit on the average was
practically hopeless. What happened?
The trade was advised that Florida was
to spend $40,000 in a special grapefruit
advertising campaign. Sales efforts
both in Florida and in the north were
redoubled. The trade bought more
freely and, with the knowledge that
the Florida growers were doing their

Page 4


part by endeavoring to increase con-
sumer demand, increased their sales
activities with the retailers and whole-
salers and the grapefruit price began
to rise.
Today Florida grapefruit, as we all
know, is enjoying a ready sale at satis-
factory prices. True it is that the ad-
vertising campaign wasn't alone re-
sponsible for the price upturn, for the
knowledge that a March wind had torn
off some of the fruit naturally had some
effect with the trade, but the advertis-
ing merits the major portion of the
glory. The moral to the story is obvious;
Florida can't afford to forget it next
year or the year after or ever again!

The Waverly Group and
The Industry
"The ultimate end and purpose of all
organization is only the ability to ac-
complish certain things and if these
things are actually accomplished, the
manner in which it is done or who ac-
tually does it is not important to us as
This statement of principle was a
part of the resolution wherein the Wav-
erly Citrus Growers Association at its
annual meeting on May 3 took such ac-
tion as would permit it handling its af-
fairs separately from the Florida Citrus
Exchange should it so desire. The con-
tract remains in force until Sept. 1. The
Waverly meeting was attended by
nearly all the Association's 132 mem-
bers, with nearly all of its 2800 acres
of grove represented. The Waverly As-
sociation is generally recognized as one
in which exists as fine and true a spirit
of cooperation as can be found in Flor-
ida. In taking this action the vote was
unanimous with the exception of one
member who voted against the action
as he felt the Association should con-
tinue its same relation with the Ex-
change and correct conditions from
the inside instead of from the outside,
especially as the Waverly Citrus Grow-
ers Association had been with the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange for 18 years.
The action taken by the Waverly
growers is one that may strengthen the
Florida Citrus Exchange if it brings in-
dustry problems into the foreground as
paramount to any immediate ambitions
of any one competitor or organization
in the industry. Should the action of
the Waverly Association create a re-
newed inspiration in the general ranks
of the Florida Citrus Exchange as to
the Exchange being the leading expon-
ent of cooperative effort, viewed in its
broadest terms and determined upon
regardless of immediate cost, it is be-
lieved by many that, because of the
new life and confidence such a turn
would bring about, the Exchange
would grow as it never has heretofore.
A unified industry is in the minds of
everybody. The need is apparent. If
there is any more practical means

May 1, 1

whereby the industry can be brou
together than through the Clearing House, t
means should be determined upon. The Cl
ing House from the beginning has endeavor
to work along such lines as to make its poli
acceptable to the entire citrus industry reg
less of this industry being composed of hi
competitive elements. The Clearing Hous
not a marketing organization and it is n
competitor of any one of those directing
marketing or sales of citrus fruits. The
change as a cooperative marketing organ
tion could most logically, because of its b
a grower organization representing a large
ume of business, be the leading exponen
the still broader cooperative idea as apple
the Clearing House under the principles ad
ed by the growers of Florida in its set-up.

"Florida"Proves Biggest

Name in Sales of Oran
The charts shown on the opposite page (
pared by N. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., a
tising agency for the Clearing House)
the advertising mentions made by 751
cessful retail grocers in their advertise
during January, February, and March of
year. The advertisements from which t
charts were compiled were carried in n
papers representative of territory which
sumes on the average 98 percent of Flor
citrus crop.
In each of the charts the words or ph
used by the various advertising grocers
pear at the left. The numerals, 25, 50,
etc., indicate the number of times then
or the brand, shown at the left, appeared
the 751 advertisements studied. Thu
their advertisements 103 grocers called
tention to "oranges," while 306 grocers l
a price for "Florida oranges."
In the case of oranges the phrase "Fl
oranges" appears an overwhelming numb
times, while the simple word "oranges"
pears only a third as often. The orange
Florida's competitor, California, were
often advertised by the grocers as
fornias," or "California navel oranges."
trademark of the California Fruit Gro
Exchange, Sunkist, frequently though it
pears, apparently lacks the sales induce
that the word "Californias" has in that
trade mark Sunkist appeared in only 121
vertisements, whereas the word "Califor
appeared in 145 advertisements.
The great difference between the ap
ance of the phrase "Florida oranges" an
word "Californias" is due to the fact
the newspapers studied were, in the mai
markets east of the Mississippi R
Obviously, a stronger showing would
been made by California had more wes
newspapers been studied.
The point brought out by these char
however, not so much a question of Flor'
competition with California or Texas but
question of how Florida may capitalize
the work the retailers are doing for u
advertising "Florida oranges" rather
some other brand or trademark which
not enjoy the reputation made or built up
Florida by the retail trade.


How 751 Successful Grocers Advertise


Name or Brand
Featured in

Oranges . . .

Temple . . .

Florida Oranges .

Seald-Sweet . .

Navels . . .

Californias . .

Sunkist . . .

Miscellaneous .

50 75 100

Number of
125 150 175

200 225
1 1

250 275 300 325



______ *1 4 5
^^^- 121




How 631 Successful Grocers Advertise Grapefruit

Name or Brand
Featured in

Grapefruit . .
Indian River. . .

Florida . . .

Seald-Sweet . .

Seedless. . . .
Texas Seedless .

Texa-Sweet. . .

Number of Mentions

50 75 100

125 150 175 200

225 250 275 300 325
1 I I 1






Chance to Cash In On Our
State Name
(Oontinued from Page Three)
the central states territory-and Florida should
begin as soon as possible to build a greater ac-
ceptance for 'Florida Grapefruit' lest Texas
better its position in its natural territory . .
_; and lest Texas extend its activities to other
markets that have heretofore been favorable
to 'Florida Grapefruit.'
"Now, let's have a look at the way these suc-
cessful grocers advertise oranges:
103 adds. featured "Oranges."
306 adds. featured "Florida Oranges."
145 adds. featured "California and California
Navel Oranges."
50 adds. featured "Navel Oranges."
121 adds. featured "Sunkist Oranges."
8 adds. featured "Seald-Sweet Oranges."
18 adds. featured "Miscellaneous Brands."
"The purpose of our study of grocer ad-
vertisements therefore was to learn from
their experience what brands or names of
citrus fruits they used to attract the atten-
tion of their customers.
"The margin of preference for "Florida"
over all other names and brands is so great

that it should prove of special significance to
all citrus interests in Florida.
"Our opinion as to the desirability of ad-
vertising Florida citrus fruits is supported by
the record of what happened when "Florida"
citrus interests got together and started adver-
tising "Florida" oranges and grapefruit. So
far as we have been able to learn, there have
been no fundamental changes in the marketing
set-up for Florida citrus during the past few
years other than the entrance of the Clearing
House and the part it has played in the stan-
dardization of grade and pack, better control
of distribution, supplemented by effective
advertising. For three years Clearing House
advertisements have told consumers to call
for the thin-skinned "Florida" oranges be-
cause of their extra juice content and their
delightful, piquant flavor. Millions upon mil-
lions of these advertisements have appeared
in newspapers, being concentrated in the
principal markets for Florida fruit during
the past two seasons.
"The price receivers bid for citrus fruits
at auction reflects the extent of the consumer
demand. This is true not only for oranges,
grapefruit and lemons as commodities, but
the auction shows also the influence of con-
sumer demand on brands and varieties of
oranges, grapefruit and lemons.
"It is interesting to note the relative gain

that Florida oranges have made over Cali-
fornia oranges at the nine auctions during the
past four seasons. Prior to the season of
1928-29, California oranges enjoyed a pre-
mium price on the various auctions. While
we do not have the complete statistics of
years previous to the fall of 1928, we are
told on good authority that California has
"almost always" secured a higher price per
box for oranges than Florida..The exceptions
on record, we are told, where Florida re-
ceived higher prices, were principally at
times when California was just beginning or
just winding up its season, when Florida had
better fruit to offer."
"It is significant in this connection to note
that since the Florida Clearing House began
advertising Florida oranges with campaigns
that called attention to their goodness, to
their appetite appeal, to their extra juice
content, and to their distinctive appearance,
that the influence on consumer acceptance
was greatly reflected in auction prices. To-
wards the end of the first season of this ad-
vertising, prices got closer together. As the
advertising continued during the season
1929-30, the prices actually came together
towards the close of the Florida season, from
which time Florida enjoyed a price advan-
tage. The following year Florida closed the
gap at the peak of the season and maintained
a superior price advantage to the close of the

Ma 113

May 1. 1932

Page 5


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending May 7, 1932)

Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
May 7, '32 Apr.30,'32 May 7, '31
Fla. Org's Shpd... 425 527 950
Total ---..-.....---18542 18117 26913
Fla. Gft. Shpd....... 482 468 976
Total............---- ........16792 16310 22502
Fla. Tang. Shpd..- -
Total.................. 2752 2752 3087
Fla. Mixed Shpd... 87 138 256
Total.................... 8541 8454 8816
Texas Gft. Shpd..... --
Total -... ----.. ... 5333 5333 2235
Cal. Org's Shpd... 1204 1063 2069
Fla. Org's Auc....... 385 416 681
Average----............... $3.45 $3.65 $3.75
Fla. Gft. Auc-........ 261 269 408
Average------....... $3.30 $3.15 $2.60
Tbxg. Gft. Auc. .... 1 -
Average....----... $ $3.35 $-
Cal. Org's Auc....... 495 520 413
Average................ $3.15 $3.05 $4.05

Week End. Shpd. Sld. Avg. Shpd. Sld. Avg.
Apr. 30... 72 14 $3.09 55 12 $2:81
May 7...... 53 23 $3.03 45 12 $2.76
Dif.......-19 +9 -.06 -10 -.05

Mid-S.GFT.No.1 Mid-S. GFT.I
Week End. Shpd. Sld. Avg. Shpd. Sid.
Apr. 30.... 73 32 $2.39 81 30 $
May 7..... 68 22 $2.59 84 21 $
Dif....... -5 -10 +20 +3 -9
Week End. Shpd. Sid. Avg. Shpd. Sid.
Apr. 30.... 1 2 $2.15 8 7 $
May 7-..... 5 5 $2.27 12 6 $
Dif....... +4 +3 +.12 +4 -1

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1
Ending Year 30 29 28
Apr. 30........1147 7 1046 150
May 7 .......950 789 126
May 14 ..... 640 820 92
California Oranges
Week Last
Ending Year 1930 1929 1928
Apr. 30........1263 1175 1958 902 1
May 7........2069 812 1776 1182 1
May 14........1826 1264 1703 1159 1
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1
Ending Year 30 29 28
Apr. 30........ 893 24 717 404
May 7 ...... 976 17 687 256
May 14........ 778 9 774 195
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1
Ending Year 30 29 28
Apr. 30-....... 257 8 257 67
May 7........ 256 12 134 59
May 14........ 157 133 54


cars a year ago. It is true California sold 82
cars more at auction than a year ago and
their average is 90c less than a year ago.
The combined shipment of oranges from
California and Florida last week and this
week totals only 3350 cars for the two weeks
compared with 5703 cars for the same weeks
a year ago. 2453 less cars were shipped dur-
ing the past two weeks. A year ago the sup-
plies were twice as heavy for these two
weeks. Statistically; there seems to be no
reason for any decline and every reason for
the market responding to a higher level.
As shown on our index, we are estimating
straight carlots of Florida oranges for this
coming week at 400 cars compared to 425
this week. California is estimating 1575 cars
for the coming week compared to 1225 for
this week. California a week ago was estimating
their movement at 1600 cars for this week.
On Monday they reduced the estimate to
1350. They actually shipped 1225. It is

therefore quite possible that her estimate for
the coming week will again prove high. But
even assuming that her shipments jump to
this basis, there will be about 300 cars less
than a year ago for California and Florida
shipments about 300 cars less, making a
shortage of about 600 cars between the two
states, with this week's combined supplies
from the two states being over 1400 cars
short compared to a year ago. Statistically,
this would again indicate reasons to expect
the valencia market to pick up.
California wires that this coming week will
clean up the estimated 100 cars of navels left,
the balance being valencias, most of which
will be coming from Southern California and
most of that from Orange County.
As a matter of quick reference so that you
can dope out the present orange situation
compared to last, the following tabulated fig-
ures covering our immediate problem in
oranges and including proper proportion of
mixed is passed to you.

(Including Proper Proportion Mixed)


This Yr. Last Yr.

April 23-----............. 1221
April 30................ 1053
May 7 (Est)........*1225
May 14 (Est)......*1575

Total................ 5074




Avg. If our recent estimates are correct, there
1.83 should be left for shipment commencing May
-.07 9 about 1700 cars of valencias compared
with 3183 cars shipped from this on last sea-
son. From this time on a year ago 2882 cars
of Florida valencias were sold at a general
926- delivered average of $3.87. Florida's season
27 average on all oranges to date is $3.25 as
207 compared to $3.31 last season. This again
172 would indicate that we had a right to hope
for a strong come-back in valencias. At least
these figures should be put to the trade. We
816 wired the trade papers endeavoring to ac-
.613 quaint them with the strong statistical facts,
448 indicating not only the shortage but a pos-
sible advance in price.



We have talked with several of our ship-
pers regarding the valencia situation and no
one seems to understand why the valencia
market this week shows a decline of 20c com-
pared to last week, based on auction averages
of $3.45 this and $3.65 last week, as the
auctions sold 31 cars less this week than last
week. A year ago 681 cars of valencias were
sold at auction at $3.75 compared with our
385 cars this week, or nearly twice as many

You will note by the index we are estimat-
ing only 425 straight cars of grapefruit for
the week ending May 14 as against 525 for
this past week and as compared to 778 cars
for next week a year ago.

If our previous revised estimates are cor-
rect there should be left in the state com-
mencing next week about 850 cars of grape-
fruit compared with 2552 cars a year ago,
or about three times as many cars a year
ago. Quite an additional number of houses
are reported as hoping to be through ship-
ping grapefruit as well as oranges this com-
ing week. You will note from our shippers'
estimate that our members are expecting to
ship 160 cars of oranges and 153 cars of
grapefruit this coming week as compared to

This Yr. Last Yr.





This Yr. Last Yr.





the estimate a week ago for this week's
shipments of 162 oranges and 191 grape-
fruit. Our members will probably ship this
week about 130 cars of oranges against their
estimate of 162 and about 220 cars of grape-
fruit against their estimate of 191.

This week's auction index indicates an ad-
vance of 15c over the week previous, $3.30
delivered being averaged this week on 261
cars as against last week's average of $3.15
on 269 cars. This week's average is 70c
higher than a year ago. The season's average
to date, however, is only $2.38 against the
season's average to date last season of $2.67,
but there is a good chance that this season's
average when through will reach last sea-
son's auction average of $2.59 on grapefruit.

With California having averaged only
$2.75 delivered this week on the 73 cars of
valencias auctioned, it makes us inclined to
think there will not be the immediate heavy
movement of valencias anticipated in Cali-
fornia's estimate. The shippers in California
are trying to work out some get-together
plan to bring up valencia prices. This again
may hold back immediate shipments in hopes
that these prorating plans can be completed.

Several reports have come in indicating
valencias showing shriveled condition at the
stem-end. Some of our shippers are confi-
dent that icing greatly freshens up the valen-
cias and is a necessary insurance against decay
this late in the season.

May 1, 1932

May 1, 1932

Capturing Orange Juice

Experiments In Canning

Orange Juice Move Ahead
When Uncle Sam delves .into the field of
scientific research for the benefit of his hun-
dred-odd million citizens, one may rest assured
that little will be heard from the old gentleman
until he has something worth talking about.
And so it is in the experiments that the
United States Department of Agriculture is
making today in trying to develop a perfect, or
at least satisfactory, method of preserving or-
ange juice. Progress unquestionably has been
made at the Government's Citrus By-Products
Research Bureau, at Winter Haven, but the of-
ficials in charge insist that much remains to be
done before a governmental seal of approval
can be stamped upon the process. Even this
much admission may be more optimistic than
these Federal fellows would like to have it, but
the fact remains that the Winter Haven labora-
tory already has produced canned and bottled
orange juice that to the layman indicates the
scientists probably are on the right track.
Briefly, the work the Federal men are doing
at Winter Haven is based on the theory that
preservation of orange juice can be most satis-
factorily done if the orange juice is bottled
without being in contact with the air. It is uni-
versally agreed that air coming in contact with
the juice of the orange results in a damage to
the taste of the fruit, probably by oxidation.
Hence it is that the Federal men are endeavor-
ing to find out if this depreciation in flavor can
be overcome by handling the juice so that it is
not exposed to the air at least longer than is
imperative. There is, of course, some contact
with air during the laboratory process of ex-
traction and bottling, although this exposure is
kept at the minimum. If the process is devel-
oped commercially it may be possible to carry
out the entire process, from the slicing of the
orange through to the capping of the bottle or
canning, without exposing the juice to the air.
In the process employed in the research lab-
oratory the use of an inert gas is employed to
reduce exposure of the juice to the air. The
gas first is shot into a power juice extractor,
thus blanketing the orange with an inert ma-
terial while the juice is being extracted. From
the extractor the juice is pumped into one of
the inverted glass flasks (shown in the photo-
graphs) where it is further de-aerated, the inert
gas being expelled as well as the air. From the
de-aerator the juice, still blanketed with an

inert gas, proceeds to a pasteurizer where it is
subjected to a comparatively high temperature
for only a few seconds. This pasteurization is
necessary to prevent the juice from subsequent
fermentation. The juice then is cooled to about
1300 F. and allowed to flow iito the container.
The container is passed quickly to the capping
or sealing machine and steam injected into the
head of the container before the container is
capped. The .injection of the steam is to pro-
vide an appreciable vacuum in the container.
The result of the Bureau's experiments to
date are of course too immature for definite
assertions. Simultaneously with the work of
preserving the juice, studies are being made by
the Federal men of juice that was preserved
early in the season under various conditions.
Obviously, until it is learned how the element
of time affects the juice it will be impossible for
these scientists to know definitely how success-
ful their studies have been. Experiments are
even being made to determine the superiority
of glass or metal as the most satisfactory con-
tainer for the juice.
Reluctant to express themselves as these
Federal men are, the fact remains that some of
the juice they have preserved during the cur-
rent season is excellent in flavor. There is no
hint of a "cooked taste" in the juice, and in
fact the all-important bouquet or aroma, com-
mon to freshly-extracted orange juice, is no-
ticeably present in their product.
The laboratory at Winter Haven is in charge
of H. W. von Loesecke. George N. Pulley is
the junior chemist.

California Accepting

Clearing House Method
(Continued from Page One)
much study it was decided that this plan was
too drastic as it would work an undue hard-
ship on growers, for instance, whose crop
would run almost entirely to off sizes and off
grades. Therefore, a more feasible plan was
adopted wherein each marketing agent or
shipper-member of the Clearing House was
allotted his proportion with the understand-
ing that he in turn would handle a prorating
problem with his individual grower clients.
Under this arrangement each shipper was
held responsible as to the manner in which
his shipments were applied to his proportion,
the combined shipments to be held within the



,_ vi-

volume agreed upon. Even with this addi-
tional latitude there was considerable irrita-
tion and claims of unfairness within the.
Clearing House. As prorating policies, based
upon moving the season's crop in proper
proportion throughout the year, became rec-
ognized as an efficient solution, the discon-
tent and unrest was removed.
C. C. Teague, president of the California
Fruit Growers Exchange, in a letter to
grower-members of the Exchange issued
April 25, took up the problem of a Valencia
surplus which confronts California at this
time. In a previous letter he had outlined the
necessity of centralizing prorating authority
so that shipments could be controlled from
week to week by a distribution committee.
Contract relations in California give the As-
sociations, and .to some extent the Sub-Ex-
changes, the authority to determine volume
to be picked and packed and to determine
destinations. This authority has never rested
in the headquarters' body. Prior to this year,
however, the central body has not had much.-
difficulty in exercising proper control in an
advisory manner.
The previous Teague letter, based on ac-
tion taken by the Exchange Board of Direc-
tors, called for consent on the part of 90
percent of the Association members permit-
ting the Los Angeles office to exercise full
authority in determining volume to be
Commenting upon this plan in his letter
of April 25 Mr. Teague said,
"It is disappointing indeed that up to the
present time, although time enough has
elapsed, a small percentage only of the orange
shippers have signed the agreement, and it
looks as though the agreement will fail by
reason of not securing the required 90 per-
cent of the shippers.
"This seems so serious to me that I have
felt it my duty to thus lay the situation be-
fore all of the grower-members of the Cali-
fornia Gruit Growers Exchange; and I feel
sure that when the problem is properly un-
derstood, pressure will be brought to bear
by our growers so that there will be brought
about a better control of distribution. In my
judgment, until this is done you may look
forward, in years of full supply, to demoral-
ized markets and unsatisfactory prices, with
decreasing values for orange groves and much
unhappiness in the citrus industry."

Change Publication Date
The News wishes to call the attention of its
readers to a change in date of publication, ef-
fective with this issue. In the past the News
has been published on the tenth and twenty-
fifth of each month, but from now on will be
published on the first and fifteenth of each
month in order to make its arrival more timely
with the current month's activities and develop-
It will be noted that this issue carries the
date of May 1st although it did not go to press
until May 10, and hence is not as "old" as the
date indicates. The next issue of the News will
be dated May 15th, but probably will not be
published until about May 20th. With the ar-
rival of June the News will strike a more
prompt delivery in accordance with its new
publication dates.

Page 7


If t'our




Consistent Profits Depend Largely Upon the Character of
Citrus Fertilizer You Use For Summer Feeding. It Can Rep-
resent a Cost or a Permanent Investment.

Proper spraying of citrus trees while the
fruit is small prevents development of
Citrus Scab, Red Spider, etc., and also
has a beneficial effect on the texture of
the fruit, developing smoothness and
brightness. Ask us for complete infor-
mation on spraying.

W HAT every grower wants for his
citrus crop is more sales and top prices.
The desire for the combination is quite
natural. But growers must learn, like buy-
ers have learned, that quality fruit is the
only kind of fruit that will be in demand.
The more quality a grower produces the
less he will have to fear from over-supply
and low prices. And, of course, quality is
strictly up to you as a producer. Skimping
on fertilizer will never get you anywhere
and you can never expect the so-called
"cheap" goods to tide you over and give you
the profit you are entitled to.
To place your present crop in the quality
field and to stimulate new growth that is to
bear next year's crop use Ideal Fertilizers.
Use them regularly and amply. This is the

course being followed by Florida's most suc-
cessful growers and they have learned from
experience the importance of relying on
Ideal Brands. That's why there is now, and
has been for the past 39 years, more Ideal
Fertilizers used in Florida than any other
Ideal Fertilizers are not formulated to a
price, but are priced to give you the most
value per dollar. The exceptional care with
which Ideal Fertilizers are made, the excep-
tional plant-food they contain-these are
factors responsible for their ability to pro-
duce crops that stand up under packing and
shipping; and then reach the market in that
sound, healthy, attractive condition that at-
tracts customers.
Consult our representative.

ID EAL)e 44A

Manufactured Exclusively by
We own and operate Branch Offices and Warehouses at Miami, Orlando, Winter Garden, San-
ford, Winter Haven, Fort Myers, Bradenton, Sarasota, Lake Wales and Distributing Warehouses
throughout the State.

Page 8

7 A

May 1, 1932

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs